WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical pruning

  1. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Walteros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá. Since the beginning of veraison to maturity, every 15 days 20 berries were collected randomly to determine the behavior of the total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA and the technical maturity index (IMT. The results show that the SST, increased continuously as the berries ripen. Pruning mixed long and went from 12.5 to 21.2° Brix at harvest time. For its part, the ATT decreased with fruit development, the control (pruning cuts produced by ripening fruits with higher ATT in vintage was 7.6 g L-1. The IMT, increased significantly as a function of chronological time. Pruning cuts produced fruits with lower IMT, while pruning long had the highest value 3.40. Pruning long and mixed, to present appropriate values during ripening, provide a better quality of fruit for winemaking.

  2. The effect of stem pruning and nitrogen levels of on some physico-chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipouri, Abdolghayoum; Nazarnejad, H

    2007-10-15

    To investigate the effects of stem pruning (No heading, head pruning of stem after formation of 10 and 14 nodes) and nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha(-1)) on physical and chemical characteristic of pumpkin seed a Factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replication was carried out in Gorgan at 2003 and repeated in 2004 years. Results showed that the stem pruning has significant effect on traits such as seed oil, linoleic acid and oleic acid content. Nitrogen levels also have significant effect on seed dimension, seed oil, linoleic acid and oleic acid content. The largest amount of oil and linoleic acid content was obtained by stem pruning after forming 14 node and 100 kg ha(-1) nitrogen in separately, but the interaction of treatments were not significant difference for all of traits.

  3. Effects of head pruning and different nutritional systems (chemical, biological and integrated on seed yield and oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of head pruning and different nutritional systems (chemical, biological and integrated on yield and seed oil content in medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L., an experiment was conducted in Kermanshah/Iran during the 2013 growing season. The experimental treatments consisted of two levels - no head pruning, control (Co and head pruning (C1 allocated to the main plots. Four levels of different fertilizing systems - control (without fertilizer (T0, chemical (T1, biological (a combination of nitrogen fixing bacteria, Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus mosseae (T2, and integrated fertilizing system (biological fertilizer + 50% chemical fertilizer (T3 were assigned to the sub-plots. The experimental treatments were arranged as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the highest percentage of seed oil was obtained (37% in the integrated nutritional system along with the head pruning treatment. The highest grain yields of 53 and 50 g per square meter were obtained in integrated and chemical fertilizing systems, respectively while no pruning was applied. The highest fruit yields of 3,710 and 3,668 kg per hectare were produced by chemical and integrated fertilizing systems, respectively. The biological nutrition system required more time to demonstrate its positive effect on the growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  4. Visual versus chemical evaluation: Effects of pruning wood decomposition on soil quality in a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Renee; Germer, Sonja; Kern, Jürgen; Stoorvogel, Jetse

    2016-04-01

    Returning crop residues to the soil is a well-known practice to keep a sustainable soil quality in agriculture. In an orchard, pruning material could be returned for soil and water conservation or could be removed for energy production. Pruning wood decomposition rates and their impact on soil quality and greenhouse-gas emissions depend on climate, soil type, land management and water availability. Changing the soil management from leaving wood prunings on soil to removing them from the orchard is expected to result in a slow but lasting change of soil quality. Therefore a quick and cost-effective technique for soil quality evaluation is needed. This study aims to compare pruning wood decomposition effects on soil quality determined by soil chemistry (pH, C/N-ratio) or by Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSEE). In addition, treatments effects on soil quality were compared for sampling positions in tree rows versus interrows. In a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany) six plots were established spreading over two planting rows. At each plot, three subplots with 1x (0.55 kg/m2), 2x (1.10 kg/m2) and 10x (5.50 kg/m2) the average pruning wood rates were installed in both tree and interrows. 5 months later the soils were sampled and a Visual Soil Evaluation and Examination (VSEE) was applied. To relate wood decomposition to impacts on soil quality, wood bags were placed in each plot and were sampled in time intervals of 5 weeks (till a maximum of 20 weeks). Wood decomposition was characterized by decomposition rates and changes in carbon and nitrogen contents. To assess environmental effects, CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions or uptake from soils with different pruning rates were determined with the closed chamber method. There were no significant differences in pH and C/N-ratio between the 3 pruning rates. However, pH was significant higher in the tree row compared to the interrow for the 10-fold pruning rate. The 10-fold pruning rate had significant higher VSEE

  5. Use of pruned computational neural networks for processing the response of oscillating chemical reactions with a view to analyzing nonlinear multicomponent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, C; Toledo, R; Silva, M

    2001-01-01

    The suitability of pruned computational neural networks (CNNs) for resolving nonlinear multicomponent systems involving synergistic effects by use of oscillating chemical reaction-based methods implemented using the analyte pulse perturbation technique is demonstrated. The CNN input data used for this purpose are estimates provided by the Levenberg-Marquardt method in the form of a three-parameter Gaussian curve associated with the singular profile obtained when the oscillating system is perturbed by an analyte mixture. The performance of the proposed method was assessed by applying it to the resolution of mixtures of pyrogallol and gallic acid based on their perturbating effect on a classical oscillating chemical system, viz. the Belousov-Zhabotinskyi reaction. A straightforward network topology (3:3:2, with 18 connections after pruning) allowed the resolution of mixtures of the two analytes in concentration ratios from 1:7 to 6:2 with a standard error of prediction for the testing set of 4.01 and 8.98% for pyrogallol and gallic acid, respectively. The reduced dimensions of the selected CNN architecture allowed a mathematical transformation of the input vector into the output one that can be easily implemented via software. Finally, the suitability of response surface analysis as an alternative to CNNs was also tested. The results were poor (relative errors were high), which confirms that properly selected pruned CNNs are effective tools for solving the analytical problem addressed in this work.

  6. Verified Null-Move Pruning

    CERN Document Server

    David-Tabibi, Omid

    2008-01-01

    In this article we review standard null-move pruning and introduce our extended version of it, which we call verified null-move pruning. In verified null-move pruning, whenever the shallow null-move search indicates a fail-high, instead of cutting off the search from the current node, the search is continued with reduced depth. Our experiments with verified null-move pruning show that on average, it constructs a smaller search tree with greater tactical strength in comparison to standard null-move pruning. Moreover, unlike standard null-move pruning, which fails badly in zugzwang positions, verified null-move pruning manages to detect most zugzwangs and in such cases conducts a re-search to obtain the correct result. In addition, verified null-move pruning is very easy to implement, and any standard null-move pruning program can use verified null-move pruning by modifying only a few lines of code.

  7. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  8. 根剪对冬枣根际土理化性状及生物学特性的影响%Effects of Root Pruning on Physio-chemical and Biological Characteristics of Winter Jujube Tree Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守军; 刘德玺; 孙玉波; 周健; 刘春生

    2009-01-01

    The root system of six-year-old winter jujube trees were manually pruned with a sharp spade at 3, 5 or 7 times trunk diameter distance along both inter-row sides prior to buds break on April 26~(th) 2008 in Binzhou Chinese jujube orchards, to study the effects of root pruning on physio-chemical and biological characteristics of winter jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill. ) rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the root pruning of 3 times trunk diameter distance increased the available N, P, K concentrations, pH value and pesticides residues in the rhizosphere soil and decreased the populations of bacteria and fungi in contrast to the control. However, no apparent differences of actinomyces populations were found between the treatments. Compared to the control, root pruning inhibited the activities of catalase, invertase, phosphatase and urease enzymes, and at the same time decreased the concentration of organic matter in the rhizosphere soil and that of total amino acids, total organic acids and total sugars in the root exudates at the 3 times trunk diameter distance. As affected by root pruning at the 5 times trunk diameter distance, the concentrations of available N, P, K, organic matter contents, enzymes activities, root exudates, microbial populations were increased, but pH value and pesticides residues in the rhizosphere soil were decreased to some extent in relative to root pruning at the 3 times trunk diameter distance. By statistical analysis, no differences of each indicator were noticed between 7 times trunk diameter distance and the control. It is proposed that root pruning has greater impact on physio-chemical characteristics and biological properties of rhizosphere soil at the 3 times trunk diameter distance.%以6年生的冬枣(Zizyphusjujuba Mill.)为试材,分别在行间两侧距树干3倍、5倍和7倍胸径距离处对其进行根剪处理,研究了根剪对冬枣根际土理化性状及生物学特性的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,3倍胸

  9. Regularization with a pruning prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay.......We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay....

  10. 7 CFR 924.319 - Prune Regulation 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exceed 500 pounds net weight, of prunes of the Stanley or Merton varieties of prunes, or 350 pounds net weight, of prunes of any variety other than Stanley or Merton varieties of prunes, which meets each...

  11. The Over-Pruning Hypothesis of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Davis, Rachael; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the "over-pruning hypothesis" of autism. The hypothesis originates in a neurocomputational model of the regressive sub-type (Thomas, Knowland & Karmiloff-Smith, 2011a, 2011b). Here we develop a more general version of the over-pruning hypothesis to address heterogeneity in the timing of manifestation of ASD,…

  12. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linea...... and thus the proper weight is pruned at each pruning step. In all our experiments in small problems, pruning reduces the generalization error; in most cases the pruned networks facilitate interpretation as well......We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  13. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  14. Pruning Redundant Alarm Correlation Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Efficient methods exist for discovering association rules from large collections of data. The number of discovered rules can, however, be so large. At the same time it is well known that many discovered associations are redundant or minor variations of others. Their existence may simply be due to chance rather than true correlation. Thus, those spurious and insignificant rules should be removed. In this paper, we propose a novel technique to overcome this problem. The technique firstly introduces the new concept -- structure rule cover, and then present a quantitative method to prune redundant correlation patterns. The user can now obtain a complete picture of the domain without being overwhelmed by a huge number of rules.

  15. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using...... a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  16. Pruning removal from orchards for energetic use: impacts on SOC and CO2-emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Lanza, Giacomo; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Nogues, Fernando Sebastian; Kern, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Prunings of orchards are usually burnt or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to remove prunings for energetic use. Effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics are expected rather in the long term. Under certain circumstances, however, soil characteristics as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might change on the short term as our literature review revealed. The main objective of this research was to determine if pruning removal from orchards changes soil organic carbon content and CO2-emission from soils in the short-term. We compared six different study sites in Spain, France and Germany in terms of impacts on soil chemistry (total and organic carbon) and four sites for impacts on CO2-emissions during 2 years. A block design was set up over two rows each with two parcels where we removed prunings and two parcels where prunings were chipped and left on the soil (n=4). As soil characteristics may vary between tree rows and interrows of orchards, we sampled both positions separately. To assess the relative contribution of CO2 emissions from carbonate and organic material, the isotopic signature of CO2 (δ 13CO_2) was analyzed for one orchard. Our results show that pruning removal could significantly decrease soil organic carbon in the tree row after 2 years of pruning removal, as found for one German orchard. No treatment effects were detected on CO2-emissions. We found, however, differences in CO2 emissions according to the sampling position in tree rows and interrows. More CO2 emission was found for that row position per orchard with higher soil organic carbon. Isotopic CO2 signature indicated that elevated CO2 emissions were rather linked to higher microbial decomposition or root respiration than to the release from carbonates. As no pruning wood decomposition effect on CO2 emissions were apparent, but soil with higher organic carbon released more CO2, it is expected

  17. Pruning Neural Networks with Distribution Estimation Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2003-01-15

    This paper describes the application of four evolutionary algorithms to the pruning of neural networks used in classification problems. Besides of a simple genetic algorithm (GA), the paper considers three distribution estimation algorithms (DEAs): a compact GA, an extended compact GA, and the Bayesian Optimization Algorithm. The objective is to determine if the DEAs present advantages over the simple GA in terms of accuracy or speed in this problem. The experiments used a feed forward neural network trained with standard back propagation and public-domain and artificial data sets. The pruned networks seemed to have better or equal accuracy than the original fully-connected networks. Only in a few cases, pruning resulted in less accurate networks. We found few differences in the accuracy of the networks pruned by the four EAs, but found important differences in the execution time. The results suggest that a simple GA with a small population might be the best algorithm for pruning networks on the data sets we tested.

  18. How to correctly prune tropical trees

    CERN Document Server

    Loddo, Jean-Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We present tropical games, a generalization of combinatorial min-max games based on tropical algebras. Our model breaks the traditional symmetry of rational zero-sum games where players have exactly opposed goals (min vs. max), is more widely applicable than min-max and also supports a form of pruning, despite it being less effective than alpha-beta. Actually, min-max games may be seen as particular cases where both the game and its dual are tropical: when the dual of a tropical game is also tropical, the power of alpha-beta is completely recovered. We formally develop the model and prove that the tropical pruning strategy is correct, then conclude by showing how the problem of approximated parsing can be modeled as a tropical game, profiting from pruning.

  19. 7 CFR 993.149 - Receiving of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certifies that the dehydration process of the prunes being certified resulted in prunes eligible to be... conditioning by further drying or dehydration: Provided, That such prunes shall be identified and kept separate... addition to other inspection requirements, performance of fumigation and freedom from active...

  20. Neural Network Pruning Algorithm with Penalty OBS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jiang; WANG Yao-cai; LIU Tao

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at the great computing complexity of optimal brain surgeon (OBS) process, a pruning algorithm with penalty OBS process is presented. Compared with sensitive and regularized methods, the penalty OBS algorithm not only avoids time-consuming defect and low pruning efficiency in OBS process, but also keeps higher generalization and pruning accuracy than Levenberg-Marquardt method.

  1. Pruning state spaces with extended beam search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashti, M.T.; Wijs, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on using beam search, a heuristic search algorithm, for pruning state spaces while generating. The original beam search is adapted to the state space generation setting and two new search variants are devised. The resulting framework encompasses some known algorithms, such as $A^*

  2. Prune belly syndrome (sequenze: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Prune Belly syndrome (PBS also known as Eagle Barret syndrome is a rare disorder. It is an abdominal muscles deficiency syndrome characterized by a Triad syndrome i.e. deficiency of abdominal wall muscles, failure of testicular descent and dilation of the urinary tract. This syndrome has derived its name from the wrinkled prune appearance of the abdominal wall. Prune Belly syndrome is a rare anomaly seen in one in 35,000-50,000 live births. It occurs in all races. Prune Belly syndrome almost exclusively occurs in males (M:F, 20:1. The diagnosis can be made in utero by ultrasonography at 21 weeks of gestation or in the Neonate with characteristic clinical findings. The present case was a dead male fetus of 20 weeks of gestation sent to Anatomy department after Medical termination of pregnancy, due to congenital anomalies identified in routine ultrasound examination during antenatal checkup. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 148-152

  3. Drag Reduction, from Bending to Pruning

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; Michelin, Sébastien; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Most plants and benthic organisms have evolved efficient reconfiguration mechanisms to resist flow-induced loads. These mechanisms can be divided into bending, in which plants reduce their sail area through elastic deformation, and pruning, in which the loads are decreased through partial breakage of the structure. In this work, we show by using idealized models that these two mechanisms or, in fact, any combination of the two, are equally efficient to reduce the drag experienced by terrestrial and aquatic vegetation.

  4. 7 CFR 993.109 - Modified definition of non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified definition of non-French prunes. 993.109... definition of non-French prunes. The definition of non-French prunes set forth in § 993.6 is modified to read as follows: Non-French Prunes means prunes commonly known as Imperial, Sugar, Robe de Sargent,...

  5. Fresh Market Tomato Pruning Trial for Northern Indiana, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Pruning tomatoes is known to increase average fruit size and decrease total yield. Effects on marketable yield and early yield vary among cultivars and with the degree of pruning. This trial was conducted to evaluate a range of pruning treatments on two cultivars grown in the Midwest: Mountain Spring and Florida 91. Florida 91 has a larger vine and is later-maturing than Mountain Spring. The trial was conducted at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.

  6. Cycle expansions with pruned orbits have branch points

    CERN Document Server

    Mainieri, R

    1994-01-01

    Cycle expansions are an efficient scheme for computing the properties of chaotic systems. When enumerating the orbits for a cycle expansion not all orbits that one would expect at first are present --- some are pruned. This pruning leads to convergence difficulties when computing properties of chaotic systems. In numerical schemes, I show that pruning reduces the number of reliable eigenvalues when diagonalizing quantum mechanical operators, and that pruning slows down the convergence rate of cycle expansion calculations. I then exactly solve a diffusion model that displays chaos and show that its cycle expansion develops a branch point.

  7. Impact of wood pruning to greenhouse gas emissions in three orchards and a vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Kern, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Pruning of orchards and vineyards is usually burned or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to extract pruning for energetic use. Very few studies exist that analyzed the effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics. This is linked to the fact that changes are expected rather in the long term, but project funding is typically restricted to 2 or 3 years. Some soil characteristics, however, as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might also change on the short term as our literature review reveals. The main objective of this research is to determine if pruning extraction from orchards and vineyards impact greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2) from soil to the atmosphere, change soil nitrogen and carbon content or effect nitrogen leaching. Results from our study and from the literature will be compiled to formulate best management practices for sustainable pruning utilization from orchards and vineyards. Here we compare four different study sites in a block design over two rows each with two parcels where we extracted pruning and two parcels where pruning was chipped and left on the soil (n=4). Comparisons were made for initial soil chemistry and greenhouse gas emissions in a cherry orchard without irrigation in Germany, a vineyard without irrigation in France, an almond orchard with drip irrigation in Spain and a peach orchard with flood irrigation in Spain. Soil greenhouse gas emissions depend on soil chemistry and soil moisture. These characteristics can be expected to vary between the tree rows and inter-rows of orchards. Therefore we took soil samples from row and inter-row positions of each study site and analyzed them for chemical parameters (pH, total C, N, S, and H, and available PO4, NH4, NO3, K, Mg, Ca). Additionally soil moisture and temperature data have been recorded for tree rows and inter-rows in the cherry orchard and the vineyard. Gas samples were

  8. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2004-01-01

    classifiers, e.g., from ill-posed principal component transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of reducing the least relevant words from the bag-of-words representation. We consider a new approach, using neural network based sensitivity maps and information gain for determination...... of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  9. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2004-01-01

    classifiers, e.g., from ill-posed principal component transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of reducing the least relevant words from the bag-of-words representation. We consider a new approach, using neural network based sensitivity maps and information gain for determination...... of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  10. The prognostic role of PRUNE2 in leiomyosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Ru Zhao; Wei Tian; Guo-Wen Wang; Ke-Xin Chen; Ji-Long Yang

    2013-01-01

    PRUNE2 plays an important role in regulating tumor celldifferentiation, proliferation, and invasiveness in neuroblastoma. Our previous study revealed that PRUNE2/OBSCN two-gene relative expression classifer accurately differentiated leiomyosarcoma from gastrointestinal stromal tumor. However, the association between PRUNE2 expression and prognosis in leiomyosarcoma is poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic role of PRUNE2 in leiomyosarcoma. PRUNE2 expression was detected using immunohistochemistry in 30 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma tissues from MD Anderson Cancer Center, and high expression was detected in 36.7%(11/30) of the samples. To validate these results, immunohistochemistry was performed on another cohort of 45 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma tissues from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital, and high PRUNE2 protein expression was detected in 37.8%(17/45) of the samples. Moreover, elevated PRUNE2 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.03) and hemorrhage/cyst (P = 0.014), and was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overal survival in leiomyosarcoma patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital (P < 0.05). These data suggest that increased PRUNE2 protein expression may serve as a favorable prognostic marker in human leiomyosarcoma.

  11. Pruning Chinese trees : an experimental and modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Pruning of trees, in which some branches are removed from the lower crown of a tree, has been extensively used in China in silvicultural management for many purposes. With an experimental and modelling approach, the effects of pruning on tree growth and on the harvest of plant material were studied.

  12. 7 CFR 993.162 - Voluntary prune plum diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handler in connection with reserve prunes shall not be applicable to prunes no longer required to be held... geographically dispersed within the production area to obtain their annual dryaway ratios for each of the preceding five crop years, and compute a five-year average dryaway ratio for each dehydrator. The...

  13. Automatic identification for standing tree limb pruning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Renshan; Li Wenbin; Tian Yongchen; Hua Li

    2006-01-01

    To meet the demand of automatic pruning machines,this paper presents a new method for dynamic automatic identification of standing tree limbs and capture of the digital images of Platycladus orientalis.Methods of computer vision,image processing and wavelet analysis technology were used to compress,filter,segment,abate noise and capture the outline of the picture.We then present the arithmetic for dynamic automatic identification of standing tree limbs,extracting basic growth characteristics of the standing trees such as the form,size,degree of bending and their relative spatial position.We use pattern recognition technology to confirm the proportionate relationship matching the database and thus achieve the goal of dynamic automatic identification of standing tree limbs.

  14. 7 CFR 457.133 - Prune crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Earthquake; (5) Volcanic eruption; or (6) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if due to a cause specified... Provisions: (a) You may select only one price election for all the prunes in the county insured under...

  15. 7 CFR 944.700 - Fresh prune import regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Stanley or Merton varieties, or 350 pounds net weight, of fresh prunes of any variety other than the Stanley or Merton varieties, is exempt from the requirements specified in this section. (c) The...

  16. Pruning to Increase Taylor Dispersion in Physarum polycephalum Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Marbach, Sophie; Andrew, Natalie; Pringle, Anne; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    How do the topology and geometry of a tubular network affect the spread of particles within fluid flows? We investigate patterns of effective dispersion in the hierarchical, biological transport network formed by Physarum polycephalum. We demonstrate that a change in topology - pruning in the foraging state - causes a large increase in effective dispersion throughout the network. By comparison, changes in the hierarchy of tube radii result in smaller and more localized differences. Pruned networks capitalize on Taylor dispersion to increase the dispersion capability.

  17. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    May increased the leaf number and area both in rainy and winter seasons. Similarly, an increased level of pruning and delayed pruning increased the fruit size and fruit weight in both seasons. In the winter season, fruit yield per tree was increased by plants pruned in early May. Total soluble sugar......Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning...... (%) of fruits increased with the increased level of pruning in both seasons irrespective of timing of pruning, but fruit acidity was not affected by both treatments. In conclusion, pruning plants at a 20 cm pruning level in early May was the most effective management to reduce yield in the rainy season...

  19. Neural network pruning with Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckro, Donald E; Quinn, Dennis W; Gardner, Samuel J

    2002-05-01

    Reducing a neural network's complexity improves the ability of the network to generalize future examples. Like an overfitted regression function, neural networks may miss their target because of the excessive degrees of freedom stored up in unnecessary parameters. Over the past decade, the subject of pruning networks produced nonstatistical algorithms like Skeletonization, Optimal Brain Damage, and Optimal Brain Surgeon as methods to remove connections with the least salience. The method proposed here uses the bootstrap algorithm to estimate the distribution of the model parameter saliences. Statistical multiple comparison procedures are then used to make pruning decisions. We show this method compares well with Optimal Brain Surgeon in terms of ability to prune and the resulting network performance.

  20. Cluster based pruning and survival selection using soft computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shivaji

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-adaptive evolutionary constructive and pruning algorithm (SAECPA is a new structural hearing algorithm, which be planned for proposing of artificial neural networks (ANNs. SAECPA begins with set of ANN and it’s a simplest formation one hidden neuron is linked towards single input node, in that network intersect and network transmutation which increases the network inhabitants, then using cluster pruning (CP and survival selection (SS to prune the network.As a manifestation of the method, SAECPA is concerned to the forecasting problem - the Mackey-Glass time series. Here user definedconstraints intersect probability (pc and transmutation probability (pm are considered as input, but it may well be developed self-adaptive to enlarge the unknown neurons and links further proficiently.

  1. Ergonomic evaluation of winegrape trellis systems pruning operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A E; Fathallah, F A; Miles, J A; Meyers, J M; Faucett, J; Janowitz, I; Garcia, E G

    2006-02-01

    The winegrape industry suffers from high incidence rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Pruning of dormant vines is a significant task, requiring long periods of highly repetitive and physically demanding work. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate five commonly used winegrape trellis systems with regard to the risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries to the wrist and lower back while pruning. Eleven subjects participated in this study. Subjects performed a simulated pruning task as wrist and trunk postures were gathered using electrogoniometers. The results showed significant postural differences among the trellis systems. Compared to the other systems, the VSP was determined to be the optimal system in terms of decreasing relative MSD risk. These results will assist vineyards in the selection process of suitable trellis systems that will include the worker health aspect in conjunction with other trellis-related parameters such as grape quality and productivity.

  2. Composting sewage sludge with green waste from tree pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mello Leite Moretti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS has been widely used as organic fertilizer. However, its continuous use can cause imbalances in soil fertility as well as soil-water-plant system contamination. The study aimed to evaluate possible improvements in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of domestic SS, with low heavy metal contents and pathogens, through the composting process. Two composting piles were set up, based on an initial C/N ratio of 30:1, with successive layers of tree pruning waste and SS. The aeration of piles was performed by mechanical turnover when the temperature rose above 65 ºC. The piles were irrigated when the water content was less than 50 %. Composting was conducted for 120 days. Temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, carbon and nitrogen contents, and fecal coliforms were monitored during the composting. A reduction of 58 % in the EC of the compost (SSC compared with SS was observed and the pH reduced from 7.8 to 6.6. There was an increase in the value of cation exchange capacity/carbon content (CEC/C and carbon content. Total nitrogen remained constant and N-NO3- + N-NH4+ were immobilised in organic forms. The C/N ratio decreased from 25:1 to 12:1. Temperatures above 55 ºC were observed for 20 days. After 60 days of composting, fecal coliforms were reduced from 107 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (MPN g−1 to 104 MPN g−1. I one pile the 103 MPN g−1 reached after 90 days in one pile; in another, there was recontamination from 105 to 106 MPN g−1. In SSC, helminth eggs were eliminated, making application sustainable for agriculture purposes.

  3. The Phenotypic and Pathological Features of Prune-Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut ŞAHİN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prune-belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by musculature deficiency in the abdominal wall, lower urinary tract obstruction, other urinary tract anomalies, and bilateral cryptorchidism. The syndrome is commonly associated with pulmonary, skeletal, cardiac, and gastrointestinal defects. Over 95% of patients are male. Urinary tract disease is the major prognostic factor with the complications of pulmonary hypoplasia and end stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to determine phenotypic and pathologicalfeatures of fetuses with this syndrome.Material and Method: Six fetuses with prune-belly syndrome were evaluated by postmortem pathological investigation. Characteristic features of the fetuses with this syndrome as well as additional anomalies were evaluated.Results: Five fetuses were male while one was female. Gestational age ranged from 15 to 22 weeks. A urethral pathology that prevented urinary outflow from the bladder was present in all cases. Marked bladder distension with atrophy of the bladder smooth muscle and abdominal distension with muscular atrophy were also seen in all. Crypto-orchidism, Potter face, pes equinovarus, pulmonary hypoplasia and obstructive renal dysplasia were among the additional noteworthy anomalies.Conclusion: The pathogenesis of prune-belly syndrome is controversial. More studies are required on the inheritance, etiology and pathogenesis of the prune belly syndrome. Factors affecting the bilaminar and trilaminar germ layer during early 2-3. embryonic week may be considered to explain the pathogenesis of the anomalies seen with this syndrome.

  4. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  5. 7 CFR 993.65 - Disposition of reserve prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and all reserve prunes (1) to meet demand either (i) as domestic trade demand, or (ii) as foreign trade demand, or (2) for use in any outlet, defined in rules and procedures, established by the...) Methods of disposition. The committee may, for any of the purposes of § 993.65(a), offer to sell and...

  6. Carbonisation of cocoa tree prunings at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K.O.; Vizhi, Malar

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of converting cocoa tree prunings into charcoal was assessed. Carbonisation was done at terminal temperatures of 400-550[sup o]C with holding times of 1-3 h and at a constant heating rate of 5[sup o]C/min. The holding time had no significant effect on either the yield or the quality of charcoal produced. However, as terminal temperature increased, both yield and volatile content decreased, while the fixed-carbon content as well as calorific value increased. The ash content (average 10.95%) was, however, not affected by holding time or terminal temperature. The results indicated that charcoal of acceptable quality can be produced from cocoa tree prunings. (Author)

  7. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düben, Peter D; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V; Palmer, T N

    2014-06-28

    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz '96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models.

  8. A pruning method for the recursive least squared algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C S; Wong, K W; Sum, P F; Chan, L W

    2001-03-01

    The recursive least squared (RLS) algorithm is an effective online training method for neural networks. However, its conjunctions with weight decay and pruning have not been well studied. This paper elucidates how generalization ability can be improved by selecting an appropriate initial value of the error covariance matrix in the RLS algorithm. Moreover, how the pruning of neural networks can be benefited by using the final value of the error covariance matrix will also be investigated. Our study found that the RLS algorithm is implicitly a weight decay method, where the weight decay effect is controlled by the initial value of the error covariance matrix; and that the inverse of the error covariance matrix is approximately equal to the Hessian matrix of the network being trained. We propose that neural networks are first trained by the RLS algorithm and then some unimportant weights are removed based on the approximate Hessian matrix. Simulation results show that our approach is an effective training and pruning method for neural networks.

  9. Prune melanoidins protect against oxidative stress and endothelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadino, Anna Maria; Cossu, Annalisa; Piga, Antonio; Madrau, Monica Assunta; Del Caro, Alessandra; Colombino, Maria; Paglietti, Bianca; Rubino, Salvatore; Iaccarino, Ciro; Crosio, Claudia; Sanna, Bastiano; Pintus, Gianfranco

    2011-06-01

    The health-promoting effects of fruit and vegetable consumption are thought to be due to phytochemicals contained in fresh plant material. Whether processed plant foods provide the same benefits as unprocessed ones is an open question. Melanoidins from heat-processed plums (prunes) were isolated and their presence confirmed by hydroxymethylfurfural content and browning index. Oxidative-induced endothelial cell (EC) damage is the trigger for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD); therefore the potential protective effect of prune melanoidins on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cell damage was investigated on human endothelial ECV304 cells. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox status was assessed by using the novel, redox-sensitive, ratiometric fluorescent protein sensor (roGFP), while mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was investigated with the fluorescent dye, JC-1. Treatment of ECV304 cells with hydrogen peroxide dose-dependently induced both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation, in addition to MMP dissipation, with ensuing cell death. Pretreatment of ECV304 with prune melanoidins, significantly counteracted and ultimately abolished hydrogen peroxide elicited phenomena, clearly indicating that these polymers protect human EC against oxidative stress.

  10. PRUNE is crucial for normal brain development and mutated in microcephaly with neurodevelopmental impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Massimo; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ferrucci, Veronica; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Maroofian, Reza; Al-Amri, Ahmed; Singh, Royana; Scognamiglio, Iolanda; Mojarrad, Majid; Musella, Luca; Duilio, Angela; Di Somma, Angela; Karaca, Ender; Rajab, Anna; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Mohan Mohapatra, Tribhuvan; Eslahi, Atieh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Rawlins, Lettie E.; Prasad, Rajniti; Gupta, Rashmi; Kumari, Preeti; Srivastava, Mona; Cozzolino, Flora; Kumar Rai, Sunil; Monti, Maria; Harlalka, Gaurav V.; Simpson, Michael A.; Rich, Philip; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A.; Chioza, Barry A.; Efthymiou, Stephanie; Granata, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Wiethoff, Sarah; Borgione, Eugenia; Scuderi, Carmela; Mankad, Kshitij; Hanna, Michael G.; Pucci, Piero; Houlden, Henry; Lupski, James R.; Crosby, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE. Additionally, our studies also highlight a potential new role for PRUNE during microtubule polymerization, which is essential for the cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during cellular division and proliferation. Together these studies define PRUNE as a molecule fundamental for normal human cortical development and define cellular and clinical consequences associated with PRUNE mutation. PMID:28334956

  11. Radical pruning: a method to construct skeleton radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusteijn, M F; Shaw, K A

    2000-04-01

    Trained radial basis function networks are well-suited for use in extracting rules and explanations because they contain a set of locally tuned units. However, for rule extraction to be useful, these networks must first be pruned to eliminate unnecessary weights. The pruning algorithm cannot search the network exhaustively because of the computational effort involved. It is shown that using multiple pruning methods with smart ordering of the pruning candidates, the number of weights in a radial basis function network can be reduced to a small fraction of the original number. The complexity of the pruning algorithm is quadratic (instead of exponential) in the number of network weights. Pruning performance is shown using a variety of benchmark problems from the University of California, Irvine machine learning database.

  12. Influence of Criconemella xenoplax and Pruning Time on Short Life of Peach Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P

    1990-01-01

    Influences of Criconemella xenoplax and pruning dates were studied in field microplots with 'Nemaguard' peach cuttings on a site not previously planted to peaches. Trees with or without C. xenoplax were pruned beginning in December 1984 or March 1985. Peach tree short life (PTSL) did not occur in the absence of C. xenoplax. PTSL occurred earlier in December-pruned than in March-pruned inoculated trees. Results confirm that "old" peach sites are not required for PTSL to occur. Pruning Nemaguard and 'Lovell' greenhouse-grown seedlings reduced the root mass of both stocks and stimulated Nemaguard, but not Lovell, shoot regrowth. Numbers of C. xenoplax per gram of dry root were greater on pruned than on unpruned seedlings.

  13. Use of pruning waste compost as a component in soilless growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Marta; Masaguer, Alberto; De Antonio, Roberto; Moliner, Ana

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study the use of pruning wastes compost (PWC) as a growing media component for ornamental plants. The main physical, chemical and biological characteristics of PWC were analysed in order to evaluate its suitability for use in soil-less cultivation. Six growth substrates were prepared by mixing PWC with peat (P), ground leaves (GL), sand (S) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) in different proportions. Two different pot experiments were carried out to test its characteristics of production using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) as indicators and the different media as treatments. The growth experiments showed that PWC required mixing with a nutrient-richer material to produce higher results. Therefore, substrates containing SMC (PWC+P+SMC and PWC+SMC) seems to be the most adequate growing media. After the statistical analysis, we concluded that the PWC could be used as a growing media component.

  14. PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GENOTYPES FROM CATTLEY GUAVA AND GUAVA TREES SUBMITTED TO FRUCTIFICATION PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINTIA APARECIDA BREMENKAMP

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Psidium cattleianum Sabine is a species from the Myrtaceae family that serves as an option for the native fruits cultivation, besides being considered a source of resistance to the Meloidogyne enterolobii nematode. Although cattley guava trees from this species produce flower buds in young branches, there are no reports of response to fructification pruning or phenological synchronism with the guava tree. The objective of this paper was the comparative evaluation of the genotype response of strawberry guava trees and guava cultivars to fructification pruning, thus, describing the phenology of both species under the same cultivation conditions. The experiment was conducted under an entirely randomized outline, in 7x2 factorial scheme, being evaluated seven genotypes (three from strawberry guava and four from guava trees, and with pruning performed in two seasons (May 2012 and March 2013, with three repetitions. Fructification pruning was executed by a lopping on all mature branches, from the last growth flow in the woody branch region. Were evaluated budding characteristics and fruit harvesting, as well as number of days from pruning to the observation of the phenological event. Cattley guava tree pruning stimulated fructification of all three genotypes after pruning done on May and two genotypes after the March’s pruning. There has been a sync between the guava cultivars’ flowering and both strawberry guava trees genotypes, when those were pruned on May.

  15. The pruning and fruit-preserving technique of Melon%甜瓜整枝与保果技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆武

    2012-01-01

    按照既有效又省工的要求,分别介绍了不同品种、不同栽培条件下甜瓜的整枝技术,以及以提高坐瓜率和保证商品瓜质量为目的的化学调控技术措施。%Based on requirements both in effective and labour saving,the pruning technology for different melon varieties and under different cultivation conditions,as well as the chemical adjusting and control measures for improving fruit setting rate and melon quality,were introduced respectively.

  16. Association Rule Pruning based on Interestingness Measures with Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bhaskaran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining plays vital part in knowledge mining. The difficult task is discovering knowledge or useful rules from the large number of rules generated for reduced support. For pruning or grouping rules, several techniques are used such as rule structure cover methods, informative cover methods, rule clustering, etc. Another way of selecting association rules is based on interestingness measures such as support, confidence, correlation, and so on. In this paper, we study how rule clusters of the pattern Xi -> Y are distributed over different interestingness measures.

  17. Pregnancy outcome in a woman with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, R Tyler; Garabedian, Matthew James; Wallerstein, Robert J

    2012-11-30

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome that primarily affects male fetuses. Affected men are universally infertile; however, there is a paucity of information published on the reproductive potential of affected women. Pregnancy outcomes in affected women have not been described in the literature. We describe the case of pregnancy in an affected woman. Her pregnancy progressed without complication. Her fetus had no stigmata of the syndrome. Her labour and delivery were, however, complicated by a prolonged second stage of labour and need for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery.

  18. PRUNING SYSTEM EFFECT ON GREENHOUSE GRAFTED TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Isabel; Teixeira, Joana; Brito, L Miguel; Ferreira, Maria Elvira; Moura, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects on tomato yield and quality of three pruning systems (2, 3 and 4 stems) of grafted plants (cv. Vinicio and Multifort) used to prevent the incidence of soil diseases. It was also investigated if the two stems from nodes of the cotyledon leaves improved crop performance compared to the two stems from the first true leaves nodes. The experiment was conducted in the spring/summer season, under greenhouse conditions at NW Portugal, with a randomized block d...

  19. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  20. An Integrated Pruning Criterion for Ensemble Learning Based on Classification Accuracy and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Bin; Wang, Zhihai; Pan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Ensemble pruning is an important issue in the field of ensemble learning. Diversity is a key criterion to determine how the pruning process has been done and measure what result has been derived. However, there is few formal definitions of diversity yet. Hence, three important factors that should...

  1. Prune belly syndrome associated with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and urethral obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akdag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder defined by a characteristic clinical triad: Abdominal muscle deficiency, severe urinary tract abnormalities, and bilateral cryptorchidism. We describe a preterm neonate of Prune Belly syndrome who had abdominal muscle deficiency, multicystic dysplastic kidney, urethral hypoplasia and pulmonary hypoplasia. We presented this rare case with the data gathered from the literatüre.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experiments were set in order to evaluate this parameter during winter pruning in relation to three variables: vine type; branch size; pruning time. The results show how the cutting resistance of vine branches during vegetative rest depends on vine variety (Trebbiano 675 N Cabernet 1175 N, on the diameter of the canes (increase of force from 56 % to 86 % between the classes of diameter and on the pruning date (26% decrease of the cutting force in the latest period for Trebbiano and Sangiovese, and 32 % for Cabernet Sauvignon. Such variations, which can be considerable, affect directly the pruning results. High values of cutting force can generate tiring of operator in manual pruning or cutting damages on the vegetation during mechanical pruning.

  3. h-Prune is associated with poor prognosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in patients with colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Arihiro, Koji; Kikuchi, Akira; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-08-15

    The prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains low despite advances in chemotherapy and surgery. The expression of h-prune (human homolog of Drosophila prune protein; HGNC13420), an exopolyphosphatase, is correlated with progression and aggressiveness in several cancers and promotes migration and invasion. We investigated the role of h-prune in CRLM. To investigate the role of h-prune, immunohistochemical analysis for h-prune was performed in 87 surgically resected specimens of CRLM obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Hiroshima University Hospital. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for h-prune in 24 (28%) cases. The overall survival rate was significantly lower in h-prune-positive cases than in h-prune-negative cases (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that h-prune positivity was the only independent factor related to poor overall survival of patients after curative hepatectomy of CRLM. In vitro and in vivo, h-prune-knocked-down and h-prune-overexpressing cells were analyzed. In vitro, h-prune was associated with increased cell motility and upregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In a mouse model, h-prune was associated with invasion of the tumor and distant metastases. In summary, h-prune expression is a useful marker to identify high-risk patients for resectable colorectal liver metastasis. h-Prune expression is necessary for cancer cell motility and EMT and is associated with liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer cells. h-Prune could be a new prognostic marker and molecular target for CRLM.

  4. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely....... A combination of root pruning and irrigation could be a promising practice to control tree size and secure a stable fruit yield in pear orchard....... to suffer from stress for water and nutrients due to the curtailed root systems, which may constrain fruit growth, reduce yield and quality. Thus, there is an urgent need to research on developing field strategies to mitigate those negative effects brought about by root pruning. The objective of the Ph...

  5. Effects of tip-pruning treatment on source-sink regulation of Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; ZHANG Xue-ke; GUO Xiao-rui; SUN Yan-fei; ZU Yuang-gang

    2006-01-01

    Fifty cultivated Catharanthus roseus seedlings were selected for tip-pruning treatment and the effects of tip-pruning on seedling growth and source-sink regulation were investigated for revealing physiological mechanisms of plants. The results showed that tip-pruning treatment resulted in obvious inhibition of apical dominance and enhancement of branching numbers. The contents of soluble sugars, acid sucrose invertase activity (AI) had a great change in differently positional leaves of the seedling. The sink strength in tip leaves of seedlings dramatically declined after tip-pruning treatment, while that in the leaves at the middle and bottom of seedlings had no obvious changes. The inhibition of apical dominance of tip leaves of seedlings was caused by the diminished sink strength due to tip-pruning treatment,

  6. Efficient molecular quantum dynamics in coordinate and phase space using pruned bases

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Henrik R; Tannor, David J

    2016-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of dynamically pruned quantum dynamics, both in coordinate space and in phase space. We combine the ideas behind the biorthogonal von Neumann basis (PvB) with the orthogonalized momentum-symmetrized Gaussians (Weylets) to create a new basis, projected Weylets, that takes the best from both methods. We benchmark pruned dynamics using phase-space-localized PvB, projected Weylets, and coordinate-space-localized DVR bases, with real-world examples in up to six dimensions. We show that coordinate-space localization is most important for efficient pruning and that pruned dynamics is much faster compared to unpruned, exact dynamics. Phase-space localization is useful for more demanding dynamics where many basis functions are required. There, projected Weylets offer a more compact representation than pruned DVR bases.

  7. Efficient molecular quantum dynamics in coordinate and phase space using pruned bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, H. R.; Hartke, B.; Tannor, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    We present an efficient implementation of dynamically pruned quantum dynamics, both in coordinate space and in phase space. We combine the ideas behind the biorthogonal von Neumann basis (PvB) with the orthogonalized momentum-symmetrized Gaussians (Weylets) to create a new basis, projected Weylets, that takes the best from both methods. We benchmark pruned time-dependent dynamics using phase-space-localized PvB, projected Weylets, and coordinate-space-localized DVR bases, with real-world examples in up to six dimensions. For the examples studied, coordinate-space localization is the most important factor for efficient pruning and the pruned dynamics is much faster than the unpruned, exact dynamics. Phase-space localization is useful for more demanding dynamics where many basis functions are required. There, projected Weylets offer a more compact representation than pruned DVR bases.

  8. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  9. Growth and carbohydrate status of coppice shoots of hybrid poplar following shoot pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaplinski, T J; Blake, T J

    1995-05-01

    Fifteen, 1-year-old Populus maximowiczii Henry x P. nigra L. 'MN9' trees were decapitated and allowed to sprout. After 8 weeks, all had 6 to 10 coppice shoots. All shoots, except the tallest (dominant) shoot, were removed from five of the trees (pruned treatment), and shoot growth, gas exchange and carbohydrate status were compared in the pruned and unpruned trees. Although photosynthetic rate of recently mature leaves of pruned trees was approximately 50% greater than that of leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, and the dry weight of leaves of pruned trees was 37% greater than that of the leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, the shoot dry matter relative growth rate did not differ between treatments. Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates and starch in the uppper stem and leaves of the dominant shoot were similar in pruned and unpruned trees. However, relative to that of the dominant shoot in unpruned trees, the lower stem in pruned trees was depleted in both soluble carbohydrates and starch. Starch deposition, assessed as the quantity of (14)C-starch in tissues 24 h after a fully expanded source leaf was labeled with (14)CO(2), was 3.9 times greater in roots of pruned trees than in roots of unpruned trees. We conclude that early removal of all but the dominant shoot reduces the carbohydrate status of the roots and the lower portion of the stem by eliminating the excised shoots as a source of photosynthate.

  10. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Growing degree-days for the `Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the `Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  12. A carbon balance model of peach tree growth and development for studying the pruning response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, Michel; Pagès, Loïc; Kervella, Jocelyne

    1998-06-01

    We modeled tree responses to pruning on the basis of growth rules established on unpruned trees and a simple principle governing root-shoot interactions. The model, which integrates architectural and ecophysiological approaches, distinguishes four types of anatomical organs in a tree: rootstock, main axis, secondary axes and new roots. Tree structure is described by the position of secondary axes on the main axis. The main processes considered are plastochronal activity, branching, assimilate production, respiration and assimilate partitioning. Growth and development rules were based on measurements of two unpruned trees. The model was used to simulate growth of peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) in their first growing season. Assuming that the equilibrium between roots and shoots tends to be restored after pruning, the response to removal of the main axis above the twentieth internode in mid-July was simulated and compared to the response measured in three pruned trees. The model fit the unpruned tree data reasonably well and predicted the main traits of tree behavior after pruning. Dry matter growth of the secondary axes of pruned trees was increased so that shoot seasonal carbon balance was hardly modified by pruning. Rhythmicity of growth was enhanced by pruning, and might result from variations induced in the root:shoot ratio. Variation in pruning severity had greater effects than variation in pruning date. A sensitivity analysis indicated that: (1) root-shoot partitioning was a critical process of the model; (2) tree growth was mainly dependent on assimilate availability; and (3) tree shape was highly dependent on the branching process.

  13. Pruning Attribute Values From Data Cubes with Diamond Dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Hazel; Lemire, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Data stored in a data warehouse are inherently multidimensional, but most data-pruning techniques (such as iceberg and top-k queries) are unidimensional. However, analysts need to issue multidimensional queries. For example, an analyst may need to select not just the most profitable stores or--separately--the most profitable products, but simultaneous sets of stores and products fulfilling some profitability constraints. To fill this need, we propose a new operator, the diamond dice. Because of the interaction between dimensions, the computation of diamonds is challenging. We present the first diamond-dicing experiments on large data sets. Experiments show that we can compute diamond cubes over fact tables containing 100 million facts in less than 35 minutes using a standard PC.

  14. Feticismo e desiderio in Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  15. Associated rare anomalies in prune belly syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fette

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The triad of deficient abdominal wall musculature, undescended testes and urinary tract anomalies characterizes the Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS. PBS can be associated with other comorbid urological and non urological conditions. But the full pathogenesis and best treatment is still a matter of debate. A term newborn with a classical PBS (Woodhouse Group 2, Smith and Woodard Group 2 plus lung hypoplasia and funnel chest deformity, a megapenis with a tight phimosis and an obturated anterior urethra is presented. Unfortunately, the baby died in urosepsis and renal failure in his 3rd week of life, despite urine drainage surgery and peritoneal dialysis undertaken. According to the best of our knowledge, this is an unique combination of rare anomalies in PBS patients.

  16. A pruning algorithm with L1/2 regularizer for extreme learning machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-tian FAN; Wei WU; Wen-yu YANG; Qin-wei FAN; Jian WANG

    2014-01-01

    Compared with traditional learning methods such as the back propagation (BP) method, extreme learning machine provides much faster learning speed and needs less human intervention, and thus has been widely used. In this paper we combine the L1/2 regularization method with extreme learning machine to prune extreme learning machine. A variable learning coefficient is employed to prevent too large a learning increment. A numerical experiment demonstrates that a network pruned by L1/2 regularization has fewer hidden nodes but provides better performance than both the original network and the network pruned by L2 regularization.

  17. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Helen M; Filip, Gregory M; Gruelke, Nancy E; Oblinger, Brent W; Margolis, Ellis; Chadwick, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without significantly affecting tree vitality and by inference, longevity. Immediate and longterm pruning effects on mistletoe infection severity were assessed by comparing pruned trees (n = 173) to unpruned trees (n = 55) with respect to: (1) percentage of trees with no visible infections 14 years post-pruning, (2) Broom Volume Rating (BVR), and (3) rate of BVR increase 14 years postpruning. Vitality/longevity (compared with unpruned trees) was assessed using six indicators: (1) tree survival, (2) the development of severe infections, (3) the development of dead tops, (4) tree-ring width indices, (5) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery, and (6) live-crown ratio (LCR) and increment. Twenty-four percent of the pruned trees remained free of mistletoe 14 years post-pruning. Pruning is most likely to successfully eradicate mistletoe in lightly infected trees (BVR 1 or 2) without infected neighbors. Pruning significantly decreased mean BVR in the pruned versus the unpruned trees. However, the subsequent average rate of intensification (1.3–1.5 BVR per decade) was not affected, implying that a single pruning provides ~14 years respite in the progression of infection levels. Post-pruning infection intensification was slower on dominant and co-dominants than on intermediate or suppressed trees. The success of mistletoe eradication via pruning and need for follow-up pruning should be evaluated no sooner than 14 years after pruning to allow for the development of detectable brooms. Based on six indicators, foliage from witches brooms contribute little to long-term tree vitality since removal appears to have

  18. Blood flow changes coincide with cellular rearrangements during blood vessel pruning in zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kochhan

    Full Text Available After the initial formation of a highly branched vascular plexus, blood vessel pruning generates a hierarchically structured network with improved flow characteristics. We report here on the cellular events that occur during the pruning of a defined blood vessel in the eye of developing zebrafish embryos. Time-lapse imaging reveals that the connection of a new blood vessel sprout with a previously perfused multicellular endothelial tube leads to the formation of a branched, Y-shaped structure. Subsequently, endothelial cells in parts of the previously perfused branch rearrange from a multicellular into a unicellular tube, followed by blood vessel detachment. This process is accompanied by endothelial cell death. Finally, we show that differences in blood flow between neighboring vessels are important for the completion of the pruning process. Our data suggest that flow induced changes in tubular architecture ensure proper blood vessel pruning.

  19. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  20. Regulating mineralization rates of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve phosphorus availability in calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve synchronization between P released from the prunings with crop demand for P was studied in a laboratory and in a glasshouse. Tithonia diversifolia prunings (Td, Lantana camara prunings (Lc, and farmyard manure (Pk were thoroughly mixed with the proportion (% of dry weight of; 25Td +75 Lc ; 50Td +50 Lc ; 75Td +25 Lc ; 90Lc +10 Pk ; 45Td +45 +10 Lc Pk ; 100Td and 100Lc, and then mixed with 100 g of air-dried soil with a rate equivalent to 100 kg P / ha. Results of the study showed that the pruning mixtures decomposed and mineralized faster than that of Lantana camara pruning only, but slower than that of Tithonia diversifolia pruning only. The amount of P released from the pruning mixtures increased with increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixtures. Increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixture applied to the soil increased the amount of P taken up by maize.

  1. The Effect of Green Pruning Times on Some Physiologic and Morphologic Characteristics of Peach Redtop cultivar in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehrban Jafarlou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning times on some physiologic and morphologic characteristics of peach Redtop cultivar in Moghan region, a factorial experiment was arranged based on randomized complete block design with three replications. First factor (the pruning severity included 3 treatments (⅓ pruning, ½ pruning, complete pruning and Non pruning as control and second factor (pruning time included 4 treatments (31 May, 15 June and 1 June. Morphologic characteristics such as length of seasonal branches, fruit size, physiologic characteristics; total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, rate of sugar and yield were measured, and evaluated. Results showed that effect of green pruning times had significant effect on length of seasonal branches, yield, fruit size, total soluble solids, acidity and rate of sugar. The superior treatment was (½ pruning at 15 June that had the highest rate of sugar, biggest fruit, highest yield, high total soluble solids and lower amount of total acidity. Finally, it was concluded that among the seven studied characteristics, the treatment (June 25, ½ pruning severity had the most significant effects in comparison with other treatments.

  2. Assessment of the energetic potential by hazelnuts pruning in Viterbo’s area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the amount of biomass available by the hazelnuts pruning in the province of Viterbo was investigated. At present, the pruning’s residues are destroyed by farmers directly in the field, at the end of the pruning; in this way a large quantity of biomass, represented by hazelnut’s prunings, is lost; the residues obtained from the hazelnut’s pruning, are an important source of biomass that could be used for thermal energy production. The aim of this work is to realize a map with the estimated energy potential from hazelnut pruning biomass, in the province of Viterbo. In the first phase the amount of biomass obtained from a hectare of hazelnut’s cultivationwas estimated:sampling were carried out in some municipalities of Viterbo while hazelnut pruning was taking place, from January to March.In the field, biomass was weighed and some pieces of wood were collected for laboratory analysis; in particular humidity of biomass, low calorific value, ashand the content of carbon (C, hydrogen (H and nitrogen (N were determined. In the calculation of the biomass were considered the age of the plants and the number of plants per hectare. The results show that the amount of biomass obtained from pruning of hazelnuts varies with the age of plants, but even more so by the number of plants per hectare. The average value of biomass obtained from pruning of a hectare of land is just under 0,9 t. Knowing the net calorific value of the hazelnut wood and the number of hectares cultivated for each municipality, a map of thermal potential energy has been realized.

  3. Unified commutation-pruning technique for efficient computation of composite DFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Palazuelos, David E.; Medina-Melendrez, Modesto Gpe.; Torres-Roman, Deni L.; Shkvarko, Yuriy V.

    2015-12-01

    An efficient computation of a composite length discrete Fourier transform (DFT), as well as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) of both time and space data sequences in uncertain (non-sparse or sparse) computational scenarios, requires specific processing algorithms. Traditional algorithms typically employ some pruning methods without any commutations, which prevents them from attaining the potential computational efficiency. In this paper, we propose an alternative unified approach with automatic commutations between three computational modalities aimed at efficient computations of the pruned DFTs adapted for variable composite lengths of the non-sparse input-output data. The first modality is an implementation of the direct computation of a composite length DFT, the second one employs the second-order recursive filtering method, and the third one performs the new pruned decomposed transform. The pruned decomposed transform algorithm performs the decimation in time or space (DIT) data acquisition domain and, then, decimation in frequency (DIF). The unified combination of these three algorithms is addressed as the DFTCOMM technique. Based on the treatment of the combinational-type hypotheses testing optimization problem of preferable allocations between all feasible commuting-pruning modalities, we have found the global optimal solution to the pruning problem that always requires a fewer or, at most, the same number of arithmetic operations than other feasible modalities. The DFTCOMM method outperforms the existing competing pruning techniques in the sense of attainable savings in the number of required arithmetic operations. It requires fewer or at most the same number of arithmetic operations for its execution than any other of the competing pruning methods reported in the literature. Finally, we provide the comparison of the DFTCOMM with the recently developed sparse fast Fourier transform (SFFT) algorithmic family. We feature that, in the sensing scenarios with

  4. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experim...

  5. Mechanized methods for preparation and processing of compost from pruning residues in fruit-vine production

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of research about the effects of mechanized process of fragmentation of pruning residues on the composting process. Compost, as a form of organic fertilizer, requires specific production treatment depending on the form of biomass. Pruning residues from fruit-vine production can be translated into quality organic fertilizer, but it is necessary to coordinate mechanized treatment of biomass and technology of composting process with microbiological processes for organic matter...

  6. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  7. A growing and pruning method for radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M; Aladjem, M

    2009-06-01

    A recently published generalized growing and pruning (GGAP) training algorithm for radial basis function (RBF) neural networks is studied and modified. GGAP is a resource-allocating network (RAN) algorithm, which means that a created network unit that consistently makes little contribution to the network's performance can be removed during the training. GGAP states a formula for computing the significance of the network units, which requires a d-fold numerical integration for arbitrary probability density function p(x) of the input data x (x in R(d)) . In this work, the GGAP formula is approximated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for p(x) and an analytical solution of the approximated unit significance is derived. This makes it possible to employ the modified GGAP for input data having complex and high-dimensional p(x), which was not possible in the original GGAP. The results of an extensive experimental study show that the modified algorithm outperforms the original GGAP achieving both a lower prediction error and reduced complexity of the trained network.

  8. Oligosaccharides and monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-04-02

    Using the severity factor, it has been possible to study cellulose and hemicellulose fractional conversion, sugar yields change and oligosaccharides variation through olive tree pruning biomass pretreatments with acid or liquid hot water under pressure. The temperatures tested were in the range 180-230°C, operation time varying between 0 and 30min and acid concentration used did not exceed 0.05M. Complete hemicellulose solubilization in autohydrolysis was achieved using severity factors (logR0) close to 3.9 (most sugars are like oligomers), while if sulfuric acid 0.025M is employed, this parameter could be smaller (≥3.4). With these treatments, we have obtained cellulose conversions between 30 and 42% from liquid hot water experiments, 40-51% with sulfuric acid 0.025M and 42-57% when the acid concentration was 0.05M. The best results in terms of maximum yield in total sugars, d-glucose and d-xylose, with a low amount of acetic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural, was obtained at 200°C, 0min (what means that there is no time of temperature maintenance, only heating and cooling) and H2SO4 0.025M.

  9. Thinning effect on plant growth of pruned eucalypt clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pruned stand of eucalypt clone underwent five thinning treatments with the removal of different proportion of the planted trees, at different ages: a 0% - unthinned, b 35% at 55 months, c 35% at 81 months, d 70% at 81 months, removing sprouts in the thinned plant stumps and, e 70% at 81 months, without coppice sprouts removal. By the age of 141 months, the Weibull distribution showed higher number of trees in the smallest diameter classes for the unthinned treatment. The 70% thinning, with thinned coppice sprouts removal, presented higher number of individuals in the largest diameter classes. Height and yield were the smallest with the removal of 70% of the trees at 81 months, maintaining coppice sprouts. The afterthinning periodic annual increment was greater by thinning 35% of the trees at 55 months resulting in greater number of trees in the largest diameter classes as compared to the other treatments. Yield was higher for the unthinned treatment. The results of this study indicated that thinning 70% of the trees at the age of 81 months, with coppice sprout removal, could be recommended to obtain trees of larger diameter for multiproduct.

  10. Nitrogen Mineralization of Prunings of Six N2-Fixing Hedgerow Species in a Dry Valley of the Jinsha River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A litterbag experiment of 12 weeks was conducted to study nitrogen mineralization process of prunings of six nitrogen-fixing hedgerow species in a dry valley of the Jinsha River. Prunings were incorporated into soil or used as mulch. The results indicated that pruning N of the six hedgerow species was mineralized fast in the first week and then decreased slowly in the rest of the study period. When prunings were incorporated into soil, the amount of nitrogen mineralized by the end of the first week accounted for 69.9%, 58.2%, 54.5%,43.0%, 29.6% and 20.6% of the total N in prunings of Desmodium rensonii, Tephrosia candida, Leucaena leucocuphala, Albizia yunnanensis, Acacia dealbata, and Acacia mearnsii, respectively. When prunings of L. leucocephala were used as mulch materials, the amount of nitrogen mineralized in the first week was 16.2% less than that of prunings incorporated into soil. The mineralization pattern of pruning N could be simulated by an exponent model Nt% = N01% (1 - exp(-k1t))+ N02% (1 - exp(-k2t)) where Nt% is cumulative mineralized N in time t, N01% and N02 % are readily and less readily mineralizable N in prunings,respectively, and k1 and k2 are rate constants. A half-life period of pruning nitrogen mineralization could ~ be determined by this model. The nitrogen content in the pruning residues decreased quickly in the first week but fluctuated thereafter. The initial C/N ratio was negatively related to the mineralization rate of prunings.``

  11. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  12. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  13. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  14. Olive Crown Porosity Measurement Based on Radiation Transmittance: An Assessment of Pruning Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ruiz, Francisco J.; Castro-Garcia, Sergio; Blanco-Roldan, Gregorio L.; Sola-Guirado, Rafael R.; Gil-Ribes, Jesus A.

    2016-01-01

    Crown porosity influences radiation interception, air movement through the fruit orchard, spray penetration, and harvesting operation in fruit crops. The aim of the present study was to develop an accurate and reliable methodology based on transmitted radiation measurements to assess the porosity of traditional olive trees under different pruning treatments. Transmitted radiation was employed as an indirect method to measure crown porosity in two olive orchards of the Picual and Hojiblanca cultivars. Additionally, three different pruning treatments were considered to determine if the pruning system influences crown porosity. This study evaluated the accuracy and repeatability of four algorithms in measuring crown porosity under different solar zenith angles. From a 14° to 30° solar zenith angle, the selected algorithm produced an absolute error of less than 5% and a repeatability higher than 0.9. The described method and selected algorithm proved satisfactory in field results, making it possible to measure crown porosity at different solar zenith angles. However, pruning fresh weight did not show any relationship with crown porosity due to the great differences between removed branches. A robust and accurate algorithm was selected for crown porosity measurements in traditional olive trees, making it possible to discern between different pruning treatments. PMID:27213391

  15. Density based pruning for identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes. Results We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually located in the sparse boundary region. Biases of popular algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes are visually characterized. Experiments on 17 datasets from Gene Omnibus Database (GEO with experimentally verified differentially expressed genes showed that DB pruning can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of popular identification algorithms such as t-test, rank product, and fold change. Conclusions Density based pruning of non-differentially expressed genes is an effective method for enhancing statistical testing based algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes. It improves t-test, rank product, and fold change by 11% to 50% in the numbers of identified true differentially expressed genes. The source code of DB pruning is freely available on our website http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/degprune

  16. Effect of different pruning on productive branches in yield of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Batista Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the effect of pruning of branches on the yield of yellow passion fruit. The study was conducted at Lagoa Seca Experimental Station of EMEPA-PB. The soil where an experiment was conducted was classified as Regossol Regolitic Eutrophic, sandy texture. The experimental design was randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 6, with 4 replications. Study material consisted of two crops (production cycle and six types of pruning. The pruning of the branches productive exercise showed stimulating effects of substances with the issuance of new production reflecting an increase in the number of fruits per plant and per area. There was significant difference between the two crops in the production of crop 2 significantly exceeded the harvest 1, with a higher value for the 2 treatment with us, that is 3 gems maintained. The total yield increased with the pruning of branches of production to the maintenance of three buds per branch reaching a maximum of 23,705 kilograms ha-1 decreasing to up to 18,820, 16,687 and 16,074 kilograms ha-1 in treatments with the productive branches pruned immediately after 4, 5 and 6 gems.

  17. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  18. Plum, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, regulates axon pruning by facilitating TGF-β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomeng M; Gutman, Itai; Mosca, Timothy J; Iram, Tal; Ozkan, Engin; Garcia, K Christopher; Luo, Liqun; Schuldiner, Oren

    2013-05-08

    Axon pruning during development is essential for proper wiring of the mature nervous system, but its regulation remains poorly understood. We have identified an immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) transmembrane protein, Plum, that is cell autonomously required for axon pruning of mushroom body (MB) γ neurons and for ectopic synapse refinement at the developing neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Plum promotes MB γ neuron axon pruning by regulating the expression of Ecdysone Receptor-B1, a key initiator of axon pruning. Genetic analyses indicate that Plum acts to facilitate signaling of Myoglianin, a glial-derived TGF-β, on MB γ neurons upstream of the type-I TGF-β receptor Baboon. Myoglianin, Baboon, and Ecdysone Receptor-B1 are also required for neuromuscular junction ectopic synapse refinement. Our study highlights both IgSF proteins and TGF-β facilitation as key promoters of developmental axon elimination and demonstrates a mechanistic conservation between MB axon pruning during metamorphosis and the refinement of ectopic larval neuromuscular connections.

  19. An Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Force Control System of a Robotic Pruning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there has been an increasing application of pruning robots for planted forests due to the growing concern on the efficiency and safety issues. Power consumption and working time of agricultural machines have become important issues due to the high value of energy in modern world. In this study, different multi-layer back-propagation networks were utilized for mapping the complex and highly interactive of pruning process parameters and to predict power consumption and cutting time of a force control equipped robotic pruning machine by knowing input parameters such as: rotation speed, stalk diameter, and sensitivity coefficient. Results showed significant effects of all input parameters on output parameters except rotational speed on cutting time. Therefore, for reducing the wear of cutting system, a less rotational speed in every sensitivity coefficient should be selected.

  20. H-Prune through GSK-3β interaction sustains canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling enhancing cancer progression in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Marianeve; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Liguori, Lucia; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Magliulo, Daniela; Alonzi, Alessandro; Turino, Cecilia; Attanasio, Carmela; Damiani, Valentina; Bello, Anna Maria; Vitiello, Fabiana; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Terracciano, Luigi; Federico, Antonella; Fusco, Alfredo; Freeman, Jamie; Dale, Trevor C; Decraene, Charles; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Piantedosi, Francovito; Calabrese, Cecilia; Zollo, Massimo

    2014-07-30

    H-Prune hydrolyzes short-chain polyphosphates (PPase activity) together with an hitherto cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE), the latest influencing different human cancers by its overexpression. H-Prune promotes cell migration in cooperation with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3β). Gsk-3β is a negative regulator of canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling. Here, we investigate the role of Gsk-3β/h-Prune complex in the regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling, demonstrating the h-Prune capability to activate WNT signaling also in a paracrine manner, through Wnt3a secretion. In vivo study demonstrates that h-Prune silencing inhibits lung metastasis formation, increasing mouse survival. We assessed h-Prune levels in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients using ELISA assay, showing that h-Prune is an early diagnostic marker for lung cancer. Our study dissects out the mechanism of action of h-Prune in tumorigenic cells and also sheds light on the identification of a new therapeutic target in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  1. [Experiment on pruning of Cistanche deserticola inoculated in artificial Haloxylon ammodendron forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-wen; Zhang, Zhong-liang; Wang, Gui-fen; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Yong-zhi; Li, Sheng-yu; Jin, Zheng-zhong; Li, Cong-juan; Xu, Bo

    2015-03-01

    At present, the objective of cutting and pruning Cistanche deserticola is to harvest in successive years and enhance the harvesting yield and quality of C. deserticola in the process of the artificial cultivating C. deserticola. An experiment was conducted focusing on cutting and pruning C. deserticola in artificial forests of Haloxylon ammodendron drip-irrigated with saline water at the hinter-land of the Taklimakan desert, according to different growth stages and lengths. The results were following: (1) The effect of cutting on C. deserticola was similar to that of pruning, which resulted in three kinds of morphological types, not related to the bloom and size of C. deserticola. (2) The growth forms were diversified after pruning. Among them, there had sprouting new body, died or maintaining life with no sprouting, mildewed on its surface layer, etc. However, some of new bodies were sprouting from the lower part of the old body. The death rate of bloomed C. deserticola was higher than that of the underground, and the death rate of the 40 cm in stubble height for C. deserticola was higher than those with the stubble height of 20 cm and 5 cm. (3) Most of the diameter of living C. deserticola after pruning was increasing, but some of them changed little. (4) The mildew and rot of C. deserticola and the broken of the roots of the H. ammodendron and the fallen of the point of the inoculated when it was dug, which would cause the death of the C. deserticola. On the other, the yield-increasing effect and the economic benefit of the techniques of the pruning of Cistanche would need further research and evaluate. Therefore, the application of this technique needs to be cautious.

  2. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  3. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  4. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  5. Mechanized recovery of olive pruning residues: ash contamination and harvesting losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Assirelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues represent an important source of biomass for energy. Among the available biomass suitable for energy and available in Italy, pruning represents about the 20% of the total. About 1.184 million of hectares are planted with olive trees; the pruning residues coming from these plantations represent a wide source of biomass at National level. The authors tested six commercial pruning harvesters to determine harvesting losses and product contamination when recovering pruning residues. All harvesters used a mechanical pick-up to collect the residues and a shredder to reduce them into chips. Three different pick-up settings were tested and namely: 1 cm above ground level, manufacturer’s specification and 3 cm above ground level. Ash content in the shredded material was taken as a measure of contamination: the uncontaminated branch material collected directly from the trees had a value of 3.5%, whereas in shredded residues varied between 4.5% and over 5.5%, for the shortest and the longest distance between the pick-up and the soil surface, respectively. Harvesting losses were slightly, but significantly, related to pick-up setting, and mainly depended on machine type. Both machines have shown a good quality of the work performed and the results obtained indicates that the work phases could be simplified in order to reduce both the time of use and the harvesting costs.

  6. On failure of the pruning technique in "error repair in shift-reduce parsers"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, E; Nederhof, MJ

    1999-01-01

    A previous article presented a technique to compute the least-cost error repair by incrementally generating configurations that result from inserting and deleting tokens in a syntactically incorrect input. An additional mechanism to improve the run-time efficiency of this algorithm by pruning some o

  7. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-12-17

    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, 'the cardinality curve', to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks.

  8. Effects of Pruning to Promote Trunk Extension on Annual Growth Rhythm of Paulownia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBaoping; LIJiyue; SUNZhiqiang; WENRuijun; QIAOJie; ZHOUHaijiang; LIZongran

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to confirm the optimal pruning intensity to promote paulownia growth. Annual dynamic of 8 growth indicators for pruning of three-year-old Paulownia to promote tnmk extension were simulated under 7 treatments. The results showed that annual growth process could be modeled reliably by Richards' function. Eight growth parameters were developed including fast-growing point (t0), initialp oint of fast-growing period (tl), final point of fast-growing period (t2), fast-growing period (t), growth period (Dg), maximum day increment (AGRmax), maximum annual increment (A). Effects of pruning to promote trunk extension on growth parameters were analyzed. Paulownia remaining 3-6 lower branches after pruning had relatively longer fast-growing period (t), growth period (Dg), higher average day increment (Am), maximum day increment (AGRmax) and maximum annual increment (A). Therefore, lower diameter growth of original trunk did not decrease significantly, and upper diameter growth increased to some extent, Height and diameter growth of grafting trunk, and form ratio of grafting trunk were relatively higher. Total stock volume increment was improved significantly under the condition that stock volume increment of original trunk did not decrease.

  9. Effect of Boron Fertilizer on Flower and Fruit Drop of Prunes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAOLING; BAOSHIDAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Effect of boron on falling of prunes (Prunus mune,Sieb,et Zucc) was studied by applying 50g borate per tree into soil on december 15,1993(soil-B) and spraying leaves leves evenly twice with 1.5g kg-1 borate solution on March 1 and 8,1994(spray-B) on the soil with 0.28mg kg-1 rapidly available B.Compared with no borate treatment (CK),B concentrations of leaves,short branches and flowers were higher and the percentage of flower and fruit drop was lower in the treatments of soil-B and spray-B.B fertilizer increased B concentrations in flowers,leaves and short branches,promoted pollen germination,reduced the percentage of fall of flowers and fruits of prunes,increased the percentage of fertile fruits,and thus increased yields of prunes by 46% and 34.3% in the treatments of soil-B and spray-B,respectively.It could be inferred preliminarily that if B concentration of leaves was lower than 35 mgkg-1,the prunes should be fertilized with B.The measured leaves should be picked from branches(3-10cm in legnth)germinating from the central section of a tree crown during the last ten days of May to the early days of June.

  10. A role for Fas II in the stabilization of motor neuron branches during pruning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2005-09-01

    During insect metamorphosis, the nervous system is extensively remodeled resulting in the development of new circuits that will execute adult-specific behaviors. The peripheral remodeling seen during development of innervation to the Dorsal Longitudinal (flight) Muscle (DLM) in Drosophila involves an initial retraction of larval neuromuscular junctions followed by adult-specific branch outgrowth. Subsequently, a phase of pruning occurs during which motor neuron branches are pruned back to reveal the stereotypic pattern of multiple contact points (or arbors) along the length of each DLM fiber. In this study, we show that the cell adhesion molecule, Fasciclin II (Fas II), is important for generating the stereotypic pattern. In Fas II hypomorphs, the number of contact points is increased, and the phenotype is rescued by targeted expression of Fas II in either synaptic partner. Arbor development has three distinct phases: outgrowth and elaboration, pruning and stabilization, and expansion of stabilized arbors. Fas II is expressed during the first two phases. A subset of branches is labeled during the elaboration phase, which is likely to initiate a stabilization pathway allowing branches to survive the pruning phase. However, since not all Fas II positive branches are retained, we propose that it primes branches for stabilization. Our data suggest that Fas II functions to restrict branch length and arbor expanse.

  11. Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Navlakha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains.

  12. Competition in apple, as influenced by Alar sprays, fruiting, pruning and tree spacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.W.M.

    1972-01-01

    In the spring of 1965 a trial was planted with Golden Delicious IX and James Grieve 'aimed' VII, in which tree spacing, deblossoming, Alar sprays and pruning were variable factors, Results are presented over the period 1966-1969.At the end of 1969, the 5th year from planting, 400 Delicious trees and

  13. From plums to prunes: influence of drying parameters on polyphenols and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Antonio; Del Caro, Alessandra; Corda, Giampaola

    2003-06-04

    Prunes, which are industrially obtained by dehydrating fresh plums at 85-90 degrees C for 18 h, contain higher levels of phenolic compounds than most other fruits. Prune phenolics have shown beneficial effects on human health. Reports are available in the literature on ascorbic acid, phenol composition, and antioxidant activity of fresh plums and prunes, but there is a lack of publications on the influence of drying parameters on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. A study was carried out on two plum cultivars using two sets of air-drying temperatures: (i) air temperature at 85 degrees C until 50% of prune moisture level and then the temperature was lowered to 70 degrees C; (ii) air temperature at 60 degrees C. Whole fresh and dried fruits were assessed for phenolics (catechins, hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant activity (all parameters were calculated on a dry matter basis). Analysis of data shows that chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid changes were affected by both process parameters and cultivar. Drying destroyed anthocyanins, and there was a significant decrease in flavonols. Ascorbic acid was drastically reduced in relation to process temperature. The most striking result was that drying at 85 degrees C doubled antioxidant activity in both cultivars, while contradictory results were found for 60 degrees C processed plums.

  14. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total solub

  15. The association between prune belly syndrome and dental anomalies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso Maria Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare condition produced by an early mesodermal defect that causes abdominal abnormalities. However, the literature indicates that disturbances related to ectodermal development may also be present. This is the first case report in the literature to suggest that dental abnormalities are part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of prune belly syndrome. Because the syndrome causes many serious medical problems, early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions are encouraged. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy with prune belly syndrome. In addition to the triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and cryptorchidism, a geminated mandibular right central incisor, agenesis of a mandibular permanent left incisor, and congenitally missing primary teeth (namely, the mandibular right and left lateral incisors were noted. Conclusion This original case report about prune belly syndrome highlights the possibility that dental abnormalities are a part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of the syndrome. Therefore, an accurate intra-oral clinical examination and radiographic evaluation are required for patients with this syndrome in order to provide an early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions.

  16. 7 CFR 993.159 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... more than ten business days if warranted by a late crop), the Committee shall hold a meeting to review... choose to exclude the high and low data in computing an industry average. The industry average costs may... information: (1) The name and address of the handler; (2) The location(s) where reserve prunes will be...

  17. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter...

  18. 7 CFR 999.200 - Regulation governing the importation of prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supersede any restrictions or prohibitions on the importation of prunes under the Plant Quarantine Act of...) fermentation; (5) skin or flesh damage; (6) scab; (7) burned; (8) mold; (9) imbedded dirt; (10) insect...-eighths of one inch (3/8″) but not more than one-half of one inch (1/2″) in length. (4) Fermentation...

  19. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall show the completed “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” to the U.S. Customs Service Regional... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... institutions or distribution by relief agencies; (2) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, oranges, prune...

  20. The potential of legume tree prunings as organic matters for improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wahyudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to elucidate roles of Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia prunings and their extracted humic and fulvic acids on improving phosphorus availability and decreasing aluminum concentration in an Ultisol was conducted in a glasshouse. Thirteen treatments consisting of two prunings, six rates of pruning application (5, 7.5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 t/ha and one control (no added prunings were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each mixture of prunings and soil was placed in a pot containing 8 kg of soil and maize of Srikandi cultivar was grown on it for 45 days. At harvest, soil pH, P content and aluminium concentration were measured. Results of the glasshouse experiment showed that application of Gliricidia and Tithonia prunings significantly increased soil pH, reduced Alo concentration, increased Alp content, increased P availability, and increased P taken up by maize grown for 45 days. The optimum rate of both Gliricidia and Tithonia pruning should be 40 t/ha. However, at the same rate, optimum production gained by Tithonia would be higher than that of Gliricidia.

  1. Spindle-F Is the Central Mediator of Ik2 Kinase-Dependent Dendrite Pruning in Drosophila Sensory Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During development, certain Drosophila sensory neurons undergo dendrite pruning that selectively eliminates their dendrites but leaves the axons intact. How these neurons regulate pruning activity in the dendrites remains unknown. Here, we identify a coiled-coil protein Spindle-F (Spn-F that is required for dendrite pruning in Drosophila sensory neurons. Spn-F acts downstream of IKK-related kinase Ik2 in the same pathway for dendrite pruning. Spn-F exhibits a punctate pattern in larval neurons, whereas these Spn-F puncta become redistributed in pupal neurons, a step that is essential for dendrite pruning. The redistribution of Spn-F from puncta in pupal neurons requires the phosphorylation of Spn-F by Ik2 kinase to decrease Spn-F self-association, and depends on the function of microtubule motor dynein complex. Spn-F is a key component to link Ik2 kinase to dynein motor complex, and the formation of Ik2/Spn-F/dynein complex is critical for Spn-F redistribution and for dendrite pruning. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for dendrite pruning achieved by temporal activation of Ik2 kinase and dynein-mediated redistribution of Ik2/Spn-F complex in neurons.

  2. The influence of severe shoot pruning on growth, carbon and nitrogen status in young peach trees (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediene, S; Jordan, M O; Pagès, L; Lebot, J; Adamowicz, S

    2002-12-01

    One-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) were severely pruned in July by removing 60% of the shoots. Tree responses were analyzed in terms of architecture and nutritional status. Tree growth was recorded from July to September by nondestructive (leaf production, thickening and branching of the remaining secondary axes) and destructive measurements (biomass partitioning and concentrations of total nitrogen (N) and nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) in specific tissues). The dry weights of pruned trees were lower than those of control trees at the end of the growing season (i.e., 2.5 months after pruning), whereas shoot:root ratios were restored to the initial values. Tree response occurred in two stages. During the first 24 days following pruning, the growth components of the remaining secondary axes were similar to the control, and new secondary axes were produced. During the next 17 days, increases in both diameter and branching of secondary axes contributed to the maintenance of pruned tree growth rate (similar to that of control trees) and restoration of initial shoot:root ratios. No significant effect of pruning was observed on NC concentrations, whereas N concentrations increased in several organs of the pruned trees during the first growth period. The transient increase in internal N availability contributed to the initiation of new axes and the restoration of a more functional biomass partitioning between shoots and roots.

  3. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-05-24

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  4. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...... potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance were highest for full irrigation (FI), followed by the deficit irrigation (DI) and non-irrigation (NI) treatments. Osmotic potential was not affected by root pruning and irrigation regimes while the xylem ABA concentration was higher in the RP compared to NP...

  5. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile.

  6. Evaluation of the characteristics of vineyard pruning residues for energy applications: effect of different copper-based treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomass for increasing renewable energy sources mix is considered fundamental, despite some negative environmental impact of first-generation biofuels. The use of biomass obtained in a more sustainable way, as represented by agricultural wastes, should be favoured. The Mediterranean area and Italy in particular offer a large amount of vineyard pruning residues that can be converted into bioenergy. Since vineyards are exposed to treatments based on copper (Cu and zinc, these metals last in wood residues during pruning and accumulate in the soil. In this study an evaluation of the concentrations of copper and other heavy metals in grapevine pruning wastes, when treated with common plant protection products, was carried out. The study was also extended to the soil, being potentially mixed to the biomass in the case of mechanical collection of pruning residues. The grapevine residues free of impurities that were collected during this study have typical values of copper in pruning wood, varying from 8.5 mg kg–1 when treated with low Cu product, to 19.2 mg kg–1 when treated with high Cu product. It was observed that contaminations during pruning with soil could increase the amount of copper in the residues. More in detail, every percentage point of soil that winds up on pruning residues involves an increase of 1 mg of Cu every kg of biomass. For this reason, we recommend the use of appropriate systems for the harvest of grapevine residues, particularly mechanical systems that avoid soil lifting. Moreover, we suggest the use of pruning residues preferably in large-scale power plants with appropriate emission filters instead of small-scale domestic boilers.

  7. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  8. Pruning effect on content of quercetin and catechin in berry skins of cv. Blaufränkisch (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The effect of pruning severity on quercetin and catechin content in berry skins of cv. Blaufränkisch (Vitis vinifera L.) was studied over 3 years. Different crop levels and canopy structures were obtained by retaining 8, 16, and 24 nodes per vine at pruning. Canopy density, which is proportionate to the shoot number per canopy volume, directly affects the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The quercetin content has been shown to be highly dependent on the light exposure o...

  9. Effect of water extraction on sugars recovery from steam exploded olive tree pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, I; Ballesteros, M; Cara, C; Sáez, F; Castro, E; Manzanares, P; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M

    2011-06-01

    Biomass of olive tree pruning can be considered a suitable raw material for the production of ethanol due to its high content of potentially fermentable carbohydrates. However its high extractives content could cause condensation reactions between extractives and acid insoluble lignin during pretreatment, hindering the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated material. In this work, the effect of extractives removal before steam explosion of olive tree pruning was evaluated. The objectives are to recover as much glucose as possible in the extraction stage and to avoid the condensation reactions. The effect of temperature and time of water extracted material on sugars recovery was studied using a response surface method according to a central composite design. Extractive removal previous to steam explosion resulted in 20% more total sugars recovery in comparison to a material without water extraction stage.

  10. Combining soft decision algorithms and scale-sequential hypotheses pruning for object recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.P.; Manolakos, E.S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system that exploits the synergy of Hierarchical Mixture Density (HMD) estimation with multiresolution decomposition based hypothesis pruning to perform efficiently joint segmentation and labeling of partially occluded objects in images. First we present the overall structure of the HMD estimation algorithm in the form of a recurrent neural network which generates the posterior probabilities of the various hypotheses associated with the image. Then in order to reduce the large memory and computation requirement we propose a hypothesis pruning scheme making use of the orthonormal discrete wavelet transform for dimensionality reduction. We provide an intuitive justification for the validity of this scheme and present experimental results and performance analysis on real and synthetic images to verify our claims.

  11. Degree Associated Edge Reconstruction Number of Graphs with Regular Pruned Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusha Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecard of a graph $G$ is a subgraph formed by deleting an edge. A da-ecard specifies the degree of the deleted edge along with the ecard. The degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G,~dern(G,$ is the minimum number of da-ecards that uniquely determines $G.$  The adversary degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G, adern(G,$ is the minimum number $k$ such that every collection of $k$ da-ecards of $G$ uniquely determines $G.$ The maximal subgraph without end vertices of a graph $G$ which is not a tree is the pruned graph of $G.$ It is shown that $dern$ of complete multipartite graphs and some connected graphs with regular pruned graph is $1$ or $2.$ We also determine $dern$ and $adern$ of corona product of standard graphs.

  12. A Synthesis Instance Pruning Approach Based on Virtual Non-uniform Replacements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LING Zhenhua; HU Guoping; WANG Renhua

    2008-01-01

    The employment of non-uniform processes assists greatly in the corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) system to synthesize natural speech.However,tailoring a TTS voice font,or pruning redundant syn-thesis instances,usually results in loss of non-uniform synthesis instances.In order to solve this problem,we propose the concept of virtual non-uniform instances.According to this concept and the synthesis fre-quency of each instance,the algorithm named StaRp-VPA is constructed to make up for the loss of non-uniform instances.In experimental testing,the naturalness scored by the mean opinion score (MOS) re-mains almost unchanged when less than 50% instances are pruned,and the MOS is only slightly degraded for reduction rates above 50%.The test results show that the algorithm StaRp-VPA is effective.

  13. Partial Optimality by Pruning for MAP-Inference with General Graphical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Paul; Shekhovtsov, Alexander; Kappes, Jorg Hendrik; Schnorr, Christoph; Savchynskyy, Bogdan

    2016-07-01

    We consider the energy minimization problem for undirected graphical models, also known as MAP-inference problem for Markov random fields which is NP-hard in general. We propose a novel polynomial time algorithm to obtain a part of its optimal non-relaxed integral solution. Our algorithm is initialized with variables taking integral values in the solution of a convex relaxation of the MAP-inference problem and iteratively prunes those, which do not satisfy our criterion for partial optimality. We show that our pruning strategy is in a certain sense theoretically optimal. Also empirically our method outperforms previous approaches in terms of the number of persistently labelled variables. The method is very general, as it is applicable to models with arbitrary factors of an arbitrary order and can employ any solver for the considered relaxed problem. Our method's runtime is determined by the runtime of the convex relaxation solver for the MAP-inference problem.

  14. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime).

  15. Global Optimization for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem Using New Pruning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A global optimization algorithm is proposed for solving sum of general linear ratios problem (P using new pruning technique. Firstly, an equivalent problem (P1 of the (P is derived by exploiting the characteristics of linear constraints. Then, by utilizing linearization method the relaxation linear programming (RLP of the (P1 can be constructed and the proposed algorithm is convergent to the global minimum of the (P through the successive refinement of the linear relaxation of feasible region and solutions of a series of (RLP. Then, a new pruning technique is proposed, this technique offers a possibility to cut away a large part of the current investigated feasible region by the optimization algorithm, which can be utilized as an accelerating device for global optimization of problem (P. Finally, the numerical experiments are given to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Pruned Continuous Haar Transform of 2D Polygonal Patterns with Application to VLSI Layouts

    CERN Document Server

    Scheibler, Robin; Chebira, Amina

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for the efficient computation of the continuous Haar transform of 2D patterns that can be described by polygons. These patterns are ubiquitous in VLSI processes where they are used to describe design and mask layouts. There, speed is of paramount importance due to the magnitude of the problems to be solved and hence very fast algorithms are needed. We show that by techniques borrowed from computational geometry we are not only able to compute the continuous Haar transform directly, but also to do it quickly. This is achieved by massively pruning the transform tree and thus dramatically decreasing the computational load when the number of vertices is small, as is the case for VLSI layouts. We call this new algorithm the pruned continuous Haar transform. We implement this algorithm and show that for patterns found in VLSI layouts the proposed algorithm was in the worst case as fast as its discrete counterpart and up to 12 times faster.

  17. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  18. Canopy and leaf composition drive patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine L; Lawrence, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    In a coffee agroforest, the crop is cultivated under the shade of fruit-bearing and nitrogen (N)-fixing trees. These trees are periodically pruned to promote flowering and fruiting as well as to make nutrients stored in tree biomass available to plants. We investigated the effect of canopy composition and substrate quality on decomposition rates and patterns of nutrient release from pruning residues in a coffee agroforest located in Costa Rica's Central Valley. Initial phosphorus (P) release was enhanced under a canopy composed solely of N-fixing, Erythrina poeppigiana compared to a mixed canopy of Erythrina and Musa acuminata (banana). Both initial and final N release were similar under the two canopy types. However, after five months of decomposition, a higher proportion of initial N had been released under the single canopy. Although patterns of decomposition and nutrient release were not predicted by initial substrate quality, mass loss in leaf mixtures rates were well predicted by mean mass loss of their component species. This study identifies specific pruning regimes that may regulate N and P release during crucial growth periods, and it suggests that strategic pruning can enhance nutrient availability. For example, during the onset of rapid fruit growth, a two-species mixture may release more P than a three-species mixture. However, by the time of the harvest, the two- and three-species mixtures have released roughly the same amount of N and P. These nutrients do not always follow the same pattern, as N release can be maximized in single-species substrates, while P release is often facilitated in species mixtures. Our study indicates the importance of management practices in mediating patterns of nutrient release. Future research should investigate how canopy composition and farm management can also mediate on-farm nutrient losses.

  19. MEGACYSTIS-MICROCOLON-INTESTINAL HYPOPERISTALSIS SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Akhtar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome is a quite rare congenital anomaly that presents with a functional obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract which is usually fatal. It is three to four times more prevalent in females. We present a case of a rare association of a male neonate with Megacystis Microcolon Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome who in addition had the classical triad of Prune Belly Syndrome and thus suggest a possibility of different spectrums with a common pathogenesis.

  20. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot) on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of a...

  1. On Hill et al's conjecture for calculating the subtree prune and regraft distance between phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linz Simone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, Hill et al. 1 implemented a new software package--called SPRIT--which aims at calculating the minimum number of horizontal gene transfer events that is needed to simultaneously explain the evolution of two rooted binary phylogenetic trees on the same set of taxa. To this end, SPRIT computes the closely related so-called rooted subtree prune and regraft distance between two phylogenies. However, calculating this distance is an NP-hard problem and exact algorithms are often only applicable to small- or medium-sized problem instances. Trying to overcome this problem, Hill et al. propose a divide-and-conquer approach to speed up their algorithm and conjecture that this approach can be used to compute the rooted subtree prune and regraft distance exactly. Results In this note, we present a counterexample to Hill et al's conjecture and subsequently show that a modified version of their conjecture holds. Conclusion While Hill et al's conjecture may result in an overestimate of the rooted subtree prune and regraft distance, a slightly more restricted version of their approach gives the desired outcome and can be applied to speed up the exact calculation of this distance between two phylogenies.

  2. Effects of pruning intensity on jujube transpiration and soil moisture of plantation in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhenyi; Wang, Xing; Wang, Youke; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Xinguang; Chen, Dianyu

    2017-01-01

    In order to ease soil desiccation and prevent ecological deterioration in the Loess Plateau, where jujube (Zizyphus jujube MIll) is widely cultivated as a drought tolerant plant, four pruning intensities (PI), from PI-1 (light) to PI-4 (heavy) were set up based on total length of secondary branches to study the effects of pruning on transpiration and soil moisture in jujube plantations. Furthermore, growth indexes were regularly monitored to estimate jujubes biomass. Sap flow, meteorological and soil moisture conditions were monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP), weather station (RR-9100) and the combination of time domain transmission (TDT) technology and neutron moisture gauges (CNC503B), respectively. The results showed that daily actual transpiration of jujube was positively correlated with leaf biomass. Compared with PI-1, jujube transpiration during growth period under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 dropped by 11.1%, 29.2%, and 47.9%, respectively. On the contrary, annual water storage under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 increased by 6.29 mm, 25.78 mm and 34.74 mm while water use efficiency increased by 5.1%, 15.7% and 24.2%, respectively. Overall, increase in pruning intensity could significantly reduce water consumption of jujube and improve soil moisture in jujube plantations.

  3. Influence of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in Vitis vinifera L. canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorena, Tamara; Saez, Vania; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2014-07-15

    Increasing evidence for the health benefits of E-resveratrol has triggered interest in stilbenoids in grapes, wine and by-products. Less attention has been paid to stilbenoid levels in viticulture residues. However, grape canes are a promising source of stilbenoids and have economic potential because they are a source of high-value phytochemicals. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in grape canes. In most samples, the predominant stilbenoid was (E)-resveratrol, followed by (E)-ε-viniferin. In Pinot Noir canes stored after pruning at room temperature, the stilbenoid levels increased significantly after 8 months. The concentration was increased by up to fivefold, reaching 4,777 mg kg(-1)dw (dry weight). This effect did not occur in frozen, lyophilised or milled material. Branches collected directly from the plants after grape vintage and those remaining on the plant after pruning showed only a small increase in stilbenoid levels.

  4. Fuel Characteristics of Vine Prunings (Vitis vinifera L. as a Potential Source for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L. grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01 were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 were observed between the higher heating value (HHV and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74 and lignin content (r=0.94. Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01 and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 between the HV and C (r=0.96 and H (r=0.93. Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93. The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

  5. An Efficient Pruning Technique for Mining Frequent Itemsets in Spatial Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Parthasarathy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequent Itemset Mining is evaluating the rules and relationship within the data items are optimizing it, in the large spatial databases (for e.g. Images, Docs, AVI files etc.It is one of the major problems in DM (Data mining domain. Finding frequent item set in the large set is one of the computational complexities in mining. To improve the efficiency and performance of the mining frequent item set algorithm, the key term is to apply pruning techniques which reduces the search space and its complexity of the algorithm. Here we proposed a robust technique of pruning called SP pruning for uncertain data’s. Here our methodology is used to mine the data sources of uncertain data model. We have analyzed and implemented all well known algorithmic models for mining frequent item sets for both binaries and uncertain data’s. Our experimental results show that FPgrowth performance is high for binary data sets where our method performs at high rate of accuracy for uncertain data sets.

  6. Pruning-induced tylose development in stems of current-year shoots of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A

    2006-11-01

    Tyloses form in xylem vessels in response to various environmental stimuli, but little is known of the kinetics or regulation of their development. Preliminary investigations indicated that wounds seal quickly with tyloses after pruning of grapevine shoots. In this study, tylose development was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively at different depths and times from pruning cuts along current-year shoots of grapevines at basal, middle, and apical stem regions. Tyloses developed simultaneously within a single vessel but much separated in time among vessels. Pruning caused prodigious tylosis in vessels of grape stems, extending to approximately 1 cm deep and to 7 d after wounding, but about half of the vessels did not become completely occluded. The fraction of vessels forming tyloses was greatest in basal (85%) and least in apical (50%) regions. The depth of maximum density of tyloses was 4 mm from the cut in the basal region and 2 mm from the cut in the middle and apical regions. Tylose development was faster in the basal and middle than in the apical region. The pattern of tylose development is discussed in the context of wound repair and pathogen movement in grapevines.

  7. Effect of summer pruning and CPPU on yield and quality of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, K K; Kashyap, Poonam; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P

    2015-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted on bearing vines of kiwifruit cv. Abbott to find the effect of CPPU (N-(2- chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea) and summer pruning on fruit yield, fruit size and quality. CPPU greatly stimulated fruit growth indicating that it can be a powerful tool for improving kiwifruit cropping. Application of CPPU at 10 ppm concentration was done by dipping the fruits for 10 sec in the aqueous solution of compound at petal fall and 30 days after petal fall. CPPU applied fruits increased size by 20-70 g over control. Summer pruning along with CPPU application proved to be more effective in obtaining fruits of high grades with increased fruit weight (95.37 g fruit(-1)) and high quality. Summer pruning, when done by pinching 1/5th at Petal Fall stage + CPPU dipping (10 ml(-1)) and pinching 1/5th continued till harvest, at one month interval resulted in increased fruit yield (54.80 kg vine(-1)), high TSS (17.60 Brix), high total sugar (9.85%), advanced ripening by one week and reduced flesh firmness.

  8. Mitigation of effects of extreme drought during stage III of peach fruit development by summer pruning and fruit thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Mata, Mercè; Arbones, Amadeu; Solans, Josep R; Girona, Joan; Marsal, Jordi

    2006-04-01

    A water deficit during stage III of fruit growth was established with the aim of determining if it is possible to achieve an improvement in tree water status by summer pruning and fruit thinning. The experiment was set up as a randomized block split-plot design across trials (irrigation) where pruning was assigned to the main plot and fruit thinning to the sub-plots. The irrigation treatments were (1) standard full irrigation (FI), and (2) suppression of irrigation during stage III of fruit growth until leaves visibly withered (LWI); the pruning treatments were (1) experimental summer pruning (EP), and (2) standard summer pruning (CP); and three fruit thinning intensities were applied to facilitate analysis of the effects of the treatments in relation to fruit load. Changes in amount of light intercepted and in tree stem water potential (Psi stem) were evaluated. The EP treatment reduced the amount of light intercepted by the tree. In the FI treatment, there was a significant reduction in fruit growth measured as both water accumulation and dry mass accumulation. Under FI conditions, reductions in fruit load as a result of EP were not accompanied by a significant improvement in Psi stem. In the LWI treatment, EP produced a significant improvement of 0.17 MPa in Psi stem, but there was no improvement in fruit growth compared with CP trees. A reduction in fruit load from 350 (commercial load) to 150 per tree significantly improved Psi stem by 0.3 MPa at the end of stage III of fruit growth. These results indicate that improvements in water status in response to pruning may be insufficient to promote fruit growth if the pruned trees are unable to provide an adequate supply of assimilates to the developing fruits.

  9. Formal modeling of a system of chemical reactions under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Schlipf, John

    2014-10-01

    We describe a novel formalism representing a system of chemical reactions, with imprecise rates of reactions and concentrations of chemicals, and describe a model reduction method, pruning, based on the chemical properties. We present two algorithms, midpoint approximation and interval approximation, for construction of efficient model abstractions with uncertainty in data. We evaluate computational feasibility by posing queries in computation tree logic (CTL) on a prototype of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.

  10. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  11. Novel pyrimidopyrimidine derivatives for inhibition of cellular proliferation and motility induced by h-prune in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Antonella; Spano, Daniela; Esposito, Veronica; Di Dato, Valeria; Citarella, Giuseppe; Marino, Natascia; Maffia, Veronica; De Martino, Daniela; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Galeone, Aldo; Zollo, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    The human (h)-prune protein is a member of the DHH protein superfamily and it has a cAMP phosphodiesterase activity. Its overexpression in breast, colorectal and gastric cancers correlates with depth of invasion and a high degree of lymph-node metastasis. One mechanism by which h-prune stimulates cell motility and metastasis processes is through its phosphodiesterase activity, which can be suppressed by dipyridamole, a pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine analogue. To obtain new and more potent agents that have high specificity towards inhibition of this h-prune activity, we followed structure-activity-relationship methodologies starting from dipyridamole and synthesised eight new pyrimido-pyrimidine derivatives. We analysed these newly generated compounds for specificity towards h-prune activities in vitro in cellular models using scintillation proximity assay for cAMP-PDE activity, cell index in cell proliferation assays and transwell methodology for two-dimensional cell migration in a top-down strategy of selection. Our findings show that two pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine compounds are more effective than dipyridamole in two highly metastatic cellular models of breast cancer in vitro. Future studies will assess their therapeutic effectiveness against breast and other cancers where there is over-expression of h-prune, and in ad-hoc, proof of concept, animal models.

  12. Should Pruning be a Pre-Processor of any Linear System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Ramakrishnan, Suja; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    There are many real-world problems whose mathematical models turn out to be linear systems Ax = b, where A is an m x n matrix. Each equation of the linear system is an information. An information, in a physical problem, such as 4 mangoes, 6 bananas, and 5 oranges cost $10, is mathematically modeled as an equation 4x(sub 1) + 6x(sub 2) + 5x(sub 3) = 10 , where x(sub 1), x(sub 2), x(sub 3) are each cost of one mango, that of one banana, and that of one orange, respectively. All the information put together in a specified context, constitutes the physical problem and need not be all distinct. Some of these could be redundant, which cannot be readily identified by inspection. The resulting mathematical model will thus have equations corresponding to this redundant information and hence are linearly dependent and thus superfluous. Consequently, these equations once identified should be better pruned in the process of solving the system. The benefits are (i) less computation and hence less error and consequently a better quality of solution and (ii) reduced storage requirements. In literature, the pruning concept is not in vogue so far although it is most desirable. It is assumed that at least one information, i.e. one equation is known to be correct and which will be our first equation. In a numerical linear system, the system could be slightly inconsistent or inconsistent of varying degree. If the system is too inconsistent, then we should fall back on to the physical problem (PP), check the correctness of the PP derived from the material universe, modify it, if necessary, and then check the corresponding mathematical model (MM) and correct it. In nature/material universe, inconsistency is completely nonexistent. If the MM becomes inconsistent, it could be due to error introduced by the concerned measuring device and/or due to assumptions made on the PP to obtain an MM which is relatively easily solvable or simply due to human error. No measuring device can usually

  13. The Technology Research on Prunus persica Pruning%碧桃整形修剪技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤巧香; 王建团

    2013-01-01

    在对碧桃生物学特性进行观察的基础上,开展整形修剪试验研究。结果表明:整形修剪对碧桃树冠内枝条的组成、枝条的着花量、花期都有影响,通过抑上缓下、疏外缓内、缩前截后的综合修剪方法,能够改变树冠枝类比例,明显减少旺花枝的量,增加有效花枝的量,使花期延长;通过疏除上部旺枝和密挤大枝,回缩外围枝可以调整树冠的结构,使碧桃光秃带减少,观赏价值提高。%On the base of the study of Prunus persica’ s biological characteristics ,this research developed the pruning experiment ,it showed that pruning influenced the composition of branches ,amount of flowers,flowing period.Through the method of slowing down the inside and downside ,inhibiting the upside and pruning outside ,it could change the proportion of the tree branches ,reduce the a-mount of flourishing flowers and prolonged florescence.Through adjusting the structure of crown ,it could reduce the baldness of flow-ering peach ,and improve the ornamental value.

  14. Repair of pectus excavatum in a toddler with Prune Belly syndrome and left bronchus compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T. Liechty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy with prune-belly syndrome and severe pectus excavatum experienced recurrent pulmonary infections. A CT scan of the chest demonstrated compression of the left mainstem bronchus and leftward shift of the heart. The bronchial compression resulted in left upper lobe collapse and left lower lobe air-trapping requiring two hospitalizations for respiratory distress and pneumonia. The child underwent minimally invasive repair of his pectus excavatum and has not experienced any further pulmonary events. The pectus bar was removed 3 years post-operatively and at seven years following surgery he has a sustained repair.

  15. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP......-RBF neural network uses a modified unscented kalman filter (UKF) with forgetting factor scheme as the required on-line learning algorithm. The effectiveness of the resulting identification approach is tested and evaluated on a simulated benchmark hybrid system....

  16. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Torarinsson, Elfar; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving...... and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool...

  17. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This ...

  18. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of Pachyrhizus Erosus (L) urban cultivars and Pachyrhizus Ahipa (WEDD) parodi landraces as affected by flower pruning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellanos, J.Z.; Zapata, F.; Badillo, V.;

    1997-01-01

    of flower pruning on the yield of tuberous roots, the capacity of N-2 fixation and net N balance. In the first experiment two landraces of P. ahipa and three cultivars of P. erosus were grown with or without flower pruning. The difference method was used to estimate N-2 fixation using maize and sorghum...

  19. Effects of root pruning on the growth and rhizosphere soil characteristics of short-rotation closed-canopy poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z. Y.; Xing, S. J.; Ma, B. Y.; Liu, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Wang, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    When poplar trees planted at a high density are canopy-closed in plantation after 4-5 years of growth, the roots of adjacent trees will inevitably intermingle together, which possibly restricts the nutrient uptake by root system. Root pruning might stimulate the emergence of fine roots and benefit the tree growth of short-rotation poplar at the stage of canopy closing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of root pruning on DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.3 m), tree height, nutrients (N, P and K) and hormones (indoleacetic acid and cytokinin) in poplar leaves, gas exchange variables (photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance), and rhizosphere soil characteristics. Field experiment was carried out with four-yearold poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. ‘Neva’) planted in a fluvo-aquic loam soil in Shandong province, China in early April, 2008. Three root pruning treatments (severe, moderate and light degree) were conducted at the distances of 6, 8 and 10 times DBH on both inter-row sides of the trees to the depth of 30 cm, respectively. The results showed that the growth performance was obtained in the following order of treatments: moderate > light = control > severe. In the rhizophere soil, moderate and light pruning increased the microbial populations, enzymatic activities, and the concentrations of available N, P, K and organic matter. Generally, root pruning to improve tree growth and rhizosphere soil fertility can be recommended in canopy-closed poplar plantation. The appropriate selection of root pruning intensity is a pivotal factor for the effectiveness of this technique. (Author) 35 refs.

  20. Determination of Best Planting Pruning Method in Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and Its Effects on Generative and Vegetative Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Makaracı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the best planting pruning method of raspberry plants by leaving different number of buds during planting. In this research “Ruby” cultivar red raspberry was used. Raspberry canes were pruned by leaving 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 buds per plant in each treatment. Generative and vegetative growth criteria were investigated. Results showed that canes that have 6 and 8 buds have the best growth. In these plants both generative and vegetative growth were in equilibrium.

  1. Efficient dynamic pruning on largest scores first (LSF) retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun JIANG; Yue-xiang YANG

    2016-01-01

    Inverted index traversal techniques have been studied in addressing the query processing performance challenges of web search engines, but still leave much room for improvement. In this paper, we focus on the inverted index traversal on document-sorted indexes and the optimization technique called dynamic pruning, which can efficiently reduce the hardware computational resources required. We propose another novel exhaustive index traversal scheme called largest scores first (LSF) retrieval, in which the candidates are first selected in the posting list of important query terms with the largest upper bound scores and then fully scored with the contribution of the remaining query terms. The scheme can effectively reduce the memory consumption of existing term-at-a- time (TAAT) and the candidate selection cost of existing document-at-a-time (DAAT) retrieval at the expense of revisiting the posting lists of the remaining query terms. Preliminary analysis and implementation show comparable performance between LSF and the two well-known baselines. To further reduce the number of postings that need to be revisited, we present efficient rank safe dynamic pruning techniques based on LSF, including two important optimizations called list omitting (LSF_LO) and partial scoring (LSF_PS) that make full use of query term importance. Finally, experimental results with the TREC GOV2 collection show that our new index traversal approaches reduce the query latency by almost 27% over the WAND baseline and produce slightly better results

  2. Selective vulnerability and pruning of phasic motoneuron axons in motoneuron disease alleviated by CNTF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, San; Santos, Alexandre Ferrão; Saxena, Smita; Xu, Lan; Caroni, Pico

    2006-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases can have long preclinical phases and insidious progression patterns, but the mechanisms of disease progression are poorly understood. Because quantitative accounts of neuronal circuitry affected by disease have been lacking, it has remained unclear whether disease progression reflects processes of stochastic loss or temporally defined selective vulnerabilities of distinct synapses or axons. Here we derive a quantitative topographic map of muscle innervation in the hindlimb. We show that in two mouse models of motoneuron disease (G93A SOD1 and G85R SOD1), axons of fast-fatiguable motoneurons are affected synchronously, long before symptoms appear. Fast-fatigue-resistant motoneuron axons are affected at symptom-onset, whereas axons of slow motoneurons are resistant. Axonal vulnerability leads to synaptic vesicle stalling and accumulation of BC12a1-a, an anti-apoptotic protein. It is alleviated by ciliary neurotrophic factor and triggers proteasome-dependent pruning of peripheral axon branches. Thus, motoneuron disease involves predictable, selective vulnerability patterns by physiological subtypes of axons, episodes of abrupt pruning in the target region and compensation by resistant axons.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  4. Classification based on pruning and double covered rule sets for the internet of things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Zhou, Zhongmei; Wang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of things (IOT) is a hot issue in recent years. It accumulates large amounts of data by IOT users, which is a great challenge to mining useful knowledge from IOT. Classification is an effective strategy which can predict the need of users in IOT. However, many traditional rule-based classifiers cannot guarantee that all instances can be covered by at least two classification rules. Thus, these algorithms cannot achieve high accuracy in some datasets. In this paper, we propose a new rule-based classification, CDCR-P (Classification based on the Pruning and Double Covered Rule sets). CDCR-P can induce two different rule sets A and B. Every instance in training set can be covered by at least one rule not only in rule set A, but also in rule set B. In order to improve the quality of rule set B, we take measure to prune the length of rules in rule set B. Our experimental results indicate that, CDCR-P not only is feasible, but also it can achieve high accuracy.

  5. Nonlinear inversion of electrical resistivity imaging using pruning Bayesian neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei-Bo; Dai, Qian-Wei; Dong, Li

    2016-06-01

    Conventional artificial neural networks used to solve electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) inversion problem suffer from overfitting and local minima. To solve these problems, we propose to use a pruning Bayesian neural network (PBNN) nonlinear inversion method and a sample design method based on the K-medoids clustering algorithm. In the sample design method, the training samples of the neural network are designed according to the prior information provided by the K-medoids clustering results; thus, the training process of the neural network is well guided. The proposed PBNN, based on Bayesian regularization, is used to select the hidden layer structure by assessing the effect of each hidden neuron to the inversion results. Then, the hyperparameter α k , which is based on the generalized mean, is chosen to guide the pruning process according to the prior distribution of the training samples under the small-sample condition. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than other common adaptive regularization methods in geophysics. The inversion of synthetic data and field data suggests that the proposed method suppresses the noise in the neural network training stage and enhances the generalization. The inversion results with the proposed method are better than those of the BPNN, RBFNN, and RRBFNN inversion methods as well as the conventional least squares inversion.

  6. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  7. ETHANOL PULPING AS A STAGE IN THE BIO-REFINERY OF OLIVE TREE PRUNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Requejo,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials from olive tree pruning are an abundant agricultural residue in various Mediterranean regions. A suggested use of this residue is its separation in a main fraction (trunks and stems with diameter > 1 cm and a residual fraction (leaves and stems with diameter 1 < cm, using biorefinery procedures. The main fraction is cooked with ethanol, giving rise to a pulp, which can be used either in paper or in bioethanol production if before pulping the main fraction is subjected to a hydrothermal treatment. Pulping with 70% ethanol concentration, 185 °C for 80 min resulted in a pulp with a yield of 46.30% and a content of holocellulose, α-cellulose, and lignin of 77.17%, 62.49%, and 21.73%, respectively. The paper sheets obtained had a breaking length of 1168 m, a burst index of 0.44 kN /g, a tear index of 2.25 mN.m2/g, and a brightness of 43.66%. The pulp converted into bioethanol (by simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation achieved a conversion of 70 g bioethanol/100 g potential bioethanol. The residual fraction of olive tree prunings was subjected to combustion to produce thermal energy. The heating value was 18700 kJ/kg, the flame temperature range was 1094 to 2013 ºC, and the dew point temperature range of the flue gases was 47 to 53 °C.

  8. 75 FR 68510 - Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, OR; Termination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... inspection. The order also authorizes production research and marketing research and development projects, as... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 924 Fresh Prunes Grown in Designated Counties in Washington and in Umatilla County, OR; Termination of Marketing Order 924 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  9. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis is regulated through the Nm23-H1/h-Prune C-terminal interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Marianeve; Pedone, Emilia; Diana, Donatella; de Antonellis, Pasqualino; Džeroski, Sašo; Marino, Natascia; Navas, Luigi; Di Dato, Valeria; Scoppettuolo, Maria Nunzia; Cimmino, Flora; Correale, Stefania; Pirone, Luciano; Monti, Simona Maria; Bruder, Elisabeth; Zenko, Bernard; Slavkov, Ivica; Pastorino, Fabio; Ponzoni, Mirco; Schulte, Johannes H; Schramm, Alexander; Eggert, Angelika; Westermann, Frank; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Accordi, Benedetta; Basso, Giuseppe; Saviano, Michele; Fattorusso, Roberto; Zollo, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Nm23-H1 is one of the most interesting candidate genes for a relevant role in Neuroblastoma pathogenesis. H-Prune is the most characterized Nm23-H1 binding partner, and its overexpression has been shown in different human cancers. Our study focuses on the role of the Nm23-H1/h-Prune protein complex in Neuroblastoma. Using NMR spectroscopy, we performed a conformational analysis of the h-Prune C-terminal to identify the amino acids involved in the interaction with Nm23-H1. We developed a competitive permeable peptide (CPP) to impair the formation of the Nm23-H1/h-Prune complex and demonstrated that CPP causes impairment of cell motility, substantial impairment of tumor growth and metastases formation. Meta-analysis performed on three Neuroblastoma cohorts showed Nm23-H1 as the gene highly associated to Neuroblastoma aggressiveness. We also identified two other proteins (PTPRA and TRIM22) with expression levels significantly affected by CPP. These data suggest a new avenue for potential clinical application of CPP in Neuroblastoma treatment.

  10. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eGatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER was followed throughout the season.Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs 34 in SWP, highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly

  11. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  12. Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Summer Pruning on the Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, and Carbohydrate Content of Early Season Peach Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ikinci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP, as compared to winter pruning (WP, on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars (“Early Red” and “Maycrest” of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning.

  13. Influence of pre- and postharvest summer pruning on the growth, yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of early season peach cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikinci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP), as compared to winter pruning (WP), on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars ("Early Red" and "Maycrest") of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC) more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning.

  14. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  15. Qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Ponkan' após poda de recuperação Quality of 'Ponkan' tangerine tree after recovering pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' em três safras subseqüentes aos tratamentos: poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da parte baixa da planta (saia. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli, localizada no município de Perdões - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0 m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por parcela. Os diferentes tipos de poda não prejudicaram a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' nas três safras subseqüente as podas. Após o terceiro ano as plantas que sofreram podas mais severas produziram frutos com peso superiores, demonstrando a viabilidade da poda na recuperação da qualidade dos frutos.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on lowering the top canopy and pruning the lower part of the plant on the recovering of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree. Plants were four meters height, 6x4 spacing, grafted on 'Cravo' lemon tree. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli' s Farm in Perdões, MG, Brazil . It was used a randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0m from soil level and circumference pruning (with and without pruning with four replications. The useful plot was constituted of three tangerine plants. After third year of treatment plants that had been under more severe pruning gave higher fruit weight. Indicating the used of pruning to recover fruit quality.

  16. Distinct Defects in Spine Formation or Pruning in Two Gene Duplication Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Li, Huiping; Takumi, Toru; Qiu, Zilong; Xu, Xiu; Yu, Xiang; Bian, Wen-Jie

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a complex set of developmental neurological disorders, characterized by deficits in social communication and excessive repetitive behaviors. In recent years, ASD is increasingly being considered as a disease of the synapse. One main type of genetic aberration leading to ASD is gene duplication, and several mouse models have been generated mimicking these mutations. Here, we studied the effects of MECP2 duplication and human chromosome 15q11-13 duplication on synaptic development and neural circuit wiring in the mouse sensory cortices. We showed that mice carrying MECP2 duplication had specific defects in spine pruning, while the 15q11-13 duplication mouse model had impaired spine formation. Our results demonstrate that spine pathology varies significantly between autism models and that distinct aspects of neural circuit development may be targeted in different ASD mutations. Our results further underscore the importance of gene dosage in normal development and function of the brain.

  17. Enhanced Partial Dominant Pruning (EPDP Based Broadcasting in Ad hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashikur Rahman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In many applications of ad-hoc wireless networks, one often has to broadcast the same message to all nodes. The major goal of any broadcasting algorithm is to minimize the number of retransmissions, i.e., to accomplish the goal with the minimum amount of traffic in the network. In addition to reducing the bandwidth expense needed to convey the message to all the nodes, this objective will try to minimize the total amount of energy spent by the nodes on this communal task. This is of paramount importance in sensor networks, which are often built of disposable nodes, whose life-time is directly determined by the efficiency of their power management scheme. In this paper, we present a heuristic broadcast algorithm dubbed EPDP, for Enhanced Partial Dominant Pruning, and demonstrate its superiority, in terms of the total number of retransmissions, over other solutions addressing the same issue.

  18. An Efficient Approach to Prune Mined Association Rules in Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Narmadha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining finds interesting associations and/or correlation relationships among large set of data items. However, when the number of association rules become large, it becomes less interesting to the user. It is crucial to help the decision-maker with an efficient postprocessing step in order to select interesting association rules throughout huge volumes of discovered rules. This motivates the need for association analysis. Thus, this paper presents a novel approach to prune mined association rules in large databases. Further, an analysis of different association rule mining techniques for market basket analysis, highlighting strengths of different association rule mining techniques are also discussed. We want to point out potential pitfalls as well as challenging issues need to be addressed by an association rule mining technique. We believe that the results of this approach will help decision maker for making important decisions.

  19. TCF bleaching sequence in kraft pulping of olive tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, A; Rodríguez, A; Colodette, J L; Gomide, J L; Jiménez, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to find a suitable Kraft cooking process for olive tree pruning (OTP), in order to produce pulp of kappa number about 17. The Kraft pulp produced under optimized conditions showed a viscosity of 31.5 mPa·s and good physical, mechanical, and optical properties, which are suitable for paper production. The physical-mechanical and optical properties were measured before and after bleaching. Although the OTP pulp was bleached to 90.9% ISO brightness (kappapulp showed a brightness reversion equal to 1.3%. Furthermore, this bleached pulp did not need a high intensity of beating due to high drainability degree in the unbeaten pulp. So that, OTP is suggested as an interesting raw material for cellulosic pulp production because its properties are comparable to those of other agricultural residues, currently used in the paper industry.

  20. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  1. Monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass: modeling of dilute acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Juan G; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Roberto, Inês C; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-12-01

    Statistical modeling and optimization of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass has been performed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design was applied to assess the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature on efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulosic monomeric carbohydrates to d-xylose. Second-order polynomial model was fitted to experimental data to find the optimum reaction conditions by multiple regression analysis. The monomeric d-xylose recovery 85% (as predicted by the model) was achieved under optimized hydrolysis conditions (1.27% acid concentration, 96.5°C and 138 min), confirming the high validity of the developed model. The content of d-glucose (8.3%) and monosaccharide degradation products (0.1% furfural and 0.04% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) provided a high quality subtract, ready for subsequent biochemical conversion to value-added products.

  2. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  3. Minimum description length criterion based decision tree dynamic pruning method in speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xianghua; HE lin

    2006-01-01

    In phonetic decision tree based state tying, decision trees with varying leaf nodes denote models with different complexity. By studying the influence of model complexity on system performance and speaker adaptation, a decision tree dynamic pruning method based on Minimum Description Length (MDL) criterion is presented. In the method, a well-trained,large-sized phonetic decision tree is selected as an initial model set, and model complexity is computed by adding a penalty parameter which alters according to the amount of adaptation data. Largely attributed to the reasonable selection of initial models and the integration of stochastic and aptotic of MDL criterion, the proposed method gains high performance by combining with speaker adaptation.

  4. Unwinding the "hairball" graph: a pruning algorithm for weighted complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dianati, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Empirical networks of weighted dyadic relations often contain "noisy" edges that alter the global characteristics of the network and obfuscate the most important structures therein. Graph pruning is the process of identifying the most significant edges according to a generative null model, and extracting the subgraph consisting of those edges. Here we introduce a simple and intuitive null model based on the configuration model of network generation, and derive a significance filter from it. We apply the filter to the network of air traffic volume between US airports and recover a geographically faithful representation of the graph. Furthermore, compared with thresholding based on edge weight, we show that our filter extracts a larger giant component that is nevertheless significantly sparser.

  5. CoRPORATE: cortical reconstruction by pruning outliers with Reeb analysis and topology-preserving evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonggang; Lai, Rongjie; Toga, Arthur W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel system for the accurate reconstruction of cortical surfaces from magnetic resonance images. At the core of our system is a novel framework for outlier detection and pruning by integrating intrinsic Reeb analysis of Laplace-Beltrami eigen-functions with topology-preserving evolution for localized filtering of outliers, which avoids unnecessary smoothing and shrinkage of cortical regions with high curvature. In our experiments, we compare our method with FreeSurfer and illustrate that our results can better capture cortical geometry in deep sulcal regions. To demonstrate the robustness of our method, we apply it to over 1300 scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We show that cross-sectional group differences and longitudinal changes can be detected successfully with our method.

  6. Spine pruning drives antipsychotic-sensitive locomotion via circuit control of striatal dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Hwan; Rossi, Mark A; Aryal, Dipendra K; Racz, Bence; Kim, Namsoo; Uezu, Akiyoshi; Wang, Fan; Wetsel, William C; Weinberg, Richard J; Yin, Henry; Soderling, Scott H

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders may arise from anomalies in long-range neuronal connectivity downstream of pathologies in dendritic spines. However, the mechanisms that may link spine pathology to circuit abnormalities relevant to atypical behavior remain unknown. Using a mouse model to conditionally disrupt a critical regulator of the dendritic spine cytoskeleton, the actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3), we report here a molecular mechanism that unexpectedly reveals the inter-relationship of progressive spine pruning, elevated frontal cortical excitation of pyramidal neurons and striatal hyperdopaminergia in a cortical-to-midbrain circuit abnormality. The main symptomatic manifestations of this circuit abnormality are psychomotor agitation and stereotypical behaviors, which are relieved by antipsychotics. Moreover, this antipsychotic-responsive locomotion can be mimicked in wild-type mice by optogenetic activation of this circuit. Collectively these results reveal molecular and neural-circuit mechanisms, illustrating how diverse pathologies may converge to drive behaviors relevant to psychiatric disorders.

  7. Efficient dynamic pruning on largest scores fi rst (LSF) retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun JIANG; Yue-xiang YANG

    2016-01-01

    Inverted index traversal techniques have been studied in addressing the query processing performance challenges of web search engines, but still leave much room for improvement. In this paper, we focus on the inverted index traversal on document-sorted indexes and the optimization technique called dynamic pruning, which can efficiently reduce the hardware computational resources required. We propose another novel exhaustive index traversal scheme called largest scores fi rst (LSF) retrieval, in which the candidates are fi rst selected in the posting list of important query terms with the largest upper bound scores and then fully scored with the contribution of the remaining query terms. The scheme can effectively reduce the memory consumption of existing term-at-a-time (TAAT) and the candidate selection cost of existing document-at-a-time (DAAT) retrieval at the expense of revisiting the posting lists of the remaining query terms. Preliminary analysis and implementation show comparable performance between LSF and the two well-known baselines. To further reduce the number of postings that need to be revisited, we present efficient rank safe dynamic pruning techniques based on LSF, including two important optimizations called list omitting (LSF_LO) and partial scoring (LSF_PS) that make full use of query term importance. Finally, experimental results with the TREC GOV2 collection show that our new index traversal approaches reduce the query latency by almost 27% over the WAND baseline and produce slightly better results compared with the MaxScore baseline, while returning the same results as exhaustive evaluation.

  8. Prediction of pre-miRNA with multiple stem-loops using pruning algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Minghao; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe; Wang, Huating; Han, Ping; Sun, Hao

    2013-06-01

    In addition to experimental identification of pre-miRNAs, the computational prediction method is also becoming a hot research spot. Most existing prediction methods are usually excluding those pre-miRNAs with multiple loops. But as more and more miRNA have been identified, quite a number of miRNA precursor with multiple loops have been found. Therefore, determining how to effectively identify pre-miRNAs with multiple loops from the control dataset with multiple loops is an imperative problem. In this work, a pruning algorithm is presented to identify the main branch from the multiple stem-loops of pre-miRNA. A stack algorithm is employed to describe the secondary structure of pre-miRNA in four different patterns, and a recursive algorithm is employed to split the multiple stem-loops of pre-miRNA into several small branches, and to identify its main branch. Statistic results indicate that the information of the main branch can be represented as the whole sequence of pre-miRNA. Some features of main branch are extracted to describe pre-miRNA intrinsic features, and SVM classifier is implemented to recognize real pre-miRNA with multiple stem-loops. Based on training and testing on dataset from miRBase12.0, SVM classifier achieves sensitivity of 75.76% on RM-POS and specificity of 98.12% on RM-CDS, and specificity of 91.28% on RM-NCR. The obtained results indicated that the information of main branch after pruning can represent intrinsic features of pre-miRNA with multiple stem-loops. The proposed method in this work provides a powerful predicting method to recognize the real pre-miRNA with multiple stem-loops.

  9. 观赏桃花的整形修剪技术探析%Discussion on Pruning Techniques of Ornamental Peach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常平

    2015-01-01

    Starting from introducing the shaping and pruning types of ornamental peach, including naturally happy-shaped and natural cup-shaped and other types. Moreover, the pruning principles and techniques elaborated. The results provided technical references for pruning of ornamental peach.%从介绍观赏桃花整形方式与修剪方法出发,包括自然开心形、自然杯状形等几类,详细阐述了修剪的原则与技术,为观赏桃花的整形修剪提供了技术借鉴。

  10. Drying characteristics of preserved prunes (Ganshimei) under solar drying (natural convection)%太阳能干燥对干湿梅品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓曦; 李汴生; 刘伟涛

    2011-01-01

    以干湿梅为样品,利用小型太阳能连续干燥设备,研究了干湿梅的干燥特性,分析了产品的理化性质和感官品质.结果表明,干燥过程中干燥介质的温湿度与外界环境相比有明显差异,干燥室白天日照时温度会高于环境温度,干燥时间明显缩短,高效且避免了缓苏产品色泽口感品质的不利影响;干燥过程是内部水分扩散控制的降速干燥过程,达到目标湿基湿含量(58%~60%)和盐含量(28%~32%)时,自然日晒干燥约需50h,而太阳能自然对流干燥只需14h;水分扩散速率和理化指标随样品在干燥室中所处位置不同而异,环境温度的上升使其在干燥7~10b中有较高的干燥速率;干燥过程中样品的色泽会逐渐变深、体积略有收缩、果肉硬度增加,实验表明在干燥室第二层的样品感官分值为4.40±0.03,整体感官品质优于自然日晒干燥产品.%The candied prunes were dried by a small-scale solar dryer. The drying characteristics, sensory quality,physical and chemical qualities of preserved prunes(Ganshimei)were investigated. The result showed that the air temperature and humidity were significantly different between the ambience and the drying room ,which made the drying time much more shorter and avoided the adverse effects from tempering. The solar drying processes of preserved prunes were controlled by internal moisture diffusion with a falling drying rate. To reach the target water content and salt content,it took about 50h while the solar drying just needed 14h. The water diffusion rate and the physical and chemical quality had a little difference because the samples were dried in different places, and the conclusion was obtained that it had higher drying rate during 7~10h. The sample darkened,shrunk and hardened a little during solar drying. The sensory score of the 2nd layer drying was 4.40 ±0.03 ,so it can conclude that the whole sensory quality was very good.

  11. Perspectives de production et de commercialisation des prunes et des pruneaux au Maroc à l’horizon 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Eddine Sellika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La filière de production de prunes et pruneaux au Maroc a connu un développement important du fait de coûts de production relativement faibles comparativement à d’autres rosacées. Cet article propose une réflexion globale sur la situation actuelle de la production et commercialisation des prunes et pruneaux au niveau des exploitations agricoles, et leur possible évolution future. Il présente les principales caractéristiques actuelles de la filière, les principaux facteurs d’évolution et deux scénarios à l’horizon 2025. La filière connait déjà des tensions fortes sur les prix au champ, avec des différences importantes liées à la qualité des productions. Trois facteurs de changement ont été identifiés : 1 l’augmentation des coûts de production ; 2 l’augmentation des surfaces plantées induite par le Plan Maroc Vert ; 3 la baisse des prix de vente. Un premier scénario tendanciel prévoit une faible augmentation des superficies, mais une différenciation forte entre les exploitations en fonction de leurs capacités à maitriser les coûts de production, à produire des prunes de qualité, et à prendre des marges en aval en investissant dans la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Cette filière restera ainsi rentable pour certaines exploitations tandis que d’autres opteront pour l’arrachage. Un second scénario prévoit des actions publiques pour promouvoir l’export et améliorer la rentabilité sur le marché intérieur, par une baisse des coûts de production, une augmentation de la qualité des prunes et une organisation collective de la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Ces activités, menées dans le cadre de coopératives pour les exploitations de petite taille, permettraient à ces exploitations de maintenir voire d’améliorer la rentabilité de cette production.

  12. Study on the performance of the A*Prune QoS routing algorithm for intelligent optical networks and its improvements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Quan; WANG Gong-pu

    2006-01-01

    The A*Prune quality of service (QoS) routing algorithm was proposed to compute K-shortest paths satisfying multiple QoS constraints. The A*Prune is considered to be one of the practical routing algorithms for intelligent optical networks because of its flexibility in handling many practical constraints. This article gives detailed performance studies of the algorithm through extensive simulation experiments. We found that both the running time and the memory space requirements of the algorithm are large, especially when the network size increases. In this article, we also propose an approach to improving the performance of the A*Prune algorithm. The improvements should make the A*Prune algorithm more attractive for practical use in intelligent optical networks.

  13. Produção da tangerineira 'ponkan' após poda de recuperação Production of 'ponkan' tangerine tree after pruning recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou esta pesquisa testar o efeito da poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da saia, na recuperação da tangerineira 'Ponkan' com 12 anos de idade, altura de 4 metros, espaçadas de 6 x 4 m e enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo'. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli localizada no município de Perdões, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições. A parcela útil foi constituída de três plantas. As podas drásticas de topo prejudicaram a primeira produção, contudo a partir do segundo ano após a poda, as plantas apresentaram boa recuperação. Esse comportamento foi confirmado na terceira colheita, quando os diferentes tipos de podas do topo não se diferenciaram na produtividade, sendo que o tratamento com poda da saia foi superior ao sem poda.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on the lowering of plant canopy, pruning the lower canopy on the recover of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree, 4 meters height, 6 x 4 spaced and grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli's Farm in Perdões, MG. It was carried out under randomized plots in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0 m and skirt pruning (with and without pruning with 4 replications. Plot size was composed by three plants. Heavy pruning of the top canopy lowered the first tree yield, however, and in the begining of the second year, the plants showed a very good recover. The same behavior was seem for the third harvest when several kinds of top pruning did not differ in the yield. Skirt pruning treatment was superior to that without any pruning.

  14. The Development Situation and Tendency of Grape Vine Pruning Machine%葡萄修剪机械的发展现状和趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙魁; 刘进宝; 张静; 张佳; 杨宛章; 郭辉

    2014-01-01

    Grape production is China's sixth-largest fruit industry , the grape planting , production , management level is related to China's economic level .This paper presents the significance of grape pruning , summarizes the development sit-uation of grape pruning machines of domestic and foreign , describes the principle of the manual pruning shears and the pruning machines , which compare the advantages and disadvantages of manual pruning shears and pruning machines , summarizes the development trend of grape pruning machine in the future ,that pruning should be would be more efficient , automation , safety and environmental protection , the principles in combining agronomy with farming machinery .%葡萄生产是我国第六大水果产业,其种植、生产、管理水平事关我国经济水平的高低。为此,提出了葡萄修剪的意义,概括了国内外葡萄修剪机械的发展现状,阐述了手动修枝剪和修剪机的原理,从而对比出手动修枝剪和修剪机的优缺点。同时,总结了今后葡萄修剪机械的发展趋势,提出了未来的修剪机应向着高效率、自动化、安全环保和农机与农艺相结合的趋势发展。

  15. Effects of different pruning ways on the sugar-decreasing matters of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruits during the ripeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Shujun; JIANG Xinmei; LIU Shouwei; YU Xihong

    2007-01-01

    This experiment used pumpkin Longyuanlixiang as material to research the effect of different pruning ways with one branch, two branches, and three branches on the sugar-decreasing matters during the ripeness of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruits. The results showed that pectin contents of pumpkin fruits during the ripeness all increased at first and then dropped in every treatment. The pectin contents under the treatments of one branch and two branches reached the high apex after pollinated for 30 d as well as for 35 d under the treatment of three branches. Pentose and chromium contents of fruits had the same trend under different pruning ways and increased during the ripenes. Three kinds of sugar-decreasing matters contents under treatment of two branches were bigger than treatment of one branch, while treatment of three branches was the lowest.

  16. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  17. Infantile autism: a chronic psychosis since infancy due to synaptic pruning of the supplementary motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2008-01-01

    The rise in Infantile Autism, learning problems, cognitive decline with age, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Diseases and the SIDS epidemic, has a common cause in the rising dietary deficit in Omega-3 brain-food. This paper suggests that aside from the wider concept of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), the rise in Infantile Autism (IA) in the last decade is the effect of deficient brain-food (Omega-3). The consequent delay of development prolongs the 2nd regressive event in infancy to pruning of the centre in the Medial Frontal Lobe System that connects Hippocampus and Cingulum. With a consequently defective Supplementary Motor Area (SMA), the Delayed Response Function is affected leading to persistent psychosis. Post-Pubertal Episodic Psychoses are associated with acute reduction of excitation, a risk of breakdown of circuitry, insufficient fill-in mechanisms, and silent spots. An acute psychosis occurs if the silent spots comprise of SMA. Only two brain areas have continuous neurogenesis, indicating their important functions: the Hippocampus and Olfactory Bulb that belongs to the Lateral Frontal Lobe System essential to survival. Concerned with necessity of action in response to the environment, it relies upon short-term memory and Acute Feedback Mechanisms influenced by emotion and motivation from the external world. In contrast, the Medial Frontal Lobe network is controlled by Feed-Forward Predictive Mechanisms related to storage of information. The Delayed Response Function is mastered at 7 months, when 2nd event occurs with pruning of axons and dendrites. An abolished or defective Delayed Response Function seriously incapacitates an individual: A defective "Social Brain" with an inability for conscious action and to communicate, predominates in IA. There is a near lack of speech, despite normal vision and hearing in the minority without marked adversity in pregnancy, at delivery or in infancy. I propose that the recent rise

  18. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  19. Effects of Root Pruning on Non-Hydraulic Root-Sourced Signal, Drought Tolerance and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shou-chen; LI Feng-min; YANG Shen-jiao; LI Chun-xi; XU Bing-cheng; ZHANG Xu-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Two pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of root pruning at the stem elongation stage on non-hydraulic root-sourced signals (nHRS), drought tolerance and water use efficiency of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The root pruning significantly reduced the root weight of wheat, but had no effect on root/shoot ratio at the two tested stages. At booting stage, specific root respiration of root pruned plants was significantly higher than those with intact roots (1.06 and 0.94 mmol g-1 s-1, respectively). The soil water content (SWC) at which nHRS for root pruned plants appeared was higher and terminated lower than for intact root plants, the threshold range of nHRS was markedly greater for root pruned plants (61.1-44.6%field water capacity) than for intact root plants (57.9-46.1%field water capacity). At flowering stage, while there was no significant difference in specific root respiration. The SWCs at which nHRS appeared and terminated were both higher for root pruned plants than for intact root plants. The values of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, i.e., the effective photosystem II quantum yield ( PS I ), the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), and coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), in root pruned plants were significantly higher than in intact root plants, 7 d after withholding of water. Root pruned plants had significantly higher water use efficiency (WUE) than intact root plants in well-watered and medium drought soil, but not in severe drought condition. In addition, root pruning had no significant effect on grain yield in well-watered and medium drought soil, but significantly decreased grain yield in severe drought condition. In conclusion, the current study showed that root pruning significantly altered nHRS sensitivity and improved WUE of winter wheat in well-watered and medium drought soil, but lowered drought tolerance of winter wheat in severe drought soil. This

  20. Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-06-09

    We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.

  1. Development of new peat based growing media by addition of pruning waste and biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Aurora; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Plaza, César; Fernández, José Manuel; Méndez, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, several researches have been performed to find high quality and low cost substrates from different organic wastes in order to decrease peat consumption since the indiscriminate exploitation of peat lands is exhausting this non-renewable useful resource and destroying endangered wetland ecosystems worldwide. The use of organic wastes as soil amendments or possible peat substitute could be improved by pyrolysis treatment, leading to biochar, a carbon-rich material that has attached important attention. Our research group has been worked in the formulation of new based-growing media by peat substitution in 50 and 75 vol% of pruning waste (PW), commercial charcoal (CC), biochar from PW at 300°C (B300) and 500°C (B500). Growing media show adequate physicochemical and hydrophysical properties. Experiments performed with lettuce germination show that PW addition in a 75vol% reduces germination index probably due to their high content on phenolic compounds. Lettuce growing experiments were performed during 5 weeks and show that addition of PW and CC to peat decreases biomass production whereas; B300 and specially, B500 addition significantly increases the lettuce biomass.

  2. Prune-able fuzzy ART neural architecture for robot map learning and navigation in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui

    2006-09-01

    Mobile robots must be able to build their own maps to navigate in unknown worlds. Expanding a previously proposed method based on the fuzzy ART neural architecture (FARTNA), this paper introduces a new online method for learning maps of unknown dynamic worlds. For this purpose the new Prune-able fuzzy adaptive resonance theory neural architecture (PAFARTNA) is introduced. It extends the FARTNA self-organizing neural network with novel mechanisms that provide important dynamic adaptation capabilities. Relevant PAFARTNA properties are formulated and demonstrated. A method is proposed for the perception of object removals, and then integrated with PAFARTNA. The proposed methods are integrated into a navigation architecture. With the new navigation architecture the mobile robot is able to navigate in changing worlds, and a degree of optimality is maintained, associated to a shortest path planning approach implemented in real-time over the underlying global world model. Experimental results obtained with a Nomad 200 robot are presented demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. A growing and pruning sequential learning algorithm of hyper basis function neural network for function approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Najdan; Miljković, Zoran

    2013-10-01

    Radial basis function (RBF) neural network is constructed of certain number of RBF neurons, and these networks are among the most used neural networks for modeling of various nonlinear problems in engineering. Conventional RBF neuron is usually based on Gaussian type of activation function with single width for each activation function. This feature restricts neuron performance for modeling the complex nonlinear problems. To accommodate limitation of a single scale, this paper presents neural network with similar but yet different activation function-hyper basis function (HBF). The HBF allows different scaling of input dimensions to provide better generalization property when dealing with complex nonlinear problems in engineering practice. The HBF is based on generalization of Gaussian type of neuron that applies Mahalanobis-like distance as a distance metrics between input training sample and prototype vector. Compared to the RBF, the HBF neuron has more parameters to optimize, but HBF neural network needs less number of HBF neurons to memorize relationship between input and output sets in order to achieve good generalization property. However, recent research results of HBF neural network performance have shown that optimal way of constructing this type of neural network is needed; this paper addresses this issue and modifies sequential learning algorithm for HBF neural network that exploits the concept of neuron's significance and allows growing and pruning of HBF neuron during learning process. Extensive experimental study shows that HBF neural network, trained with developed learning algorithm, achieves lower prediction error and more compact neural network.

  4. Targeted pruning of a neuron’s dendritic tree via femtosecond laser dendrotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Mary Ann; Choy, Julian Min Chiang; Colibaba, Alexandru Serban; Redman, Stephen; Bachor, Hans-A.; Stricker, Christian; Daria, Vincent Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are classified according to action potential firing in response to current injection. While such firing patterns are shaped by the composition and distribution of ion channels, modelling studies suggest that the geometry of dendritic branches also influences temporal firing patterns. Verifying this link is crucial to understanding how neurons transform their inputs to output but has so far been technically challenging. Here, we investigate branching-dependent firing by pruning the dendritic tree of pyramidal neurons. We use a focused ultrafast laser to achieve highly localized and minimally invasive cutting of dendrites, thus keeping the rest of the dendritic tree intact and the neuron functional. We verify successful dendrotomy via two-photon uncaging of neurotransmitters before and after dendrotomy at sites around the cut region and via biocytin staining. Our results show that significantly altering the dendritic arborisation, such as by severing the apical trunk, enhances excitability in layer V cortical pyramidal neurons as predicted by simulations. This method may be applied to the analysis of specific relationships between dendritic structure and neuronal function. The capacity to dynamically manipulate dendritic topology or isolate inputs from various dendritic domains can provide a fresh perspective on the roles they play in shaping neuronal output.

  5. Elective appendicovesicostomy in association with monfort abdominoplasty in the treatment of prune belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riberto Liguori

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of elective appendicovesicostomy in association with Monfort abdominoplasty to avoid urinary tract infection (UTI and renal damage in the post-operative follow-up of patients with prune belly syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed 4 patients operated in our institution (UNIFESP (Monfort, orchidopexy and Mitrofanoff and compared them to 2 patients treated similarly, but without an appendicovesicostomy, in a second institution (UFBA. We evaluated postoperative clinical complications, UTI and preservation of renal parenchyma. Patients were followed as outpatients with urinalysis, ultrasonography (US and occasionally with renal scintigraphy. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 23.5 months. Immediate post-operative course was uneventful. We observed that only one patient with the Mitrofanoff channel persisted with UTI, while the 2 patients used as controls persisted with recurrent pyelonephritis (> 2 UTI year. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that no morbidity was added by the appendicovesicostomy to immediate postoperative surgical recovery and that this procedure may have a beneficial effect in reducing postoperative UTI events and their consequences by reducing the postvoid residuals in the early abdominoplasty follow-up. However, we recognize that the series is small and only a longer follow-up with a larger number of patients will allow us to confirm our suppositions. We could not make any statistically significant assumptions regarding differences in renal preservation due to the same limitations.

  6. MW-OBS: An Improved Pruning Method for Topology Design of Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LU Yingrong; LI Qian

    2006-01-01

    Topology design of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is an important problem for large scale applications. This paper describes a new efficient pruning method, the multi-weight optimal brain surgeon (MW-OBS) method, to optimize neural network topologies. The advantages and disadvantages of the OBS and unit-OBS were analyzed to develop the method. Actually, optimized topologies are difficult to get within reasonable times for complex problems. Motivating by the mechanism of natural neurons, the MW-OBS method balances the accuracy and the time complexity to achieve better neural network performance. The method will delete multiple connections among neurons according to the second derivative of the error function, so the arithmetic converges rapidly while the accuracy of the neural network remains high. The stability and generalization ability of the method are illustrated in a Java program. The results show that the MW-OBS method has the same accuracy as OBS, but time is similar to that of unit-OBS. Therefore, the MW-OBS method can be used to efficiently optimize structures of neural networks for large scale applications.

  7. A New Model for Intrusion Detection based on Reduced Error Pruning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mradul Dhakar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing counterfeit of the internet usage has raised concerns of the security agencies to work very hard in order to diminish the presence of the abnormal users from the web. The motive of these illicit users (called intruders is to harm the system or the network either by gaining access to the system or prohibiting genuine users to access the resources. Hence in order to tackle the abnormalities Intrusion Detection System (IDS with Data Mining has evolved as the most demanding approach. On the one end IDS aims to detect the intrusions by monitoring a given environment while on the other end Data Mining allows mining of these intrusions hidden among genuine users. In this regard, IDS with Data Mining has been through several revisions in consideration to meet the current requirements with efficient detection of intrusions. Also several models have been proposed for enhancing the system performance. In context to improved performance, the paper presents a new model for intrusion detection. This improved model, named as REP (Reduced Error Pruning based Intrusion Detection Model results in higher accuracy along with the increased number of correctly classified instances.

  8. Effects of different pruning modes on fruit yield and economic benefit of young lemon orchard%修剪方式对幼龄柠檬树产量与效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭满秀; 刘红明; 李进学; 高俊燕; 朱春华; 杨石早; 李晶; 岳建强

    2013-01-01

    以3年生幼龄柠檬果树为材料,研究轻剪、机剪、重剪3种修剪方式对幼龄柠檬果树产量和效益的影响.结果表明:轻剪、机剪、重剪的春花果总产量依次减少,轻剪、重剪、机剪的春花果总效益依次降低;不同修剪方式对柠檬夏花果总效益和夏花果产量的影响一致,夏花果总效益和优质果效益及夏花果产量的排序结果均为轻剪、机剪、重剪依次降低;春花果和夏花果优质果率排序结果均为轻剪、重剪、机剪依次减小;修剪成本的排序结果为重剪、轻剪、机剪依次减小;总效益的排序结果为轻剪、机剪、重剪依次减小.综合比较,轻剪不仅产量高,综合效益也最好,重剪严重影响第一年的产量.建议在条件具备的情况下优先采用轻剪方式.%Young lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F.) tree with three year old was employed for researching the effects of different pruning modes (light thinning pruning,machinery pruning,heavy pruning) on the fruit yield and its economic benefit.The results showed that the fruit yield of spring-flowering lemon depended on pruning modes,from high to low,the order was light thinning pruning,machinery pruning and heavy pruning,and the economic benefit decreased from light thinning pruning,heavy pruning to machinery pruning in turn.The fruit yield and economic benefit of spring-flowering lemon were consistent.The economic benefits of spring-flowering lemon and the frne-fruit lemon were both declined from light thinning pruning,machinery pruning,to heavy pruning in turn,and the cost of pruning were followed on the order of heavy pruning,light thinning pruning,and machinery pruning.The total benefit was ordered by light thinning pruning,machinery pruning and heavy pruning.From the view of fruit yield and economic benefit,light thinning pruning,as a recommended mode,was the best one,while heavy pruning could seriously influence the fruit yield in the first year.

  9. Uso da poda seca e da poda verde para obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em três cultivares de videira Use of winter pruning and green pruning for obtaining two harvests by vegetative cicle of three vine cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas épocas de poda seca e de poda verde visando ao alcance de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo nas videiras 'Niagara Branca', 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord', cultivadas em sistema de espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental da UFRG, em Eldorado do Sul - RS, na safra de 2007/2008. As plantas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, T2 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07; T3 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, e T4 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07, sendo a poda de inverno feita em cordão esporonado, e a poda verde, mediante desponte do sarmento a partir da quarta gema acima do último cacho. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta, a massa dos cachos, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT, a relação SST/ATT, o potencial da água na folha e a relação folha:fruto, de ambas as safras. Os resultados demonstraram que a execução de uma poda seca associada a uma poda verde permitiu obter duas safras de uva por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca', Niagara Rosada e 'Concord', sendo mais eficiente quando a poda seca foi realizada em agosto, associada à poda verde em novembro. A 'Niagara Branca' apresentou maior potencial para produzir uma segunda colheita, comparativamente à 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord'. Os frutos oriundos da poda verde apresentaram menor valor de SST, maior ATT e menor relação SST/ATT em relação aos obtidos na safra normal.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of winter and green pruning for obtaining two harvests per vegetative cycle for Niagara Branca, Niagara Rosada and Concord grapevine cultivars conducted by cordon training. The experiment was performed at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during the 2007/2008 harvest. Grapevines were submitted to the following treatments: T1 (winter pruning on 07/20/07 and

  10. Gene locus ambiguity in posterior urethral valves/prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Mir, Sevgi; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Becker, Christian; Kara, Pelin E; Ozkayin, Nese; Konrad, Martin; Nürnberg, Peter; Schaefer, Franz

    2005-08-01

    Lower urinary tract obstruction by posterior urethral valves (PUV) is an important cause of congenital renal failure in male infants. Though population-based studies point to a role of genetic factors in the etiology of PUV, no clear evidence for a specific gene defect for PUV has been observed so far. Here we present a consanguineous family with four male descendants affected by PUV and a healthy girl, suggestive of autosomal recessive inheritance. One boy presented with prune-belly syndrome (PBS) in addition to PUV. Using a DNA chip-based genome-wide linkage analysis, we identified a region of homozygosity for the affected boys in an interval of 35 cM on chromosome 1q41-44 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of Z(max) = 3.134 at theta = 0 for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs158724-rs720163. By applying a second genetic model based on the assumption of a male-limited phenotype and the girl being carrier of the genetic defect without expressing the phenotype, a second alternative locus of 9 cM on chromosome 11p11 was identified with a LOD score of Z(max) = 3.61 at theta = 0. Equal significance for both loci with a LOD score of Z(max) = 3.01 at theta = 0 was obtained after the affection status of the female descendant was set "unknown". We suppose that most probably, only one of the two identified loci harbours the disease-causing gene. As the interpretation of the girl's status remains uncertain, we are not able to exclude one of the two loci. Analyses of additional informative families will be important to exclude one of the two loci and to restrict the critical interval.

  11. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob H Havgaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become clear that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA play important roles in cells, and emerging studies indicate that there might be a large number of unknown ncRNAs in mammalian genomes. There exist computational methods that can be used to search for ncRNAs by comparing sequences from different genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained. Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool for searching for new ncRNAs. The software package is available for download at http://foldalign.ku.dk.

  12. Desenvolvimento do pessegueiro 'Flordaprince' sob duas intensidades de poda verde 'Flordaprince' peach behaviour after two intensities of green pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pessegueiros 'Flordaprince' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] foram submetidos a duas intensidades de poda verde (leve e de renovação, 45 dias após a colheita, com o objetivo de verificar seu efeito sobre o desenvolvimento, a produção, qualidade de frutos e as concentrações de carboidratos solúveis totais em raízes e ramos. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, durante a safra 2003/2004, utilizando-se 48 plantas em espaçamento de 3,0 m x 1,2 m, sob sistema de líder central. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, constituído de dois tratamentos e doze repetições. A parcela experimental correspondeu a duas plantas, nas quais foram analisados o florescimento efetivo, a densidade de brotação, o crescimento de ramos após a poda verde e após a poda de frutificação, o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade dos frutos e as concentrações de carboidratos solúveis totais presentes em raízes e ramos. A poda de renovação acarretou menor concentração de carboidratos solúveis totais nas raízes durante o período de dormência. Essa poda também reduziu a fixação de frutos e o teor de sólidos solúveis, embora tenha acarretado maior massa individual de frutos. As intensidades de poda verde não influenciaram na concentração de carboidratos solúveis totais em ramos, no desenvolvimento dos frutos e crescimento de ramos após a poda de frutificação. Houve maior acúmulo de carboidratos solúveis totais nas raízes, durante todo o ciclo.'Flordaprince' peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] was submitted to two levels of green pruning intensity (mild and renewal, 45 days after harvest, with the objective of evaluating its effects on plant development, production, fruit quality and soluble carbohydrates in roots and branches. The experiment was carried out at University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil, in the 2003/2004 season. The experimental designed was entirely

  13. Effects of tree species and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from tree prunings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown tree species in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the tree prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment.

  14. Crescimento de um clone de eucalipto submetido a desrama e desbaste Growth of eucalypt clone submitted to pruning and thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Monte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de clone de Eucalyptus grandis, em região de Cerrado, no espaçamento inicial de 3 x 3 m, foram submetidas à desrama artificial e ao desbaste. Os tratamentos de desrama tiveram início em três idades diferentes: 16, 20 ou 28 meses. Foram utilizadas três a quatro intervenções de desrama, com remoção de copa em diferentes alturas, para atingir 6 m de fuste livre de nó, quando se iniciou a desrama aos 16 ou 20 meses, e duas a três intervenções, quando se iniciou aos 28 meses. Foram aplicados dois tratamentos de desbaste aos 55 meses, com remoção de 0 e 35% do número de mudas plantadas. O crescimento foi avaliado no período pós-desbaste, entre 55 e 93 meses de idade, por meio da análise do diâmetro (DAP, altura total (Ht, volume com casca (V, incremento periódico anual pós-desbaste (IPA e incremento médio anual (IMA. Aos 93 meses, não foram observadas diferenças significativas (p>0,05 em DAP, Ht, V, IPA e IMA, entre os tratamentos de desrama, e na interação entre desrama e desbaste. No tratamento desramado até 1,5 m de altura, aos 16 meses, houve remoção de 80% da biomassa de folhas e galhos. Nesse tratamento, 65% dos indivíduos estavam com DAP inferior a 15 cm, em comparação com 35% nos demais tratamentos. A Ht no povoamento desbastado foi menor (pPlants of Eucalyptus grandis clone, established in a 3 x 3 m spacing, were submitted to pruning and thinning. Pruning treatments started at three ages: 16, 20 or 28 months. Three or four pruning interventions were applied at different tree heights to attain a 6 m log free of branches, when pruning started at the age of 16 or 20 months, and two or three pruning were applied for the treatments starting at the age of 28 months. At the age of 55 months, two thinning treatments were applied (control and removal of 35 % of the total planted seedlings. The plant growth after thinning was evaluated for the period between 55 to 93 months by analyzing diameter (DBH, total

  15. Comparison of seed component between stempruned and un-pruned trees in a Pinus koraiensis seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Ho Bae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard of Korean white pine in Chuncheon, Korea, wasestablished in 1982 and some trees were stempruned at the height of 1m or 2m to increase nut production and provide easy cone collectionin 1996. The stem-pruned trees yielded the highest nut production (mean = 3,200g, which is 1.4 to 2.2 times higher than that (1,870g ofun-pruned trees in 1999. As there was a large difference in quantity, it was questioned whether there are some differences in quality,i.e. seed component, because of highlyincreased seed production. Three trees per treatment, selected from the same family, providedseeds for three years for analysis from 2000 to 2002. The general component analysis followed the methods of AOAC and fatty acidswere investigated by gas liquid chromatography. The results obtained in percentage (% were changed to angles following the arc sinetransformation and then analyzed. No significant differences were found among the three treatments, that is un-pruned, 1m-stem-prunedand 2m-stem-pruned treatment, or among years in ash (1.67~2.48%, crude lipid (56.57~72.53%, crude protein (12.75~19.55%, andcarbohydrate (3.77~8.41%. Linoleic acid (18:2 (46.26~55.25% and oleic acid (18:1 (27.19~32.45% were the most common componentsof the fatty acids. All seeds from each treatment contained two essential fatty acids, i.e., linoleic acid and linolenic acid (18:3(12.78~14.21%. Differences among treatmentswere detected only in palmitoleic acid (16:1 (0.02~0.08% and linolenic acid in 2001 and in 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (20:3n9 in2000. 5,9,12-pinoleic acid [18:3 (γ] characteristic to Korean white pine seed was found in every seed. It was concluded that stem-pruninghad no influence on general seed component and fatty acid composition.

  16. 基于Hadoop的改进决策树剪枝算法%Decision tree pruning algorithm based on Hadoop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶星; 李石君

    2016-01-01

    针对当前决策树剪枝算法较少考虑训练集嘈杂度对模型的影响,以及传统驻留内存分类算法处理海量数据困难的问题,提出一种基于 Hadoop平台的不确定概率误差剪枝算法(IEP),并将其应用在C4.5算法中。在剪枝时,认为用于建树的训练集是嘈杂的,通过将基于不确定概率误差分类数作为剪枝选择依据,减少训练集不可靠对模型的影响。在 Ha-doop平台下,通过将C4.5-IEP算法以文件分裂的方式进行 MapReduce程序设计,增强处理大规模数据的能力,具有较好的可扩展性。%Concerning that current decision tree pruning algorithms seldom consider the influence of the level of noise in the training set on the model,and traditional algorithms of resident memory have difficulty on processing massive data,an imprecise probability error pruning algorithm named IEP was proposed based on Hadoop and applied in C4.5 algorithm.When pruning,IEP algorithm considered that the training set used to design decision trees is noisy,and the error classified number based on imprecise probabi-lity was used as a foundation of pruning to reduce the influence of the noisy data on the model.C4.5-IEP implemented on Hadoop by MapReduce programming based on file split enhanced the ability of dealing with massive data and improved the algorithm’s extendibility.

  17. 苹果树夏季修剪原则与技术%Principles and Techniques of Summer Pruning on Apple Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凌鹏

    2016-01-01

    Pruning plays an important and necessary role in fruit trees cultivation integrated management, which effects the fruit quality and yield. This paper expounded the principles and techniques of summer pruning on apple trees, aiming at directing apple tree summer pruning, increasing yield and improving quality.%修剪是对果树栽培进行综合管理过程中重要的一项技术措施,修剪是否得当将直接影响果实的品质及产量。文章简述了苹果树夏季修剪的原则,详述了苹果树夏季修剪的技术,旨在为苹果树的夏季修剪提供理论依据和技术支撑。

  18. 苗木切根技术研究进展%A Review on Advances of Root Pruning Technology of Tree Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国雷; 刘勇; 祝燕

    2011-01-01

    精准培育的理念已经渗入到森林培育的各个环节.切根作为干扰根系最为重要的技术,也受到越来越多地重视.切根可以划分为芽苗切根、苗期切根和起苗后切根等3种类型,把平截、扭根、侧方修根、盒式修根等称为苗期切根,是狭义切根范畴.结合苗木形态指标、生理指标和造林效果,综述每一类型的切根对苗木质量和造林效果的影响.以辐射松为代表的主根发达树种,通过芽苗切根、苗期的平截和扭根,抑制根系顶端优势,从而降低苗木高生长,促进侧根发育,形成发达、紧凑的根系,调整苗木地上和地下比例,最终提高苗木造林效果.以花旗松为代表的慢生常绿树种,侧根较为发达,切根效果不一.苗木平截和扭根后,内源激素、矿质营养、碳水化合物、水分等均会发生变化,这种变化如何影响苗木质量的机制尚不明确.%As technologies become more precise to deal with each aspect on silviculture, great attention has been putting on the root pruning which is viewed as the most important root culturing. In this paper, root pruning includes bud-seedling root pruning, post-seedling root pruning, and table pruning. Post-seedling root pruning is divided into undercutting, wrenching, lateral pruning and box pruning. For each type, effects of root pruning on the morphological attributes, physiological attributes and field performance was reviewed. When Pinus radiata, characterized by a carrot - like taproot tree species, is severed by bud-seedling root pruning, undercutting and wrenching, a loss in apical dominance in the entire root system was caused. Following that shoot growth is arrested, lateral root growth increases, a more compact and fibrous root system develops, and shoot-root ratio decreases. These are attributed to the field performance especially in the arid areas. Slower growing evergreen species such as Pseudotsuga menziesii tend to have a more fibrous root

  19. Hallazgos estomatológicos en insuficiencia renal crónica debido a síndrome de Prune Belly: reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El síndrome de Prune Belly es una alteración congénita que puede conducir a insuficiencia renal crónica y alteraciones metabólicas como hiperparatiroidismo secundario. El presente caso describe un individuo masculino que padece insuficiencia renal crónica debido al síndrome de Prune Belly y presenta hallazgos estomatológicos como hipoplasia de esmalte, signos radiográficos de osteopenia a nivel de los maxilares y ausencia de lesiones de caries. Los exámenes radiográficos demostraron retardo d...

  20. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

  1. Uso de poda verde, plásticos refletivos, antitranspirante e potássio na produção de pêssegos Using green pruning, reflective plastics, antitranspirant and potassium in peach production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Trevisan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas que viabilizem a produção de pêssegos de melhor qualidade, ao potencializar características externas como a coloração vermelha na epiderme e o tamanho, bem como características químicas relativas ao sabor. Num pomar comercial de pessegueiros da cultivar Maciel, no Município de Pelotas, RS, foram avaliados os efeitos da poda verde, o uso de dois tipos de plástico refletivo sob a copa das plantas, diferentes concentrações de cloreto de potássio (KCl incorporado ao solo, com ou sem KCl via foliar e antitranspirante. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso. O uso de 1.200 g de KCl via solo, combinado com 10 g de KCl via foliar e poda verde, produziu coloração vermelha mais intensa na epiderme dos pêssegos. O uso de 1.600 g de KCl no solo, combinado com poda verde, produziu pêssegos com maior peso médio, maior diâmetro e baixa acidez titulável. A cobertura do solo, sob a copa das plantas, com plástico de ráfia, combinado com poda verde, resultou num maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais nos frutos. O uso dessas práticas culturais, realizadas na pré-colheita, influencia positivamente a qualidade final das frutas de pessegueiro da cultivar Maciel.The objective of this work was to evaluate techniques which make possible the production of peaches of high quality by improving external characteristics, percent of red cover color, fruit size, and chemical characteristics that influence flavor, in a field peach of cultivar Maciel, in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Effects evaluated were: vegetative pruning, the use of two types of reflective plastics under the plant canopy, the different potassium chloride concentrations incorporated to the soil, with and without foliar aplication of KCl, and the use of antitranspirant. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design. The results showed that the use of 1,200 g of KCl applied to soil, combined with 10 g of KCl

  2. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  3. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste.

  4. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  5. Managing Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa prunings for crop production and improved soil properties in the sub-Sudanian zone of Burkina-Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayala, J.; Mando, A.; Ouédraogo, E.; Teklehaimanot, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Tree pruning generates organic resources whose nitrogen content is not always recycled appropriately. A field experiment was conducted in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to test the possibilities of improving soil properties and crop production through the application of Parkia biglobosa (néré)

  6. The effects of planting methods and head pruning on seed yield and yield components of medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar. Pepo var. styriaca) at low temperature areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, R Nikkhah; Khodadadi, M; Pirivatlo, S Piry; Hassanpanah, D

    2009-03-15

    This experiment carried out to evaluate the effects of planting methods (seed sowing and transplanting) and head pruning (no pruning, pruning after 12th node and pruning after 16th node) on yield and yield components such as number of branches (sub-branches) per plant, fruits per plant, growth, fruit size, weight of fresh fruit, weight of seeds per fruit, number of seeds per fruit and seed yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiment was carried out based of factorial experiment with Randomized Completely Blocks Design (RCBD) by three replications in Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Station at 2007. Seedlings were grown in heated greenhouse. When the climatic condition became suitable and seedlings were at the four leaves stage, both seeds and seedlings were planted at the same time in the farm. Maintenance operations were done during the growth season. Head pruning treatments were done the forecast time. The results showed that the planting methods had significant effect on the number of ripen fruits per plant, fruits diameter, weight of seeds per fruit, weight of 1000 seeds and seed yield and had no significant effect on the other traits. Also the results indicated that head pruning treatments had significant effects on the number of branches per plant, growth and seed yield and no significant on the other traits. In this experiment the most seed yield (997.8 kg ha(-1)) obtained from transplanting method with head pruning after 12th node and the least seed yield obtained from control.

  7. Chemical-Structural Changes of Organic Matter in a Semi-Arid Soil After Organic Amendment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.NICOL(A)S; G.MASCIANDARO; T.HERN(A)NDEZ; C.GARCIA

    2012-01-01

    A 9-month incubation experiment using composted and non-composted amendments derived from vine pruning waste and sewage sludge was carried out to study the effects of the nature and stability of organic amendments on the structural composition of organic matter (OM) in a semi-arid soil. The changes of soil OM,both in the whole soil and in the extractable carbon with pyrophosphate,were evaluated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography and chemical analyses.By the end of the experiment,the soils amended with pruning waste exhibited less organic carbon loss than those receiving sewage sludge.The non-composted residues increased the aliphatic-pyrolytic products of the OM,both in the whole soil and also in the pyrophosphate extract,with the products derived from peptides and proteins being significantly higher.After 9 months,in the soils amended with pruning waste the relative abundance of phenolic-pyrolytic products derived from phenolic compounds,lignin and proteins in the whole soil tended to increase more than those in the soils amended with sewage sludge.However,the extractable OM with pyrophosphate in the soils amended with composted residues tended to have higher contents of these phenolic-pyrolytic products than that in non-composted ones.Thus,despite the stability of pruning waste,the composting of this material promoted the incorporation of phenolic compounds to the soil OM.The pyrolytic indices (furfural/pyrrole and aliphatic/aromatic ratios) showed the diminution of aliphatic compounds and the increase of aromatic compounds,indicating the stabilization of the OM in the amended soils after 9 months.In conclusion,the changes of soil OM depend on the nature and stability of the organic amendments,with composted vine pruning waste favouring humification.

  8. The sex pheromones of mealy plum (Hyalopterus pruni) and leaf-curl plum (Brachycaudus helichrysi) aphids: identification and field trapping of male and gynoparous aphids in prune orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmes, Emily J; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Birkett, Michael A; Campbell, Colin A M; Chamberlain, Keith; Pickett, John A; Zalom, Frank G

    2012-05-01

    Mealy plum, Hyalopterus pruni, and leaf-curl plum, Brachycaudus helichrysi, aphids are the primary arthropod pests in orchards that produce dried plums (i.e., prunes). The sexual stage of their respective lifecycles occurs on prune trees in the fall, during which time males respond to sex pheromones produced by oviparous females. Air-entrainment collections confirmed that oviparous H. pruni and B. helichrysi emitted combinations of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol. The responses of H. pruni and B. helichrysi to these compounds in ratios of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2.6:1, 3.4:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 0:0 (no-pheromone control) using water traps were determined in field experiments conducted in prune orchards during the fall. The greatest number of male H. pruni was caught in traps releasing a 1:1 ratio of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol, while male B. helichrysi were caught in similar numbers in traps releasing any of the two-component ratios tested. There was no evidence that any of the pheromone treatments influenced trap catches of gynoparae of either species. Results suggest that addition of sex pheromone lures increases trap catches of male H. pruni and B. helichrysi, and that this approach may improve monitoring and management of these pests in prune orchards. Knowledge gained from this study contributes to the understanding of the ecology of insect pests in prune orchards.

  9. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae) tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  10. Suitability Of Plum And Prune Cultivars, Grown In A High Density Planting System, For Mechanical Harvesting With A Canopy Contact, Straddle Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Augustyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relation of hand-harvesting cost in plum and prune production to the total costs amounts to 25-40%. Mechanical harvesting makes it possible to cut drastically both the harvesting and total costs. To test the suitability of plum and prune species to be mechanically harvested, an experimental grove (area 0.8 ha was established in 2008. Three plum cultivars and one prune cultivar grafted on semi-dwarf and vigorous rootstocks were planted at high density (1250; 1666; 2500 trees·ha−1. During the span of full yielding (2012-2014, fruits were harvested mechanically with a canopy contact, straddle harvester in continuous motion, designed at the Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, to harvest tart cherry, and later adapted to harvesting plums and prunes. Trees grafted on semi-dwarf rootstock (‘Wangenheim Prune’ appeared to be more suitable for mechanical harvesting than strong-growing trees grafted on Prunus cerasifera clone ‘Myrobalan’. Cumulative yield per ha (years 2012-2014 was the highest at the highest planting density. Trees grafted on the semi-dwarf rootstock had a higher productivity index than trees grafted on the vigorous rootstock. There was no significant difference in fruit quality related to planting distance. Mechanical harvesting was nearly 40 times more efficient than hand picking. The efficiency of mechanical harvest was from 85% to 90%. Over 5% of fruits were lost on the ground and from 1 to 5% of fruits were left on the tree. Up to 18% of the plums and no more than 10% of the prunes harvested mechanically showed some damage. They can be fully acceptable for processing, for up to 10 days, providing the potential deterioration processes are inhibited by cold storage. The large-fruited cultivars seem to be more susceptible to bruising than the small-fruited ones. For the latter, the share of marketable quality fruits within the mechanically harvested crop amounted to about 80%, which could be a good prognostic

  11. Interactive Pruning Operation on Virtual Fruit Tree Based on Kinect%基于 Kinect 的虚拟果树交互式修剪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 邵小宁; 胡少军; 何东健

    2016-01-01

    为解决果树修剪技术推广难的问题,提出了基于手势交互的虚拟果树修剪方法。在已有三维果树模型的基础上,通过创建帧缓冲区对象,构建虚拟屏幕,实现果树枝条的快速拾取和修剪;建立了虚拟果树修剪控制手势集,利用 Kinect 获取骨骼信息,采用状态机匹配识别手势类型,将手部关节点坐标转换至鼠标绝对坐标系,建立不同手势与鼠标和键盘事件之间的映射关系,实现手势交互代替鼠标和键盘交互。实验结果表明:该方法手势识别准确率高,交互实时性好,能够满足虚拟果树修剪应用需求,为果树修剪技术的学习提供了新的途径。%A virtual fruit tree pruning method based on hand gesture interaction is proposed to address the challenge of fruit tree pruning technology extension .Based on the existing 3 D fruit tree model , a rapid virtual fruit tree stem picking and pruning method realized by creating a virtual screen using frame buffer object .The control hand gestures of virtual fruit tree pruning were defined .The state machine matching was used to recognize types of hand gestures based on skele -ton information got by the kinect sensor .The hand joint was transformed from the skeleton coordinate system to the mouse absolute coordinate system .Finally , a mapping relation among hand gestures , mouse events and keyboard events was found to replace the mouse and keyboard interaction with hand gesture interaction .The skeleton smoothing and object snap was used to solve the problem of mouse cursor jitter .The gesture recognition rate was 97%.Experimental results show that the proposed method has the merits of high recognition rate , good real-time performance , and is suitable for the applications of virtual fruit tree pruning .It can provide a new approach for the study of fruit tree pruning technology .

  12. Ethanol production from glucose and xylose obtained from steam exploded water-extracted olive tree pruning using phosphoric acid as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, M J; Alvarez, C; Ballesteros, I; Romero, I; Ballesteros, M; Castro, E; Manzanares, P; Moya, M; Oliva, J M

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the effect of phosphoric acid (1% w/w) in steam explosion pretreatment of water extracted olive tree pruning at 175°C and 195°C was evaluated. The objective is to produce ethanol from all sugars (mainly glucose and xylose) contained in the pretreated material. The water insoluble fraction obtained after pretreatment was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process by a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The liquid fraction, containing mainly xylose, was detoxified by alkali and ion-exchange resin and then fermented by the xylose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis. Ethanol yields reached in a SSF process were close to 80% when using 15% (w/w) substrate consistency and about 70% of theoretical when using prehydrolysates detoxified by ion-exchange resins. Considering sugars recovery and ethanol yields about 160g of ethanol from kg of water extracted olive tree pruning could be obtained.

  13. Genes involved in pruning and inflammation are enriched in a large mega-sample of patients affected by Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Marco; Marco, Calabrò; Drago, Antonio; Antonio, Drago; Sidoti, Antonina; Antonina, Sidoti; Serretti, Alessandro; Alessandro, Serretti; Crisafulli, Concetta; Concetta, Crisafulli

    2015-08-30

    A molecular pathway analysis has been performed in order to complement previous genetic investigations on Schizophrenia. 4486 Schizophrenic patients and 4477 controls served as the investigation sample. 3521 Bipolar patients and 3195 controls served as replication sample. A molecular pathway associated with the neuronal pruning activity was found to be enriched in subjects with Schizophrenia compared to controls. HLA-C and HLA-DRA had more SNPs associated with both Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder than expected by chance.

  14. A Margin-Based Greedy Ensemble Pruning Method%一种基于边界的贪心组合剪枝方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华平; 范明; 职为梅

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results indicate that for the ensemble classifiers with the same training error the one with higher margin distribution on training examples has better generalization performance.Therefore,the concept of margins of examples is introduced to ensemble pruning and it is employed to supervise the design of ensemble pruning methods.Based on the margins,a new metric called marginbased metric (MBM) is designed to evaluate the importance of a classifier to an ensemble and an example set,and then a greedy ensemble pruning method called MBM-based ensemble selection is proposed to reduce the ensemble size and improve its accuracy.The experimental results on 30 UCI datasets show that compared with other state-of-the-art greedy ensemble pruning methods,the ensembles selected by the proposed method have better performance.%理论及实验表明,在训练集上具有较大边界分布的组合分类器泛化能力较强.文中将边界概念引入到组合剪枝中,并用它指导组合剪枝方法的设计.基于此,构造一个度量标准(MBM)用于评估基分类器相对于组合分类器的重要性,进而提出一种贪心组合选择方法(MBMEP)以降低组合分类器规模并提高它的分类准确率.在随机选择的30个UCI数据集上的实验表明,与其它一些高级的贪心组合选择算法相比,MBMEP选择出的子组合分类器具有更好的泛化能力.

  15. Tree and Hashing Data Structures to Speed up Chemical Searches: Analysis and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Ramzi; Kristensen, Thomas; Baldi, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    In many large chemoinformatics database systems, molecules are represented by long binary fingerprint vectors whose components record the presence or absence of particular functional groups or combinatorial features. For a given query molecule, one is interested in retrieving all the molecules in the database with a similarity to the query above a certain threshold. Here we describe a method for speeding up chemical searches in these large databases of small molecules by combining previously developed tree and hashing data structures to prune the search space without any false negatives. More importantly, we provide a mathematical analysis that allows one to predict the level of pruning, and validate the quality of the predictions of the method through simulation experiments.

  16. The phenolic acids of Agen prunes (dried plums) or Agen prune juice concentrates do not account for the protective action on bone in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léotoing, Laurent; Wauquier, Fabien; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Gaudout, David; Rey, Stéphane; Vitrac, Xavier; Massenat, Laurent; Rashidi, Salim; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2016-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with dried plum (DP) has been shown to protect against and reverse established osteopenia in ovariectomized rodents. Based on in vitro studies, we hypothesized that DP polyphenols may be responsible for that bone-sparing effect. This study was designed to (1) analyze whether the main phenolic acids of DP control preosteoblast proliferation and activity in vitro; (2) determine if the polyphenolic content of DP or DP juice concentrate is the main component improving bone health in vivo; and (3) analyze whether DP metabolites directly modulate preosteoblast physiology ex vivo. In vitro, we found that neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, and caffeic acids induce the proliferation and repress the alkaline phosphatase activity of primary preosteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, low-chlorogenic acid Agen prunes (AP) enriched with a high-fiber diet and low-chlorogenic acid AP juice concentrate prevented the decrease of total femoral bone mineral density induced by estrogen deficiency in 5-month-old female rats and positively restored the variations of the bone markers osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline. Ex vivo, we demonstrated that serum from rats fed with low-chlorogenic acid AP enriched with a high-fiber diet showed repressed proliferation and stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity of primary preosteoblasts. Overall, the beneficial action of AP on bone health was not dependent on its polyphenolic content.

  17. Steam explosion treatment for ethanol production from branches pruned from pear trees by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the production of ethanol from unutilized branches pruned from pear trees by steam explosion pretreatment. Steam pressures of 25, 35, and 45 atm were applied for 5 min, followed by enzymatic saccharification of the extracted residues with cellulase (Cellic CTec2). High glucose recoveries, of 93.3, 99.7, and 87.1%, of the total sugar derived from the cellulose were obtained from water- and methanol-extracted residues after steam explosion at 25, 35, and 45 tm, respectively. These values corresponded to 34.9, 34.3, and 27.1 g of glucose per 100 g of dry steam-exploded branches. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments were done on water-extracted residues and water- and methanol-extracted residues by Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC 1777. An overall highest theoretical ethanol yield of 76% of the total sugar derived from cellulose was achieved when 100 g/L of water- and methanol-washed residues from 35 atm-exploded pear branches was used as substrate.

  18. Development and Practical Use of RT-PCR for Seed-transmitted Prune dwarf virus in Quarantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among imported plants, seeds are the items that have many latent pathogens and are difficult to inspect. Also, they are the import and export items whose market is expected to expand. The biggest problem with seeds is viruses. Prune dwarf virus (PDV is the virus that is commonly inspected in Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. mandshurica, P. cerasus, P. avium or P. serotina seeds. In this study, two RT-PCR primer sets, which can promptly and specifically diagnose plant quarantine seed-transmitted PDV, were developed; and nested PCR primers, where products amplify 739 and 673 nucleotides (nt, and an nested PCR-product, 305 nt, can be obtained as these products are amplified again, were developed. Also, a modified-positive control plasmid was developed, where the restriction enzyme XhoI, which can identify the contamination of samples from the control, was inserted. The method developed in this study has detected PDV in 18 cases since 2007, and is expected to continuously contribute to the plant quarantine in Korea.

  19. Ethanol and xylitol production by fermentation of acid hydrolysate from olive pruning with Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Soledad; Puentes, Juan G; Moya, Alberto J; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2015-08-01

    Olive tree pruning biomass has been pretreated with pressurized steam, hydrolysed with hydrochloric acid, conditioned and afterwards fermented using the non-traditional yeast Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618. The main aim of this study was to analyse the influence of acid concentration on the hydrolysis process and its effect on the subsequent fermentation to produce ethanol and xylitol. From the results, it could be deduced that both total sugars and d-glucose recovery were enhanced by increasing the acid concentration tested; almost the whole hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed when 3.77% was used. It has been observed a sequential production first of ethanol, from d-glucose, and then xylitol from d-xylose. The overall ethanol and xylitol yields ranged from 0.27 to 0.38kgkg(-1), and 0.12 to 0.23kgkg(-1) respectively, reaching the highest values in the fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained with hydrochloric acid 2.61% and 1.11%, respectively.

  20. Time series modeling with pruned multi-layer perceptron and 2-stage damped least-squares method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyant, Cyril; Tamas, Wani; Paoli, Christophe; Balu, Aurélia; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure; Notton, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) defines a family of artificial neural networks often used in TS modeling and forecasting. Because of its "black box" aspect, many researchers refuse to use it. Moreover, the optimization (often based on the exhaustive approach where "all" configurations are tested) and learning phases of this artificial intelligence tool (often based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm; LMA) are weaknesses of this approach (exhaustively and local minima). These two tasks must be repeated depending on the knowledge of each new problem studied, making the process, long, laborious and not systematically robust. In this paper a pruning process is proposed. This method allows, during the training phase, to carry out an inputs selecting method activating (or not) inter-nodes connections in order to verify if forecasting is improved. We propose to use iteratively the popular damped least-squares method to activate inputs and neurons. A first pass is applied to 10% of the learning sample to determine weights significantly different from 0 and delete other. Then a classical batch process based on LMA is used with the new MLP. The validation is done using 25 measured meteorological TS and cross-comparing the prediction results of the classical LMA and the 2-stage LMA.

  1. Design of Grapevine Vice Tip Pruning Machine%葡萄树副梢修剪机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲振兴; 刘瑞林; 蒋有责; 樊涛

    2015-01-01

    葡萄树副梢修剪工作是葡萄生产中非常重要的环节,直接影响葡萄的产量和品质,我国葡萄树副梢修剪作业主要以人工为主,作业质量不稳定,效率低,成本高。为了提高作业质量、工作效率并节省成本,设计了一种拖拉机前挂式葡萄树副梢修剪机,并分析其应用前景。%Grapevine Vice tip pruning is a very important part of grape production,directly affecting the yield and quality of grape. The management of grape in our country is mainly based on manual operation,so the operation quality is large,the ef-ficiency is low,and the cost is high. In order to improve the work quality,work efficiency and save cost,we have designed a kind of tractor front hanging vine vice - tip machine,and analyzed its application prospect.

  2. Efeito do frio e do desponte na brotação de gemas em pessegueiro Chilling and tipping off pruning effect on budbreak in peach trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de três cultivares de pessegueiro quanto à brotação de gemas, em ramos com ou sem desponte, quando submetidas a diferentes períodos de exposição ao frio. Ramos de ano das cultivares Coral, Eragil e Rubidoux foram submetidas ao frio complementar (0; 312; 624 e 1.248 unidades de frio. Posteriormente, metade dos ramos foram mantidos inteiros e nos demais efetuou-se o desponte, com a retirada da gema apical. Os ramos foram mantidos em câmara de crescimento a 25ºC, sendo avaliado o percentual de brotação de gemas vegetativas e floríferas aos 15 e 30 dias após início da exposição a 25ºC. O desponte incrementou a brotação de gemas vegetativas em todas as cultivares avaliadas. O efeito do desponte sobre a brotação das gemas vegetativas foi variável conforme as unidades de frio aos quais os ramos foram expostos, sendo evidenciado maior efeito do desponte nos tratamentos com maior exposição ao frio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of three peach cultivars in relation to budbreak in branches with or without tipping off pruning submitted to different exposition cold periods. One-year-old branches of Coral, Eragil and Rubidoux peach trees cultivars were submitted to chilling supplement (0, 312, 624 and 1248 cold units. After chilling treatments, half of branches were maintained intact and others were tipped off pruning through terminal bud remove. After this, the branches were kept in growth chamber at 25ºC, and it was evaluated the percentage of budbreak in flower and vegetative buds at 15 and 30 days after the beginning of the exposure at 25ºC. Tipping off pruning increased budbreak in vegetative buds in all cultivars studied. The effect of tipping off pruning on budbreak in vegetative buds was variable depending on chilling intensity that the branches were submitted, being evidenced bigger effect of tipping off pruning in higher chilling exposure.

  3. Época de poda da figueira cultivada no estado de São Paulo Pruning time for fig trees in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Rigitano

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available No Estado de São Paulo as figueiras (Ficus carica L. são anualmente submetidas a um tipo de poda hibernal que consiste na eliminação quase total da copa formada na estação anterior. Com a finalidade de estudar o comportamento de figueiras podadas em diferentes épocas durante o inverno, foi iniciado em 1960, em Campinas, um experimento com cinco épocas de poda no período de 1.° de maio a 1.° de setembro. São apresentados os dados de produção, por tratamento obtidos em 1962 e 1963, relativos ao número e ao pêso de figos, assim como os pesos médios de uma fruta. Os dados de 1963, revelaram diferenças significativas e permitiram várias conclusões. A poda feita em 1.° de agôsto ofereceu os melhores resultados, embora sem diferir significativamente daquela executada em 1.° de julho. Como era esperado, as podas levadas a efeito nas épocas extremas, isto é, em princípios de maio e de setembro, resultaram nas produções mais baixas. Observou-se tendência da obtenção de colheitas mais precoces e figos mais pesados nos tratamentos mais produtivos.With a view to compare the effects on fruit bearing, pruning of fig trees was carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, during the dormant season of the plant, at 5 different dates, namely on the 1st day of each of the months of May, June, July, August and September. Pruning was started as soon as the plants became more or less dormant in the fall and was continued until vegetation again appeared at the end of winter. The pruning operation took place for two following years and at the dates mentioned all the new branches were cut back to short stubs. The experimental plot consisted of 30 trees of the variety "Roxo de Valinhos" (San Piero spread apart 7 by 13 feet and was laid out in randomized blocks with 3 replications. The results of this trial can be summarized as follows: a Trees pruned on August 1st gave the highest yield followed by those pruned on July 1st. While the

  4. Teores de carboidratos em pessegueiros submetidos a diferentes intensidades de poda verde em clima tropical Levels of carbohydrates in peaches submitted to different intensity of green pruning in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rehder da Cunha Borba

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a partição de assimilados entre a copa e raízes de pessegueiro, duas intensidades de poda verde, após a colheita dos frutos, foram efetuadas em pessegueiros 'Ouromel-2', na região de Piracicaba-SP: poda leve e poda de renovação (poda drástica. Os teores de carboidratos nas raízes e parte aérea foram determinados em vários estágios fenológicos da planta ao longo do ciclo. Verificou-se que existe uma fase de consumo de carboidratos, que vai deste a poda de dormência (poda seca até a maturação dos frutos e uma fase de acúmulo, que vai desde a maturação dos frutos até a queda das folhas. Plantas que sofreram poda leve apresentaram, de maneira geral, maiores teores de carboidratos ao longo do ciclo do que plantas que sofreram poda de renovação, apresentando, assim, maior potencial de produção.With the objective to verify the photosynthate partitioning in roots and canopy of peache trees, two intensity of green pruning: light pruning and renovation pruning (heavy pruning. After fruit harvest were evaluated in 'Ouromel-2' peach in Piracicaba-SP. The carbohydrates levels of roots and canopy were evaluated in several phonological stages of the tree during the crop cycle. It was verified that there is a phase of consumption of carbohydrates, from dormant pruning to the ripening of fruits, and a phase of accumulation of carbohydrates, from the ripening of fruits to the falling of the leaves. In general, plants lightly pruned showed higher levels of carbohydrates during the crop cycle if compared to heavily pruned plants, showing then, higher potential of production.

  5. Correlation Between Pruning of Maternal Carya illinoensis Plants and Sprouting in the Maternal-Scion Plots%山核桃采穗圃母树修剪与成枝的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺娜; 马婷; 郎南军; 肖良俊; 熊新武; 王高升; 李甜江

    2012-01-01

    对山核桃母树枝条进行不同程度的修剪,比较不同修剪程度下萌芽、抽枝、出穗的数量及质量,并对其相关性进行分析.结果表明:存芽数与修剪程度呈显著负相关,修剪越轻存芽数量越多;成枝数和有效枝条数与修剪程度呈正相关,重度修剪的成枝数量最多,有效穗条亦越多.美国山核桃采穗圃母树修剪中,建议采用重度修剪方式.%Different intensities of pruning were conducted to the branches of maternal-scion Carya illinoensis trees to compare the quantity and quality of its bud germination, sprouts and the cuttings obtained, and to conduct the correlation analysis so as to study the influence of pruning on the important indexes of C. illinoensis. The results showed that the number of deposit buds was significantly and negatively correlated with the pruning intensity, i. e. , the lighter the pruning was, the more deposit buds would be. There was positive correlation between the number of branches and the effective scions to be formed and the pruning intensity, i. e. , the heavier the pruning was, the more branches would be formed and more effective scions might be prepared. Heavy pruning was recommended for maternal C. illinoensis trees in the maternal-scion plots.

  6. Abdominoplastia por plicatura anterior longitudinal na síndrome de prune belly: experiência inicial do hospital municipal Jesus Abdominoplasty by longitudinal anterior plicature in prune belly syndrome: preliminary experience in hospital municipal Jesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os resultados iniciais com o uso da técnica de abdominoplastia longitudinal anterior por plicatura parietal descrita por Furness et al (1998 no Hospital Municipal Jesus. MÉTODO: Descrevemos as características e resultados dos primeiros pacientes tratados em nosso serviço, inclusive duas modificações adotadas com relação à técnica descrita, a saber, a exploração retroperitoneal sistemática para cura da criptorquia bilateral simultânea à abdominoplastia e a celiotomia "de segurança" para todos os pacientes operados. RESULTADOS: O seguimento dos pacientes foi de 1,5 ano, 15 meses e 10 meses, respectivamente. Foi possível demonstrar que a técnica adotada foi de fácil execução e pequena morbidade, com resultados estéticos satisfatórios, grande melhora das condições psicológicas e do convívio social para os pacientes desde o pós-operatório imediato, melhora da constipação crônica, capacidade aeróbica e postura. Quanto às repercussões urodinâmicas, aguardamos reavaliação a longo prazo, para conclusões mais efetivas. CONCLUSÃO: A abdominoplastia longitudinal anterior é uma técnica de fácil execução e segura para o tratamento da síndrome de prune belly e melhora a capacidade funcional muscular abdominal. Tem conseqüências urodinâmicas, que necessitam de avaliação após longo prazo.BACKGROUND: Our aim is tis present initial results with the anterior longitudinal abdominoplasty, described by Furness et al (1998 in three patients operated at the Hospital Municipal Jesus, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: We describe pre and post-operative clinical data and surgical results for the first three patients submitted to surgical treatment and describe two technical modifications: retroperitoneal systematic exploration simultaneously to parietal abdominoplasty to treat cryptochid testicles and "for safety" celiotomy to protect abdominal viscera. RESULTS: Follow up 1,5 year, 15 and 10 months for

  7. 修枝高度对西南桦人工幼林生长的影响%Effects of pruning height on growth performance of young plantations of Betula alnoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春胜; 吴龙敦; 赵志刚; 林天龙; 郭俊杰; 沙二; 曾杰

    2012-01-01

    A pruning trail was conducted with series of pruning heights in five-year-old plantations of Betula alnoides, so as to assess the effect of pruning heights on growth performances of Betula alnoide and determine the optimal pruning height. Diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and height of the lowest living branch were investigated in three years after pruning, and the volume was calculated by stem form factor at breast height. The results indicate that the increment of tree height and volume did not vary significantly under different treatments of pruning heights in three years after pruning. While DBH growth decreased apparently with increasement of pruning height and significant difference was seen between the control and other pruning treatments late in the first year after pruning, and there was no remarkable difference between them in the third year. Taking growth process and operational feasibility of pruning into consideration, the optimal pruning height was 6 meters for trees with height above 9.5 meters, and 5 meters for height above 8.0 meters, in other words, the pruning intensity was about 30%~40%. It not only had a weak effect on tree growth but also increased the production rate of high quality timber. The findings can provide scientific evidences for large-size knot-free timber production of B. alnoides.%以5年生西南桦人工林为研究对象,设置系列高度处理开展修枝试验,调查不同修枝处理当年及3年生西南桦的生长表现,从而探讨西南桦人工幼林的最佳修枝高度.研究结果显示:各修枝处理间西南桦树高及材积增长量在修枝后3年内均无显著差异,而修枝对西南桦当年的胸径生长有显著抑制作用,且随着修枝高度的增加而胸径增长量逐渐降低,而修枝后第3年各处理间胸径增长量差异不显著.综合考虑西南桦生长规律及修枝操作上的可行性,确定5年生时树高大于9.5 m的西南桦林木,其合适的修枝高度为6m

  8. Effects of pruning on growth dynamic and veneer quality of Eucalyptus urophyllaíE. grandis%修枝对尾巨桉生长动态及单板质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任世奇; 陈健波; 邓紫宇; 郭东强; 刘媛; 黄明军; 蒙江拢; 肖文发; 项东云

    2015-01-01

    Using Eucalyptus urophyllaíE. grandis plantation as the research material in this paper, the effects of pruning on the growth dynamic and veneer quality were studied by setting four pruning intensities of CK ( no pruning) , light pruning ( cut 25% of the whole canopy ) , moderate pruning ( cut 33.3% of the whole canopy) and heavy pruning ( cut 50% of the whole canopy) , and pruning in consecutive 2 years with applying split-plot experiment design. The results showed that the growth of young E. urophyllaíE. grandis was most influenced by pruning intensity, especially with the increasing of trees age. The increase of diameter at breast height ( DBH ) was affected under the principle of nearby allocation of biomass;however the growing on the height of tree was affected quite less than that for DBH. The reason of this phenomenon was mainly related to the height of canopy and net photosynthetic rate after pruning. The tree volumes for both bi-monthly continuous and regular growth in 2013 were nearly the same under four pruning intensities after two consecutive pruning in 2011 and 2012 . The veneer quality was improved by the heavy pruning, which was able to increase green knots and decrease dead knots per unit area. The heavy pruning is most appropriate method for directive breeding of clear wood based on the growth and veneer quality of E. urophyllaíE. grandis.%以尾巨桉人工林为研究对象,通过设置未修枝、轻度修枝、中度修枝和重度修枝4种修枝强度,采用裂区设计连续2年度实施人工修枝,研究修枝对尾巨桉生长动态和单板质量等级的影响。结果表明:幼林龄尾巨桉生长量受修枝强度的影响更大;随着林龄的增加,胸径生长将在生物量就近分配原则下受到影响,但修枝对树高生长的影响相对较小,这主要与修枝后林冠的高度以及叶片净光合速率有关;经2011和2012年连续实施2次人工修枝后,4种修枝强度的2013

  9. Pruning effects on old seed tree in seed orchard of Larix kaempferi%日本落叶松种子园大龄母树去顶修枝试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜超群; 许业洲; 全永寿; 胡罗旋

    2012-01-01

    以长岭岗林场日本落叶松种子园大龄母树为研究对象,开展去顶及修枝试验,结果表明:去顶修枝对促进日本落叶松母树新生枝条萌发的效果显著,不同修剪强度之间萌条数量和质量差异显著,修剪强度越大新生萌条数量和质量越好;修剪后第4、5年雌雄球花数量均很少,与对照相当或少于对照,去顶修枝对促进花芽分化作用不明显。%This paper studied the pruning effects on old seed tree in seed orchard of Larix kaempferi in Changling Hillock Forest Farm.The results showed that the effect of pruning on new branch sprouting was significant.The quantity and quality of coppice shoot was significantly different within different treatments.The more we pruned,the more it sprouted.The number of male and female cone after the pruning treatment in the fourth and fifth year was both few and less than that of the check.In addition,pruning had little effect on promoting bud differentiation.

  10. The use of pruned chipped branches to increase the soil infiltration capacity and reduce the soil losses on citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Llovet, Joan; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil water erosion is causing problems on the agriculture land of the world. The high erosion rates registered in the agriculture land are due to the lack of a vegetation cover that protects the soil. High erosion rates in agriculture lands are found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and any other continent. Soil erosion on citrus orchards has been researched recently and shown huge erosion rates in the Mediterranean and in China. All this research findings allow us to confirm that the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards are not sustainable and strategies to control the soil erosion should be applied. The increasing erosion rates are due to the bare soils, but also are due to the soil structure degradation and soil organic matter exhaustion. Some authors applied cover on crops to avoid the raindrop impact and the surfaces wash but there is a need to develop new strategies to reduce soil losses and keep sustainable the citrus productions. The agriculture production also results in a large amount of residues than can be a resource to improve the soil cover. This has been done in road embankments, in forest land affected by wildfires and on afforestation. As a consequence of the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen), the straw and the pruned branches are being a residue instead of a resource in many developed countries. Straw was used as a forage and the pruned branches as a source of heat and energy but both can be used as a mulch to control the soil erosion. The pruned branches can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Our goal is to test if a residue such as the chipped pruned branches can be transformed as a resource that will help to control the soil erosion rates. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land

  11. Apex pruning in pumpkin for fruit and seed production=Poda apical para produção de frutos e sementes de abóbora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Toledo Rodrigues Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tip pruning stimulates the emission of lateral shoots, thus can produce higher number of flowers, fruits and seeds. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of apex pruning on fruit and seed production in pumpkin. The treatments consisted of plants without pruning, with pruning in the sixth, eighth and tenth node of main stem. The experimental design was a randomized block, with six replications. It was studied a line of pumpkin of the Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Estadual Paulista/Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas. The characteristics evaluated were: number of branches per plant and fruit position in branches of the plant production (number and weight of fruits per plant, fruit yield, fruit average weight, fruit length and diameter, seed weight per fruit, seed yield and quality (germination test, first count, thousand seed weight, emergence, speed of emergence and accelerated aging. There was a significant difference only for number of secondary branches per plant and thousand seed weight, with larger values for plants that have not been pruned. It was obtained high average of germination (94% and good fruit (16.9 t ha-1 and seed (148 kg ha-1 yield. The apex pruning does not influence the production of fruits and seeds, as well as the physiological seed quality in pumpkin =A poda apical estimula a emissão de brotos laterais, com isso pode haver maior formação de flores e frutos e, consequentemente, maior número de sementes. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da poda da haste principal para a produção de frutos e sementes de abóbora. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de plantas sem poda, com poda no sexto, oitavo e décimo nó da haste principal. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foi utilizada a linhagem de abóbora do tipo braquítica do Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual Paulista/Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas. Foram avaliadas as seguintes caracter

  12. Long Term Amendment with Fresh and Composted Solid Olive Mill Waste on Olive Grove Affects Carbon Sequestration by Prunings, Fruits, and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Ilarioni, Luana; Brunori, Antonio; Massaccesi, Luisa; Agnelli, Alberto; Proietti, Primo

    2017-01-01

    The soil amendment with organic wastes represents a way to increase the soil fertility and the organic carbon (C) stored in the agro-ecosystems. Among the organic waste materials produced by agricultural and industrial activities, olive mill wastes derived from the olive oil extraction process may represent a suitable soil amendment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fresh (SOMW) or composted mixture of SOMW and shredded olive tree prunings (C-SOMW+P) on the vegetative and productive activities of olive trees, on the C stored in the tree non-permanent structures (prunings and fruits) and in the soil. The plots treated with SOMW or C-SOMW+P showed higher vegetative and productive activities than the untreated plots, and this was attributed to the higher total N and availability of P and K supplied by the amendments. Consequently, treatments increased the C sequestered in the tree non-permanent structures than in the control trees. However, no significant different effect between SOMW and C-SOMW+P treatments was found for the C stored in prunings and fruits, whereas it was evident a stronger influence of C-SOMW+P than SOMW on soil C sequestration. Indeed, about 50% the C supplied by the treatment with C-SOMW+P was sequestered in the olive grove system, with more than 90% of the sequestered C stored into the soil. The low amount of C sequestered in the soil following the addition of SOMW was attributed to its richness of moisture and easily degradable compounds that triggered the mineralization processes controlled by the soil microbial community. Although the 8 years of amendment produced a higher fruit yields than the control, no difference occurred between the characteristics and the oil content of the olive fruits. Only the total phenol content for the oil obtained from the SOMW-treated plots was significantly higher. The other considered fruit characteristics did not show significant differences. PMID:28119719

  13. 西双版纳澳洲坚果树整形修剪技术%Pruning and Training of Macadamia integrifolia in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马福德; 高华平; 刘黔英

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of the development and production of Macadamia integrifolia in Xishuangbannan, Yunnan Province was described briefly, and pruning and training of M. inte grifolia was summarized based on many years of experiments and demonstration.%简述云南省西双版纳澳洲坚果生产发展现状,在多年试验示范、反复实践的基础上总结形成一套适宜澳洲坚果的整形修剪技术。

  14. Improved pruning strategy of Chinese chess machine game%一种中国象棋机器博弈剪枝策略的改进方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡屾

    2016-01-01

    机器博弈一直被认为是人工智能领域最具有挑战性的课题,以中国象棋机器博弈中的应用为例,为了在有限时间内实现更深层次的博弈树搜索,本文研究了一种改进的剪枝策略。在传统α‐β搜索算法的基础上,通过引入迭代深化和历史表等辅助剪枝手段,舍弃无价值的节点搜索,有效减少搜素节点数目,使剪枝更早发生以缩短搜索时间。实验表明这种改进策略的搜素算法的剪枝效率明显提高,在相同时间内搜索深度比原来的搜素算法更高,搜素的节点数也更多。%Machine game has always been considered to be the most challenging task in the field of artificial intelligence , taking the Chinese chess machine game as an example ,in order to achieve a deeper level of game tree search in a limited time ,an improved pruning strategy is proposed .Based on the traditional α‐β search algorithm ,by introducing iterative deepening ,history table and other auxiliary means of pruning ,discard worthless node search ,effectively reduce the number of nodes ,make the pruning occurs earlier to shorten the search time .Experimental results show that the im‐proved strategy search algorithm significantly improve the efficiency of pruning ,at the same time ,the search depth is higher than the original search algorithm ,the number of nodes is also increased .

  15. A Simple Model to Predict the Probability of a Peach (Prunus persicae) Tree Bud to Develop as a Long or Short Shoot as a Consequence of Winter Pruning Intensity and Previous Year Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots. PMID:23300609

  16. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  17. 长枝修剪对桃树生长和果实品质的影响%Effects of Long -shoot Pruning on Growth and Fruit Quality of Peach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏峰; 殷守防; 马瑞娟

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of long - shoot pruning on the bearing branch growth and fruit quality of peach. The results indicated that: comparing with the conventional pruning, long - shoot pruning could decrease the proportion of long and medium bearing branches of peach, increase the proportion of short bearing branches and posy branches, and enhance the average weight of single fruit and the content of soluble solids in the fruit.%研究了长枝修剪对桃树结果枝生长和果实品质的影响.结果表明:与常规修剪相比,采用长枝修剪的树体长果枝和中果枝比例降低,短果枝和花束枝的比例增加,平均单果重和可溶性固形物含量均得到提高.

  18. Primer caso de Síndrome Prune Belly-Like en una ternera de raza holstein con quistes hepáticos serosos (First case of Prune Belly-Like Syndrome in a Holstein calf with hepatic serous cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiz Blanco S.:

    Full Text Available Resumen Un ternero de raza holstein y criptorquidia bilateral. Hay distintas presentaba un abdomen pendulante y con hipótesis que tratan de explicar la una pared abdominal muy fina. Las etiología; laembriológica (defecto en el vísceras abdominales se encontraban desarrollo de la placa mesodérmica, la desplazadas caudoventralmente, teoría teratológica y, finalmente, la evidenciándose dorsalmente la protrusión genética (alteraciones cromosómicas que del riñón izquierdo. El animal fue podrían producir la atresia uretral con eutanasiado y en la necropsia los uropatía obstructiva prenanatal. Este músculos abdominales parecían reducirse hecho produciría la distensión de la vejiga a una simple fascia, mientras que el y la lesión del tracto urinario, impidiendo hígado presentaba numerosos quistes el descenso testicular. Las lesiones serosos de gran tamaño pero ya vacíos en musculares podrían estar causadas bien ese momento y que no afectaba a otras directamente por un defecto en el vísceras. El animal no presentaba ascitis. desarrollo de la placa mesodérmica, bien El estudio anatomopatológico de los indirectamente por la distensión y fallo músculos M.transversus abdominis, vascular. Además, hay casos descritos M.internal abdominal oblique, M.rectus similares a este síndrome (prune belly-abdominis y M.external abdominal like en el cual aparece sólo parte de la evidenció unas pequeñas fibras triada de signos. Este es el caso de dos musculares, probablemente debido a un bebés con grandes quistes desarrollo incompleto o a una atrofia intraabdominales prenatales reabsorbidos muscular. antes del parto, que dejaron como secuela En medicina humana hay un una fina pared abdominal característica

  19. Study of large and highly stratified population datasets by combining iterative pruning principal component analysis and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriyapongsa Jittima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ever increasing sizes of population genetic datasets pose great challenges for population structure analysis. The Tracy-Widom (TW statistical test is widely used for detecting structure. However, it has not been adequately investigated whether the TW statistic is susceptible to type I error, especially in large, complex datasets. Non-parametric, Principal Component Analysis (PCA based methods for resolving structure have been developed which rely on the TW test. Although PCA-based methods can resolve structure, they cannot infer ancestry. Model-based methods are still needed for ancestry analysis, but they are not suitable for large datasets. We propose a new structure analysis framework for large datasets. This includes a new heuristic for detecting structure and incorporation of the structure patterns inferred by a PCA method to complement STRUCTURE analysis. Results A new heuristic called EigenDev for detecting population structure is presented. When tested on simulated data, this heuristic is robust to sample size. In contrast, the TW statistic was found to be susceptible to type I error, especially for large population samples. EigenDev is thus better-suited for analysis of large datasets containing many individuals, in which spurious patterns are likely to exist and could be incorrectly interpreted as population stratification. EigenDev was applied to the iterative pruning PCA (ipPCA method, which resolves the underlying subpopulations. This subpopulation information was used to supervise STRUCTURE analysis to infer patterns of ancestry at an unprecedented level of resolution. To validate the new approach, a bovine and a large human genetic dataset (3945 individuals were analyzed. We found new ancestry patterns consistent with the subpopulations resolved by ipPCA. Conclusions The EigenDev heuristic is robust to sampling and is thus superior for detecting structure in large datasets. The application of EigenDev to

  20. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  1. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  2. Acoustic and economic analysis of the use of palm tree pruning waste in noise barriers to mitigate the environmental impact of motorways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lopez, Tomas; Medina-Molina, Manuel; Verdu-Vazquez, Amparo; Martel-Rodriguez, Basilio

    2017-04-15

    This research has a twofold environmental benefit. On the one hand, there is the recycling of a waste by-product and, on the other hand, the reduction of traffic noise pollution levels. The objective of this study is to determine and evaluate the use of a mixture of shredded palm tree pruning waste with dampened topsoil in the construction of noise barriers. With a view to efficiently recycling pruning waste and using an environmentally-friendly material which does not pose any environmental risks at the end of its useful life, the composition offering the best sound absorption has been analyzed. Based on the results obtained, a completely eco-friendly roadside noise barrier (RNB) 1:1 scale model was built, and noise levels measured at various points close to it. Significant sound absorption benefits were detected, not only in the shaded area behind the barrier, but also in the unprotected area immediately above the barrier. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of both the construction and recycling processes has been calculated.

  3. Effect of Leucaena leucocephala prunings on weight gain of piglets%等高固氮植物篱刈割枝叶养猪试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炎周; 袁远亮; 唐亚

    2001-01-01

    作为一种豆科固氮植物篱树种,新银合欢的枝叶是一种较优良的青饲料,可代替部分玉米和红薯藤喂育肥猪,在饲料学上具有很大的发展潜力,从而为等高固氮植物篱的综合利用增加了一条新途径。表3,参7。%Two experiments on using Leucaena leucocephala prnings as addition to feed piglets were carried out in Ningnan in winter and summer, respectively. The average weekly weight increases is 0.8 kg-l.45 kg in winter and 0.90 kg in summer for the piglets fed with addition of 20% - 25% of Leucaena leucocephala prunings to the basic daily feed, while it is 0.78 kg-1.37 kg and 0.85 kg for the piglets fed with basic daily feed only. The results indicate that Leucaena leucocephala prunings can be added to pig feeding.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF TCF BLEACHING OF OLIVE TREE PRUNING RESIDUE PULP BY ADDITION OF A LACCASE AND/OR XYLANASE PRE-TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martín-Sampedro,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the biobleachability of soda pulps obtained from olive tree pruning residue. The enzymatic (LMS pre-treatment was applied prior to a simple totally chlorine free (TCF bleaching sequence, consisting of an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide stage. Additionally, the effect of adding xylanase jointly with or prior to LMS was evaluated. All of these enzymatic pre-treatments were associated with an enhancement of the bleaching sequence. The best results were found when both enzymes were applied in the same stage: lowest hydrogen peroxide consumption (63 percent; kappa number, 11.6; brightness, 46 percent ISO. The mechanical properties observed were similar to those reported by other authors who have studied pulps from olive tree pruning residue. Finally, bleached pulps were subjected to accelerated ageing in order to assess the evolution of brightness and colorimetric properties. Although biobleached pulps showed lower stability upon ageing, the best optical properties, even after ageing, were observed in pulps treated with both xylanase and laccase.

  5. Evaluating Lignin-Rich Residues from Biochemical Ethanol Production of Wheat Straw and Olive Tree Pruning by FTIR and 2D-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-rich residues from the cellulose-based industry are traditionally incinerated for internal energy use. The future biorefineries that convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels will generate more lignin than necessary for internal energy use, and therefore value-added products from lignin could be produced. In this context, a good understanding of lignin is necessary prior to its valorization. The present study focused on the characterization of lignin-rich residues from biochemical ethanol production, including steam explosion, saccharification, and fermentation, of wheat straw and olive tree pruning. In addition to the composition and purity, the lignin structures (S/G ratio, interunit linkages were investigated by spectroscopy techniques such as FTIR and 2D-NMR. Together with the high lignin content, both residues contained significant amounts of carbohydrates, mainly glucose and protein. Wheat straw lignin showed a very low S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate, whereas a strong predominance of S over G units was observed for olive tree pruning lignin. The main interunit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4′ ethers followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans. These structural characteristics determine the use of these lignins in respect to their valorization.

  6. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  7. Prune or cut down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Rojo Arjona, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In The Economics of Rights, Co-operation and Welfare (1986), Robert Sugden follows the tradition from Thomas Schelling and David Lewis in ascribing a central role to the notion of salience within his theory of convention. However, against this, Bruno Verbeek (Instrumental rationality...

  8. Effects of Pruning Methods on Physiological Characteristics of Walnut%修剪方式对核桃生理特性影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美美; 马华冰; 任俊杰; 陈利英; 齐国辉; 张雪梅; 李保国

    2015-01-01

    以10年生早实核桃‘绿岭,为对象,研究了重回缩、拉枝、重回缩结合拉枝,以及自然生长对树干液流速率、液流通量、水势、净光合速率、蒸腾速率、水分利用效率及果实产量和品质的影响.结果表明,重回缩、拉枝、既重回缩又拉枝和放任生长4种修剪方式下树体整个生长季的液流通量分别为0.58、1.04、0.64L·h-1和0.95L·h-1,液流速率分别为4.61、7.52、5.19 cm·h-1和7.35cm·h-1,液流速率和液流通量均以拉枝的最大;叶水势分别为-1.153、-1.267、-1.068 MPa和-1.317 MPa,以既重回缩又拉枝的水势最高;净光合速率分别为2.19、2.50、3.25 μmol·m-2·s-1和1.45 μmol·m-2·s-1;株产分别为2.94、3.51、3.53 kg和2.21 kg,以既重回缩又拉枝处理的产量最高;核桃脂肪含量分别为65.43%、67.55%、68.52%和64.77%,总蛋白含量分别为20.68%、21.23%、21.77%和19.83%,可溶性蛋白含量分别为2.16%、2.23%、2.27%和2.11%,3项指标均以既重回缩又拉枝处理最高.%In order to determine an appropriate pruning method of adult precocious walnut trees,10 a walnut trees of ‘Lvling' were used as materials to study sap flow velocity,sap flow flux,leaf water potential,net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,water use efficiency,yield and fruit quality of four pruning methods (heavy cutting-back,bending branch,heavy cutting-back with bending branch and natural pruning) in 2013.The results showed that the sap flow velocity of these four pruning methods were 4.61,7.52,5.19 cm · h-1 and 7.35 cm · h-1,respectively,and sap flow flux of them were 0.58,1.04,0.64,0.95 L · h-1,respectively,and sap flow velocity and flux of bending branch were the biggest among all the treatments; leaf water potential of these four pruning treatments were-1.153、-1.267、-1.068 MPa and -1.317 MPa,respectively,and that of heavy cutting-back with bending branch was the biggest; net photosynthetic rate of them were 2

  9. 大樱桃壮旺幼树不同修剪方法和促花技术试验1)%Cherry Strong Saplings of Different Pruning Methods and Promoting Blossom Test Conclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红伟; 王小耐; 丁米田; 张国泰; 王云涛

    2014-01-01

    in order to study the effect of Pruning on Cherry high-yield ,Luoyang Academy of agriculture and forestry large cherry group by dilute pruning test plantation and close planting garden cherry Strong saplings ,clear long pruning method can save labor ,is conducive to the tree growth ,flowering early ,high producing strain ,cherry cultivation especially suitable for close planting garden .Began to use the long pruning trees ,close planting garden big cherry trees should be in 2-3 years old ,sparse Park cherry trees should be in strains from 1 .5-2m thick were cut on the pruning method is suitable for the enlarged crown and earlier results of big cherry Strong saplings .Cutting back pruning method for pruning amount is large ,is not conducive to large cherry Strong sapling grow th ,results of late ,strains producing low ,and Fei Gong ,but still apply to slow growth after planting trees or weak trees .Carved bud branch foliage branch number were increased ,bouquet spur increase .Long branch flowering rate and lower leaves after topping the flower branch rate increases obviously .%为了研究整形修剪对大樱桃早期丰产的影响,通过稀植园和密植园大樱桃壮旺幼树的修剪试验,明确长放修剪方法可节省用工,有利于树体生育,成花早、株产高,尤其适用于密植园的大樱桃栽培。开始采用长放修剪的树龄,密植园大樱桃树宜在2~3年生,稀植园樱桃树宜在株间粗距1.5~2m时进行,截放修剪方法适用于即需扩冠又要较早结果的大樱桃壮旺幼树。短截修剪方法修剪量大,不利于大樱桃壮旺幼树的生长发育,结果晚,株产低,且费工,但对栽后缓苗期树或衰弱树还是适用的。刻芽枝条上叶丛枝数量明显增加,花束状果枝增加。摘心的长枝花枝率和后下部叶丛枝的花枝率明显增加。

  10. Research on Pruning Algorithm in Neural Networks Based on Kalman Filter%基于卡尔曼滤波的神经网络修剪算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 刘衍珩; 吕荣

    2009-01-01

    传统的BP神经网络在应用的过程中,常常面临无法确定合适的网络节点问题.网络规模小,则运算时间长;而网络规模过大,容易产生过学习现象,影响泛化能力.在传统的BP神经网络学习的基础上,采用卡尔曼滤波箅法对神经网络中的权值向量进行修剪,实现对神经网络结构的简化,提高泛化能力.它不同于以往的边修剪、边训练,而是在神经网络一次完整的学习完成之后,一次性修剪.方法在入侵检测数据集测试中表明,修剪比例较高,精确度好,修剪完成的网络能够很好地保持修剪前的测试识别率,提高了学习速度和泛化能力.%In the application of traditional BP neural networks, a problem often faced is how to determine the appropriate numbers of the neurons. If the scale of the network is too small, it will cause long training time. On the contrary, if the scale is too big, the networks will lead to over fitting which plays an important role to generalization ability of NN. In this paper, a Kalman Filter algorithm is applied to prune the weights of Neural Networks in order to improve the speed of learning and the generalization ability of Neural Networks. Compared with traditional pruning algorithm, this method is different. While the traditional pruning algorithm prunes while training, this method prunes the weights after a complete training. Tests in IDS dataset show that Kalman Filter algorithm can prune with a higher rate and accuracy. Furthermore, the pruned Neural Networks can keep the detection rate of unpruned ones.

  11. Virtual Interactive Pruning Operation on Fruit Tree Based on Unity 3 D%基于Unity 3D果树交互虚拟修剪技术及其实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕萌萌; 郭新宇; 陆声链; 吴建伟

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of pruning test in real fruit tree are irreversible defects , high cost , and difficult to fast rendering of pruning .A virtual pruning method of fruit tree which based on Unity 3 D virtual reality is proposed .First , fruit morphology data was achieved through three-dimensional scanning , then, using Unity3D to create a virtual orchard , and selecting trim points of the branches by Ray picked algorithm .If selected correctly , according to pruning rules , vir-tual scissors appeared and pruned objects.Finally , citrus , were as an example , to achieve use of virtual scissors to simu -late blossom and fruit thinning and fruit picking .Experiment results show that this method can simulate the visual image of fruit tree pruning process .What’ s more, it is in line with the real operation manual pruning and has a natural tree sense .It has good practical value in teaching and research .%针对真实果树进行修剪试验存在不可逆性、成本高、修剪效果难以快速呈现等缺点,将Unity3D虚拟现实技术应用到果树的枝、叶、花等修剪模拟。首先通过三维扫描仪获取果树形态数据;然后三维重建得到模型导入unity创建虚拟果园;利用射线拾取算法鼠标可以拾取果树枝条上设置的修剪点,由修剪规则判断若修剪点选取正确,出现“虚拟剪刀”,并利用包围盒层次法进行碰撞检测以修剪动画的方式剪掉拾取对象。以单株柑橘为例,模拟了其某枝条疏花疏果及果实采摘交互修剪过程。实验结果表明,该方法能直观形象地模拟果树修剪过程,符合真实的人工修剪操作,树木真实感较好,对果树修剪的教学和研究有较好的实用价值。

  12. Developmental expression profiles of axon guidance signaling and the immune system in the marmoset cortex: potential molecular mechanisms of pruning of dendritic spines during primate synapse formation in late infancy and prepuberty (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Oga, Tomofumi; Nakagaki, Keiko; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Sumida, Kayo; Hoshino, Kohei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Saito, Koichi; Suto, Fumikazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-02-14

    The synapse number and the related dendritic spine number in the cerebral cortex of primates shows a rapid increase after birth. Depending on the brain region and species, the number of synapses reaches a peak before adulthood, and pruning takes place after this peak (overshoot-type synaptic formation). Human mental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, are hypothesized to be a result of either too weak or excessive pruning after the peak is reached. Thus, it is important to study the molecular mechanisms underlying overshoot-type synaptic formation, particularly the pruning phase. To examine the molecular mechanisms, we used common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Microarray analysis of the marmoset cortex was performed in the ventrolateral prefrontal, inferior temporal, and primary visual cortices, where changes in the number of dendritic spines have been observed. The spine number of all the brain regions above showed a peak at 3 months (3 M) after birth and gradually decreased (e.g., at 6 M and in adults). In this study, we focused on genes that showed differential expression between ages of 3 M and 6 M and on the differences whose fold change (FC) was greater than 1.2. The selected genes were subjected to canonical pathway analysis, and in this study, we describe axon guidance signaling, which had high plausibility. The results showed a large number of genes belonging to subsystems within the axon guidance signaling pathway, macrophages/immune system, glutamate system, and others. We divided the data and discussion of these results into 2 papers, and this is the first paper, which deals with the axon guidance signaling and macrophage/immune system. Other systems will be described in the next paper. Many components of subsystems within the axon guidance signaling underwent changes in gene expression from 3 M to 6 M so that the synapse/dendritic spine number would decrease at 6 M. Thus, axon guidance signaling probably contributes to the decrease in

  13. O pessegueiro no sistema de pomar compacto: III. Épocas de poda drástica na diferenciação floral The peach meadow orchards: III. Time of drastic pruning on floral differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se, na região de Jundiaí, SP (23°8'S, a influência das épocas de poda drástica na diferenciação floral dos pessegueiros Tropical' e 'Aurora-2', conduzidos em alta densidade de plantio (1.667 plantas por hectare. Realizaram-se tais podas em 30 de setembro, 30 de outubro e 30 de novembro de 1986. Coletaram-se as gemas para análise mensalmente, a partir do 30° dia da poda: constatou-se, através de cortes histológicos das gemas, que a poda drástica precoce, de 30 de setembro, não prejudicou a diferenciação floral dos pessegueiros, que se iniciou em fevereiro, a cerca de cinco meses da decepa; em abril, a maioria das gemas de flancos encontrava-se com as sépalas, as pétalas, os estames e o pistilo completamente formados. As demais épocas de poda interferiram no processo de diferenciação floral, reduzindo o número de botões florais e, conseqüentemente, a densidade florífera das plantas. Nos pessegueiros conduzidos com poda normal, a organogênese floral, processada no início do verão (dezembro-janeiro, persistiu até o outono (abril.This paper reports the effect of three different dates of severe pruning on floral differentiation of peach trees of the cultivars Tropical and Aurora-2, conducted on a meadow orchards system. The peach trees were pruned in 1986, at the 30th day of September, October and November. The experimental plots were located at the Experiment Station of Jundiaí, (23º08'S, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The lateral buds of the peach tree branches were first collected for analysis at the 30th day after pruning and on a monthly basis afterwards. Through histological studies made on longitudinal sections of the buds, it was observed that the severe pruning of September 30th, did not change the peach tree reproductive development The floral differentiation began in February, i. e., five months after pruning and produced sequentially: the petals, sepals, stamens and

  14. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in agriculture land, which is a world-wide problem (Cerdà et al., 2009; Novara et al., 2011; Biwas et al., 2015, Colazo and Buschiazzo, 2015; Ligonja and Shrestha, 2015). High erosion rates result in the loss of soil and also changes the hydrological, erosional, biological, and geochemical cycles (Keesstra et al., 2012; Berendse et al., 2015; Decock et al., 2015; Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). Thus, there is a need to reduce the soil losses to achieve soil sustainability. However, although some findings show that straw, geotextiles, vegetation cover and tillage reduction are efficient strategies (Gimenez Morera et al., 2010; Cerdà et al., 2015; Lieskovský and Kenderessy, 2014; Taguas et al., 2015) there is still a need to find easy strategies for farmers to adopt in their fields that will protect, and also recover, their soils. Chipped branches are usually burned in many orchards to remove them from the fields. However, when they would be chipped and spread on the fields, they can be a source of organic matter, and in addition this might reduce soil losses and improve the water retention capacity of the soils (Mukherjee et al., 2014; Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). The hypothesis is that the chipped branches reduce soil loss. To test this hypothesis we selected 3 study sites in which chipped branches were applied, and paired sites with bare soil to check the changes introduced by the chipped branches on the soils. We selected 3 sites of the Cànyoles river watershed (Montesa municipality), SW Spain, with 10 plots in each site. At each site, 10 rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Paired plots were selected in the nearby (less than 10 m in distance) orchard where the pruned branches were removed. Then, 60 rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour were carried out in small 0.25 m2 plots to determine the soil particle detachment. The results show that in all

  15. Research and Improvement of Decision Tree's Prune Algorithm%决策树剪枝算法的研究与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道国; 苗夺谦; 俞冰

    2005-01-01

    Failure-node prune(FNP)剪枝算法是在深入分析和研究人工智能机器学习中ID3算法的基础上,提出的一种新的剪枝算法.通过采用CMU的4个具有典型特征的数据库对ID3算法、Expected-error prune剪枝算法和Failure-node prune剪枝算法进行实验对比分析,结果表明,Failure-node prune剪枝算法对于不完整的、不确定的、规模大的数据集有更好的剪枝效果, 具有一定的应用价值.

  16. Effects of Pruning on Growth Performance of Plantations of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv%修枝对樟子松人工林生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延文

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied 25-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv plantations in Saihanba forest center by using the method of sample plot investigation to tally,and then analyzed and compared. The re-sults indicate artificial pruning can promote the growth of DBH,however,he tree height is not affected.%以塞罕坝机械林场境内的25a生樟子松人工林为研究对象,用标准地调查法对其进行每木检尺,并进行分析比较。结果表明,人工修枝可以促进樟子松人工林胸径的生长,但不影响其树高的生长。

  17. 立架种植葡萄修剪机的研制与展望%Development and Prospect of Vertical planting grape Pruning Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿尔孜古丽·吾买尔

    2016-01-01

    结合新疆葡萄园的种植模式特点,设计了一种往复式葡萄修剪机,可以解决劳动生产的耗费时间长,人工成本高,作业量大等问题,以来提高葡萄产业的竞争优势。并对往复式葡萄修剪机提出了一种方案设计,使往复式修剪机不仅可以用于葡萄园的修剪,也可以用于其他果园和园林的修剪和整形,具有很好的社会效益和经济效益,可以得到很大的推广。%Combining with the characteristics of the planting patterns of the vineyard in Xinjiang,this paper designs a recip-rocating grape trimmer which can solve problems such as long labor production time,high labor costs,huge homework and so on to improve the competitive advantage of the grape industry.In this paper,a kind of scheme design for the reciprocating grape pruning machine is put forward,reciprocating cutting machine not only can be used for the trim of the vineyard,but also can be used for other pruning and shaping of orchards and gardens, which has very good social benefit and economic benefit.

  18. 火龙果栽培的整形修剪技术%The Trimming and Pruning Technology of Pitaya Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷业理

    2014-01-01

    整形修剪是火龙果栽培关键技术之一,由于缺乏规范化的技术指导,果农操作的随意性很大,对产量和品质产生了不利的影响,影响了火龙果栽培技术的推广应用。该文以实践经验为基础,全面阐述了整形修剪的作用和注意事项,规范了操作程序,方法具体,标准量化,具有很强的可操作性,便于果农正确掌握,对发展火龙果生产具有实际指导意义。%The trimming and pruning is one of the key technology of Pitaya cultivation. Due to lack of stan-dardization of technical guidance,fruit farmers use different methods to plant Pitaya,which make the nega-tive impact on improving the yield and quality of Pitaya's produce,meanwhile,the non-standard plant tech-nology also affects the promotion and application of the Pitaya's cultivation technology. Based on the practi-cal experience,the paper comprehensively presents the functions and the precautions of trimming and prun-ing and standardizes the operating procedures. The technology is concrete and has quantitative standard and strong operability. It's also easy for fruit farmers to master the technology. The paper has a practical guiding significance to the production of the Pitaya.

  19. Intensidade de poda verde em pessegueiro para controle da ferrugem Tranzschelia discolor (Fuckel Tranzschel e Litvinov Rust Tranzschelia discolor (Fuckel Tranzschel and Litvinov control by green pruning in peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar o controle da ferrugem [Tranzschelia discolor (Fuckel Tranzschel e Litvinov] em pessegueiro 'Flordaprince' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch], duas intensidades de poda verde foram realizadas aos 45 dias após a colheita: poda leve e poda de renovação. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ-USP, em Piracicaba-SP, entre novembro de 2004 e janeiro de 2005. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com dois tratamentos e doze réplicas. A parcela experimental correspondeu a duas plantas em espaçamento 3,0 x 1,2 m e conduzidas sob sistema de líder central. A avaliação de incidência e severidade de ferrugem foi realizada em folhas de quatro brotações por parcela, sendo duas por planta. As avaliações foram conduzidas de 33 a 81 dias após a poda verde, em intervalos de sete dias, utilizando-se de escala diagramática adaptada para a ferrugem. Os dados referentes à incidência e severidade de ferrugem foram submetidos, respectivamente, ao teste exato de Fisher e ao teste de Wilcoxon. A incidência e a severidade de ferrugem aumentaram com a idade das folhas, independentemente do tipo de poda verde empregada, atingindo, respectivamente, 81,95% das folhas e 1,43% de área foliar lesionada, aos 81 dias após a poda verde. A poda de renovação não reduziu os níveis de ferrugem em pessegueiro 'Flordaprince' em relação à poda leve, a partir dos 40 dias após a poda verde.Rust [Tranzschelia discolor (Fuckel Tranzschel and Litvinov] control in peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] cultivar 'Flordaprince' was evaluated through the use of two green pruning levels performed 45 days after harvest: light pruning and renovation pruning. Experimental works were conducted at University of São Paulo, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, from November 2004 to January 2005. Experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and 12 replicates

  20. 桃树修剪分枝模式的模拟%Modeling the Branching Patterns of Peach Tree Branches (Prunus persica) After Being Pruned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁; 李保国; 邓西民; 郭焱

    2004-01-01

    在不同修剪手法下,对栽培桃树(Prunuspersica(L.)Batsch)不同母枝上的分枝模式进行了比较研究.从分枝模式来看:修剪后的母枝基本由3个不同的区域组成,基部是不萌发的潜伏芽形成的未分枝区域;中部是延迟分枝和多次分枝组成的分枝区域(主要的枝条类型有短枝、长枝和多次枝);顶部是被剪除的部分.我们通过隐式半马尔可夫模型来模拟这一分枝模式,主要是定量描述1次枝和多次枝在母枝上的数量及其分布状况.在上述模型中,未分枝区、延迟分枝区和多次分枝区称为瞬时态,被剪除的部分称为吸收态.模拟的结果与观察的结果进行对比后发现,两者具有很好的一致性.这说明隐式半马尔可夫模型是模拟植物分枝过程的一种有效方法,尽管隐式半马尔可夫链模型只是一个描述性的模型,但仍能对其所描述的生物现象进行解释,在预测修剪手法对母枝分枝模式影响方面比传统的方法具有明显的优势.本研究结果是建立三维虚拟桃树树冠分枝结构的基础.%The shoot branching patterns of the two-year-old branches of peach trees (Prunus parsica (L.) Batsch cv. Elberta) were compared with different pruning measures. The branches were divided into a basal non-branching zone, a proleptic branching zone, a sylleptic branching zone and the part removed. We used the hidden semi-Markov model to capture the branching patterns. The final results showed that theoretical probability distributions of diverse lateral shoots of the parent branches calculated on the basis of the parameters of the hidden semi-Markov chain model were in good agreement with probabilities extracted from the observed data. This paper described the quantitative effects of pruning on branching architecture of a parent branch, taking into account of branch morphology. Results suggest that the hidden semi-Markov model could be used as an effective tool to describe the

  1. Effects of Pruning on Fruit Production of Canopy Closured Malus pumila Mill.cv.Fuji Orchard%修剪调节对郁闭苹果园果品生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 张连忠

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过改造郁闭老果园,探讨提高果品质量的途径.[方法]对郁闭红富士苹果果园连续进行了2年的重疏剪和中疏剪处理,测定了果树枝量、透光率、果实着色、硬度以及叶片叶绿素含量、比叶重.[结果]果园第2、3年的总枝量可保持基本不变,枝类组成趋向合理;通风透光条件得到改善,树冠下透光率达25%左右;功能叶中叶绿素含量提高,比叶重增加;重疏剪处理的果树优质果比例可达80%.[结论]通过疏剪方式,可改造郁闭老果园,提高果品生产能力和品质.%[Objective]The research aimed to improve fruit quality of old coverage Fuji apple orchard.[Method] Heavy prune and moderate prune were used in high-density Fuji apple tree. And total shoot biomass,transmittance,toughness of fruit,color of fruit and chlorophyll of leaves were determined in the following two years.[Result] Total shoot biomass was steady and the shoot type of trees was reasonable. Ventilation condition was improved and mean transmittance of tree was enhanced with 25%. The content of chlorophyll was improved and special leaf weight was increased too. The proportion of high quality fruit from heavy pruned trees was higher with 80% than controlled tree.[Conclusion] The technology of pruning not only changed the coverage orchard,but also improved fruit quality and ability of production.

  2. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  3. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  4. Improved sensitivity-analysis based pruning extreme learning machine%改进的灵敏度剪枝极限学习机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜占龙; 李小民; 席雷平; 毛琼

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the structure optimization of the extreme learning machine(ELM), an improved sensitivity-analysis based pruning ELM(ImSAP-ELM) algorithm is proposed. The l2-regularization factor is introduced into the SAP-ELM by using the ImSAP-ELM. The leave-one-out(LOO) criterion is utilized for selecting an appropriate number of hidden neurons. In addition, the computing expression of output weights based on singular value decomposition(SVD) is deduced, which overcomes the problem that computing result is invalid when the matrix is singular. The proposed ImSAP-ELM is applied to fault prediction. Associated with some groups of known fault data under the same fault type, a number of ImSAP-ELM based models are built. All the prediction values from different ImSAP-ELMs are fused with weighted sum. The case study on a certain unmanned aerial vehicle transmitter shows that, comparing with the ELM, the optimally pruned ELM(OP-ELM) and the SAP-ELM, though ImSAP-ELM time consuming is the highest, the prediction error of the ImSAP-ELM is lower than other 3 algorithms.%针对极限学习机(ELM)网络结构优化问题,提出一种改进的灵敏度剪枝ELM (ImSAP-ELM)。 ImSAP-ELM将l2正则化因子引入SAP-ELM中,采用留一准则确定最优隐节点数。推导基于奇异值分解的输出权重计算公式,避免矩阵奇异导致求解无效的问题。将ImSAP-ELM用于故障预测,利用多组同类型故障数据建立多个ImSAP-ELM模型,基于加权思想融合不同ImSAP-ELM的预测值。某型无人机发射机实例表明,相比于ELM、OP-ELM (最优剪枝ELM)和SAP-ELM, ImSAP-ELM耗时最高,但是ImSAP-ELM的预测误差小于其他3种方法。

  5. Design for Clamping and Replacing Device of Pruning Shears%修枝剪刀刀具夹紧更换机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛云; 方珏; 李远

    2013-01-01

    Pruning shears have been widely used in the garden shaping and orchard pruning. In recent years, various types of pruners have been developed both at home and abroad. However, the traditional bolt and nut structure is still used in the clamping structure of the vertical tip. When it is working, the traditional structure presents the following problems: the clamping structure is easy to loosen and it is difficult to clamp again without auxiliary tools after slackness;after long time operation,it is complex to replace the blades and an auxiliary tool is in need, which reduces the operating efficiency. Based to the clamping principle of the circular eccentric mechanism,a circular eccentric clamping ATC is designed, which is suitable for pruners to clamp in the vertical tip. Circular eccentric clamping ATC can effectively solve the above problems. This paper also studies the mechanism of the clamping process and mechanical design to determine the optimum dimensions.%为解决传统剪刀的螺栓紧固结构在换刀及间隙调整方面存在的弊端,本文依据圆偏心机构夹紧原理,以电动修枝剪刀为设计对象,通过对夹紧机理、机构设计进行研究分析,设计出一种适用于修枝剪刀动、定刀快速定位及换刀的圆偏心夹紧换刀机构.该机构能有效解决普通剪刀在修剪作业过程中螺栓松懈后再次夹紧困难、换刀程序繁琐等问题,从而提高作业时夹紧、换刀的速度.本文对设计步骤及计算方法进行了洋细的描述,为电动、气动、液压等机械化修枝剪的紧固换刀装置设计提供理论参考依据.

  6. The Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (SEAP) theory of memory: long term memories grow in complexity during sleep and undergo selection while awake. Clinical, psychopharmacological and creative implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Long term memory (LTM) systems need to be adaptive such that they enhance an organism's reproductive fitness and self-reproducing in order to maintain their complexity of communications over time in the face of entropic loss of information. Traditional 'representation-consolidation' accounts conceptualize memory adaptiveness as due to memories being 'representations' of the environment, and the longevity of memories as due to 'consolidation' processes. The assumption is that memory representations are formed while an animal is awake and interacting with the environment, and these memories are consolidated mainly while the animal is asleep. So the traditional view of memory is 'instructionist' and assumes that information is transferred from the environment into the brain. By contrast, we see memories as arising endogenously within the brain's LTM system mainly during sleep, to create complex but probably maladaptive memories which are then simplified ('pruned') and selected during the awake period. When awake the LTM system is brought into a more intense interaction with past and present experience. Ours is therefore a 'selectionist' account of memory, and could be termed the Sleep Elaboration-Awake Pruning (or SEAP) theory. The SEAP theory explains the longevity of memories in the face of entropy by the tendency for memories to grow in complexity during sleep; and explains the adaptiveness of memory by selection for consistency with perceptions and previous memories during the awake state. Sleep is therefore that behavioural state during which most of the internal processing of the system of LTM occurs; and the reason sleep remains poorly understood is that its primary activity is the expansion of long term memories. By re-conceptualizing the relationship between memory, sleep and the environment; SEAP provides a radically new framework for memory research, with implications for the measurement of memory and the design of empirical investigations in clinical

  7. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  8. High Luminous Efficiency Pruning Technology of Kiwi with Single Branch Supported%猕猴桃单枝上架高光效整形修剪技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春霞; 马凤鸣; 杨红蕾; 洛晓平

    2012-01-01

    Kiwi is a perennial economic plants. The frame shape directly affected the production and quality of kiwi ,and it's the basic guarantee of the kiwi yield ,quality and efficient. In this paper,high luminous efficiency pruning technology of kiwi was introduced ,mainly aiming to the single branch on technology and supporting frame shape ,tree cultivation process and common tree transformation content undertook elaborating of kiwi ,so as to provide the reference for large area to popularize this technology.%猕猴桃是多年生经济植物,架形的优劣直接影响到猕猴桃的产量与品质,是猕猴桃丰产、优质、高效的基本保证。现针对猕猴桃单枝上架技术及配套架形,树形培养过程及常见树形改造等内容进行了阐述,为大面积推广该技术提供参考。

  9. Detoxification of rice straw and olive tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolysates employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Bruno Guedes; Puentes, Juan Gabriel; Mateo, Soledad; Sánchez, Sebastian; Moya, Alberto J; Roberto, Inês Conceição

    2013-10-09

    The aim of this work was to study the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to metabolize a variety of aromatic compounds found in rice straw (RSHH) and olive tree pruning (OTHH) hemicellulosic hydrolysates, obtained by acid hydrolysis at different sugar and toxic compound concentrations. Initially, the hydrolysates were inoculated with S. cerevisiae (10 g L(-1)) and incubated at 30 °C under agitation at 200 rpm for 6 h. The results showed that this yeast was able to utilize phenolic and furan compounds in both hemicellulose hydrolysates. Next, the treated hydrolysates were inoculated with Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 to evaluate the effect of biotransformation of aromatic compounds on ethanol production, and better fermentation results were obtained in this case compared to untreated ones. The untreated hemicellulose hydrolysates were not able to be fermented when they were incubated with Pichia stipitis. However, in RSHH treated hydrolysates, ethanol (Y(P/S)) and biomass (Y(X/S)) yields and volumetric ethanol productivity (Q(P)) were 0.17 g g(-1), 0.15 g g(-1) and 0.09 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The OTHH-treated hydrolysates showed less favorable results compared to RSHH, but the fermentation process was favored with regard to untreated hydrolysate. These results showed that the fermentation by P. stipitis in untreated hydrolysates was strongly inhibited by toxic compounds present in the media and that treatment with S. cerevisiae promoted a significant reduction in their toxicities.

  10. Serological and molecular detection of Prune dwarf virus infecting stone fruits of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, a central region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourolah Soltani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prune dwarf virus (PDV is one of the major positive RNA viruses which cause economical damages in stone fruit trees. The symptoms of PDV vary between different stone fruits namely sour and sweet cherry, almond, peach, apricot and plum including leaf narrowing, leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, mosaic, leaf whitening, leathery leaf, bushy branches and stunt trees. During the years 2011 and 2012, 251 leaf samples were collected for detection of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province. DAS-ELISA test proved PDV presence serologically. Then, total RNA were extracted and tested by two-step RT-PCR which replicated partial and full coat protein sequence of PDV. One hundred and eighty one out of total samples (251 samples showed PDV infection using serological and two-step RT-PCR assays, hence, incidence of PDV in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province was confirmed. This is the first report of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province and in Iran.

  11. Monopodial and sympodial branching architecture in cotton is differentially regulated by the Gossypium hirsutum SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS and SELF-PRUNING orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Roisin C; Prewitt, Sarah F; Culpepper, Samantha; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer; Ayre, Brian G

    2016-10-01

    Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a day-neutral annual row-crop. Residual perennial traits, however, complicate irrigation and crop management, and more determinate architectures are desired. Cotton simultaneously maintains robust monopodial indeterminate shoots and sympodial determinate shoots. We questioned if and how the FLOWERING LOCUS T/SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT)-like and TERMINAL FLOWER1/SELF-PRUNING (SP)-like genes control the balance of monopodial and sympodial growth in a woody perennial with complex growth habit. Virus-based manipulation of GhSP and GhSFT expression enabled unprecedented functional analysis of cotton development. GhSP maintains growth in all apices; in its absence, both monopodial and sympodial branch systems terminate precociously. GhSFT encodes a florigenic signal stimulating rapid onset of sympodial branching and flowering in side shoots of wild photoperiodic and modern day-neutral accessions. High florigen concentrations did not alter monopodial apices, implying that once a cotton apex is SP-determined, it cannot be reset by florigen. GhSP is also essential to establish and maintain cambial activity. Dynamic changes in GhSFT and GhSP levels navigate meristems between monopodial and sympodial programs in a single plant. SFT and SP influenced cotton domestication and are ideal targets for further agricultural optimization.

  12. Síndrome de Prune Belly: cirugía para mejoría estética y reconstrucción abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. León-Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Prune Belly (abdomen en ciruela pasa es una enfermedad congénita rara en la que, además de las manifestaciones genitourinarias, la pared abdominal se ve afectada en todos los pacientes en diferentes grados. Presentamos el caso de un varón con seguimiento de 15 años en el que se realizaron 2 cirugías de pared abdominal: la primera a la edad de 8 años con técnica de Montfort y la última 14 años después para corregir pliegues cutáneos y asimetría abdominal, realizando abdominoplastia con acceso de Grazer con el objetivo de colocar una malla de polipropileno para obtener mejor contención y a la vez mejorar la estética de la pared abdominal. No se presentaron complicaciones en ninguno de los 2 procedimientos y los resultados estéticos obtenidos fueron muy satisfactorios. Ofrecemos una alternativa quirúrgica para el tratamiento de aquellos casos en los que la primera cirugía no resuelve el defecto de pared y la anomalía estética abdominal.

  13. The Control System Design of the Wireless Remote Control Pruning Machine%无线遥控自动立木整枝机机载控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊梅; 柯秋红; 李文彬; 杨锴

    2012-01-01

    Automatic pruning machine is the important equipment for artificial forest pruning thinning replaced the artificial work to do the tree pruning and training. Taking the automatic pruning machine as the control object, a wireless remote control system, which is composed of the Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) and a wireless data transmission module, is designed. The receiving module receives the control command, then CPLD control outputs pulse width modulation signal to drive the two servos, ensuring that the pruning machine works in the desired state. The CPLD chip used in the design is Altera Company's Zero power chip EPM240ZM100, and the receiving module used in the design is the low-power CZS-7B. The circuit has the advantages of simple structure, low power consumption. And after the actual measurement, it is found that the control system of the normal operating current is only 50mA.%自动立木整枝机是人工林整枝抚育的重要设备,用于替代人工完成对树木的修剪和整枝工作.本文以自动立木整枝机为控制对象,设计了由复杂可编程逻辑器件和无线数据传输模块构成的无线遥控接收系统,通过接收模块接收控制命令、控制输出脉冲宽度调制信号驱动两路舵机,确保整枝机工作在所需的状态.本设计中所使用的复杂可编程逻辑器件芯片为Altera公司的零功耗芯片EPM240ZM100,电路结构简单,功耗低,经实测,整个控制系统的正常工作电流仅为50mA,可靠遥控距离为45m.

  14. Resultados experimentais relativos à poda da figueira, variedade roxo de Valinhos Results of a pruning trial for the roxo de valinhos fig variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Rigitano

    1957-01-01

    ção permitiram verificar que o pêso dos figos maduros diminui quando aumenta o número de ramos da copa. Em 1954 o peso médio dos figos produzidos nas plantas de 10, 20, 30 e 40 ramos foi, respectivamente: 65,5, 63,7, 59,7 e 60,0 g. d Não se verificaram diferenças acentuadas entre os pesos dos ramos cortados, nos quatro tipos de copa; as médias observadas nas podas de 1953 e de 1954, para as figueiras de 10, 20, 30 e 40 ramos, foram respectivamente: 5,3, 5,2, 4,7 e 5,4 kg por planta. e Verificou-se uma tendência para os figos amadurecerem mais precocemente nas plantas deixadas com maior número de ramos. Na primeira década de janeiro de 1954 - período correspondente às maiores colheitas dos tratamentos 2, 3 e 4 - as plantas deixadas com 10, 20, 30 e 40 ramos mostraram, respectivamente, as seguintes porcentagens de figos colhidos em relação à produção total do tratamento: 12,9, 21,2, 31,7 e 36,8; ao passo que na última década de fevereiro - período correspondente às maiores colheitas do tratamento 1 - foram as seguintes as porcentagens respectivamente verificadas: 18,7, 12,3, 9,4 e 9,5. f Nas condições da experiência o tipo de copa mais vantajoso à produção de figos maduros parece encontrar-se entre os de 15 a 25 ramos por planta, enquanto para a produção de figos verdes destinados às fábricas de doces, entre os de 25 a 35 ramos. Entretanto, a adoção de tipos de copa com maior número de ramos do que o usual acarreta certas modificações, como: diminuição do tamanho dos figos, antecipação das colheitas, aumento de despesas com pulverizações e adubações, as quais sugerem várias considerações econômicas. Complexos como são os problemas econômicos, pela dependência em que se acham de numerosos fatôres, não se podem estabelecer regras fixas. Em última análise, é o próprio fruticultor quem decidirá o melhor caminho a seguir, de posse das informações aqui relatadas.Four pruning methods were compared during 4 consecutive years at

  15. Comparison between bioconcentration factor (BCF) data provided by industry to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and data derived from QSAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoumenou, Maria I; Pizzo, Fabiola; Cester, Josep; Fernández, Alberto; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding environment at steady state. It is a valuable indicator of the bioaccumulation potential of a substance. BCF is an essential environmental property required for regulatory purposes within the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and Globally Harmonized System (GHS) regulations. In silico models for predicting BCF can facilitate the risk assessment for aquatic toxicology and reduce the cost and number of animals used. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of BCF data derived from the dossiers of registered chemicals submitted to the European Chemical Agency (ECHA) with the results of a battery of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR). After data pruning, statistical analysis was performed using the predictions of the selected models. Results in terms of R(2) had low rating around 0.5 for the pruned dataset. The use of the model applicability domain index (ADI) led to an improvement of the performance for compounds falling within it. The variability of the experimental data and the use of different parameters to define the applicability domain can influence the performance of each model. All available information should be adapted to the requirements of the regulation to obtain a safe decision.

  16. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  17. Evolution of organic matter fractions after application of co-compost of sewage sludge with pruning waste to four Mediterranean agricultural soils. A soil microcosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lomas, A L; Delgado, G; Párraga, J; Delgado, R; Almendros, G; Aranda, V

    2010-10-01

    The effect of co-compost application from sewage sludge and pruning waste, on quality and quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four Mediterranean agricultural soils (South Spain), was studied in soil microcosm conditions. Control soil samples (no co-compost addition) and soils treated with co-composts to a rate equivalent of 140 Mg ha(-1) were incubated for 90 days at two temperatures: 5 and 35 degrees C. The significances of incubation temperature and the addition of co-compost, on the evolution of the different fractions of SOC, were studied using a 2(3) factorial design. The co-compost amendment increased the amounts of humic fractions: humic acids (HA) (1.9 times), fulvic acids (FA) (3.3 times), humin (1.5 times), as well as the free organic matter (1.4 times) and free lipids (21.8 times). Incubation of the soils enhanced its biological activity mainly in the amended soils and at 35 degrees C, leading to progressive SOC mineralization and humification, concomitant to the preferential accumulation of HA. The incubation results show large differences depending on temperature and soil types. This fact allows us to select suitable organic amendment for the soil when a rapid increase in nutrients through mineralization is preferred, or in cases intending the stabilization and preservation of the SOC through a process of humification. In soils with HA of more than 5 E(4)/E(6) ratio, the incubation temperature increased rates of mineralization and humification, whereas lower temperatures limited the extent of both processes. In these soils the addition of co-compost in spring or summer is the most recommendable. In soils with HA of lower E(4)/E(6) ratio (compost. The results suggest that proper recommendations for optimum organic matter evolution after soil amendment is possible after considering a small set of characteristics of soil and the corresponding soil organic matter fractions, in particular HA.

  18. Effect of citric acid on metals mobility in pruning wastes and biosolids compost and metals uptake in Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Y; Eymar, E; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A

    2013-05-01

    To assess metal mobility in pruning waste and biosolids compost (pH 6.9 and total concentration of metals in milligram per kilogram of Cd 1.9, Cu 132, Fe 8,513, Mn 192, Pb 81, and Zn 313), shrubs species Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis were transplanted in this substrate and irrigated with citric acid (4 g L(-1), pH 2.9) and nutrient solution daily for 60 days. Citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of soluble Mn and Fe in the nutrient substrate solution measured by suction probes, while other metals did not vary in concentration (Cu and Zn) or were not observed at detectable levels (Cd and Pb). In plants, citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of Cu (2.7 ± 0.1-3.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1)), Fe (49.2 ± 5.2-76.8 ± 6.8 mg kg(-1)), and Mn (7.2 ± 1.1-11.4 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1)) in leaves of R. officinalis, whereas the concentration of only Mn (25.4 ± 0.3-42.2 ± 2.9 mg kg(-1)) was increased in A. halimus. Increasing Fe and Mn solubility by citric acid addition indicates the possibility of using it to improve plant nutrition. The mobility of metals in this substrate was influenced for the concentration of the metal, the degree of humification of organic matter and its high Fe content.

  19. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  20. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  1. 蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及整枝留果方式试验%Experiment of Plant Density and Fruit Pruning and Rentention Mothds of Mitong Small Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琪玖

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present work was to study plant density and fruit pruning and rentention mothds of Mitong seedless watermelon, the design of two factors were randomly divided into 4 groups, repeated 3 times, residential area of 15 m2 with a total of A and B factors. The results showed that optimum group of A2B4 with 400 plant/667 m2, the yield were to 5 818.47 kg by the mothds of 5 climbing and fruits pruning. We may conclude that plant density is the main factors effecting the fruit yield, the best combination of plant density and fruit pruning to stay is an important regulator of the factors to ob-tain high yield.%对蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及留瓜方式进行试验,采用复因素随机区组试验设计,重复3次,小区面积15 m2,设A、B共2个因素(各4个处理).结果表明:最优的处理为A284,即定植密度为400株/667 m2,采用5蔓留5果的整枝方式,产量达到5 818.47 kg.试验中密度是影响产量的主导因素,密度和整枝留果的最佳组合是获取高产重要调节因素.

  2. Learning to predict chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayala, Matthew A; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe; Chen, Jonathan H; Baldi, Pierre

    2011-09-26

    Being able to predict the course of arbitrary chemical reactions is essential to the theory and applications of organic chemistry. Approaches to the reaction prediction problems can be organized around three poles corresponding to: (1) physical laws; (2) rule-based expert systems; and (3) inductive machine learning. Previous approaches at these poles, respectively, are not high throughput, are not generalizable or scalable, and lack sufficient data and structure to be implemented. We propose a new approach to reaction prediction utilizing elements from each pole. Using a physically inspired conceptualization, we describe single mechanistic reactions as interactions between coarse approximations of molecular orbitals (MOs) and use topological and physicochemical attributes as descriptors. Using an existing rule-based system (Reaction Explorer), we derive a restricted chemistry data set consisting of 1630 full multistep reactions with 2358 distinct starting materials and intermediates, associated with 2989 productive mechanistic steps and 6.14 million unproductive mechanistic steps. And from machine learning, we pose identifying productive mechanistic steps as a statistical ranking, information retrieval problem: given a set of reactants and a description of conditions, learn a ranking model over potential filled-to-unfilled MO interactions such that the top-ranked mechanistic steps yield the major products. The machine learning implementation follows a two-stage approach, in which we first train atom level reactivity filters to prune 94.00% of nonproductive reactions with a 0.01% error rate. Then, we train an ensemble of ranking models on pairs of interacting MOs to learn a relative productivity function over mechanistic steps in a given system. Without the use of explicit transformation patterns, the ensemble perfectly ranks the productive mechanism at the top 89.05% of the time, rising to 99.86% of the time when the top four are considered. Furthermore, the system

  3. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. (Lauraceae in the Central Amazon Produção de biomassa e rendimento de óleo essencial de folhas, galhos finos e rebrotas utilizando poda da copa de Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. (Lauraceae na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pellegrini Manhães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the remaining crown and the resprouts were collected, in the dry season. The results showed that the essential oil yield and chemical composition differed among the stems, leaves and resprouts. The stems' essential oil production differed between the seasons and had a higher production in the resprouting stems than the old stems of the remaining crown. The production of essential oil and leaf biomass of resprouts were differently related to the canopy openness, indicating that light increases the production of the essential oil and decreases the biomass of resprouting leaves. This study revealed that plant organs differ in their essential oil production and that the canopy openness must be taken into account when pruning the A. canelilla tree crown in order to achieve higher oil productivity.Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. Mez. é uma espécie arbórea da Amazônia que produz óleo essencial. A extração do óleo de suas folhas e galhos pode ser uma forma alternativa de evitar a derrubada do tronco para sua produção de óleo essencial. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores que podem influenciar a produção de óleo essencial e sua biomassa da rebrota após a poda de folhas e galhos das árvores de A. canelilla. As copas das árvores foram podadas na estação chuvosa e, após nove meses, as folhas e os galhos da copa remanescente e da rebrota foram coletadas na estação seca. Os resultados mostraram que o rendimento e a composição química de

  4. Effect of Root Pruning on the Quality and Yield of Apple Tree%根系修剪对苹果树产量及品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯国友

    2014-01-01

    以10a生苹果树为试验材料,研究了不同时期的根系修剪对苹果树生长的影响。结果表明,秋季根剪的果实品质与对照相比,在果实可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、维生素C含量、果皮花青苷方面提高最为明显;萌芽期根剪在改善果形指数、果肉硬度方面优于其它处理;花后根剪更有利于提高产量。%In this experiment,10-year-old apple material impact on apple's growth by pruning of roots in different periods.The result showed that,autumn root cut fruit quality compared with the control,in soluble solids,titratable acidity,vitamin C content of anthocyanin improve the most obvious aspects;budding root shears improve fruit shape index,flesh firmness surface than other treatments;post-anthesis root pruning was more conducive to increase production.

  5. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  6. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  7. 沙地生境和平茬年限对沙柳叶功能特征的影响%Effects of sandy land water habitat and years after rejuvenation pruning on leaf functional traits of Salix psammophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍萍; 李秧秧; 邵明安

    2011-01-01

    研究了毛乌素沙地南缘水滨边丘间地和干旱丘顶两种生境下沙柳平茬后不同年限(1、2、3~4和5~6年)对沙柳叶片光合气体交换、水分利用效率、结构特性及氮、磷养分含量等叶功能特征的影响.结果表明:水滨边丘间地沙柳叶片的净光合速率、气孔导度、瞬时和长期水分利用效率均高于丘顶,但N、P养分含量低于丘顶;两种生境下沙柳的叶结构性状无显著差异.干旱生境下沙柳主要通过增加养分含量、降低光合和水分利用来生存.随平茬年限增加,叶片净光合速率和气孔导度显著下降,氮含量和瞬时水分利用效率亦呈下降趋势,且二者之间呈显著正相关;平茬后1年的叶面积最高,比叶质量和叶干物质含量最低,此后比叶质量增加,叶面积和干物质含量不变;叶结构性状与光合及养分特性之间无显著相关性.叶光合活性和氮含量的下降是沙柳随平茬年限增加而衰败的重要原因.%This paper studied the effects of habitats (riparian inter-dune and dry top dune) and years after rejuvenation pruning (1, 2, 3-4, and 5-6 years) on the leaf functional traits (gas ex-change, water use efficiency, structural traits, and N and P contents) of Salix psammophila growing in the southern edge of Mu Us Sandy Land. In the habitat of riparian inter-dune, the leaf net photo-synthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and instantaneous and long-term water use efficiencies were all higher, while the leaf N and P contents were lower, as compared with those in the habitat of dry top dune. No significant differences were observed in the leaf structural traits between the two habi-tats , suggesting that S. psammophila could survive in a dry habitat by the strategies of increasing nutrient uptake and decreasing photosynthesis and water use. With the increasing years after rejuve-nation pruning, the leaf net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased significantly

  8. A influência da poda mecânica na produção e na eficiência da colheita da azeitona por vibração The influence of mechanical pruning on olive production and shaker efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Portugal tem-se verificado um incremento no custo de execução da poda da oliveira, pelo que os autores iniciaram em 1997 a avaliação da aplicação da poda mecânica como alternativa à poda manual efectuada com moto - serra. Estabeleceram-se ensaios de campo com os seguintes tratamentos: T1 – poda manual com moto-serra; T2 – poda mecânica, efectuada por uma máquina de podar de discos, montada no carregador frontal de um tractor agrícola; T3 – poda mecânica efectuada pela máquina de podar de discos, seguida de complemento manual com moto - serra. Em cada ensaio, efectuou-se a colheita da azeitona com vibradores de tronco multidireccionais, tendo-se avaliado a produção total por árvore e o desempenho do vibrador na colheita da azeitona, em termos de eficiência de colheita e tempo de vibração por árvore. Neste trabalho apresentam-se os resultados obtidos em dois ensaios, não se tendo verificado diferenças significativas (P>0,1 entre os tratamentos na produção de azeitona, nos quatro anos após a execução da poda. Relativamente ao desempenho do vibrador, os resultados obtidos mostram que há necessidade de adequar a forma de abordar a árvore e a duração da vibração, de modo a manter o mesmo grau de eficiência entre os tratamentos.In Portugal, olive farmers, particularly those with orchards of around 100 trees per hectare, are facing increasing pruning costs every year. As a result they tend to lengthen pruning intervals. With the purpose of studying a mechanised alternative to the labour intensive manual pruning practice, the authors established in 1997 field trials with the following three treatments: T1 -manual pruning cutting with a chain saw; T2 - mechanical pruning, performed by a tractor mounted cutting bar provided with 6 circular disc-saws; T3 -mechanical pruning, as in T2, followed by a manual pruning complement. In each test site, olives were harvested using a trunk shaker. Total production per tree

  9. Caracterização química e determinação dos estádios fenológicos de variedades de videiras cultivadas no Norte Fluminense Chemical characterization and phenological determination of grapes cultivated in the North area of Rio de Janeiro state

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    Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no município de Campos dos Goytacazes- RJ, durante os anos de 2005 e 2006, com o intuito de proceder a uma caracterização química e fenológica de variedades de videira cultivadas na região Norte Fluminense. Utilizou-se de plantas das variedades: Romana, Isabel, Kyoho, Moscatel de Hamburgo, Roberta e Niágara Rosada. Para a determinação do clico fenológico das seis variedades, realizaram-se podas em 20-03-2005 e 15-02-006. Para a poda realizada em fevereiro, verificou-se redução do período de poda à colheita em todas as variedades, sendo a variedade Isabel a mais tardia, com ciclo médio de 124 dias para os dois anos.The experiment was carried out in Campos dos Goytacazes County, RJ, in 2005 and 2006, aiming to characterize chemically and phenologically different grapes varieties, such as 'Romana', 'Isabel', 'Kyoho', 'Moscatel de Hamburgo', 'Roberta' and 'Niagara Rosada', cultivated in the North of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The six studied varieties were pruned on 03/20/2005 and 02/15/2006 to determine the phenological cycle. Pruning in February evidenced a reduction of the pruning-harvest period in all varieties. 'Isabel' was the latest variety, with a mean cycle of 124 days in both years.

  10. 梨树修剪枝和果实从树体移走的养分研究%Nutrient amounts removed by the pruning branches and the fruit harvest from the pear tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃文; 董彩霞; 徐阳春

    2013-01-01

    通过测定‘黄冠梨’和‘鸭梨’不同生长年限修剪枝和成熟果实中8种矿质养分含量,研究了每年因枝条修剪和果实收获从树体移走的养分总量.结果表明:2个品种梨修剪枝中氮、磷、钾、镁、锌的含量均随枝条生长年限的增加而降低,每年由修剪枝条移走的养分总量的高低顺序依次为:钙、氮、钾、镁、磷、铁、锌、铜.其中,修剪枝条移走的氮、磷和钾平均总量分别为60.3、5.47和32.9 kg.hm-2,钙和镁总量平均为155和8.11 kg·hm-2,铁、锌和铜总量分别为0.93、0.17和0.14kg· hm-2.果实收获移走的养分总量的高低顺序依次为:钾、氮、磷、镁、钙、铁、铜和锌,其总量值依次为70.5、25.4、5.42、4.2、3.68、0.14、0.03和0.02 kg·hm-2.由枝条和果实带走的氮、磷、钾比例为7.9∶1∶9.5.‘鸭梨’和‘黄冠梨’修剪枝条和果实收获移走的氮、磷总量相近,而‘鸭梨’钾、钙、镁、铁、锌和铜的总量均大于‘黄冠梨’.结论:在生产中应根据品种、年剪枝量和果实产量,制定合理的梨树养分管理措施.%In order to make reasonable suggestions on the nutrition management in pear production,the content of mineral nutrient elements in pruning branches with different growing seasons and mature fruits of‘ Huangguan pear' and‘ Yali pear' was measured,and the total nutrient amounts removed from the pear trees by the pruning branches and fruit harvest were also calculated and analyzed.Results showed that the content of nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P),potassium (K),magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) in the pruning branches decreased with the increase of growing seasons.The total amount of mineral nutrition elements removed from the tree by the pruning branches was calcium (Ca),N,K,Mg,P,iron (Fe),Zn and copper(Cu).Among them,the amount of N,P and K removed by the pruning was 60.3,5.47 and 32.9 kg· hm-2 each year,Ca and Mg was 155 and 8.11 kg· hm-2,Fe,Zn and Cu

  11. Subcutaneous pruning versus subcutaneous liposuction in treatments of axillary osmidrosis:a Meta-analysis%皮下修剪术与抽吸术治疗腋臭临床疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆思锭; 殷国前; 潘新元; 彭鎏; 唐胜华; 陈子翔; 朱江英

    2015-01-01

    目的:对皮下修剪术与皮下抽吸术两种手术方法治疗腋臭的临床疗效进行系统评价。方法:应用计算机检索相关文献数据库,收集国内外报道有关皮下修剪、抽吸两种手术方法治疗腋臭的临床随机对照试验,评价纳入研究的方法学质量并进行资料提取后,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析。结果:最终共纳入7个中文随机对照研究,共557个研究对象,修剪组292(47侧+245例),抽吸组265(50侧+215例),Meta分析结果显示皮下修剪术治愈率(OR=4.32,P=0.02)、总有效率(OR=3.76,<0.0001)较抽吸术高,复发率比抽吸术低(OR=0.23,=0.0009);而皮下抽吸术并发症较修剪术低(OR=6.65,<0.00001);手术时间及出血量抽吸术均较修剪术少(<0.05)。结论:现有数据Meta分析结果表明皮下修剪术较皮下抽吸术治疗腋臭具有治愈率、复发率低优势,而皮下抽吸术较皮下修剪术有其并发症低、手术时间短、术中出血少的优点。由于文献质量普遍不高,纳入样本量偏少,今后,尚需进一步开展设计良好、方法学质量更高的临床随机对照试验。%Objective To systemically analyze the different clinical efficacy of axillary osmidrosis between subcutaneous pruning and liposuction. Methods The relevant database were searched to collect all the randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared the domestic different clinical efficacy of axillary osmidrosis between subcutaneous pruning and subcutaneous liposuction according to the principles of systematic review. The quality of the included studies was evaluated and Meta- analysis were performed using RevMan5.0 software. Results Seven RCT which included 557 patients were enrolled in our study. Two hundren and ninety two cases (47axillae and 245patients)were included in subcutaneous pruning group,while 265 cases (50axillae and 215patients) were included in subcutaneous

  12. Residuos de poda compostados y sin compostar: uso potencial como enmienda orgánica en suelo Pruning waste and its potential use as amendement to agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda M Arrigo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de materiales orgánicos al suelo es una práctica habitual en sistemas de agricultura sostenible. El objetivo de este trabajo fue: i estudiar el efecto de la incorporación al suelo de material orgánico obtenido en diferentes etapas del proceso de compostaje sobre el crecimiento de raygrass e ii determinar el efecto que causa el material orgánico incorporado sobre la nutrición nitrogenada en las plantas. Se armaron 4 pilas integradas por el mismo material inicial las cuales fueron monitoreadas en las siguientes etapas del proceso de compostaje: a- material inicial (T1, b- al final de la fase activa, 2 meses (T2, c- al promediar la fase de maduración, 7 meses (T3 y d- al finalizar la fase de maduración, 12 meses (T4. Se sembró raygrass sobre estos materiales y los mismos mezclado con suelo. La producción de materia seca de raygrass en los materiales T1 y T2 fue significativamente menor que en los restantes tratamientos. Resultados similares fueron cuantificados cuando los mismos materiales se incorporaron al suelo. El contenido de N en planta fue menor al incorporar al suelo los materiales T1 y T2 indicando inmovilización de este nutriente. Al adicionar los materiales T3 y T4 al suelo se comprobó que no hubo diferencias significativas entre ellos, en consecuencia, el empleo del material T3 puede considerarse una buena opción ya que puede utilizarse anticipadamente lográndose beneficios económicos y medioambientales.Land application of organic materials is a common practice in sustainable agriculture. Our aim was i to study the effect of the incorporation of organic material at different maturity stages on the ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. growth, and ii to estimate the stage capable to produce the product more efficient in providing nitrogen to the plant nutrition. Four compost samples consisted of pruning waste, leaves and grass clippings were selected from four different piles at different stages of the composting

  13. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  14. Effect of Winter Pruning on Flowering, Shoot-type Composing and Fruiting on Fiji Apple Trees%不同冬剪强度对乔化富士苹果成花、枝条组成和结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏敏; 安贵阳; 张雯; 郭燕; 赵政阳; 杨建锋

    2011-01-01

    以15 a生的乔化富士苹果为试验材料,研究不修剪、20%、30%、40%和50%冬季修剪量处理对树体生长和结果的影响.结果表明,在0~50%修剪量范围内,随着修剪量的加大,成花量降低,但坐果率增加;50%的修剪量处理引起枝条旺长,使中长枝比例增加,短枝比例减少;可溶性固形物含量、花青苷和抗坏血酸含量均随着修剪量的增大而升高,但果实可滴定酸含量降低,果实表面光洁指数先增加后降低,30%修剪量处理的果实整体表现较好的品质;30%的修剪量处理两年都保持较高的产量,不修剪和50%修剪量处理的产量出现较大波动.乔化富士适宜的修剪量应为总枝量的30%左右,同时应合理配置长、中、短枝比例.%The effect of different degree of pruning (0, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) in winter on growing and fruiting was conducted on 15 year-old Fuji apple trees. The results showed that flower quantity was decreased, but fruit setting rate was increased when pruning degree was increased (0-50 %).Cutting 50% total shoots stimulated tree growth more vigorously, percentage of middle and long shoots was increased, but percentage of fruiting shoots decreased. The soluble solids, anthocyanin,and Vc content increased when pruning degree was increased, but titratable acid content in fruit decreased. Fruit clearness index and yield increased firstly and then decreased, and high yield was obtained in the 30% pruning treatments for the two years. Yield fluctuated largely on non-pruning and 50% pruning treatments. So the suitable pruning quality is cutting 30% total shoots, besides, the suitable proportions of long, middle and short shoots is needed.

  15. Production of blackberry cv tupy, depending on the intensity of pruningProdução da amora-preta cv tupy, em função da intensidade da poda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tullio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The blackberry crop is growing increasingly in Brazil, due to their nutritional qualities. Its management is essential for fruit quality, especially the production pruning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pruning intensity in the production of blackberry cv Tupy in the region of Ponta Grossa, PR. The entirely randomized experimental design consisted of six treatments with three repetitions, being the treatments: T1-2 rods, T2-3 rods, T3-4 rods, T4-5 rods, T5-6 rods and T6- 8 rods, a total of 18 parcels with 3 plants each. Were evaluated: plant production, fresh fruit, soluble solids, firmness and color. The number of stems left during pruning affects the productivity of blackberry cv. Tupy. For the parameters yield per plant and number of fruits per plant the ideal number of stems is 7,8. The number of stems per plant did not influence the fresh weight, soluble solids, firmness and color of the fruit. Considering productivity and ease of management is recommended to work with 6 stems per plant. O cultivo da amora-preta vem crescendo cada vez mais no Brasil, devido as suas qualidades nutricionais. Seu manejo é fundamental para a qualidade do fruto, em especial a poda de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da intensidade de poda na produção da amora-preta cv Tupy na região de Ponta Grossa, PR. O delineamento experimental inteiramente aleatorizado consistiu em seis tratamentos com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos: T1- 2 hastes; T2- 3 hastes; T3- 4 hastes; T4- 5 hastes; T5- 6 hastes e T6- 8 hastes, num total de 18 parcelas com 3 plantas cada. Foram avaliados: produção por planta, massa fresca do fruto, sólidos solúveis, coloração e firmeza. O número de hastes deixadas durante a poda afeta a produtividade da amora-preta cv. Tupy, sendo para os parâmetros produção por planta e número de frutos por planta o número de hastes ideal é de 7,8. O número de hastes por planta n

  16. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  17. Row spacing and pruning regimes on organically grown cherry tomato Espaçamento e sistema de condução de tomate cereja em cultivo orgânico

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    Vlamir F de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch number and plant densities on organically grown cherry tomato yield and fruit quality were studied. Labor costs for pruning were also assessed. The essay was conducted at the experimental fields of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2004 to January 2005. A factorial design was used combining three row spacings (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m, two cherry tomato cultivars (hybrid 'Super-Sweet' and a local self pollinated 'Perinha' and three pruning regimes (free growth, one branch per plant and two branches per plant. The row spacing treatment of 0.6 x 1.5 m resulted in lower number of fruits when compared to the 0.4 x 1.5 m treatment, however, producing fruits with higher individual average mass, which resulted in similar final yield. These yields were higher than the 0.8 m treatment. Yield increases due to the higher number of plants per area were mostly due to the increase of fruit number, which compensated for the decrease of fruit size and mass. The 'free growth' treatment yielded similarly to the two branches per plant treatment. The labor costs were lower under 'free growth' due to the absence of pruning. Both cultivars responded similarly to plant population and pruning regimes.Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do manejo e da densidade de plantio na produtividade de frutos e no custo com mão de obra em sistema orgânico de produção de tomate cereja, foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFRRJ, Seropédica-RJ, de setembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. Foram avaliados os efeitos da combinação de três sistemas de condução (sem tutoramento e sem limitação do número de hastes por planta; tutoramento com condução de uma haste por planta e, tutoramento com condução de duas hastes por planta, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,4; 0,6 e 0,8 m e duas cultivares de tomate cereja (Perinha Água Branca e Super Sweet. O tratamento com espaçamento de 0,6 x 1,5 m

  18. Produção da figueira submetida a diferentes épocas de poda e irrigação The yield of fig trees as a function of pruning time and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes épocas de poda, correspondentes aos meses de julho, agosto, setembro e outubro dos anos de 2004/05 e 2005/06, com e sem o uso de irrigação, em figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos', no município de Botucatu-SP. Para atingir tal objetivo, adotou-se o delineamento experimental em parcelas subdivididas, com 5 repetições em blocos, onde as parcelas corresponderam aos tratamentos com e sem irrigação, e as subparcelas foram constituídas pelas podas realizadas nos quatro meses do ano. Foram avaliadas características de produção e alguns atributos de qualidade, que serviram para indicar a necessidade do uso de irrigação. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que, na avaliação do desdobramento da interação entre épocas de poda e irrigação complementar, o mês de agosto, com o uso de irrigação complementar, foi o mais favorável para a realização da poda da figueira, proporcionando as maiores produções médias verificadas no ensaio, tanto no ciclo agrícola de 2004/05 (3.513,8 g planta-1, quanto em 2005/06 (4.110,7 g planta-1. Em condições não-irrigadas, não houve diferença estatística entre os meses de julho, agosto e setembro de 2004/05 e entre julho e agosto de 2005/06.The research had the purpose to determine the effects of pruning time in July, August, September and October of 2004/05 and 2005/06, with and without irrigation, in the fig trees 'Roxo de Valinhos', located in Botucatu/SP/Brazil. The experimental design was in split plots with 5 replications at random in lines, where the plots consisted in the treatments with and without irrigation and the subplots were composed of the pruning accomplished in the four months of the year. It was evaluated the yield and fruits quality. These characteristics could be used to evaluate the irrigation necessity. The August month with irrigation was the best time to the fig trees pruning, enhancing the yield (3.513,8 g plant-1 in 2004

  19. Using a pruned basis, a non-product quadrature grid, and the exact Watson normal-coordinate kinetic energy operator to solve the vibrational Schrödinger equation for C2H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we propose and test a method for computing numerically exact vibrational energy levels of a molecule with six atoms. We use a pruned product basis, a non-product quadrature, the Lanczos algorithm, and the exact normal-coordinate kinetic energy operator (KEO) with the πtμπ term. The Lanczos algorithm is applied to a Hamiltonian with a KEO for which μ is evaluated at equilibrium. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from this calculation are used as a basis to obtain the final energy levels. The quadrature scheme is designed, so that integrals for the most important terms in the potential will be exact. The procedure is tested on C2H4. All 12 coordinates are treated explicitly. We need only ˜1.52 × 108 quadrature points. A product Gauss grid with which one could calculate the same energy levels has at least 5.67 × 1013 points.

  20. Composting: a solution for reduction of environmental impacts caused by waste disposal pruning of AES Eletropaulo concession area; Compostagem: a solucao para diminuicao dos impactos ambientais causados pela destinacao dos residuos de poda da area de concessao da AES Eletropaulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, C.L.; Coelho, S.T.; Grisoli, R.P.S.; Gavioli, F.; Gobatto, D. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carmelo, S. [AES Eletropaulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Considering environmental issues, the increasing production of solid residues is important due to scarcity of methods and solution for their management. This article presents a project that aims to research the impacts caused by residues of urban pruning generated by the AES Eletropaulo Energy Distribution Company, and also to develop the standardization of this residues composting, finalizing the management of this operation. The obtained results refer to the research done in the areas under AES concession, regarding the collection and the destination of these residues. It has been observed that 50% of the municipalities dispose their residues in dumps or sanitary landfills, while only 8% compost them. Based on environmental and social responsibility concepts, it is expected that the conclusion of this work can assist the civil, public and private sectors to contribute to the sustainable development. (author)

  1. Emprego da poda verde para a obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca' Green pruning to obtain two harvests by vegetative cicle on Niagara grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de épocas de poda verde em dois anos consecutivos visando obter a segunda safra de uva em um mesmo ciclo vegetativo na cv. Niágara Branca (Vitis labrusca L., cultivada no sistema em espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, nas safras de 2003/2004 e 2004/2005. Os tratamentos constaram de três épocas de poda verde, realizadas imediatamente após a quarta folha acima do último cacho, e dois anos consecutivos de avaliação. Todas as plantas foram submetidas à superação de dormência mediante aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada a 2%. Analisou-se a duração dos estádios fenológicos, o período de maturação, a produção por planta, a massa fresca do cacho, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a acidez total titulável. Observou-se que a época de realização da poda verde não afetou a quantidade, nem a qualidade da uva produzida na primeira colheita, apenas atrasando-a em uma semana. A poda verde realizada no início de novembro possibilitou a segunda colheita de uva, realizada entre março e abril, sendo uma alternativa de ampliação do período de oferta do produto no mercado.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green prunings on two consecutive years to obtain a second harvest of 'Niagara Branca' (Vitis labrusca grapevine in the same season. The experiment was carried out at Estação Experimental Agronômica of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located at Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growth seasons. The grapevines were conducted by cordon training. The treatments involved three dates of green pruning, performed at fourth leaf situated above the last grape, and two seasons. All the plants were sprayed with hidrogenate cianamide (2% to overcome dormency. Fenology, plant production, weight of grapes, °Brix and titratable acid were evaluated. The green pruning time

  2. Chemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  3. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  4. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  5. Feedforward neuronske mreže: Levenberg-Marquardt optimizacija i optimal brain surgeon pruning / Feedforward neural network: the Levenberg-Marquardt opitmization and the Optimal Brain Surgeon Pruning / Нейронные сети с прямой связью: алгоритм Левенберга — Марквардта и оптимальный нейрохирургический прунинг

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the training, testing and pruning of a feedforward neural network with one hidden layer that was used for the prediction of the vowel ”a”. The paper also describes Gradient Descent, the Gauss-Newton and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization techniques. Optimal Brain Surgeon pruning is applied to the trained network. The stopping criterion was an abrupt change of the Normalized Sum Squares Error. The structure of the feedforward neural network (FNN was 18 inputs (four for glottal and 14 for speech samples, 3 neurons in the hidden layer and one output. The results have shown that, after pruning, the glottal signal has no effect on the model for a female speaker, while it affects the prediction of the speech pronounced by a male speaker. In both cases, the structure of the FNN is reduced to a small number of parameters.

  6. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  7. 辽西不同区域人工整枝对樟子松中幼龄林生长的影响%Effects of Artificial Pruning on Growth of Middle-Aged Forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica in Different Regions of Western Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 张日升

    2015-01-01

    通过在辽宁省西部章古台地区与黑水地区的樟子松中幼龄林中开展不同方式人工整枝试验,结果表明:2/3、1/2两种强度能促进中幼林的胸径生长,这种影响可以达到2~3 a。在章古台地区,人工整枝对樟子松的树高生长影响不显著;但在黑水地区,2/3、1/2两种强度的人工整枝能促进樟子松中幼林树高生长。1/3强度的人工整枝会抑制胸径与树高的生长。在辽西的沙区和山地丘陵区的樟子松人工林的培育中,人工整枝强度以冠高比为1/2~2/3最佳,生产中可以采用。%Artificial pruning experiments of middle-aged forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica were conducted in Zhanggutai Region and the Heishui areas in western Liaoning Province.Result shows that two kinds of pruning in-tensities (2/3,1/2 )can promote the growth of DBH,this effect can lasts 2-3 years;in Zhanggutai area,artificial pruning has little significance on height growth of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica;in Heishui area,two kinds of pruning intensities (2/3,1/2 )can promote height growth of middle-aged forest of Pinus sylvestris var.mongoli-ca .Artificial pruning at 1/3 of the crown length inhibits DBH and tree height of tree.Therefore,in the cultivation of Pinus sylvestris plantations in western Liaoning sand areas and hilly areas,the optimal artificial pruning intensity crown height ratio is 1/2-2/3,which should be adopted in the production.

  8. 灌溉方法和整枝方式对塑料大棚西红柿农艺性状的影响%Influences of Different Irriagtion Methods and Pruning Patterns on Agronomic Properties of Tomato in Plastic Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩霞; 王峰; 杜建明; 郭永忠; 王东清

    2013-01-01

    The results of influences of different irriagtion methods and pruning patterns on agronomic properties of tomato in plastic greenhouse showed that different pruning methods and irrigation patterns had great influence on agronomic traits of tomato ′Xiuyu′. The plant height by hanging vines pruning significantly decreased than hanging vines and the head fall pruning ,and drop about 25.3%,but the quantity of layer of fruits by the latter pruning had more 5 layers than that by the former training ,and the output increased 13.90%~23.58%,and extended the time to market 26 d.We could make saving on water throught drip irrigation nearly more 1/2 than throught furrow irrigation ,and more than 76 kg/m3 in the water use effici-ency. The plant growth,the fruit weight and the output could significantly improve in the conditions of hanging vine head fall pruning and drip irrigation.%灌溉方法和整枝方式对塑料大棚西红柿农艺性状的影响试验研究结果表明,不同的整枝方式和灌溉方法对秀玉西红柿植株农艺性状影响较大,采用吊蔓单干整枝植株高度明显比吊蔓换头落蔓整枝植株低,降幅约为25.3%;吊蔓换头落蔓整枝比吊蔓单干整枝结果层数多出5层,增产在13.90%~23.58%,延长上市时间26 d。滴灌比沟灌节约用水近1/2,且水分利用率在76 kg/m3以上。秀玉西红柿在吊蔓换头落蔓整枝+滴灌条件下,能明显提高植株生长势、单果重和总产量,有效节约用水。

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to prunes and contribution to normal bowel function pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... for infants and young children from six months to three years of age. No evidence was provided by the applicant to substantiate the effect of prunes on bowel function without the occurrence of diarrhoea for infants and young children. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been...... established between the consumption of prunes and contribution to normal bowel function without the occurrence of diarrhoea for infants and young children from six months to three years of age....

  10. Desempenho do pimentão em cultivo orgânico, submetido ao desbaste e consórcio Performance of sweet pepper under organic cultivation, submitted to intercropping with crotalaria and branch pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Nei Zanin Cesar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de pimentão Magali R e Magda Super foram comparadas no sistema orgânico de produção, consorciadas ou não com crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, e sem desbaste de ramos ou desbastadas a partir da terceira ramificação. A produtividade, em frutos de padrão comercial, alcançou média geral de 37 t ha-1, com o máximo próximo de 43 t ha-1. O híbrido Magali R produziu frutos mais pesados e longos do que a cultivar Magda Super. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre as duas cultivares com relação à produtividade. Os frutos, tanto de Magali R quanto de Magda Super, ultrapassaram em média os 10 cm de comprimento mínimo para atingir a cotação " extra" de mercado. O número de frutos por planta aumentou nas parcelas não desbastadas, independentemente do consórcio. O desbaste de ramos reduziu o diâmetro basal médio, mas elevou o peso médio dos frutos, não influindo porém na produtividade. O híbrido Magali R apresentou apenas 15% de plantas com sintomas de mosaico, ao final do ciclo produtivo, contra 38% referentes à cv. Magda Super. O consórcio com a leguminosa resultou em ganho de produtividade e aumentou o comprimento dos frutos. Com a inclusão da crotalária, houve incremento do teor de nitrogênio nos frutos, bem como da quantidade desse elemento exportada na colheita.Sweet pepper cultivars Magali R and Magda Super under organic management were compared, intercropped or not with Crotalaria juncea, and submitted or not to pruning starting from the third branch. Average yield of commercial fruits was 37 t ha-1 with maximum value of 43 t ha-1. The hybrid Magali R produced heavier and longer fruits than cv. Magda Super. However, no significant difference of productivity was found between cultivars. Fruits of both Magali R and Magda Super reached more than 10 cm of average length, the minimum required for highest market standard. The number of fruits increased in plants not submitted to pruning

  11. O pessegueiro em pomar compacto. IX. dez anos de produção de cultivares sob poda drástica bienal The peach meadow orchard system. IX. yield of cultivars during ten years on biennial drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e reprodutivo de quatorze cultivares e seleções de pessegueiro (Prunus persica L. Batsch e nectarineira cultivadas no espaçamento de 4 x 1,5 m (1.667 pl/ha, sob poda drástica bienal da copa. Pelos resultados obtidos no decênio 1986-95, verificou-se que as cultivares e seleções mais produtivas foram (número e kg de frutos/planta respectivamente: Aurora-1 (112; 9,2, IAC 680-178 (94; 8,5, IAC 680-13 (95; 8,1, Talismã (99; 8,1, Régis (98; 7,8 e Flordaprince (91; 7,7. No ano agrícola de 1995, as variáveis analisadas, área da secção transversal do tronco, área da folha, número e massa dos frutos por cm² de tronco, apresentaram diferenciação estatística entre cultivares e seleções. A poda drástica bienal da copa ocasionou, tanto em material precoce quanto mediano, diminuição de produção a cada duas safras, não chegando, porém, a prejudicar a produtividade média do pomar.Fourteen peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch and nectarine cultivars and selections, budded on Okinawa rootstock, were grown under the meadow orchard system, with biennial drastic pruning at 4 x 1.5 m spacing. Results obtained during ten years of experiments (1986-95 clearly indicate that 'Aurora-1', IAC 680-178, IAC 680-13, 'Talismã', 'Régis' and 'Flordaprince' peaches were the best, with an average yield (fruits per tree of 112, 9.2; 94, 8.5; 95, 8.1; 99, 8.1; 98, 7.8 and 91, 7.7 number and kg/tree respectively. The biennial drastic pruning decreased the yield of trees every two years, without affecting the average decennial productivity. In 1995, data on trunk cross-sectional area, fruits and mass per cm² of trunk and leaf area presented significant differences among cultivars and selections.

  12. Utilización de azufre micronizado en la corrección del pH de compost de residuos de poda Correction of the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barbaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los compost actualmente son muy utilizados como componentes de sustratos, aunque en algunos casos presentan pH alcalinos y causan problemas nutricionales. Por ello se recomienda hacer una corrección previa a su utilización o luego de elaborar el sustrato. Algunas alternativas para bajar el pH es mezclando el compost con materiales ácidos o mediante la adición de azufre, sulfato ferroso u otros compuestos azufrados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue corregir el pH de un compost de residuos de poda con azufre micronizado y hallar la dosis adecuada para el pH deseado. Se conformaron siete tratamientos, incorporando al compost de poda diferentes dosis de azufre micronizado: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 y 8 g/litro. Al compost de cada tratamiento se le midió el pH semanalmente y una vez estabilizados se analizó la conductividad eléctrica, concentración de nitrato, calcio, magnesio, potasio y sodio. Para un pH entre 5,3 y 6,2 se necesitaron 2 a 3 g de azufre/litro. El pH del compost disminuyó con el incremento de la dosis de azufre, y la CE aumentó. El azufre micronizado es una alternativa viable para corregir el pH del compost de restos de poda a los valores deseados.Nowadays, composts are widely used for incorporation into substrates and in some cases they present alkaline pH, causing nutritional problems. Therefore, it is suggested that a correction should be made prior to its use or after its preparation. Some alternatives to decrease pH values are mixing compost with acid materials or adding sulphur, ferrous sulphate or other sulphur compounds. The aim of this work was to correct the pH of pruning waste compost with micronized sulphur and find the appropriate dose for the desired pH. Seven treatments were performed incorporating different doses of micronized sulphur: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 g per liter of compost. Compost pH was measured weekly in each treatment. Once stabilized, electrical conductivity and concentration of nitrate, calcium, magnesium

  13. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  14. Preventing Trunk Diseases in the Vineyard: Choosing the Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over years of research on control of grapevine trunk diseases, field trials identified cultural and chemical practices that prevent and limit infections of pruning wounds by the spores. These practices include delayed pruning, double pruning, and applications of pruning-wound protectants (e.g., thio...

  15. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  16. Composição quali-quantitativa da produção de 'Syrah' cultivada sob estresse hídrico transiente Composition and chemical-sensorial profile of 'Syrah' cultivated under transient water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio O. Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A produção de vinho de qualidade requer o cultivo de uvas de padrão superior, com características químicas e físicas favoráveis, resultantes das condições micrometeorológicas locais, da variedade e do manejo do solo e da cultura. A composição quantitativa e qualitativa do rendimento da videira pode ser responsiva à variação na lâmina de irrigação e ao sistema de poda utilizado. Doravante, a interação entre os dois fatores citados e o meio físico circundante foi mostrada ser influente na qualidade do vinho. Um experimento foi conduzido com uva vinífera nas estações de crescimento de 2003 a 2005; cujo objetivo foi determinar a melhor combinação entre sistemas de poda (manual e mecânica e manejo da água, para a produção de vinho de 'Syrah' (Vitis vinifera L. cultivada em condições de microclima quente e seco. Os resultados mostraram que a composição do rendimento foi consistentemente afetada pelo sistema de poda, enquanto o melhor perfil aromático foi observado para 'Syrah', cultivada sob poda mecânica e estresse hídrico baixo a moderado.The production of a quality wine depends on the cultivation of high quality grapes with favorable chemical and physical characteristics, which result from the submitted micrometeorological regime, variety and soil-plant management. Grape yield and quality performance can be responsive to varying levels of water depth and the pruning system. The interaction between these two factors and the surrounding environment has been proved to be influential upon the wine quality. An experiment was carried out with wine grapes through the growing seasons of 2003 to 2005. The objective was to determine the best combination of pruning (manual and mechanized and irrigation practices on 'Syrah' (Vitis vinifera L. envisaging wine quality achievement, under a hot and dry microclimate. Results showed that the grape composition was consistently affected by the pruning system whereas the best aroma

  17. 神经网络的自适应删剪学习算法及其应用%ADAPTIVE TRAINING AND PRUNING FOR NEURAL NETWORKS: ALGORITHMS AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈戍; K.W.Wong; 等

    2001-01-01

    Finding an optimal network size is one of the major concerns when building a neural network. In using the local extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm, we propose an efficient approach that combines EKF training and pruning as a whole. In particular, the covariance matrix obtained along with the local EKF training can be utilized to indicate the importance of the network weights. As a result, the network size can be determined adaptively to keep pace with the changes in input characteristics. The effectiveness of this algorithm is demonstrated on generalized XOR logic function and handwritten digit recognition.%在局域卡尔曼滤波算法的基础上,提出了一种自适应删剪学习算法,这一算法的核心是用网络训练结束后得到的局域的误差协方差矩阵测量权重的重要性,通过删除不重要的权重,得到一个紧凑的网络结构.广义异或逻辑函数和手写体数字识别的计算机模拟结果显示该方法是一种有效的网络规模优化算法.

  18. Sustainable alternative for use of waste from pruning deriving from power distribution networks maintenance; Alternativa sustentavel para utilizacao de residuos de poda provenientes da manutencao das redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Cristiane Lima; Grisoli, Renata; Gavioli, Fabio; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: cenbio@iee.usp.br; Carmelo, Silma [AES Eletropaulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: silma.carmelo@aes.com

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the environmental issue, the increasing production of solid residues seems to be a problem due to scarcity of methods and solutions for the management. This article presents a project that has as objective to make a survey of the impacts caused by urban pruning residues generated by the electric energy concessionaire AES Eletropaulo, besides developing a method to standardize this residues composting. The obtained results refer to the observation that 50% of the cities that participated on the survey discard the residues in dumps or sanitary landfills, while only 8% perform composting. In the experimental composting plant built, the organic compound obtained reached satisfactory levels of quality with related to the specifications of minimum quality, but showed that humidity should be better controlled. The feasibility of implementing a composting plant was established, with the exception that the higher the production, the better the return on initial investment. Based in the concepts of environmental and social responsibility, we expect that the conclusion of this work can assist the civil, public and private sectors to contribute with the sustainable development. (author)

  19. "增阻降流"苹果修剪理论创建及应用研究%Study on Creation and Application of the Pruning Theory of Increasing Resistance and Decreasing Current of Apple Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董少鹏; 曹彩荣; 郭创业; 苏彩虹; 杨印斌

    2011-01-01

    To provide a new theoretical support for the pruning technique on apple for early bearing, high and stable yields, the author proposed innovatively and proved qualitatively a deeper pruning theory based on the circuit principle in physics with the apple tree structure diagram as material. The theory included three points:(1) The pruning method of increasing resistance and decreasing current of apple tree could obtain early bearing, high and stable yields; (2) Thinning any branch above rhizome would increase the resistance of tree,on the contrary, short cutting would decrease it; (3) Thinning a large branch with low resistance would have a larger increase amplitude of tree resistance than a small branch with high resistance whose basal part was in the same shoot with the former. Furthermore, the author explained the theory specifically and conducted an application test about it during 2004-2010. The results showed that: In young apple orchard applied the theory, the flowering plant ratio of 4 cultivars reached to 75% and that of the other 9 was 50% among 13 cultivars, whose initial fruit-bearing stage was 1-2 years earlier than under the condition of conventional management; In full fruit-bearing ‘Fuji’ apple orchard applied the theory, the average yield of 6 years was 49203 kg/hm2 which increased 54.4% than the control, and this orchard could be appraised as high, stable yielding also for its biennial bearing index of 6.1%-18.6% , while the control orchard was appraised as very unstable yielding for that of 121.8%-428.8%, moreover, its per unit area yield of 2008 and 2009 trended towards decrease. It was clear from the foregoing that the pruning theory created by the author was very effective in obtaining early bearing, high and stable yields.%为给苹果早、丰、稳产修剪技术提供新的理论支撑,笔者以苹果树体结构图为试材,依据物理学的电路原理创新性地提出并定性论证了一套更深层次的

  20. 不同修剪措施对成龄‘绿岭’核桃抗腐烂病能力及树势的影响%Effects of different pruning methods on rot disease resistant and tree vigor of adult‘Lvling’ walnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美美; 马华冰; 宋新英; 齐国辉; 李保国

    2014-01-01

    In order to ifnd out an appropriate pruning method of adult precocious walnut trees, taking 10-year-old walnut trees of‘Lvling’ as materials, incidence rate, disease index, N, P, K and chlorophyll contents in leaves, root activity were determined under four pruning methods, including heavy cutting-back, bending branch, heavy cutting-back and bending branch, no-pruning. The results show that the incidence rates of rot disease under heavy cutting-back, bending branch, heavy cutting-back and bending branch, no-pruning are 1.77%, 1.50%, 1.30% and 1.87% respectively, and it is the highest in the no-pruning treatment, and the lowest in the heavy cutting-back and bending branch treatment. The disease indexes under the four pruning methods are 0.27,0.27,0.20 and 0.32, respectively. The total N contents in leaf are 2.68%, 2.29%, 2.69%and 2.09%, respectively, it is the highest in the heavy cutting-back treatment and the heavy cutting-back and bending branch treatment, and the lowest in the no-pruning treatment. The chlorophyll a contents in leaf are 2.52, 2.61, 2.90 and 2.11 mg·g-1, respectively. The root activities are 201.53, 224.29, 246.69 and179.08μg·g-1h-1.%为探索早实核桃成龄树的最佳修剪方法,以10年生早实核桃‘绿岭’为试材,测定了重回缩、拉枝、既重回缩又拉枝和放任生长4种不同修剪方式下核桃树体腐烂病的发病率、病情指数、叶片的氮、磷、钾含量、叶片叶绿素含量和根系活力。结果表明:重回缩、拉枝、既重回缩又拉枝和放任生长4种修剪方式的腐烂病发病率分别为1.77%、1.50%、1.30%和1.87%,以放任生长处理的最高,既重回缩又拉枝处理最低;4种修剪方式的病情指数分别为0.27、0.27、0.20和0.32;叶片全氮含量分别为2.68%、2.29%、2.69%和2.09%,以重回缩和既重回缩又拉枝处理的最高,放任生长的最低;叶片叶绿素a的含量分别为2.52、2.61、2.90和2.11 mg·g-1

  1. The chemical life(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    You write this narrative autoethnography to open up a conversation about our chemical lives. You go through your day with chemical mindfulness, questioning taken-for-granted ideas about natural and artificial, healthy and unhealthy, dependency and addiction, trying to understand the chemical messages we consume through the experiences of everyday life. You reflect on how messages about chemicals influence and structure our lives and why some chemicals are celebrated and some are condemned. Using a second-person narrative voice, you show how the personal is relational and the chemical is cultural. You write because you seek a connection, a chemical bond.

  2. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  3. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  4. Ensemble One-class Classifiers Based on Hybrid Diversity Generation and Pruning%基于混合多样性生成与修剪的集成单类分类算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家辰; 苗启广; 曹莹; 宋建锋; 权义宁

    2015-01-01

    针对传统集成学习方法直接应用于单类分类器效果不理想的问题,该文首先证明了集成学习方法能够提升单类分类器的性能,同时证明了若基分类器集不经选择会导致集成后性能下降;接着指出了经典集成方法直接应用于单类分类器集成时存在基分类器多样性严重不足的问题,并提出了一种能够提高多样性的基单类分类器混合生成策略;最后从集成损失构成的角度拆分集成单类分类器的损失函数,针对性地构造了集成单类分类器修剪策略并提出一种基于混合多样性生成和修剪的单类分类器集成算法,简称为PHD-EOC。在UCI标准数据集和恶意程序行为检测数据集上的实验结果表明,PHD-EOC算法兼顾多样性与单类分类性能,在各种单类分类器评价指标上均较经典集成学习方法有更好的表现,并降低了决策阶段的时间复杂度。%Combining one-class classifiers using the classical ensemble methods is not satisfactory. To address this problem, this paper first proves that though one-class classification performance can be improved by a classifier ensemble, it can also degrade if the set of base classifiers are not selected carefully. On this basis, this study further analyzes that the lacking of diversity heavily accounts for performance degradation. Therefore, a hybrid method for generating diverse base classifiers is proposed. Secondly, in the combining phase, to find the most useful diversity, the one-class ensemble loss is split and analyzed theoretically to propose a diversity based pruning method. Finally, by combining these two steps, a novel ensemble one-class classifier named Pruned Hybrid Diverse Ensemble One-class Classifier (PHD-EOC) is proposed. The experimental results on the UCI datasets and a malicious software detection dataset show that the PHD-EOC strikes a better balance between the diverse base classifiers and classification

  5. Rentabilidade econômica do cultivo do maracujazeiro-amarelo sob diferentes podas de formação Economic rentability of yellow passion fruit crop under different formation prunings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mariano Hafle

    2010-12-01

    four replications of three plants. The economic and operational costs were higher for more drastic pruning systems (20 and 14 branches per plant, which presented higher production cost and lower productivity. The net income was negative for systems of less tertiary branches (T4 and T5. The systems with less drastic pruning had positive net income ranging from R$ 1,861.06/ha in T3 to R$ 3,895.74/ha (2006/2007 in T2. In T1, T2 and T3 the economic situation result was super normal profits, indicating that the activity is getting returns higher than the best alternatives for capital employment. However, the treatments T4 and T5, results were positive and negative residues, respectively, covering only part of the farming costs, with trend that the producer to seek better alternatives for its capital application, with abandonment of activity.

  6. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  7. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  8. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  9. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  10. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  11. The nutritional levels in leaves and fruits of fig trees as a function of pruning time and irrigation / Teores nutricionais em folhas e frutos de figueira, submetida a épocas de poda e irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluating the nutritional content in leaves and fruits of the fg tree ‘Roxo de Valinhos’, pruned at different periods corresponding to the months of July, August, September and October in the years of 2004 and 2005, with and without the use of irrigation, in the county of Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. To achieve this objective, the adopted experimental design was in blocks with subdivided plots and 5 replications, in which plots corresponded to treatments with and without irrigation and subplots included prunings done in the above-mentioned four months. The levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn and Zn in leaves and fruits were evaluated in the two crop cycles. The results indicated no signifcant differences among macro and micronutrient levels in the leaves subjected to treatments with and without irrigation in the cycle 2004/05, except for cupper which showed higher level with the treatment including irrigation (6 mg kg-1. In the fruits, there was no difference, except for Zn, which also showed the highest levels (28 mg kg-1 with irrigation. In the crop cycle 2005/06, there were differences for N (40 g kg-1 and K (20 g kg-1 in the leaves, where the highest levels were observed with the treatment including irrigation. In the fruits, N had signifcant difference and its highest level was observed without irrigation (21 g kg-1. In relation to the pruning periods, signifcant differences were observed for Ca, Fe and Zn content in the leaves and Ca, K, Mg, S and Zn content in the fruits in the crop cycle 2004/05. In the cycle 2005/06, there were not differences among the levels of the evaluated nutrients in the leaves, and in the fruits there was difference for N, Ca and Cu.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os teores nutricionais foliares e nos frutos de fgueira ‘Roxo de Valinhos’, podada em diferentes épocas, correspondentes aos meses de julho, agosto, setembro e outubro dos anos de 2004 e 2005, com e

  12. Avaliação dos riscos de acidentes em atividades de poda de árvores na arborização urbana do distrito federal Tree pruning accident risk assessment in urban landscaping of the Federal District - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2006-04-01

    conforto.The objective of this study was to evaluate risks of accident in the tree pruning activity in the urban landscaping of the Brazilian Federal District. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire that was answered through individual interviews. The questionnaire was answered by 94% of the workers, comprising 92% of the total chainsaw operators and 95% of the total helpers. Additionally, a qualitative accident risk assessment of machines, pruning equipment and transportation vehicles was carried out by means of a checklist. According to the results, for most chainsaw operators (78.3% the personal protective equipment was considered important and helped to keep them safe. In relation to accident index, 56.5% of chainsaw operators affirmed that they had some type of accident in the company, and 65.2% said they had already witnessed accidents at work. Among helpers, 87.2% answered that the personal protective equipment had already saved them from accidents at work, 30.8% said they had accidents resulted from the pruning activity, and 48.7 % witnessed accidents at work. As for the evaluated equipment, all chainsaws were in good conditions and with an adequate safety system. The majority of trunks adapted for worker transport on trucks showed insufficient number and defective distribution of ventilation windows. The inclination of seat back was inadequate and the 2-point safety belts were badly attached. For a better work development, it is recommended to improve and facilitate the supply of personal protective equipment to the workers, to provide training courses on safety techniques at work, training for newly-hired workers, and to improve both safety and comfort of worker transportation vehicles.

  13. Chemical Physics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Munn, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a guide to the chemical physics major. The scope of chemical physics is presented, along with the general features of course contents and possible course structures. This information was derived from a survey of British universities and colleges offering undergraduate degree courses in chemical physics. (BB)

  14. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  15. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  16. Poda da haste principal e densidade de cultivo na produção e qualidade de frutos em híbridos de melão Pruning of main stem and plant density on yield and fruit quality of melon hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hevilásio F. Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os efeitos da poda da haste principal e da densidade de cultivo sobre a produção e a qualidade de dois híbridos de melão. Os trabalhos foram desenvolvidos na ESAM em Mossoró-RN, de 01/06 a 11/08/98. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, sendo um com e o outro sem poda da haste principal. Em cada um estudaram-se os híbridos Orange Flesh e Hy Mark e as densidades de cultivo de 20.000, 30.000, 40.000 e 50.000 plantas ha-1, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 4. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Houve interação significativa entre a poda da haste principal e os híbridos para massa média dos frutos, relação de formato e sólidos solúveis totais e entre a poda da haste principal e a densidade de cultivo para o número de frutos totais e não-comercializáveis. Os híbridos Orange Flesh e Hy Mark, quando submetidos à poda, foram mais produtivos apresentando, em média, 25,96 Mg ha-1 de frutos comercializáveis. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos diminuíram com o aumento da densidade de cultivo. O número de frutos totais e comercializáveis aumentaram em função da densidade de cultivo. O híbrido Orange Flesh, submetido à poda, apresentou a maior relação de formato, com índice de 1,09, enquanto o híbrido Hy Mark apresentou a menor, com índice de 1,04. O híbrido Hy Mark submetido à poda da haste principal apresentou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais (8,99%.Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of pruning and planting density on yield and fruit quality of two melon hybrids. The work was done in Mossoró, Brazil, in the period of 06/01 to 08/11/98. The hybrids Orange flesh and Hy Mark were studied and the planting densities of 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 50,000 plants ha-1, in factorial outline 2 x 4. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications. There was significant interaction among pruning and hybrid

  17. 定植和打顶及品种对雾培马铃薯器官建成的影响%Effects of Node Number Control in Transplanting, Top-Pruning and Varieties on Organogenesis of Potato in Aeroponical Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭; 王季春; 刘伟; 唐道彬; 张凯; 吕长文; 陈香颖; 杨国才; 滕艳

    2013-01-01

    该试验采用L9(34)正交试验设计,研究了不同定植节数、打顶次数及品种对雾培马铃薯植株茎粗、根系、LAI,LOX活性及结薯能力的影响.结果表明:雾培马铃薯定植3节及打顶2次处理均能促进LOX活性增强、匍匐茎发生,增加块茎数量和质量;结薯能力与品种差异相关密切,品种费乌瑞它结薯能力最佳;同时发现LOX活性增强利于雾培马铃薯结薯.品种费乌瑞它结合定植3节和打顶2次为雾培结薯最优组合.%An L9 (34) orthogonal experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of node number control in transplanting,top-pruning times and varieties on stem diameter,roots,leaf area index (LAI),lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and tuberization of potato plants in aeroponical culture.The results indicated that transplanting with three nodes or top-pruning twice enhanced LOX activity,promoted stolon formation and increased tuber number and weight and that the capacity of tuberization was closely related to variety and cv.Favorita produced the highest yield of tuber.High LOX activity was beneficial to tuberization of the plant.In conclusion,the optimum combination for increasing potato tuber number in aeroponical culture was planting cv.Favorita with three nodes in combination with double top pruning.

  18. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study o

  19. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  20. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  1. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  2. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  3. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  4. Chemical Biology is.....

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  5. Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

  6. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  7. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  8. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  9. 菌肥对香榧等控根容器苗生长的影响%Effect of Microbial Fertilizers on Growth of Root-pruning Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁永发; 康志雄; 陈友吾; 许利群; 程诗明; 张乃华; 方建华

    2011-01-01

    在香榧、山核桃、杨梅等控根容器苗培育过程中,选用固氮菌、解磷菌及其混合菌进行菌肥试验.结果表明:施菌肥3a后,香榧容器苗解磷菌、混合菌处理苗高生长量比对照分别增加18.26%和18.06%,差异显著(P<0.05);山核桃容器苗固氮菌、混合菌处理高生长量比对照分别增加46.25%和47.23%,差异显著(P<0.05);杨梅容器苗混合菌处理苗高生长量与对照相比差异显著(P<0.05),明显优于它们单独使用效果;此外,不同菌肥对香榧等3种苗木地径生长也有一定的促进作用.由于不同的菌肥对各树种的苗木生长促进效果有明显差异,在苗木培育过程中,应根据不同的苗木合理选用菌肥.%Experiments were conducted on application of microbial fertilizers like nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphate-dissolving bacteria and mixed bacteria on root-pruning container seedling cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, Carya cathayensis, Myrica rubra. The result showed that after 3 years test, height growth of container T. grandis cv. Meirrillii seedlings treated by phosphate-dissolving bacteria and mixed one increased 18.26% and 18.06% than that of the control, with great difference(P<0.05). Height growth of container C. cathayensis seedlings treated by nitrogen fixing bacteria and mixed one increased 46.25% and 47.23% than that of the control, with great difference(P<0.05). Height growth of container Myrica rubra seedlings treated by mixed bacteria had significant different with that of the control and was better than that treated by the other two fertilizers.

  10. O pessegueiro no sistema de pomar compacto: VII. comportamento de novas seleções IAC sob poda drástica bienal The peach meadow orchard system: VII. performance of new lAC selections on biennal drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Barbosa

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se durante seis anos o comportamento reprodutivo de cinco novas seleções de pêssego e nectarina em Monte Alegre do Sul (22°41'S; 46°43'W e 40 HF-7. Os pessegueiros e nectarineiras cultivados nos espaçamentos de 4 x 0,5m e 4 x Im, equivalentes a 5000 e 2500 plantas/ha, respectivamente, foram podados drasticamente, a cada dois anos, após a colheita. Em ambos espaçamentos,'Aurora-2* e IAC 282-24 apresentaram as melhores produções acima de 19 toneladas/ha. Verificou-se nos ciclos subseqüentes a cada poda da copa, tendência de menor produção das plantas, principalmente em material de ciclo mediano. No segundo ano após a poda drástica, os pessegueiros e nectarineiras produziram normalmente. No espaçamento de 4 x 0,5m, as plantas apresentaram acréscimo médio de 12% na produção, em relação a 4 x lm, diminuindo porém, o peso do produto final. Os maiores frutos com peso médio acima de l00g foram produzidos pelas seleções IAC 6782-83 e IAC 282-24.Five new peach and nectarin selections were grown under the meadow orchard system, with bienal drastic pruning, at 4m x 0.5m and 4m x lm spacings. The experimental area was located in Monte Alegre do Sul, (22°41'S; 46°43'W and 40 hours below 7°C State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results obtained during the six years of experiments clearly indicate that the 'Aurora-2' and IAC 282-24 peach selections were the best, with an average yield above 19 ton per hectare. For 4m x 0.5m spacing, with a density of 5000 plants per hectare, the productivity increased about 12%, however decreasing the weight of the final product. The best average weights of the fruits, above of l00g, were obtained by the IAC 6782-83 and IAC 282-24 selections.

  11. 植物光合结构与非光合结构的功能平衡:来自三种亚热带乔木树种的实验证据%Functional Equilibrium Between Photosynthetic and Above-ground Nonphotosynthetic Structures of Plants: Evidence from a Pruning Experiment with Three Subtropical Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾波

    2003-01-01

    above-ground parts of plants have functional equilibriums between their photosynthetic structures and non-photosynthetic structures; (2) the maintenance of the equilibriums is guaranteed by the alteration of biomass partitioning to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic structures. To test these hypotheses, a pruning experiment with four pruning intensities (0%, 20%, 50%, and 70%) were carried out with three subtropical Chinese tree species (Ficus microcarpa, Ficus virens, Cinnamomum camphora). Pruning treatments were conducted in two successive years. The results were in conformity with the hypothesis, i.e. above-ground parts of trees had functional equilibriums between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic structures. Pruning decreased instantaneously the mass ratios of photosynthetic structures to non-photosynthetic structures (P/NP) of all three tree species, the reduction in P/NP was strengthened with pruning intensity. However, one year after pruning, the P/NP of all pruned trees increased and were not smaller than those of unpruned trees. In agreement with the expectation, the biomass partitioning of pruned trees was altered, more newly produced above-ground biomass was partitioned to leaf growth and less to branch and stem growth, thus enabled the damaged trees to restore their functional equilibrium between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic structures. It is clear that the maintenance of functional equilibrium between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic structures guaranteed by the alteration of biomass partitioning provides plants a good strategy to resist external disturbance and damage.

  12. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  13. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  14. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  15. Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).

  16. Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekreijse, Jurjen

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustai

  17. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  18. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  19. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  20. 7 CFR 993.5 - Prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preservation are used, and so long as they are treated by a process which is in conformity with, or generally... the Food Technology Division, College of Agriculture, University of California, for the specialty pack..., refrigeration or other artificial means of preservation....

  1. Neural Classifier Construction using Regularization, Pruning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintz-Madsen, Mads; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan;

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method for construction of feed-forward neural classifiers based on regularization and adaptive architectures. Using a penalized maximum likelihood scheme, we derive a modified form of the entropic error measure and an algebraic estimate of the test error. In conjunction...

  2. 21 CFR 145.190 - Canned prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... words may be combined as for example, “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and unpeeled...: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (4... spice, “Seasoned with vinegar” or “Seasoned with unpeeled pieces of citrus fruit”. When two or more...

  3. Organic chemistry: Precision pruning of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kin S.; Engle, Keary M.

    2016-05-01

    If organic molecules were trees, then the numerous carbon-hydrogen bonds within them would be leaves. A catalyst that targets one 'leaf' out of many similar other ones looks set to be a huge leap for synthetic chemistry. See Letter p.230

  4. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  5. CHEMICALS AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available However a lot of chemicals had been used in our daily life, we have enough knowledge about the effects of only for a small portion of them on reproductive health. Our knowledge had been arisen from epidemiologic and experimental studies. In order to protect ourselves from chemicals in the environment it should be concentrate on experimental studies and the results of them should be carefully studied during epidemiological researches. It would be tried to tell about the main chemicals which had been known as effective on reproductive health on the following review. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 50-59

  6. Elements of chemical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Leonard K

    2005-01-01

    This survey of purely thermal data in calculating the position of equilibrium in a chemical reaction highlights the physical content of thermodynamics, as distinct from purely mathematical aspects. 1970 edition.

  7. Chemical Physics Summer School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-28

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Physics Summer School was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  8. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  9. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  10. Legendary Chemical Aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a survey of the literature and a summary of information regarding aphrodisiacs. Chemical compounds are discussed as groups of plant natural products, animal natural products, and synthetic products. (CS)

  11. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  12. Chemical agent recoveries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset shows the calculation of reported decontamination efficacies from the raw data (i.e., measured amount of chemical recovered from test coupons and positive...

  13. 219-S chemical compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOODWIN, L.D.

    1999-08-31

    This document consists of tables of the materials that make up the ''wetted'' parts of the 219-S waste handling facility and a combination of manufacturer lists of chemicals that are not recommended.

  14. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  15. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  16. A bionics chemical synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapitak, Surachoke; Toumazou, Christofer

    2013-06-01

    Implementation of the current mode CMOS circuit for chemical synapses (AMPA and NMDA receptors) with dynamic change of glutamate as the neurotransmitter input is presented in this paper. Additionally, circuit realisation for receptor GABA(A) and GABA(B) with an electrical signal which symbolises γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) perturbation is introduced. The chemical sensor for glutamate sensing is the modified ISFET with enzyme (glutamate oxidase) immobilisation. The measured results from these biomimetics chemical synapse circuits closely match with the simulation result from the mathematical model. The total power consumption of the whole chip (four chemical synapse circuits and all auxiliary circuits) is 168.3 μW. The total chip area is 3 mm(2) in 0.35-μm AMS CMOS technology.

  17. Countermeasures to Hazardous Chemicals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    of any effective community awareness and emergency response program is an informed public familiar with the operations of local chemical plants. Such a...protection systems. 2. Booklel, ’Protecting People and the Environment.’ - A concise booklet developed to familiarize the public with chemical operations and...Jefe, Seccion de Estudios y Planificacion 102. Civil Defense Administation c/Evaristo San Miguel, 8 Ministry of Interior Madrid-8 Ankara ESPANA

  18. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  19. Sawmill chemicals and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, J

    2001-01-01

    Workers in wood industries are exposed to variable medleys of chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Additional exposures include fungi, bacteria, bark and wood dusts, solvents, paints, and various other wood coatings. These individual and conglomerate exposures have been associated with diverse occupational illnesses and hazards, including cancers. In this commentary, I summarize both experimental and epidemiologic carcinogenesis results for several chemicals used in the wood industry, as we...

  20. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-30

    mass spectrometer. Also discussed were Corporation, St. Louis , Mo. unique analytical applications of several negative ion chemical Synthesis of the...were purchsed from obtained at a probe temperature of 180-200 °C and displays Sigma Chemical Co.. St. Louis , Mo. Arginine hydrochloride (4) a M4...13) Rosenstock. H, M.: Drax . K.: Stener. B. W: Hernon J. T. J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data 1977, 6, Supl. 1. 774-783,167 occur in the ratio of 10/ 1

  1. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  2. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  3. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination.

  4. Prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome%产前彩色多普勒超声诊断梅干腹综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彩云; 罗红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨产前彩色多普勒超声诊断胎儿梅于腹综合征( PBS)的价值,方法分析我院产前彩色多普勒超声检出的11胎疑似PBS胎儿的声像图特征,并与产后外观或病理结果对比,验证超声检查的准确性.结果 11胎均见腹腔内巨大囊性占位,周边可探及脐血流信号(提示为巨膀胱);6胎泌尿系畸形;3胎腹壁菲簿;6胎羊水过少;4胎合并其他异常;2胎胎死宫内.9胎引产(7胎为PBS,1胎为后尿道瓣膜症,1胎为尿道闭锁);2胎出生(1胎为PBS,1胎为单纯腹腔囊肿).产前彩色多普勒超声对PBS的检出率为0.17‰(8/47 624),准确率为72.73%(8/11).结论 腹横径/膀胱直径、腹壁厚度作为诊断标准可提高产前诊断PBS准确率,产前彩色多普勒超声早期诊断胎儿PBS具有较高的临床诊断价值.%Objective To explore the value of prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome (PBS). Methods The characteristics of ultrasonogram of 11 fetuses suspected PBS were analyzed and compared with postnatal appearance or pathological findings. Results Eleven fetuses had large intraperitoneal cyst, umbilical blood flow signal surrounding (hint for the megacystis) were explored. Six fetuses had urinary malformations, while 3 had abdominal wall meager. Oligohydramnios was noticed in 6 fetuses. Four fetuses had other abnormalities. Intrauterine fetal death occurred in 2 cases. Induced labour was performed in 9 cases, 7 of them were confirmed as PBS, 1 as posterior ure-thral valve. 1 as urethral atresia. One fetus with PBS and 1 with simple abdominal cyst were born. The detection rate of PBS with prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography was 0. 17%o (8/47 624), the diagnostic accuracy was 72. 73% (8/11). Conclusion Taking the abdominal/bladder diameter and abdominal wall thickness as diagnostic criteria can improve the diagnostic accuracy of PBS in prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography. Which has high clinic value in PBS.

  5. Effects of Different Pruning Methods on Plant Growth and Fruit Quality of Melon%不同整枝方式对甜瓜植株生长和果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤谧; 赵鸿飞; 别之龙; 谢俊俊; 伊鸿平; 任俭; 杜念华; 孙玉宏

    2013-01-01

    为探讨不同整枝留果方式对温室栽种厚皮甜瓜品质的影响,以黄皮9818、“1027”、风味4号和风味5号4个精品厚皮甜瓜为试材,分别采取单蔓单果、双蔓单果和双蔓双果整枝方式,比较了植株生长和果实品质的差异.结果表明,风味4号和风味5号采用单蔓单果整枝时叶色更浓郁;“1027”在双蔓单果整枝时果皮形成致密美观的网纹;黄皮9818、风味4号和风味5号单蔓单果整枝时果实的心糖含量略高于双蔓整枝,其中风味4号差异显著;单蔓整枝方式下单蔓单果整枝时的蔗糖含量和酯类物质含量普遍较高.大果型品种“1027”宜采用双蔓单果整枝方式,中、小果型品种黄皮9818、风味4号和风味5号宜采用单蔓单果整枝方式,以取得优质高产高效.%Effects of different pruning methods (one-vine with single fruit,two-vine with single fruit,and two-vine with double fruits) on plant growth and fruit quality in four high-quality muskmelon cultivars(“Yellow 9818”,“1027”,“Flavor No.4”,and “Flavor No.5”) were studied here.The results indicated that the leaf colors of plants “Flavor No.4” and “Flavor No.5” of one-vine with single fruit were stronger than those of two-vine with double fruits.The fruit on “1027” of two-vine with single fruit displayed more graceful netting.The centre soluble solid contents of fruits on “Yellow 9818”,“Flavor No.4”,and “Flavor No.5” of one-vine with single fruit were slightly higher than those of two-vine with double fruits.Moreover,four melon cultivars all had higher contents in sucrose and esters of one-vine than those of two-vine.In one word,two-vine with single fruit is suitable for “1027”,while one-vine with single fruit fits "Yellow 9818",“Flavor No.4”,and “Flavor No.5”.

  6. Efeito da poda da última penca do cacho da bananeira Prata Anã (AAB irrigada na produção de frutos no Norte de Minas Gerais Influence of last hand prune on the irrigated banana bunch crop in the north of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA GERALDA V. RODRIGUES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental de Mocambinho pertencente à EPAMIG/CTNM, localizada no Perímetro Irrigado do Jaíba MG, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da retirada da última penca do cacho de banana 'Prata Anã', na precocidade de colheita e características dos frutos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com 2 tratamentos, 23 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram representados por retirada e manutenção da última penca. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para precocidade, nos dois primeiros ciclos de produção. Para os parâmetros de produção, não houve diferença estatística nos dois primeiros ciclos para massa do cacho; massa média de frutos; massa média de pencas; comprimento, diâmetro, massa e espessura de casca do fruto central da segunda penca; massa da primeira penca; massa da segunda penca; massa da penúltima penca e massa do engaço. No segundo ciclo, houve efeito negativo da retirada da última penca para massa total de frutos, e no primeiro ciclo, apesar de não ter sido significativo, observou-se a mesma tendência. No terceiro ciclo a retirada da última penca promoveu aumento de massa média de frutos, massa média de pencas e diâmetro do fruto central da segunda penca, não alterando o massa total de frutos.This work was carried out in the EPAMIG/CTNM's Experimental Farm, wich is located in the irrigated area of Jaiba county in the north of Minas Gerais state. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of hand prune on the harvest time and on the crop characteristics. A completely randomized design was used with 23 replications and three plants per plot. The treatments were pruning and nonpruning of last hand of each bunch. There was no effect of treatments on the harvest time for two first crops, and on fruits characteristics. In the second crop cycle, total fruit weight decreased with last hand prunning. In the third crop the last

  7. Adubação da seringueira no período de pós enxertia. I: relacionada à data de decepagem do porta-enxerto Effect of applying fertilizers to rubber seedlings after grafting as related to time of root stock pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. da P. Pereira

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter informações, que visem solucionar o grave problema de desuniformidade na brotação da gema do enxerto e do crescimento atrofiado desta após a decepagem da parte aérea do porta-enxerto, foram aplicados N e K na presença e ausência de P, em adubações regulares e variáveis, em diferentes datas antes e após a decepagem da parte aérea do porta-enxerto (mudas formadas diretamente em sacos de plástico. A adubação no período de pós-enxertia, mostrou-se extremamente necessária para o crescimento e vigor das mudas. Em relação à época, a adubação feita na data da decepagem do porta-enxerto, não apresentou resultados satisfatórios. A antecipação na emissão, uniformidade e vigor do 1° lançamento foliar, foram obtidos quando as plantas foram adubadas aos 15 dias antes da decepagem e eliminação da parte aérea do porta-enxerto. As maiores taxas de crescimento e uniformidade das plantas e vigor do 2° lançamento, ocorreram nas plantas adubadas com NPK, aos 30 dias após a decepagem do porta-enxerto.Nitrogen and potassium were applied with and withoult phosphorus to rubber seedlings at various rates and intervals prior to and after root stock pruning in an attempt to observe budding uniformity and stunting. The use of fertilizers pos-grafting was effective in promoting seedling growth and vigor. Uniformity, vigor and precocity of first whorl was related to fertilizing stocks 15 days prior to pruning, but the better at the 2nd whorld stage was obtained in stocks receiving NPK 30 days after pruning.

  8. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  9. Current Chemical Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  10. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell

    2013-01-01

    , and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...... are included about the OASIS database and platform and the Danish (Q)SAR Database online. Various types of chemical database resources are discussed, together with a list of examples.......Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval...

  11. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  12. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  13. Chemically Powered Nanomotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Raymond

    2007-03-01

    Molecular motors play important roles in transport in biological systems. These molecular machines are powered by chemical energy and operate in the regime of low Reynolds number hydrodynamics. Recently a class of simple inorganic molecular motors has been constructed and studied experimentally [1,2]. These motors are bimetallic rods, one end of which is chemically active. The talk will describe simple mesoscopic models for the motion of such nanomotors. The motor consists of two linked spheres, one of which catalyzes the conversion between two chemical species. The chemical species interact differently with the the two spheres in the dimer. The nano-dimer motor is solvated by a molecules treated at a mesoscopic level whose evolution is governed by multi-particle collision dynamics. The dynamics conserves mass, momentum and energy so that coupling between the nanomotor and the hydrodynamic modes of the solvent is treated correctly. The simulations allow one to explore the mechanisms of the chemically powered motion and the effects of fluctuations on the motor dynamics. [1] W. F. Paxton, et al., ``Catalytic Nanomotors: Autonomous Movement of Striped Nanorods,'' J. Am. Chem. Soc. (JACS), 126 (41), 13424 (2004). [2] S. Fournier-Bidoz, et al. ``Synthetic Self-Propelled Nanorotors,'' Chem. Commun., (4), 441 (2005).

  14. Crescimento vegetativo e produção de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. recepados em duas épocas, conduzidos em espaçamentos crescentes Vegetative growth and yield of coffee plants (Coffea arabica L. in two different pruning times, conducted at different spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Parreiras Pereira

    2007-06-01

    four distances between planting rows (2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 3,5 m and three distances among plants in the row (0,5; 0,75 e 1,0 m, and two different pruning times (one precociously conducted just after the harvest, on july 2002, and the other latter on january 2003, making a total 24 treatments arranged in randomized blocks with three replicates. In july 2002 and january 2003 a drastic pruning was clone and conducing two sprouts per plant. Vegetative growth and beans yield were evaluated in august 2004. Coffee plant spacing did not affected growth of any of the vegetative components of sprouting, during the evaluated period. All the vegetative characteristics were positively affected by the early pruning procedure, as well as the beans yield of the first harvest after pruning, which also showed to be positively influenced by the adoption of a narrower spacing plant. The coffee plants which were submitted to late prunning, had lancer bean yield in july 2004 as those precociously prunned.

  15. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  16. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  17. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  18. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  19. Chemical Inhibition of Autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Eric; Lin Kim, Che; Gyeom Kim, Mi;

    2016-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical...... autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine...... and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125...

  20. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  1. Chemical inhomogeneities and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2001-01-01

    Major improvements in models of chemically peculiar stars have been achieved in the past few years. With these new models it has been possible to test quantitatively some of the processes involved in the formation of abundance anomalies and their effect on stellar structure. The models of metallic A (Am) stars have shown that a much deeper mixing has to be present to account for observed abundance anomalies. This has implications on their variability, which these models also reproduce qualitatively. These models also have implications for other chemically inhomogeneous stars such as HgMn B stars which are not known to be variable and lambda Bootis stars which can be. The study of the variability of chemically inhomogeneous stars can provide unique information on the dynamic processes occurring in many types of stars in addition to modeling of the evolution of their surface composition.

  2. Chemical Kinetics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  3. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisob......Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material...... and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling....

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...... and genistein, a mixture of phytoestrogens, and a mixture of environmentally relevant estrogenic EDCs of various origins. Moreover, mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals were investigated. These include a mixture of pesticides and a mixture of environmentally relevant anti-androgenic EDCs of various origins...

  5. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  6. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  7. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  8. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...... on the role of polarized T-lymphocyte responses in the development of allergic contact dermatitis and occupational asthma in humans. The implications for understanding of chemical allergy in humans are explored in this Commentary....

  9. Chemical space and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  10. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  11. Magnetic chemically peculiar stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schöller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Chemically peculiar (CP) stars are main-sequence A and B stars with abnormally strong or weak lines for certain elements. They generally have magnetic fields and all observables tend to vary with the same period. Chemically peculiar stars provide a wealth of information; they are natural atomic and magnetic laboratories. After a brief historical overview, we discuss the general properties of the magnetic fields in CP stars, describe the oblique rotator model, explain the dependence of the magnetic field strength on the rotation, and concentrate at the end on HgMn stars.

  12. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  13. Chemical hygiene plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  14. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...

  15. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  16. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare;

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple and e...

  17. Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-14

    two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of

  18. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  19. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  20. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  1. Hydroxyl Radical Chemical Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    Stone (I) 1 Atlantic Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (Robert Naismith ) I Battelle Columbus laboratories, Columbus, OH (Fred Tietzel) 1...Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (Dr. Claude R. Culp) 1 Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Wasatch Division, Brigham City, UT ( James E. Hansen) 4 United

  2. Chemical Aspects of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfman, Murry

    1982-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease are treated/prevented by procedures utilizing chemical expertise. Procedures and suggestions on how they might be incorporated into the high school chemistry curriculum are described. Specific topics discussed include dental caries, fluoride, diet, tooth decay prevention, silver amalgan,…

  3. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...

  4. Plant Diseases & Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Sherm

    2008-01-01

    This course discusses the use of chemicals for plant disease control. Specifically, pesticides that can be used both in commercial or home/yard sitautions. This course also teaches how to determine plant diseases that may have caused a plant to die.

  5. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  6. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  7. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  8. 埋土防寒区葡萄冬剪后挂枝的防风效果%Wind erosion prevention effect of suspending shoots on wires after winter pruning in soil-burying zones over-wintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 李华; 王华

    2015-01-01

    为了改善葡萄传统栽培方式冬春季地表裸露导致的风蚀状况,该文研究了“爬地龙”栽培模式下,葡萄冬剪后枝条悬挂在铁丝上形成风障的防风阻沙效果。结果表明:此防护措施的透光疏透度值75.6%分布在0.48~0.68,均值0.58,确定为通风结构;分析风速与防护长度的关系,得到1 m高度处风速在途经风障时变化过程:遇风障减弱、集流加速、迅速减弱、恢复和背风侧消减;在风障中距迎风侧边缘34 m处风速达到最低值,较旷野风速值减小84.20%,防风效能达80.72%;从背风侧风障边缘到距离边缘34 m处,均属于相对有效防护距离以内,防风效能均值达40.94%;该研究中葡萄园的输沙量沿高度分布遵循幂函数,输沙量均集中在近地面。挂枝的距地表5~150 cm高度的总输沙量比对照高39.0%。该研究可为中国葡萄埋土防寒区的防风阻沙工作提供参考。%Ninety percent of Chinese viticulture regions are distributed in soil-burying over-wintering zones. Traditional viticulture management causes soil surface to be exposed for about 6 months per year during the cold winter and the dry windy spring when there is almost no rain but strong wind. Large area of bare soil, which comes from grape soil-burying over-wintering, results in increasing risks of wind erosion in viticulture regions. In order to reduce this erosion, a new training system called crawled cordon training (CCT) is used in the experiment. CCT has one horizontal cordon which is above the soil surface, and vertical shoots are distributed equally on cordon of the first wire and tied. Vines are trained to the regular canopy during the growth period, and the shoots of vines on the wires after pruning in winter form a kind of windbreak and play a protective role as shelterbelt network. The experiments studied the degree of porosity of shoot windbreak and the windbreak potency according to typical

  9. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then, a randomization test as well as chemical-chemical interaction and chemical structure information were utilized to make further selections. A final analysis of these new chemicals in the context of the current literature indicates that several chemicals are strongly linked to lung cancer.

  10. Chemical Sensing with Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.

    2012-07-01

    Transformational advances in the performance of nanowire-based chemical sensors and biosensors have been achieved over the past two to three years. These advances have arisen from a better understanding of the mechanisms of transduction operating in these devices, innovations in nanowire fabrication, and improved methods for incorporating receptors into or onto nanowires. Nanowire-based biosensors have detected DNA in undiluted physiological saline. For silicon nanowire nucleic acid sensors, higher sensitivities have been obtained by eliminating the passivating oxide layer on the nanowire surface and by substituting uncharged protein nucleic acids for DNA as the capture strands. Biosensors for peptide and protein cancer markers, based on both semiconductor nanowires and nanowires of conductive polymers, have detected these targets at physiologically relevant concentrations in both blood plasma and whole blood. Nanowire chemical sensors have also detected several gases at the parts-per-million level. This review discusses these and other recent advances, concentrating on work published in the past three years.

  11. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Gerald N; Hecht, Stephen S; Felton, James S; Conney, Allan H; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2004-12-01

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers, when exposures are related to "life-style" factors such as diet, tobacco use, etc. This chapter summarizes several aspects of environmental chemical carcinogenesis that have been extensively studied and illustrates the power of mechanistic investigation combined with molecular epidemiologic approaches in establishing causative linkages between environmental exposures and increased cancer risks. A causative relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, a strongly carcinogenic mold-produced contaminant of dietary staples in Asia and Africa, and elevated risk for primary liver cancer has been demonstrated through the application of well-validated biomarkers in molecular epidemiology. These studies have also identified a striking synergistic interaction between aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus infection in elevating liver cancer risk. Use of tobacco products provides a clear example of cancer causation by a life-style factor involving carcinogen exposure. Tobacco carcinogens and their DNA adducts are central to cancer induction by tobacco products, and the contribution of specific tobacco carcinogens (e.g. PAH and NNK) to tobacco-induced lung cancer, can be evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. Factors considered include presence in tobacco products, carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, human uptake, metabolism and adduct formation, possible role in causing molecular changes in oncogenes or suppressor genes, and other relevant data

  12. Chemical Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Marco; Bednarek, Christin; Wawryszyn, Mirella; Sauter, Paul; Biskup, Moritz B; Schepers, Ute; Bräse, Stefan

    2016-07-27

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as one major part of the glycocalyx are involved in many essential biological cell processes, as well as in many courses of diseases. Because of the potential therapeutic application of GAG polymers, fragments, and also derivatives toward different diseases (e.g., heparin derivatives against Alzheimer's disease), there is a continual growing demand for new chemical syntheses, which suffice the high claim to stereoselectivity and chemoselectivity. This Review summarizes the progress of chemical syntheses of GAGs over the last 10 years. For each class of the glycosaminoglycans-hyaluronan (HA), heparan sulfate/heparin (HS/HP), chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS), and keratan sulfate (KS)-mainly novel glycosylation strategies, elongation sequences, and protecting group patterns are discussed, but also (semi)automated syntheses, enzymatic approaches, and functionalizations of synthesized or isolated GAGs are considered.

  13. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  14. Chemical aerosol Raman detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Amin, M.; Perkins, B. G.; Clark, M. L.; Jeys, T. H.; Sickenberger, D. W.; D'Amico, F. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Christesen, S. D.; Kreis, R. J.; Kilper, G. K.

    2017-03-01

    A sensitive chemical aerosol Raman detector (CARD) has been developed for the trace detection and identification of chemical particles in the ambient atmosphere. CARD includes an improved aerosol concentrator with a concentration factor of about 40 and a CCD camera for improved detection sensitivity. Aerosolized isovanillin, which is relatively safe, has been used to characterize the performance of the CARD. The limit of detection (SNR = 10) for isovanillin in 15 s has been determined to be 1.6 pg/cm3, which corresponds to 6.3 × 109 molecules/cm3 or 0.26 ppb. While less sensitive, CARD can also detect gases. This paper provides a more detailed description of the CARD hardware and detection algorithm than has previously been published.

  15. Chemical genetics and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sumitra; Zhang, Liyun; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves interactions between multiple signaling pathways acting in a spatially and temporally complex manner. As signaling pathways are highly conserved, understanding how regeneration is controlled in animal models exhibiting robust regenerative capacities should aid efforts to stimulate repair in humans. One way to discover molecular regulators of regeneration is to alter gene/protein function and quantify effect(s) on the regenerative process: dedifferentiation/reprograming, stem/progenitor proliferation, migration/remodeling, progenitor cell differentiation and resolution. A powerful approach for applying this strategy to regenerative biology is chemical genetics, the use of small-molecule modulators of specific targets or signaling pathways. Here, we review advances that have been made using chemical genetics for hypothesis-focused and discovery-driven studies aimed at furthering understanding of how regeneration is controlled.

  16. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  17. Autocatalytic chemical smoke rings

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, M C; Rogers, Michael C.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    Buoyant plumes, evolving free of boundary constraints, may develop well-defined mushroom shaped heads. In normal plumes, overturning flow in the head entrains less buoyant fluid from the surroundings as the head rises, robbing the plume of its driving force. We consider here a new type of plume in which the source of buoyancy is an autocatalytic chemical reaction. The reaction occurs at a sharp front which separates reactants from less dense products. In this type of plume, entrainment assists the reaction, producing new buoyancy which fuels an accelerating plume head. When the head has grown to a critical size, it detaches from the upwelling conduit, forming an accelerating, buoyant vortex ring. This vortex is analogous to a rising smoke ring. A second-generation head then develops at the point of detachment.Multiple generations of chemical vortex rings can detach from a single triggering event.

  18. Biocatalysis for Biobased Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén de Regil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of greener processes that are safe and friendly is an irreversible trend that is driven by sustainable and economic issues. The use of Biocatalysis as part of a manufacturing process fits well in this trend as enzymes are themselves biodegradable, require mild conditions to work and are highly specific and well suited to carry out complex reactions in a simple way. The growth of computational capabilities in the last decades has allowed Biocatalysis to develop sophisticated tools to understand better enzymatic phenomena and to have the power to control not only process conditions but also the enzyme’s own nature. Nowadays, Biocatalysis is behind some important products in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and bulk chemicals industry. In this review we want to present some of the most representative examples of industrial chemicals produced in vitro through enzymatic catalysis.

  19. Interactive Chemical Reactivity Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Haag, Moritz P; Bosson, Mael; Redon, Stephane; Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating chemical reactivity in complex molecular assemblies of a few hundred atoms is, despite the remarkable progress in quantum chemistry, still a major challenge. Black-box search methods to find intermediates and transition-state structures might fail in such situations because of the high-dimensionality of the potential energy surface. Here, we propose the concept of interactive chemical reactivity exploration to effectively introduce the chemist's intuition into the search process. We employ a haptic pointer device with force-feedback to allow the operator the direct manipulation of structures in three dimensions along with simultaneous perception of the quantum mechanical response upon structure modification as forces. We elaborate on the details of how such an interactive exploration should proceed and which technical difficulties need to be overcome. All reactivity-exploration concepts developed for this purpose have been implemented in the Samson programming environment.

  20. Chemical Decontaminant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...Some test methods for efficacy require the use of CWAs and decontaminants. 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination; chemical warfare agent; CWA...contaminant in samples from contact samplers , coupons, rinsate, or other samples. MS, GC or LC, FID, FPD, or equivalents. ±15 percent of the mass of

  1. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  2. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  3. Control of chemical chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 钱积新

    2002-01-01

    Lyapunov exponents can act as the judgment rule whether the systems is chaotic or not.We propose an approach to control chaotic systems by varying the Lyapunov exponents of the system. At last we use this method to control a chemical system. Both the theoretical analysis and the simulation results prove that this method can quickly and effectively stabilize the chaotic systems to the desire points.

  4. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Henderson and Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-04-14

    Chemical reactions at surfaces underlie some of the most important processes of today, including catalysis, energy conversion, microelectronics, human health and the environment. Understanding surface chemical reactions at a fundamental level is at the core of the field of surface science. The Gordon Research Conference on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces is one of the premiere meetings in the field. The program this year will cover a broad range of topics, including heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry, surfaces in environmental chemistry and energy conversion, reactions at the liquid-solid and liquid-gas interface, electronic materials growth and surface modification, biological interfaces, and electrons and photons at surfaces. An exciting program is planned, with contributions from outstanding speakers and discussion leaders from the international scientific community. The conference provides a dynamic environment with ample time for discussion and interaction. Attendees are encouraged to present posters; the poster sessions are historically well attended and stimulate additional discussions. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for junior researchers (e.g. graduate students or postdocs) to present their work and interact with established leaders in the field.

  5. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  6. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  7. Fiber Bragg distributed chemical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Cheng, L.K.; Jansen, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    A distributed chemical sensor is developed by coating multiple Bragg gratings in a fibre with chemical selective responsive coatings. The optical response of the coated grating is optimised and the recoat process is very reproducible.

  8. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  9. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mollá, M; da Costa, R; Gibson, B K; Díaz, A I

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of oxygen abundance radial gradients resulting from our chemical evolution models calculated with different prescriptions for the star formation rate (SFR) and for the gas infall rate, in order to assess their respective roles in shaping gradients. We also compare with cosmological simulations and confront all with recent observational datasets, in particular with abundances inferred from planetary nebulae. We demonstrate the critical importance in isolating the specific radial range over which a gradient is measured, in order for their temporal evolution to be useful indicators of disk growth with redshift.

  10. Chemical kinetics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  11. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  12. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  13. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  14. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  15. Fiber Bragg distributed chemical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Saalmink, M.; Lucassen, T.; Wiegersma, S.; Jansen, T.H.; Jansen, R.; Cheng, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    A distributed chemical sensor is developed by coating multiple Bragg gratings in a single glass fiber with chemical responsive coatings. The composition of the coating is tuned to the target chemicals to be measured and the optical response of the coated grating is optimized by changing the coating

  16. Identification of Chemical Toxicity Using Ontology Information of Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanpeng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of the combinatorial chemistry, a large number of synthetic compounds have surged. However, we have limited knowledge about them. On the other hand, the speed of designing new drugs is very slow. One of the key causes is the unacceptable toxicities of chemicals. If one can correctly identify the toxicity of chemicals, the unsuitable chemicals can be discarded in early stage, thereby accelerating the study of new drugs and reducing the R&D costs. In this study, a new prediction method was built for identification of chemical toxicities, which was based on ontology information of chemicals. By comparing to a previous method, our method is quite effective. We hope that the proposed method may give new insights to study chemical toxicity and other attributes of chemicals.

  17. Frontiers in Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-02

    These are slides dealing with frontiers in chemical physics. The following topics are covered: Time resolving chemistry with ultrashort pulses in the 0.1-40 THz spectral range; Example: Mid-infrared absorption spectrum of the intermediate state CH2OO; Tracking reaction dynamics through changes in the spectra; Single-shot measurement of the mid-IR absorption dynamics; Applying 2D coherent mid-IR spectroscopy to learn more about transition states; Time resolving chemical reactions at a catalysis using mid-IR and THz pulses; Studying topological insulators requires a surface sensitive probe; Nonlinear phonon dynamics in Bi2Se3; THz-pump, SHG-probe as a surface sensitive coherent 2D spectroscopy; Nanometer and femtosecond spatiotemporal resolution mid-IR spectroscopy; Coherent two-dimensional THz/mid-IR spectroscopy with 10nm spatial resolution; Pervoskite oxides as catalysts; Functionalized graphene for catalysis; Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements; Spatiotemporal pulse measurement; Intense, broad-band THz/mid-IR generation with organic crystals.

  18. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  19. Pressure Controlled Chemical Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Megan R; Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-06-30

    The dissolution of metal salts in silicate solution can result in the growth of hollow precipitate tubes. These "chemical gardens" are a model of self-organization far from the equilibrium and create permanent macroscopic structures. The reproducibility of the growth process is greatly improved if the solid salt seed is replaced by a salt solution that is steadily injected by a pump; however, this modification of the original experiment eliminates the membrane-based osmotic pump at the base of conventional chemical gardens and does not allow for analyses in terms of the involved pressure. Here we describe a new experimental method that delivers the salt solution according to a controlled hydrostatic pressure. In one form of the experiment, this pressure slowly decreases as zinc sulfate solution flows into the silicate-containing reaction vessel, whereas a second version holds the respective solution heights constant. In addition to three known growth regimes (jetting, popping, budding), we observe single tubes that fill the vessel in a horizontally undulating but vertically layered fashion (crowding). The resulting, dried product has a cylindrical shape, very low density, and one continuous connection from top to bottom. We also present phase diagrams of these growth modes and show that the flow characteristics of our experiments follow a reaction-independent Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  20. Chemical simulation of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Suhail Najem; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management attracts considerable attention in today's world. Recycling and reuse of both wastewater and greywater are becoming more attractive. The strategy is to protect ecosystem services by balancing the withdrawal of water and the disposal of wastewater. In the present study, a timely and novel synthetic greywater composition has been proposed with respect to the composition of heavy metals, nutrients and organic matter. The change in water quality of the synthetic greywater due to increasing storage time was monitored to evaluate the stability of the proposed chemical formula. The new greywater is prepared artificially using analytical-grade chemicals to simulate either low (LC) or high (HC) pollutant concentrations. The characteristics of the synthetic greywater were tested (just before starting the experiment, after two days and a week of storage under real weather conditions) and compared to those reported for real greywater. Test results for both synthetic greywater types showed great similarities with the physiochemical properties of published findings concerning real greywater. Furthermore, the synthetic greywater is relatively stable in terms of its characteristics for different storage periods. However, there was a significant (p greywater after two days of storage with reductions of 62% and 55%, respectively. A significant (p greywater after seven days of storage.

  1. Variação de carboidratos e ácido cianídrico em raízes de mandioca, após a poda da parte aérea Carbohydrates and hydrocyanic acid variation in cassava roots which aereal portions were totally pruned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados resultados do estudo da variação de matéria seca, HCN, amido, carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores em raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz nos dias que sucederam à poda ou remoção total da parte aérea. Na amostragem foi utilizado o método convencional: raízes tomadas ao acaso e representativas da população. Diferentes tipos de raízes (da base e meio da maniva e da base das hastes coletadas 17 dias após a poda apresentaram teores de carboidratos bem diferentes, seja pela mobi-lização mais acentuada de reservas, seja pela sua constituição originalmente diversa, o que sugere pesquisas mais detalhadas sobre o método de amostragem das raízes para análise de laboratório. Verificou-se que, num período de quatorze dias após a poda de plantas com treze meses de idade e em época quente e chuvosa, as transformações mais profundas ocorreram no teor de amido, que decresceu de 79,06% para 62,52%, e nos carboidratos solúveis totais e açúcares redutores, que tiveram um incremento na matéria seca das raízes, respectiva-mente de 7,65% e 1,55% para 17,56% e 5,03%. 0 teor de carboidratos totais foi pouco afetado pela poda, Indicando perda pequena destinada a nova brotação ou a outros processos fisiológicos. O teor de HCN decresceu de 67 para 35 ppm.Data are presented on the variation of the level of dry matter, cyanide, starch, total soluble carbohydrates, and reducing sugars content in roots of 13 months old cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz at successive stages after the total removal of the aereal portions. During the 14 days following pruning starch percentage decreased from 79.06% to 62.52%; total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars showed a variation from 7.65% and 1.55% up to 17.56% and 5.03% respectively. Total carbohydrate presented small losses by pruning probably due to the new sprouting process. Root cyanid content decreased from 67 to 35 ppm. Its has also been observed

  2. Remanufacturing strategy for chemical equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; JIANG Yi; WU Yi-xiong; GONG Jian-ming; TU Shan-dong

    2005-01-01

    Failure, especially induced by cracks, usually occurred in the service process of chemical equipment, which could cause the medium leakage, fire hazard and explosion and induced the personnel casualty and economic losses. To assure the long-term and safety service, it is necessary to apply the remanufacturing technology on the chemical equipment containing cracks. The recent research advances on the remanufacturing, the failure modes and the life extension technology for chemical equipment were reviewed. The engineering strategy of the remanufacturing for the chemical equipment was proposed, which could provide a reasonable and reliable technical route for the remanufacturing operation of chemical equipment. In the strategy, the redesign was also been considered.

  3. Influência do plástico branco, poda verde e amino quelant®-K na qualidade de pêssegos 'Santa Áurea' Influence of white plastic, vegetative pruning and amino quelant-K on quality of peaches 'Santa Àurea'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Trevisan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade das frutas é determinada por fatores relacionados ao clima, solo, cultivar, as práticas culturais adotadas, época e forma de colheita e processos de manipulação da fruta na pós-colheita. Uma das formas de melhorar esta qualidade é a utilização de práticas de manejo na pré-colheita. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do plástico branco, da poda verde e do nutriente aminoquelant®-K, associado ou não ao tratamento com plástico branco e poda verde, na qualidade de pêssegos 'Santa Áurea'. Os atributos de qualidade avaliados foram: percentagem visual de vermelho, intensidade de vermelho na epiderme, determinada pelo sistema CIEL*a*b*, massa, diâmetro, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação SST/ATT. As práticas utilizadas causaram o aumento do percentual de vermelho na epiderme das frutas; o aminoquelant®-K isolado proporcionou maior acidez das frutas; a melhor relação SST/ATT foi obtida com o uso do plástico branco sob a copa e pela combinação do plástico com o nutriente aminoquelant®-K.Fruit quality is influenced by climate, soil, cultivar, orchard management, time of harvesting and fruit handling at harvest and post harvest. One way of improving the fruit quality is through cultural practices. Thus, this work had the objective of evaluating the effect of the white plastic, vegetative pruning and aminoquelant®-K, alone or the combination of the last with plastic or summer pruning, on the quality of peaches cv. Santa Aurea. The quality attributes evaluated quality were: visual percentage of red on the fruit surface, intensity of red in the epidermis, determined by the CIEL*a*b * system, fruit mean weight, diameter and firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content on the flesh, total titratable acidity (TTA and the relation TSS/TTA. All the tested treatments increased the percentage of red on the fruit epidermis; the use of aminoquelant

  4. Chemical face peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, S L; Glogau, R G

    1991-01-01

    Application of caustic chemicals to improve cosmesis and reverse actinic damage has been used for centuries. Although still not an exact science, it was not until the latter part of this century that peeling became more systematized. The indications, patient selection, armamentarium, histology, comprehension of the mechanisms of action, and safety parameters of peels have only recently become more extensively defined. Phenol, when used in the Baker's formula, provides the most dramatic results but also holds the most potential for systemic complications. Ideally suited for fair-skinned women, a phenol peel can provide substantial improvement in rhytidosis and actinic damage. Although the results of medium-depth peels approach those of Baker's peels, they are not quite as profound. Use of TCA and the medium-depth peels has filled an important gap between deep and superficial peels, however. Also ideal for light complexions, this category of peels lightens pigmentary problems and improves rhytides with minimal potential for systemic toxicity; however, local complications, including scarring and pigmentary anomalies, should not be underestimated. [table: see text] Superficial peels do not effectively eradicate the ravages of time and sun, but when done repetitively, they do improve pigmentary irregularities and may improve some minor surface changes and thus impart a fresher appearance to facial skin. Although pigmentary changes can occur, superficial peels are relatively safe, and maximal results can be achieved with serial applications. Peels have been categorized by patient indications and the corresponding depth of peeling required for improvement (Table 4). The depth is determined in turn by a host of factors (Table 5). Neither the classification scheme nor the peel process should be viewed dogmatically. Patients will often benefit from the concurrent use of different skin preparations and wounding agents. Localized gradations can be achieved not only with

  5. Chemical Dependence and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.

  6. Chemically deposited tin sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, A., E-mail: anis.akkari@ies.univ-montp2.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Guasch, C. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i), Universite Montpellier 2, Place Eugene Bataillon, CC 082, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kamoun-Turki, N. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunisie 2092 (Tunisia)

    2010-02-04

    SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates after multi-deposition runs by chemical bath deposition from aqueous solution containing 30 ml triethanolamine (TEA) (C{sub 6}H{sub 15}NO{sub 3}) (50%), 10 ml thioacetamide (CH{sub 3}CSNH{sub 2}), 8 ml ammonia (NH{sub 3}) solution and 10 ml of Sn{sup 2+}(0.1 M). These films were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), with scanning electron microscopy, and with spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the zinc blend structure, the crystallinity seems to be improved as the film thickness increases and the band gap energy is found to be about 1.76 eV for film prepared after six depositions runs.

  7. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10/sup 6/ atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md/sup 3 +/ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md/sup 2 +/ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md/sup 3 +/ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md/sup 4 +/; reduction potential of Md/sup 3 +/ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md/sup 3 +/ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md/sup 2 +/ + 2e/sup -/ = Md(Hg) and E/sup 0/ = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm/sup 2 +/.

  8. Gas phase chemical detection with an integrated chemical analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; HELLER,EDWIN J.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; LEWIS,PATRICK R.; MANGINELL,RONALD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.

    2000-04-12

    Microfabrication technology has been applied to the development of a miniature, multi-channel gas phase chemical laboratory that provides fast response, small size, and enhanced versatility and chemical discrimination. Each analysis channel includes a sample preconcentrator followed by a gas chromatographic separator and a chemically selective surface acoustic wave detector array to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The performance of the components, individually and collectively, is described.

  9. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  10. Errors in Chemical Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Dybko

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Various types of errors during the measurements of ion-selective electrodes, ionsensitive field effect transistors, and fibre optic chemical sensors are described. The errors were divided according to their nature and place of origin into chemical, instrumental and non-chemical. The influence of interfering ions, leakage of the membrane components, liquid junction potential as well as sensor wiring, ambient light and temperature is presented.

  11. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  12. Influência da poda de renovação e controle da ferrugem nas reservas de carboidratos e produção de pessegueiro precoce Influence of the renewal pruning and control of the rust in the carbohydrate reserves and production of precocious peach tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Campos de Araujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar a influência da poda de renovação e controle da ferrugem nas reservas de carboidratos não-estruturados em ramos e raízes do pessegueiro cultivar Flordaprince, bem como o possível efeito na produção e qualidade dos frutos. O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ-USP, em Piracicaba. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em sete blocos ao acaso, constando de três tratamentos, sendo cada parcela constituída de quatro plantas. O tratamento 1 consistiu na realização da poda de renovação que foi executada 45 dias após a colheita, no mês de outubro de 2003. No tratamento 2, não se realizou a poda de renovação, e foi feito o controle da ferrugem. No tratamento 3, não foi realizada a poda de renovação, tampouco o controle da ferrugem, ocasionando desfolha antecipada. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de variância e à comparação das médias, pelo teste de Tukey. O espaçamento utilizado foi de 3,0 por 1,2 m, correspondendo a 2.777 plantas ha-1. As plantas foram conduzidas em sistema de líder central e receberam as práticas culturais normalmente utilizadas. Foram coletadas amostras de raízes e ramos que foram secos, moídos e submetidos à análise de laboratório para verificação dos teores de carboidratos não-estruturados. Ocorre flutuação na concentração de carboidratos solúveis nas raízes e nos ramos de acordo com a época da coleta, sendo que os teores de carboidratos solúveis nas raízes são sempre superiores àqueles encontrados nos ramos. O tratamento 2 apresentou maior produção de frutos e maior número de frutos por planta. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos nos aspectos qualitativos dos frutos, como diâmetro, comprimento, coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis.This work aimed to verify the influence of the renewal pruning and control of the rust in the reserves of non structured carbohydrates in branches and cultivar peach tree

  13. Fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for a one-semester undergraduate or first-year graduate course, this text introduces the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. It covers both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and examines chemical reaction engineering as well as chemical reactor engineering. The authors take a chemical approach, helping students develop an intuitive feeling for concepts, rather than an engineering approach, which tends to overlook the inner workings of systems and objects.Each chapter contains numerous worked-out problems and real-world vignettes involving commercia

  14. A Chemical Technology Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Brazosport College would be the first to admit that they owe the success of their Chemical Technology Program to the partnership that was developed between the college and the surrounding chemical industry. The college is a two-year institution located near the Texas Gulf Coast with more than twelve chemical companies in the immediate area. Dow Chemical is the largest, employing more than 5,000. Currently, the Science Department at Brazosport College offers associate of science degrees in biology, chemistry, and physics, and associate of applied science degrees in chemical technology and instrumentation technology to meet the needs of these industries. In addition, many students enroll in classes to prepare for specific occupations or to build their skills for employment. This may only require the student to take a few courses. The current Chemical Technology Program addresses skills needed for both laboratory and process technician jobs in the chemical industry. An Associate of Applied Science Degree in Chemical Technology is offered with either a laboratory or a process option. These programs were developed with input from the chemical industry, and the college trains all new process employees for BASF and Dow. Additionally, the college does customized flexible-entry training in process operations and laboratory analysis for these and several other companies.

  15. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Chemical Physics Electrons and Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    A full understanding of modern chemistry is impossible without quantum theory. Since the advent of quantum mechanics in 1925, a number of chemical phenomena have been explained, such as electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and other phenomena in photochemistry and photo-physics. Chemical bonds can now be accurately calculated with the help of a personal computer. Addressing students of theoretical and quantum chemistry and their counterparts in physics, Chemical Physics: Electrons and Excitations introduces chemical physics as a gateway to fields such as photo physics, solid-state ph

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Chemical communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Srinivasa Sandeep; Saini, Deepak; Nott, Prabhu

    Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is a model for quorum-sensing-gene-regulation in bacteria. We study luminescence response of V. fischeri to both internal and external cues at the single cell and population level. Experiments with ES114, a wild-type strain, and ainS mutant show that luminescence induction in cultures is not always proportional to cell-density and there is always a basal level of luminescence. At any given concentration of the exogenously added signals, C6-HSL and C8-HSL, luminescence per cell reaches a maximum during the exponential phase and decreases thereafter. We hypothesize that (1) C6-HSL production and LuxR activity are not proportional to cell-density, and (2) there is a shift in equilibrium from C6-HSL to C8-HSL during the later stages of growth of the culture. RT-PCR analysis of luxI and luxR shows that the expression of these genes is maximum corresponding to the highest level of luminescence. The shift in equilibrium is shown by studying competitive binding of C6-HSL and C8-HSL to LuxR. We argue that luminescence is a unicellular behaviour, and an intensive property like per cell luminescence is more important than gross luminescence of the population in understanding response of bacteria to chemical signalling. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India is acknowledged.

  20. Chemical mixtures: considering the evolution of toxicology and chemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monosson, Emily

    2005-04-01

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science-regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline.