WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical product engineering

  1. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  2. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  3. Teaching and Learning in Chemical Product Engineering - an Evolving par of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Kiil, Søren; Wesselingh, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade Chemical Product Engineering has evolved as part of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum at several universities in Europe and America. At the DTU Chemical Product Engineering was introduced in 2000. This presentation will report on the experiences gained from teaching classes...... and preparing a text book on the subject. [1] Chemical Product Engineering is solidly based on chemical technical and engineering knowledge. Furthermore, the subject naturally calls for a holistic approach to teaching and learning and introduces elements which target transferable and professional engineering...... skills. Such skills are important in Chemical Product Engineering when dealing with open-ended problems, creative problem solutions, operating in a team working environment and exercising project management. In our course we emphasise team activites, formative feed back to the students as well as helping...

  4. Selecting the Best: Evolutionary Engineering of Chemical Production in Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepelin, Denis; Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    , we focus primarily on a more challenging problem-the use of evolutionary engineering for improving the production of chemicals in microbes directly. We describe recent developments in evolutionary engineering strategies, in general, and discuss, in detail, case studies where production of a chemical......Microbial cell factories have proven to be an economical means of production for many bulk, specialty, and fine chemical products. However, we still lack both a holistic understanding of organism physiology and the ability to predictively tune enzyme activities in vivo, thus slowing down rational...... engineering of industrially relevant strains. An alternative concept to rational engineering is to use evolution as the driving force to select for desired changes, an approach often described as evolutionary engineering. In evolutionary engineering, in vivo selections for a desired phenotype are combined...

  5. Selecting the Best: Evolutionary Engineering of Chemical Production in Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelin, Denis; Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca; Luo, Hao; Herrgård, Markus J

    2018-05-11

    Microbial cell factories have proven to be an economical means of production for many bulk, specialty, and fine chemical products. However, we still lack both a holistic understanding of organism physiology and the ability to predictively tune enzyme activities in vivo, thus slowing down rational engineering of industrially relevant strains. An alternative concept to rational engineering is to use evolution as the driving force to select for desired changes, an approach often described as evolutionary engineering. In evolutionary engineering, in vivo selections for a desired phenotype are combined with either generation of spontaneous mutations or some form of targeted or random mutagenesis. Evolutionary engineering has been used to successfully engineer easily selectable phenotypes, such as utilization of a suboptimal nutrient source or tolerance to inhibitory substrates or products. In this review, we focus primarily on a more challenging problem-the use of evolutionary engineering for improving the production of chemicals in microbes directly. We describe recent developments in evolutionary engineering strategies, in general, and discuss, in detail, case studies where production of a chemical has been successfully achieved through evolutionary engineering by coupling production to cellular growth.

  6. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    faster development of metabolically engineered strains that can be used for production of fuels and chemicals. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Through metabolic engineering of this yeast a number of novel industrial...... as for metabolic design. In this lecture it will be demonstrated how the Design-Build-Test cycle of metabolic engineering has allowed for development of yeast cell factories for production of a range of different fuels and chemicals. Some examples of different technologies will be presented together with examples......Metabolic engineering relies on the Design-Build-Test cycle. This cycle includes technologies like mathematical modeling of metabolism, genome editing and advanced tools for phenotypic characterization. In recent years there have been advances in several of these technologies, which has enabled...

  7. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  8. Cyanobacterial metabolic engineering for biofuel and chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Neal J; Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Carroll, Austin L; Nozzi, Nicole E; Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO 2 are contributing to the global greenhouse effect. Large scale use of atmospheric CO 2 may be a sustainable and renewable means of chemical and liquid fuel production to mitigate global climate change. Photosynthetic organisms are an ideal platform for efficient, natural CO 2 conversion to a broad range of chemicals. Cyanobacteria are especially attractive for these purposes, due to their genetic malleability and relatively fast growth rate. Recent years have yielded a range of work in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria and have led to greater knowledge of the host metabolism. Understanding of endogenous and heterologous carbon regulation mechanisms leads to the expansion of productive capacity and chemical variety. This review discusses the recent progress in metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for biofuel and bulk chemical production since 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. selectivity engineering in sustainable production of chemicals, fuels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Cost. Landfill. –400. Source: Tuck et al., Science, 337 (6095): 695-699 10 August ... libraries for novel enzymes that transform lignocellulosics ... Bio-process engineering for optimal production of ... fine chemicals and petrochemical industries. ..... Mole ratio : Epichlorohydrin to acetone of 1:8 , 100 % atom economy. Sr.No.

  10. Metabolic Engineering of TCA Cycle for Production of Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuoristo, K.S.; Mars, A.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Eggink, G.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has been used for decades in the microbial production of chemicals such as citrate, L-glutamate, and succinate. Maximizing yield is key for cost-competitive production. However, for most TCA cycle products, the maximum pathway yield is lower than the theoretical

  11. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course...

  13. Metabolic Engineering of TCA Cycle for Production of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoristo, Kiira S; Mars, Astrid E; Sanders, Johan P M; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2016-03-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has been used for decades in the microbial production of chemicals such as citrate, L-glutamate, and succinate. Maximizing yield is key for cost-competitive production. However, for most TCA cycle products, the maximum pathway yield is lower than the theoretical maximum yield (Y(E)). For succinate, this was solved by creating two pathways to the product, using both branches of the TCA cycle, connected by the glyoxylate shunt (GS). A similar solution cannot be applied directly for production of compounds from the oxidative branch of the TCA cycle because irreversible reactions are involved. Here, we describe how this can be overcome and what the impact is on the yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  15. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    trends in systems biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species, highlighting the relevance of these developments for systems metabolic engineering of these organisms for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. Metabolic engineering is moving from traditional methods...... for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  16. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibito...

  17. Nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Shin, Young Jun

    1989-08-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of chemical engineering and related chemistry on an atomic reactor, foundation of the chemistry nuclear chemical engineering, theory on nuclear engineering, the cycle of uranium and nuclear fuel, a product of nuclear division, nuclear reprocessing, management of spent fuel separation of radioisotope, materials of an atomic reactor, technology and chemistry related water in atomic reactors and utilization of radioisotope and radiation. This book has the exercises and reference books for the each chapter.

  18. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Production of Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuobo Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous yeasts have been increasingly explored for production of chemicals and fuels via metabolic engineering. Particularly, there is a growing interest in using oleaginous yeasts for the synthesis of lipid-related products due to their high lipogenesis capability, robustness, and ability to utilize a variety of substrates. Most of the metabolic engineering studies in oleaginous yeasts focused on Yarrowia that already has plenty of genetic engineering tools. However, recent advances in systems biology and synthetic biology have provided new strategies and tools to engineer those oleaginous yeasts that have naturally high lipid accumulation but lack genetic tools, such as Rhodosporidium, Trichosporon, and Lipomyces. This review highlights recent accomplishments in metabolic engineering of oleaginous yeasts and recent advances in the development of genetic engineering tools in oleaginous yeasts within the last 3 years.

  20. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for fermentative production of chemicals in biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritugo, Kei-Anne; Kim, Hee Taek; David, Yokimiko; Choi, Jong-Il; Hong, Soon Ho; Jeong, Ki Jun; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, Jeong Chan; Park, Si Jae

    2018-05-01

    Bio-based production of industrially important chemicals provides an eco-friendly alternative to current petrochemical-based processes. Because of the limited supply of fossil fuel reserves, various technologies utilizing microbial host strains for the sustainable production of platform chemicals from renewable biomass have been developed. Corynebacterium glutamicum is a non-pathogenic industrial microbial species traditionally used for L-glutamate and L-lysine production. It is a promising species for industrial production of bio-based chemicals because of its flexible metabolism that allows the utilization of a broad spectrum of carbon sources and the production of various amino acids. Classical breeding, systems, synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering approaches have been used to improve its applications, ranging from traditional amino-acid production to modern biorefinery systems for production of value-added platform chemicals. This review describes recent advances in the development of genetic engineering tools and techniques for the establishment and optimization of metabolic pathways for bio-based production of major C2-C6 platform chemicals using recombinant C. glutamicum.

  1. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.; Daran, J.G.; Pronk, J.T.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical

  2. Engineering an Obligate Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium to Utilize Glycerol for Growth and Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-01-20

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as a means to directly recycle carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals that are currently produced from petroleum. However, the titers and productivities achieved are still far below the level required in industry. To make a more industrially applicable production scheme, glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, can be used as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production. Glycerol is an ideal candidate due to its availability and low cost. In this study, we found that a heterologous glycerol respiratory pathway enabled Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to utilize extracellular glycerol. The engineered strain produced 761 mg/L of 2,3-butanediol in 48 h with a 290% increase over the control strain under continuous light conditions. Glycerol supplementation also allowed for continuous cell growth and 2,3-butanediol production in diurnal light conditions. These results highlight the potential of glycerol as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production in cyanobacteria.

  3. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  5. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Robert; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T

    2018-04-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci. Recent studies indicate that phenotypic trade-offs, which are often observed after evolution under constant conditions, can be mitigated by using dynamic cultivation regimes. Advances in research on synthetic regulatory circuits offer exciting possibilities to extend the applicability of evolutionary engineering to products of yeasts whose synthesis requires a net input of cellular energy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei

    2015-01-01

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals...... and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals......, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable...

  7. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology and the advances in yeast strain engineering will stimulate development of novel yeast-based processes for chemicals production. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  10. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  11. Metabolic engineering in chemolithoautotrophic hosts for the production of fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, S Eric; Khan, Nymul E; Woolston, Benjamin M; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-07-01

    The ability of autotrophic organisms to fix CO2 presents an opportunity to utilize this 'greenhouse gas' as an inexpensive substrate for biochemical production. Unlike conventional heterotrophic microorganisms that consume carbohydrates and amino acids, prokaryotic chemolithoautotrophs have evolved the capacity to utilize reduced chemical compounds to fix CO2 and drive metabolic processes. The use of chemolithoautotrophic hosts as production platforms has been renewed by the prospect of metabolically engineered commodity chemicals and fuels. Efforts such as the ARPA-E electrofuels program highlight both the potential and obstacles that chemolithoautotrophic biosynthetic platforms provide. This review surveys the numerous advances that have been made in chemolithoautotrophic metabolic engineering with a focus on hydrogen oxidizing bacteria such as the model chemolithoautotrophic organism (Ralstonia), the purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter), and anaerobic acetogens. Two alternative strategies of microbial chassis development are considered: (1) introducing or enhancing autotrophic capabilities (carbon fixation, hydrogen utilization) in model heterotrophic organisms, or (2) improving tools for pathway engineering (transformation methods, promoters, vectors etc.) in native autotrophic organisms. Unique characteristics of autotrophic growth as they relate to bioreactor design and process development are also discussed in the context of challenges and opportunities for genetic manipulation of organisms as production platforms. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up the deve......Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important industrial host for production of enzymes, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical ingredients and recently also commodity chemicals and biofuels. Here, we review the advances in modeling and synthetic biology tools and how these tools can speed up...... the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology...

  13. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Change, exchange, and rearrange: protein engineering for the biotechnological production of fuels, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael A; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2013-12-01

    Enzymes are indispensable in the effort to produce chemicals from fuels to pharmaceuticals in an ecologically friendly manner. They have the potential to catalyze reactions with high specificity and efficiency without the use of hazardous chemicals. Nature provides an extensive collection of enzymes, but often these must be altered to perform desired functions under required conditions. Advances in protein engineering permit the design and/or directed evolution of enzymes specifically tailored for such industrial applications. Recent years have seen the development of improved enzymes to assist in both the conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals, and the creation of key intermediates in pharmaceutical production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in metabolic engineering in the microbial production of fuels and chemicals from C1 gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Christopher M; Minton, Nigel P

    2018-04-01

    The future sustainable production of chemicals and fuels from non-petrochemical sources, while at the same time reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, represent two of society's greatest challenges. Microbial chassis able to grow on waste carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can provide solutions to both. Ranging from the anaerobic acetogens, through the aerobic chemoautotrophs to the photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, they are able to convert C1 gases into a range of chemicals and fuels which may be enhanced and extended through appropriate metabolic engineering. The necessary improvements will be facilitated by the increasingly sophisticated gene tools that are beginning to emerge as part of the Synthetic Biology revolution. These tools, in combination with more accurate metabolic and genome scale models, will enable C1 chassis to deliver their full potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  17. Learning by Brewing: Beer Production Experiments in the Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin; Kelkile, Esayas; Landry, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the successful creation and implementation of a biotechnology track within the chemical engineering unit operations course. The track focuses on engineering principles relevant to brewing. Following laboratory modules investigating heat transfer processes and yeast fermentation kinetics, student groups design and implement a project to…

  18. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  19. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... framework can manage the complexity associated with product-process problems very efficiently. Three specific computer-aided tools (ICAS, Sustain-Pro and VPPDLab) have been presented and their applications to product-process design, highlighted....

  20. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...

  1. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... application. The chemical product tree is potentially very large and a wide range of options exist for selecting the product to make, the raw material to use as well as the processing route to employ. It is shown that systematic computer-aided methods and tools integrated within a model-data based design...

  2. Extremely Thermophilic Microorganisms as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Production of Fuels and Industrial Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Zeldes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye towards potential technological

  3. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  4. Engineering modular polyketide synthases for production of biofuels and industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenlong; Zhang, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are one of the most profound biosynthetic factories for producing polyketides with diverse structures and biological activities. These enzymes have been historically studied and engineered to make un-natural polyketides for drug discovery, and have also recently been explored for synthesizing biofuels and industrial chemicals due to their versatility and customizability. Here, we review recent advances in the mechanistic understanding and engineering of modular PKSs for producing polyketide-derived chemicals, and provide perspectives on this relatively new application of PKSs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  6. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective...... production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological...

  7. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Engineering Education - Current and Future Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    topics (transport phenomena, separations, reaction engineering, etc.) must remain strong, should the applications that currently emphasize commodity chemicals also include new topics such as sustainability, and product design? In Europe, the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) has taken...... has a product focus. With this shift of the chemical industry, what should be the curriculum of the chemical engineering degrees at the BSc- and MSc-levels, and, are the skill set of chemical engineers appropriate for this altered chemical industry? While the basic skill set, defined by the core...... a leading role to define the chemical engineering curriculum. The result has been a set of recommendations for the first (BSc), second (MSc) and third (PhD) cycle chemical engineering education aligned to the Bologna Process. They recommend that students studying towards bachelor and masters qualifications...

  9. Special theory on chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This book give a special description about chemical engineering. The contents of this book are special technique for isolation on introduction and separation by membrane, biochemistry engineering, process system engineering, energy engineering, environment engineering, a high molecular new material, election material and research on surface property of catalyst. It has appendixes on history of transition on Korean chemical engineering text contents and history of the activity of Korea chemical engineering institute.

  10. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  11. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  12. Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of the chemical chaperone ectoine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Schäfer, Rudolf; Kohlstedt, Michael; Harder, Björn J; Borchert, Nicole S; Stöveken, Nadine; Bremer, Erhard; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-11-15

    The stabilizing and function-preserving effects of ectoines have attracted considerable biotechnological interest up to industrial scale processes for their production. These rely on the release of ectoines from high-salinity-cultivated microbial producer cells upon an osmotic down-shock in rather complex processor configurations. There is growing interest in uncoupling the production of ectoines from the typical conditions required for their synthesis, and instead design strains that naturally release ectoines into the medium without the need for osmotic changes, since the use of high-salinity media in the fermentation process imposes notable constraints on the costs, design, and durability of fermenter systems. Here, we used a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain as a cellular chassis to establish a microbial cell factory for the biotechnological production of ectoines. The implementation of a mutant aspartokinase enzyme ensured efficient supply of L-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde, the precursor for ectoine biosynthesis. We further engineered the genome of the basic C. glutamicum strain by integrating a codon-optimized synthetic ectABCD gene cluster under expressional control of the strong and constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter. The resulting recombinant strain produced ectoine and excreted it into the medium; however, lysine was still found as a by-product. Subsequent inactivation of the L-lysine exporter prevented the undesired excretion of lysine while ectoine was still exported. Using the streamlined cell factory, a fed-batch process was established that allowed the production of ectoine with an overall productivity of 6.7 g L(-1) day(-1) under growth conditions that did not rely on the use of high-salinity media. The present study describes the construction of a stable microbial cell factory for recombinant production of ectoine. We successfully applied metabolic engineering strategies to optimize its synthetic production in the industrial workhorse C

  13. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  14. Introduction to chemical reaction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Geol

    1990-10-01

    This deals with chemical reaction engineering with thirteen chapters. The contents of this book are introduction on reaction engineering, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction, abnormal reactor, non-isothermal reactor, nonideal reactor, catalysis in nonuniform system, diffusion and reaction in porosity catalyst, design catalyst heterogeneous reactor in solid bed, a high molecule polymerization, bio reaction engineering, reaction engineering in material process, control multi-variable reactor process using digital computer.

  15. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent advances in engineering propionyl-CoA metabolism for microbial production of value-added chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Bruder, Mark; Akawi, Lamees; Miscevic, Dragan; Kilpatrick, Shane; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

    2017-09-01

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and mounting environmental concerns associated with petrochemical manufacturing practices have generated significant interests in developing whole-cell biocatalytic systems for the production of value-added chemicals and biofuels. Although acetyl-CoA is a common natural biogenic precursor for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites, propionyl-CoA is unpopular and non-native to most organisms. Nevertheless, with its C3-acyl moiety as a discrete building block, propionyl-CoA can serve as another key biogenic precursor to several biological products of industrial importance. As a result, engineering propionyl-CoA metabolism, particularly in genetically tractable hosts with the use of inexpensive feedstocks, has paved an avenue for novel biomanufacturing. Herein, we present a systematic review on manipulation of propionyl-CoA metabolism as well as relevant genetic and metabolic engineering strategies for microbial production of value-added chemicals and biofuels, including odd-chain alcohols and organic acids, bio(co)polymers and polyketides. [Formula: see text].

  17. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid as C3 platform chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Liu, Huaiwei; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable technologies for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) as a platform chemical has recently been gaining much attention owing to its versatility in applications for the synthesis of other specialty chemicals. Several proposed biological synthesis routes and strategies for producing 3HP from glucose and glycerol are reviewed presently. Ten proposed routes for 3HP production from glucose are described and one of which was recently constructed successfully in Escherichia coli with malonyl-Coenzyme A as a precursor. This resulted in a yield still far from the required level for industrial application. On the other hand, strategies employing engineered E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae capable of producing 3HP from glycerol are also evaluated. The titers produced by these recombinant strains reached around 3 %. At its current state, it is evident that a bulk of engineering works is yet to be done to acquire a biosynthesis route for 3HP that is acceptable for industrial-scale production.

  18. Cyanobacterial chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-08-10

    The increase in global temperatures caused by rising CO2 levels necessitates the development of alternative sources of fuel and chemicals. One appealing alternative that has been receiving increased attention in recent years is the photosynthetic conversion of atmospheric CO2 to biofuels and chemical products using genetically engineered cyanobacteria. This can help to not only provide an alternate "greener" source for some of the most popular petroleum based products but it can also help to reduce atmospheric CO2. Utilizing cyanobacteria rather than plants allows for reduced land requirements and reduces competition with food crops. This review discusses advancements in the field since 2012 with a particular emphasis on production of hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  20. Harnessing the respiration machinery for high-yield production of chemicals in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Wang, Zhihao; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi

    2017-01-01

    on metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis strains to optimize the production of acetoin and (R,R)−2,3-butanediol (R-BDO). In the absence of an external electron acceptor, a surplus of two NADH per acetoin molecule is produced. We found that a fully activated respiration was able to efficiently regenerate NAD......+, and a high titer of 371 mM (32 g/L) of acetoin was obtained with a yield of 82% of the theoretical maximum. Subsequently, we extended the metabolic pathway from acetoin to R-BDO by introducing the butanediol dehydrogenase gene from Bacillus subtilis. Since one mole of NADH is consumed when acetoin...... is converted into R-BDO per mole, only the excess of NADH needs to be oxidized via respiration. Either by fine-tuning the respiration capacity or by using a dual-phase fermentation approach involving a switch from fully respiratory to non-respiratory conditions, we obtained 361 mM (32 g/L) R-BDO with a yield...

  1. Isolation, characterization and engineering of Bacillus smithii : a novel thermophilic platform organism for green chemical production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the globally increasing demand for chemicals and fuels and the high environmental impact and limited amount of fossil resources, there is a growing interest in green chemicals and fuels derived from renewable resources. As described in Chapter 1, one of the most feasible

  2. Protein engineering approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Protein engineering for the improvement of properties of biocatalysts and for the generation of novel metabolic pathways plays more and more important roles in chemical biotechnology aiming at the production of chemicals from biomass. Although widely used in single-enzyme catalysis process, protein engineering is only being increasingly explored in recent years to achieve more complex in vitro and in vivo biocatalytic processes. This review focuses on major contributions of protein engineering to chemical biotechnology in the field of multi-enzymatic cascade catalysis and metabolic engineering. Especially, we discuss and highlight recent strategies for combining pathway design and protein engineering for the production of novel products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  4. Chemical engineering side of nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1976-10-01

    It is widely recognized that chemical engineering has important roles to play in the development of national and world wide energy resources through optimal utilization of fossil fuel reserves. It is much less appreciated that there are crucial chemical engineering problems in the development of energy production from other sources. In particular the successful development of nuclear fusion power generating systems will require the solution of many problems that are uniquely suited to chemical engineers. This article presents a brief overview of the fusion development program and an identification of the major technological problems remaining to be solved

  5. Metrology for Chemical Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    The first full-semester course on Quality Assurance in Chemical Measurement was held at the Technical University of Denmark from September to December 1999. The course required sufficient knowledge of basic statistics to understand and apply the methods recommended in ISO 5725-1/6 Accuracy of Mea...

  6. The large dictionary on chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book mentions the large dictionary on chemical engineering. It starts the preface. It mentions introduction for publish committee. It also has signature of publish committee. It introduces explanatory notes. It gives descriptions of glossary on chemical engineering. This has appendixes and index. This book consists of seven part to explain chemical engineering glossary. It was written by chemical engineering dictionary publish committee.

  7. Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Awards Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Sciences & Engineering DOE Logo CSE Home About CSE Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Computational Postdoctoral Fellowships Contact Us CSE Intranet Awards Argonne's Chemical Sciences and

  8. Systematic engineering of TCA cycle for optimal production of a four-carbon platform chemical 4-hydroxybutyric acid in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-11-01

    To address climate change and environmental problems, it is becoming increasingly important to establish biorefineries for the production of chemicals from renewable non-food biomass. Here we report the development of Escherichia coli strains capable of overproducing a four-carbon platform chemical 4-hybroxybutyric acid (4-HB). Because 4-HB production is significantly affected by aeration level, genome-scale metabolic model-based engineering strategies were designed under aerobic and microaerobic conditions with emphasis on oxidative/reductive TCA branches and glyoxylate shunt. Several different metabolic engineering strategies were employed to develop strains suitable for fermentation both under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. It was found that microaerobic condition was more efficient than aerobic condition in achieving higher titer and productivity of 4-HB. The final engineered strain produced 103.4g/L of 4-HB by microaerobic fed-batch fermentation using glycerol. The aeration-dependent optimization strategy of TCA cycle will be useful for developing microbial strains producing other reduced derivative chemicals of TCA cycle intermediates. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photomixotrophic chemical production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Morgan M; Atsumi, Shota

    2018-04-01

    The current global dependence on fossil fuels for both energy and chemical production has spurred concerns regarding long-term resource security and environmental detriments resulting from increased CO 2 levels. Through the installation of exogenous metabolic pathways, engineered cyanobacteria strains can directly fix CO 2 into industrially relevant chemicals currently produced from petroleum. This review highlights some of the studies that have successfully implemented photomixotrophic conditions to increase cyanobacterial chemical production. Supplementation with fixed carbon sources provides additional carbon building blocks and energy to enhance production and occasionally aid in growth. Photomixotrophic production has increased titers up to 5-fold over traditional autotrophic conditions, demonstrating promising applications for future commercialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical engineering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of research are reported on hydrodynamics and mass transfer in three-phase fluidized beds. In hydrogen permeation-oxidation studies it was found that at 300 to 500 0 C, and 10-6 oxygen pressure, stainless steel oxidizes 40 to 50 percent of the permeating deuterium. Methods of preparing less than 10-μ sorbent particles were studied using erbium oxide. Adiabatic graphite oxidation studies demonstrated that burning rates are mass transfer controlled, and that the product gas temperature can be controlled by adjusting the recycle gas rate. Apparatus was assembled for evaluation of a perfusion-impactor to remove solid or liquid particles from gas streams. In studies of continuous chromatography the separation of Blue Dextran and CoCl 2 on Spandex G-10 resin was demonstrated

  11. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  12. Chemical engineering aspects in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmiel, H

    1981-04-01

    Many basic chemical engineering processes are based on transport processes due, for example, to differences in temperature, pressure, and concentration. Such transport processes abound in the healthy circulatory system. Thus, metabolic processes supply the human body with the necessary warmth. The heart serves as a blood pump to provide optimal blood pressure in all vessels. Highly complex membranes in the kidneys ensure the efficient detoxification of the blood. It is therefore natural that the chemical engineer be involved in the solution of a number of biomedical engineering problems that come up in the field of medicine. Some typical tasks are: the characterization of the flow properties of biological fluids; research on the interaction between blood and foreign substances of the purpose of finding materials suitable for temporary or permanent use in the body and the development of blood pumps and artifical substitutes for the lungs, the liver, and the kidneys.

  13. Efficiency of Energy Transduction in a Molecular Chemical Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Kazuo; Kanada, Ryo; Amari, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of the two-state ratchet type is proposed for molecular chemical engines that convert chemical free energy into mechanical work and vice versa. The engine works by catalyzing a chemical reaction and turning a rotor. Analytical expressions are obtained for the dependences of rotation and reaction rates on the concentrations of reactant and product molecules, from which the performance of the engine is analyzed. In particular, the efficiency of energy transduction is discussed in...

  14. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  15. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  16. Chemical Engineering in the "BIO" world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiarappa, Gianluca; Grassi, Mario; Abrami, Michela

    2017-01-01

    Modern Chemical Engineering was born around the end of the 19th century in Great Britain, Germany, and the USA, the most industrialized countries at that time. Milton C. Whitaker, in 1914, affirmed that the difference between Chemistry and Chemical Engineering lies in the capability of chemical...... engineers to transfer laboratory findings to the industrial level. Since then, Chemical Engineering underwent huge transformations determining the detachment from the original Chemistry nest. The beginning of the sixties of the 20th century saw the development of a new branch of Chemical Engineering...... baptized Biomedical Engineering by Peppas and Langer and that now we can name Biological Engineering. Interestingly, although Biological Engineering focused on completely different topics from Chemical Engineering ones, it resorted to the same theoretical tools such as, for instance, mass, energy...

  17. Productivity Improvement for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    organization and the likely positions or types of work that will be required of the engineer in the future. There should therefore, be a balance of...Mall, P., Improving Total Productivity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. Miller, R.B., Participative Management-Quality of Worklife and Job Enrichment...Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1977. Hughes Aircraft Co., R & D Productivity-Study Report, Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City , California, 1974

  18. Optimal control for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Upreti, Simant Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control for Chemical Engineers gives a detailed treatment of optimal control theory that enables readers to formulate and solve optimal control problems. With a strong emphasis on problem solving, the book provides all the necessary mathematical analyses and derivations of important results, including multiplier theorems and Pontryagin's principle.The text begins by introducing various examples of optimal control, such as batch distillation and chemotherapy, and the basic concepts of optimal control, including functionals and differentials. It then analyzes the notion of optimality, de

  19. Modern Cast Irons in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1934-11-09

    fl’ceew. T I SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GROUP MODERN CAST IRONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING By J. G. PEARCE, M.Sc., F.Inst.P...CAST IRONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING By J. G. PEARCE, M.Sc., F.Inst.P., M.I.E.E.* INTRODUCTION to chemical or thermal resistance. Small blow-holes Any...consideration of modern cast irons in chemical seldom appear to reduce the mechanical strength of engineering should strictly be prefaced by a definition

  20. At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, James

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

  1. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  2. Some radiation chemical aspects of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Kabakchi, S.A.; Egorov, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    Some radiation chemical aspects of nuclear engineering are discussed (predominantly on the base of the works performed in the Soviet Union). The data on the influence of temperature within the range of 0-300 0 C on the yields of water radiolysis products are considered. The results obtained from the study of reactivity of actinide ions towards inorganic free radicals in acid aqueous solutions are summarized. The information on composition and properties of the products of radiolytic transformations of different extragents and diluents and on their influence on the behaviour of extraction systems during processing of irradiated nuclear fuel is presented. (author)

  3. Progress toward isolation of strains and genetically engineered strains of microalgae for production of biofuel and other value added chemicals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ashmita; Khanra, Saumyakanti; Mondal, Madhumanti; Halder, Gopinath; Tiwari, O.N.; Saini, Supreet; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Gayen, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sample collection, isolation and identification to obtain a pure microalgal species. • Isolation of microalgal strains worldwide based on continent and habitat. • Genetic engineering tools for enhanced production of biodiesel and value added chemicals. • Cultivation systems for genetically modified strain. - Abstract: Microalgae and cyanobacteria are promising sources of biodiesel because of their high oil content (∼10 fold higher) and shorter cultivation time (∼4 fold lesser) than conventional oil producing territorial plants (e.g., soybean, corn and jatropha). These organisms also provide source of several valuable natural chemicals including pigments, food supplements like eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], decosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and vitamins. In addition, many cellular components of these organisms are associated with therapeutic properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and antiviral. Isolation and identification of high-yielding strains with the faster growth rate is the key for successful implementation of algal biodiesel (or other products) at a commercial level. A number of research groups in Europe, America, and Australia are thus extensively involved in exploration of novel microalgal strain. Further, genetic engineering provides a tool to engineer the native strain resulting in transgenic strain with higher yields. Despite these efforts, no consensus has yet been reached so far in zeroing on the best microalgal strain for sustainable production of biofuel at reasonable cost. The search for novel microalgal strain and transgenesis of microalgae, are continuing side by side with the hope of commercial scale production of microalgae biofuel in near future. However, no consolidated review report exists which guides to isolate and identify a uncontaminated microalgal strain along with their transgenesis. The present review is focused on: (i) key factors for sample collection, isolation, and identification to

  4. Advanced biotechnology: metabolically engineered cells for the bio-based production of chemicals and fuels, materials, and health-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in particular, have become established as important industrial workhorses in biotechnology. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in their advance into tailor-made producers, driven by the upcoming demand for sustainable processes and renewable raw materials. Here, the diversity and complexity of nature is simultaneously a challenge and a benefit. Harnessing biodiversity in the right manner through synergistic progress in systems metabolic engineering and chemical synthesis promises a future innovative bio-economy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chemical Engineering in the "BIO" World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarappa, Gianluca; Grassi, Mario; Abrami, Michela; Abbiati, Roberto Andrea; Barba, Anna Angela; Boisen, Anja; Brucato, Valerio; Ghersi, Giulio; Caccavo, Diego; Cascone, Sara; Caserta, Sergio; Elvassore, Nicola; Giomo, Monica; Guido, Stefano; Lamberti, Gaetano; Larobina, Domenico; Manca, Davide; Marizza, Paolo; Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Grassi, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Modern Chemical Engineering was born around the end of the 19th century in Great Britain, Germany, and the USA, the most industrialized countries at that time. Milton C. Whitaker, in 1914, affirmed that the difference between Chemistry and Chemical Engineering lies in the capability of chemical engineers to transfer laboratory findings to the industrial level. Since then, Chemical Engineering underwent huge transformations determining the detachment from the original Chemistry nest. The beginning of the sixties of the 20th century saw the development of a new branch of Chemical Engineering baptized Biomedical Engineering by Peppas and Langer and that now we can name Biological Engineering. Interestingly, although Biological Engineering focused on completely different topics from Chemical Engineering ones, it resorted to the same theoretical tools such as, for instance, mass, energy and momentum balances. Thus, the birth of Biological Engineering may be considered as a Darwinian evolution of Chemical Engineering similar to that experienced by mammals which, returning to water, used legs and arms to swim. From 1960 on, Biological Engineering underwent a considerable evolution as witnessed by the great variety of topics covered such as hemodialysis, release of synthetic drugs, artificial organs and, more recently, delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNA). This review, based on the activities developed in the frame of our PRIN 2010-11 (20109PLMH2) project, tries to recount origins and evolution of Chemical Engineering illustrating several examples of recent and successful applications in the biological field. This, in turn, may stimulate the discussion about the Chemical Engineering students curriculum studiorum update. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Environmental protection, a task of chemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, H

    1980-12-01

    The environmental burden in air and water in Germany is surveyed. The terms 'eco-unobjectionable technology' and 'disposal technology' are then considered with the aid of examples. These are fundamental chemical engineering approaches for reducing or eliminating environmental burdens due to industrial production processes. 'Eco-unobjectionable processes' are those in which undesired pollutants are not even formed, i.e. when possible emissions are eliminated at source. If this is only partly possible, or impossible, then disposal measures are adopted. This means removal of unavoidable pollutants from waste gases and waste water, and the disposal of other wastes.

  7. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    As chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in many areas of nuclear industry, the chemical engineer has a vital role to play in its growth and development. An account of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field is given with view of impressing upon the faculty members of the Indian universities the need for taking appropriate steps to prepare chemical engineers suitable for nuclear industry. Some of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field are : (1) separation of useful minerals from beach sand, (2) preparation of thorium nitrate of nuclear purity from monazite, (3) processing of zircon sand to obtain nuclear grade zirconium and its separation from hafnium to obtain zirconium metal sponge, (4) recovery of uranium from copper tailings, (5) economic recovery of nuclear grade uranium from low grade uranium ores found in India, (6) fuel reprocessing, (7) chemical processing of both low and high level radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  8. Discussion on the Development of Green Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    Chemical industry plays a vital role in the development process of national economy. However, in view of the special nature of the chemical industry, a large number of poisonous and harmful substances pose a great threat to the ecological environment and human health in the entire process of raw material acquisition, production, transportation, product manufacturing, and the final practical application. Therefore, it is a general trend to promote the development of chemistry and chemical engineering towards a greener environment. This article will focus on some basic problems occurred in the development process of green chemistry and chemical engineering.

  9. Engineering chemical interactions in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Douglas J; Balskus, Emily P

    2018-03-05

    Microbes living within host-associated microbial communities (microbiotas) rely on chemical communication to interact with surrounding organisms. These interactions serve many purposes, from supplying the multicellular host with nutrients to antagonizing invading pathogens, and breakdown of chemical signaling has potentially negative consequences for both the host and microbiota. Efforts to engineer microbes to take part in chemical interactions represent a promising strategy for modulating chemical signaling within these complex communities. In this review, we discuss prominent examples of chemical interactions found within host-associated microbial communities, with an emphasis on the plant-root microbiota and the intestinal microbiota of animals. We then highlight how an understanding of such interactions has guided efforts to engineer microbes to participate in chemical signaling in these habitats. We discuss engineering efforts in the context of chemical interactions that enable host colonization, promote host health, and exclude pathogens. Finally, we describe prominent challenges facing this field and propose new directions for future engineering efforts.

  10. The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started the first US chemical engineering program six score years ago. Since that time, the chemical engineering curriculum has evolved. The latest versions of the curriculum are attempts to broaden chemical engineering to add product engineering, biology and nanotechnology to the traditional process…

  11. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  12. Career Opportunities in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Trienne

    This pamphlet discusses career and employment opportunities in chemical engineering. Necessary college preparation is described and median salaries by degree are tabulated. Nontraditional careers in chemistry are also described. Future demand for chemists and chemical engineers is projected to 1985 and the availability of jobs for women and…

  13. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C

    2013-01-01

    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.

  14. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  15. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawroski, S.; Vogel, R. C.; Levenson, Milton; Munnecke, V. H.

    1963-07-01

    Work reported includes: Chemical-Metallurgical Processing; Fuel Cycle Applications of Volatility and Fluidization Techniques; Calorimetry; Reactor Safety; Energy Conversion; and Determination of Nuclear Constants.

  16. Automatic analyzer of the coefficient of excess air and products of chemical under firing of heat and power engineering installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babushkin, V V; Furman, N I; Shcherban, A N; Tarasevich, V N

    1981-01-01

    A sensor of the combustion quality of gas and oil fuel in boiler furnaces which is intended to be used for automatic measurement of an excess amount of 0/sub 2/ and fuel components, and also of associated elements present in a stoichiometric ratio of 0/sub 2/ and fuel components in the waste gasses is proposed. The AST-2 fuel combustion analyzer is developed based on this sensor. It consists of a sample preparation unit of the controlled environment and a power source. The sample preparation unit is determined by the structural engineering specifics of the power unit in which the fuel combustion controlled process is carried out. The sample preparation unit, which is made for 11 open-hearth ovens of ''Azovstal''' factory, is intended for drying and purging of mechanical and aggressive impurities the samples of the gas to be analyzed and additional reagents, and also for controlling and monitoring constancy and amount of pressure, temperature, and humidity.

  17. Hafnium - material for chemical apparatus engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennert, D.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes - on the background of available literature - the properties of hafnium in technical quality (DIN-material No. 2.6400) as material for chemical apparatus engineering. The occurence, refining, physical and chemical properties will be described as well as the material behavior. In conclusion, it has been found that there is, at present, sufficient information for the engineering of hafnium which has to be completed by additional investigations for special applications. (orig.) [de

  18. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  19. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. PMID:24222925

  1. Cyanobacteria: Promising biocatalysts for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Cory J; Ungerer, Justin; Wangikar, Pramod P; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2018-04-06

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes showing great promise as biocatalysts for the direct conversion of CO 2 into fuels, chemicals, and other value-added products. Introduction of just a few heterologous genes can endow cyanobacteria with the ability to transform specific central metabolites into many end products. Recent engineering efforts have centered around harnessing the potential of these microbial biofactories for sustainable production of chemicals conventionally produced from fossil fuels. Here, we present an overview of the unique chemistry that cyanobacteria have been co-opted to perform. We highlight key lessons learned from these engineering efforts and discuss advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Chemical product dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seong Myeong

    1989-10-01

    This book deals with synthetic rubber in the first part: Poly norbornene rubber, Polysulfide rubber, FKM, Fluoridated rubber, BR, CR, Syndiotactic 1,2 - Polybutadiene, Silicone rubber, IR, IIR, ACM, Liquid rubber, SBR, EVA, Co, NBR, TPE, SBC, TPVC, TPO, TPU, TPAE, TPEE, Urethane rubber, CSM, and propylene oxide rubber. The second part describes organic rubber chemical carbon black, processing aid, zinc salts of fatty acids, Exton L-2, Exton k-1, and vulcanizing agent.

  3. Product design and development engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kookhwan

    2008-01-01

    This book gives design of molded plastics, design of press product, design of die casting products, the application of communication terminal design, application and design of machine elements(screw, spring, bearing, gear, retaining ridge, drawing standards, KS and JIS material marks list), 3D CAD, concurrent engineering of product design, creative concept design.

  4. Advances in chemical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Fung, Ka Yip; Wibowo, Christianto

    2018-01-01

    The nature of chemical product design problems is diverse and multidisciplinary. It involves many design issues such as project management, market study, product design, process design, and economic analysis for better organizing the product design project and achieving better products. This arti......The nature of chemical product design problems is diverse and multidisciplinary. It involves many design issues such as project management, market study, product design, process design, and economic analysis for better organizing the product design project and achieving better products....... This article provides an overview of chemical product design with a multidisciplinary hierarchical framework including all the design issues and tasks. Each of the design issues and tasks are introduced and discussed, methods and tools are summarized and compared, challenges and perspectives are presented...... to help the chemical product design researchers on finding more novel, innovative and sustainable products, by the combined effort from academia and industry to develop a systematic generic framework, and tools including product simulator, process simulator, database manager, modeling tool, and templates...

  5. Chemical product and function dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Merged product weight fraction and chemical function data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M. Goldsmith, P. Egeghy , K....

  6. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  7. Chemical engineering and thermodynamics using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Heon; Kim, Moon Gap; Lee, Hak Yeong; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Ham, Seong Won

    2002-02-01

    This book consists of twelve chapters and four appendixes about chemical engineering and thermodynamics using Mat lab, which deals with introduction, energy budget, entropy, thermodynamics process, generalization on any fluid, engineering equation of state for PVT properties, deviation of the function, phase equilibrium of pure fluid, basic of multicomponent, phase equilibrium of compound by state equation, activity model and reaction system. The appendixes is about summary of computer program, related mathematical formula and material property of pure component.

  8. Mini-projects in Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Cancela

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical engineering laboratory practices based in mini-projects were design and applied the students of forestry engineering in chemical subject. This way of practice reveals a more cooperative learning and a different style of experimentation. The stated goal was to design practices that motivate students and to enable them to develop different skills, including cross teamwork and communication. This paper describes how these practices were developed and the advantages and disadvantages of using this methodology of teaching.

  9. Mathematical modeling a chemical engineer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Aris

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is the art and craft of building a system of equations that is both sufficiently complex to do justice to physical reality and sufficiently simple to give real insight into the situation. Mathematical Modeling: A Chemical Engineer's Perspective provides an elementary introduction to the craft by one of the century's most distinguished practitioners.Though the book is written from a chemical engineering viewpoint, the principles and pitfalls are common to all mathematical modeling of physical systems. Seventeen of the author's frequently cited papers are reprinted to illus

  10. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  11. Chemical Production using Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J. K.; Moseley, F.

    1960-01-01

    Some reactor design considerations of the use of fission recoil fragment energy for the production of chemicals of industrial importance have been discussed previously in a paper given at the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy [A/Conf. 15/P.76]. The present paper summarizes more recent progress made on this topic at AERE, Harwell. The range-energy relationship for fission fragments is discussed in the context of the choice of fuel system for a chemical production reactor, and the experimental observation of a variation of chemical effect along the length of a fission fragment track is described for the irradiation of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Recent results are given on the effect of fission fragments on carbon monoxide-hydrogen gas mixtures and on water vapour. No system investigated to date shows any outstanding promise for large-scale chemical production. (author) [fr

  12. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  13. Interactive Mathematica Simulations in Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Mathematica simulations with graphical displays of system behavior are an excellent addition to chemical engineering courses. The Manipulate command in Mathematica creates on-screen controls that allow users to change system variables and see the graphical output almost instantaneously. They can be used both in and outside class. More…

  14. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  15. A numerical primer for the chemical engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to numerical methods for students in chemical engineering. The book starts with a recap on linear algebra. It then presents methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations, with a special focus on Gaussian elimination and Newton’s method. It also discusses

  16. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  17. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  18. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.

  19. Antibiotic Algae by Chemical Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschgens, Isabel P; Gademann, Karl

    2018-03-02

    Chemical cell-surface engineering is a tool for modifying and altering cellular functions. Herein, we report the introduction of an antibiotic phenotype to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by chemically modifying its cell surface. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that a hybrid of the antibiotic vancomycin and a 4-hydroxyproline oligomer binds reversibly to the cell wall without affecting the viability or motility of the cells. The modified cells were used to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis cultures. Delivery of the antibiotic from the microalgae to the bacterial cells was verified by microscopy. Our studies provide compelling evidence that 1) chemical surface engineering constitutes a useful tool for the introduction of new, previously unknown functionality, and 2) living microalgae can serve as new platforms for drug delivery. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. 5th National meeting of the SA Institution of Chemical Engineers: chemical engineering in support of industry and society. V. 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 5th national meeting of the SA Institution of Chemical Engineering was held from 15-16 August 1988 at Pretoria. The subject scope covered on the meeting include the broad spectrum of work done by the chemical engineer. The main categories include the processing of agricultural products, biotechnology, coal and hydrocarbons, the chemical engineering practice, fluid dynamics, gas treatment, heat and mass transfer, materials of construction, minerals processing, source materials and products, training and education, vapour-liquid equilibrium, and water and effluents. One seminar specifically covers process engineering in the context of nuclear reactors and two other papers cover supported liquid membrane extraction of uranium

  1. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2003 Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Graziano, D.; Miller, J. F.; Vandegrift, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of six divisions within the Engineering Research Directorate at Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, to promote national security, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which provides a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training in chemistry; physics; materials science; and electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineering. They are specialists in electrochemistry, ceramics, metallurgy, catalysis, materials characterization, nuclear magnetic resonance, repository science, and the nuclear fuel cycle. Our staff have experience working in and collaborating with university, industry and government research and development laboratories throughout the world. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy, national security, and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by governmental and industrial organizations for advice and contributions to problem solving in areas that intersect present and past Division programs and activities. Currently, we are engaged in the development of several technologies of

  3. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case......, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials both as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. This article is protected...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...

  4. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  5. Big Data Analytics in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Leo; Lu, Bo; Castillo, Ivan

    2017-06-07

    Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges. To reach the next milestone in multiplying successes to the enterprise level, government, academia, and industry need to collaboratively focus on workforce development and innovation.

  6. CIRP encyclopedia of production engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhart, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    The CIRP Encyclopedia covers the state-of-art of advanced technologies, methods and models for production, production engineering and logistics. While the technological and operational aspects are in the focus, economical aspects are adressed too. The definitions and short explanations for a wide variety of terms were reviewed by the CIRP-Community, representing the highest standards in research. Thus, the content is not only evaluated internationally on a high scientific level but also reflects very recent developments.

  7. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee; Novoselov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed. (topical review)

  8. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  9. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarek, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  10. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports

  11. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  12. Protein engineering for biofuel production: Recent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The unstable and unsure handiness of crude oil sources moreover the rising price of fuels have shifted international efforts to utilize renewable resources for the assembly of greener energy and a replacement which might additionally meet the high energy demand of the globe. Biofuels represent a sustainable, renewable, and also the solely predictable energy supply to fossil fuels. During the green production of Biofuels, several in vivo processes place confidence in the conversion of biomass to sugars by engineered enzymes, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to chemicals via designed proteins in microbial production hosts. Enzymes are indispensable within the effort to provide fuels in an ecologically friendly manner. They have the potential to catalyze reactions with high specificity and potency while not using dangerous chemicals. Nature provides an in depth assortment of enzymes, however usually these should be altered to perform desired functions in needed conditions. Presently available enzymes like cellulose are subject to tight induction and regulation systems and additionally suffer inhibition from numerous end products. Therefore, more impregnable and economical catalyst preparations ought to be developed for the enzymatic method to be more economical. Approaches like protein engineering, reconstitution of protein mixtures and bio prospecting for superior enzymes are gaining importance. Advances in enzyme engineering allow the planning and/or directed evolution of enzymes specifically tailored for such industrial applications. Recent years have seen the production of improved enzymes to help with the conversion of biomass into fuels. The assembly of the many of those fuels is feasible due to advances in protein engineering. This review discusses the distinctive challenges that protein engineering faces in the method of changing lignocellulose to biofuels and the way they're addressed by recent advances in this field.

  13. Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Center for Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Chemical Sciences & Engineering DOE Logo CSE Home About CSE Research Facilities People Publications Awards News & Highlights Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical

  14. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargerstock, S.B. (TENERA, L.P., Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station.

  15. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargerstock, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O ampersand M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station

  16. Chemical products and industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    A compilation of all universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec which are actively involved in research and development of chemical products and industrial materials derived from biomass products, was presented. Each entry presented in a standard format that included a description of the major research activities of the university or agency, the principal technologies used in the research, available research and analytical equipment, a description of the research personnel, names, and addresses of contact persons for the agency or university. Thirty entries were presented. These covered a wide diversity of activities including biotechnological research such as genetic manipulations, bioconversion, fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis and physico-chemical applications such as bleaching, de-inking, purification and synthesis. tabs

  17. Folic Acid Production by Engineered Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros, Gaspar; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    Folic acid (vitamin B 9 ) is the common name of a number of chemically related compounds (folates), which play a central role as cofactors in one-carbon transfer reactions. Folates are involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of nucleotides and amino acids, as well as supplying methyl groups to a broad range of substrates, such as hormones, DNA, proteins, and lipids, as part of the methyl cycle. Humans and animals cannot synthesize folic acid and, therefore, need them in the diet. Folic acid deficiency is an important and underestimated problem of micronutrient malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. Therefore, the addition of folic acid as food additive has become mandatory in many countries thus contributing to a growing demand of the vitamin. At present, folic acid is exclusively produced by chemical synthesis despite its associated environmental burdens. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii in order to explore its potential as a natural producer of folic acid. Overexpression of FOL genes greatly enhanced the synthesis of folates and identified GTP cyclohydrolase I as the limiting step. Metabolic flux redirection from competing pathways also stimulated folic acid production. Finally, combinatorial engineering synergistically increased the production of different bioactive forms of the folic vitamin. Overall, strains were constructed which produce 146-fold (6595µg/L) more vitamin than the wild-type and by far represents the highest yield reported. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 2002 Chemical Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.; Graziano, D.; Miller, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Chemical Engineering Division is one of eight engineering research divisions within Argonne National Laboratory, one of the U.S. government's oldest and largest research laboratories. The University of Chicago oversees the laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Argonne's mission is to conduct basic scientific research, to operate national scientific facilities, to enhance the nation's energy resources, and to develop better ways to manage environmental problems. Argonne has the further responsibility of strengthening the nation's technology base by developing innovative technology and transferring it to industry. The Division is a diverse early-stage engineering organization, specializing in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel, development of advanced electrochemical power sources, and management of both high- and low-level nuclear wastes. Although this work is often indistinguishable from basic research, our efforts are directed toward the practical devices and processes that are covered by Argonne's mission. Additionally, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory; Environment, Safety, and Health Analytical Chemistry services; and Dosimetry and Radioprotection services, which provide a broad range of analytical services to Argonne and other organizations. The Division is multidisciplinary. Its people have formal training as ceramists; physicists; material scientists; electrical, mechanical, chemical, and nuclear engineers; and chemists. They have experience working in academia; urban planning; and the petroleum, aluminum, and automotive industries. Their skills include catalysis, ceramics, electrochemistry, metallurgy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and petroleum refining, as well as the development of nuclear waste forms, batteries, and high-temperature superconductors. Our wide-ranging expertise finds ready application in solving energy and environmental problems. Division personnel are frequently called on by

  19. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  20. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities of chemical engineers. Therefore, the main question of this thesis is: how can a trained chemical engineer develop a conceptual design of a chemical process or a chemical product in such a way that ...

  1. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduct......Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources....... This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed......, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors...

  2. Chemical genomic guided engineering of gamma-valerolactone tolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Scott; Dickinson, Quinn; McGee, Mick; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Hebert, Alex; Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Myers, Chad L; Landick, Robert; Piotrowski, Jeff S

    2018-01-12

    Gamma valerolactone (GVL) treatment of lignocellulosic bomass is a promising technology for degradation of biomass for biofuel production; however, GVL is toxic to fermentative microbes. Using a combination of chemical genomics with the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) deletion collection to identify sensitive and resistant mutants, and chemical proteomics to monitor protein abundance in the presence of GVL, we sought to understand the mechanism toxicity and resistance to GVL with the goal of engineering a GVL-tolerant, xylose-fermenting yeast. Chemical genomic profiling of GVL predicted that this chemical affects membranes and membrane-bound processes. We show that GVL causes rapid, dose-dependent cell permeability, and is synergistic with ethanol. Chemical genomic profiling of GVL revealed that deletion of the functionally related enzymes Pad1p and Fdc1p, which act together to decarboxylate cinnamic acid and its derivatives to vinyl forms, increases yeast tolerance to GVL. Further, overexpression of Pad1p sensitizes cells to GVL toxicity. To improve GVL tolerance, we deleted PAD1 and FDC1 in a xylose-fermenting yeast strain. The modified strain exhibited increased anaerobic growth, sugar utilization, and ethanol production in synthetic hydrolysate with 1.5% GVL, and under other conditions. Chemical proteomic profiling of the engineered strain revealed that enzymes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis were more abundant in the presence of GVL compared to the background strain. The engineered GVL strain contained greater amounts of ergosterol than the background strain. We found that GVL exerts toxicity to yeast by compromising cellular membranes, and that this toxicity is synergistic with ethanol. Deletion of PAD1 and FDC1 conferred GVL resistance to a xylose-fermenting yeast strain by increasing ergosterol accumulation in aerobically grown cells. The GVL-tolerant strain fermented sugars in the presence of GVL levels that were inhibitory to the unmodified strain

  3. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS FOR SECOND YEAR CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARWAN M. SHAMEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the second semester of the second year of a Mechanical Engineering course, students are supposed to take a Module Outside the Main Discipline (MOMD. This module is chosen to be “Product Design Exercise” a module that is offered to Chemical Engineering students at the same stage. The aim was to expose students from both disciplines to an environment in which they are encouraged to interact with and engage team members with a relatively different background. The students were divided into eight groups all comprised of Chemical and Mechanical Engineering students, and they were offered different open-ended projects that were selected to exploit the knowledge developed by the students thus far and they were slightly skewed towards Chemical Engineering. The students demonstrated a high level of cooperation and motivation throughout the period of the project. Effective communication and closing of knowledge gaps were prevalent. At the end of the project period, students produced a journal paper in lieu of the project report.

  4. Chemical Engineering Division annual technical report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D.S.; Barney, D.L.; Cafasso, F.A.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Engineering (CEN) Division's activities during 1980 are presented. In this period, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) rechargeable lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and other applications; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) energy-efficient industrial electrochemical processes; (4) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (5) coal technology, mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO 2 sorbent of limestone; (6) heat- and seed-recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (7) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (8) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (9) fuel cycle technology - management of nuclear wastes, reprocessing of nuclear fuels, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; and (10) magnetic fusion research - systems analysis and engineering experimentation, materials research, and neutron dosimetry and damage analysis. The CEN Division also has a basic energy sciences program, which includes experimental and theoretical research on (1) the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and methanol homologation, (2) the thermodynamic properties of a wide variety of inorganic and organic materials, (3) significant mechanisms for the formation of atmospheric sulfate and nitrogen-bearing aerosols, (4) processes occurring at electrodes and in electrolytes, and (5) the physical properties of salt vapors. In addition, the Division operated the Central Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

  5. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  6. Integrating the protein and metabolic engineering toolkits for next-generation chemical biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Christopher M; De Mey, Marjan; Jones Prather, Kristala L; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2013-04-19

    Through microbial engineering, biosynthesis has the potential to produce thousands of chemicals used in everyday life. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are fields driven by the manipulation of genes, genetic regulatory systems, and enzymatic pathways for developing highly productive microbial strains. Fundamentally, it is the biochemical characteristics of the enzymes themselves that dictate flux through a biosynthetic pathway toward the product of interest. As metabolic engineers target sophisticated secondary metabolites, there has been little recognition of the reduced catalytic activity and increased substrate/product promiscuity of the corresponding enzymes compared to those of central metabolism. Thus, fine-tuning these enzymatic characteristics through protein engineering is paramount for developing high-productivity microbial strains for secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the importance of protein engineering for advancing metabolic engineering of secondary metabolism pathways. This pathway integrated enzyme optimization can enhance the collective toolkit of microbial engineering to shape the future of chemical manufacturing.

  7. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon.

  8. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  9. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Jarek

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates

  10. Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Cyanobacteria for Photosynthetic Biochemical Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Martin C.; Lan, Ethan I.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO2 into various chemicals. This review discusses the d...

  11. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  12. Product evaluation of in situ vitrification engineering, Test 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, C.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Bates, S.O.

    1991-09-01

    This report is one of several that evaluates the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Engineering-Scale Test 4 (ES-4). This document describes the chemical and physical composition, microstructure, and leaching characteristics of ES-4 product samples; these data provide insight into the expected performance of a vitrified product in an ISV buried waste application similar to that studied in ES-4

  13. Polyfluorinated chemicals and transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepper, Thomas P. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Fresenius, Idstein (Germany). Inst. for Analytical Research; Lange, Frank Thomas (eds.) [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Due to their unparalleled effectiveness and efficiency, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) have become essential in numerous technical applications. However, many PFCs brought to market show limited biodegradability, and their environmental persistence combined with toxic and bioaccumulative potential have become a matter of concern in some instances. This volume highlights the synthesis of PFCs, focusing on substances with improved application and environmental properties, which are a challenge for synthetic chemists. Further, modern mass spectrometric techniques for the detection and identification of biotransformation products of PFCs are described. The sorption and leaching behavior of PFC in soil is also addressed in order to predict their fate in the environment. Several contributions discuss the monitoring of PFCs in European surface, ground and drinking waters, treatment options for PFC removal from drinking water, occurrence in food, and the human biomonitoring of PFCs. (orig.)

  14. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  15. Design and Control of Chemical Grouting : Volume 3 - Engineering Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Recent improvements in the engineering practice of chemical grouting have provided increased confidence in this method of ground modification. Designers can significantly improve the success of chemical grouting by defining their grouting program obj...

  16. Indian Chemical Engineering Congress 1995: 48th annual session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers: abstracts and invited lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 48th Annual Session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers was held in Kalpakkam during December 27-30, 1995. The book contains the proceeding of the conference, both abstracts and invited lectures. The topics covered included various aspects pertaining to chemical engineering and technology along with the chemical and engineering processes relevant to nuclear fuel cycle like uranium ore processing, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Engineering Microbial Chemical Factories to Produce Renewable ‘Biomonomers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake eAdkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called ‘biomonomers’. Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way towards new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  18. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable “biomonomers”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R.

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called “biomonomers.” Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible. PMID:22969753

  19. Engineering microbial chemical factories to produce renewable "biomonomers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jake; Pugh, Shawn; McKenna, Rebekah; Nielsen, David R

    2012-01-01

    By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called "biomonomers." Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way toward new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  20. Engineering Changes in Product Design - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, K.; Janardhan Reddy, K., Dr

    2016-09-01

    Changes are fundamental to product development. Engineering changes are unavoidable and can arise at any phase of the product life cycle. The consideration of market requirements, customer/user feedbacks, manufacturing constraints, design innovations etc., turning them into viable products can be accomplished when product change is managed properly. In the early design cycle, informal changes are accepted. However, changes become formal when its complexity and cost increases, and as product matures. To maximize the market shares, manufacturers have to effectively and efficiently manage engineering changes by means of Configuration Control. The paper gives a broad overview about ‘Engineering Change Management’ (ECM) through configuration management and its implications in product design. The aim is to give an idea and understanding about the engineering changes in product design scenario to the new researchers. This paper elaborates the significant aspect of managing the engineering changes and the importance of ECM in a product life cycle.

  1. Enhanced productivity of simulation engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrmann, C.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation has always required a hybrid collection of individuals for software development and maintenance, half engineers and half computer scientists. This paper presents a chronology and an indication of some of the technology currently available to simplify simulation software development and maintenance so that engineers can truly be engineers and not computer scientists. (author)

  2. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  3. Thermodynamics an advanced textbook for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Gianni

    1989-01-01

    If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the ...

  4. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  5. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  6. Experiences on dynamic simulation software in chemical engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komulainen, Tiina M.; Enemark-rasmussen, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial process simulators are increasing interest in the chemical engineer education. In this paper, the use of commercial dynamic simulation software, D-SPICE® and K-Spice®, for three different chemical engineering courses is described and discussed. The courses cover the following topics...

  7. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  8. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Engineering of polymers and composite materials. Catalysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning polymer and composite materials technology as well as catalysis in chemical engineering. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  9. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  10. Chemical Product Design: A new challenge of applied thermodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    , and then to outline some specific examples from our research activities in the area of thermodynamics for chemical products. The examples cover rather diverse areas such as interrelation between thermodynamic and engineering properties in detergents (surfactants), paint thermodynamics and the development of models...

  11. Multidisplinary Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal reflect the journal’s multidisciplinary approach to management research and can be categorized as belonging to three general topics: Project Management, Engineering and Project Management, and Project and Production Management.

  12. Design of experiments in production engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book covers design of experiments (DoE) applied in production engineering as a combination of manufacturing technology with applied management science. It presents recent research advances and applications of design experiments in production engineering and the chapters cover metal cutting tools, soft computing for modelling and optmization of machining, waterjet machining of high performance ceramics, among others.

  13. Scheduling in Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2015-01-01

    This issue presents five papers selected from the 2013 (4th) International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM2013) held in Bangkok, Thailand. Three of the papers deal with scheduling problems faced in project and production management, while the remaining two focus on engineering management issues.

  14. Multidisplinary Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal) reflect the journal’s multidisciplinary approach to management research and can be categorized as belonging to three general topics: Project Management, Engineering and Project Management, and Project and Production Management.

  15. Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Statistical Conference for Production Engineering : Big Data, Production Engineering and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Daeheung; Lai, Tze; Lee, Youngjo; Lu, Ying; Ni, Jun; Qian, Peter; Qiu, Peihua; Tiao, George

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 2nd Pacific Rim Statistical Conference for Production Engineering: Production Engineering, Big Data and Statistics, which took place at Seoul National University in Seoul, Korea in December, 2016. The papers included discuss a wide range of statistical challenges, methods and applications for big data in production engineering, and introduce recent advances in relevant statistical methods.

  16. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Hussain, Rehan; Elbashir, Nimir

    2015-01-01

    , detergent, etc.). It has interface to identify workflow/data-flow for the inter-related activities between knowledge-based system and model-based calculation procedures to systematically, efficiently and robustly solve various types of product design-analysis problems. The application of the software......In this paper, the development of a systematic model-based framework for product design, implemented in the new product design software called VPPD-Lab is presented. This framework employs its in-house knowledge-based system to design and evaluate chemical products. The built-in libraries...... of product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...

  17. Chemical interaction of tetravalent actinides simulators and the engineering barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain, Pablo; Alba, Maria D.; Castro, Miguel A.; Pavon, Esperanza; Mar Orta, M.

    2010-01-01

    simulator with the engineering barrier at conditions close to those of the repository. The methodology used consists in the hydrothermal treatment of different natural bentonites, including FEBEX and MX-80 bentonites, with aqueous solutions of the mentioned tetravalent lanthanide elements at subcritical conditions. The reaction products have been analysed with the help of X-ray diffraction, MAS-NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that after the hydrothermal reaction two new phases containing zirconium have been formed, ZrSiO 4 and ZrO 2 , and their ratio depend on the nature of the bentonite. It demonstrates that the already explored chemical interaction between trivalent radionuclides and bentonite barrier is also possible with the tetravalent radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Critical technologies: The role of chemistry and chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and illustrate key contributions of chemical and chemical engineering research to the development of technologies that have been deemed critical to the economy, security, and well-being of our nation. The report surveys a wide range of vital technologies that are heavily reliant or even critically dependent on chemical or chemical engineering research. Examples were taken from the fields of materials, manufacturing, energy, transportation, public health, information and communications, and the environment. While loosely following the structure of the critical technologies report of the NCTP, our committee decided on a different approach, that of using examples backed up by extensive illustrations

  19. Microbial production of building block chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Hyun Uk; Choi, Sol; Yi, Jongho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-12-01

    Owing to our increasing concerns on the environment, climate change, and limited natural resources, there has recently been considerable effort exerted to produce chemicals and materials from renewable biomass. Polymers we use everyday can also be produced either by direct fermentation or by polymerization of monomers that are produced by fermentation. Recent advances in metabolic engineering combined with systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to more systematically develop superior strains and bioprocesses for the efficient production of polymers and monomers. Here, we review recent trends in microbial production of building block chemicals that can be subsequently used for the synthesis of polymers. Also, recent successful cases of direct one-step production of polymers are reviewed. General strategies for the production of natural and unnatural platform chemicals are described together with representative examples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  1. 6th world congress of chemical engineering. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The 6th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, held in Melbourne, was structured around 6 Vision Lectures which lead to 800 oral presentations and 600 poster presentations, spanning the entire range of chemical engineering. The main topics of the Congress were: environment, health and safety; energy; industrial applications; process simulation and control; management and education and the future. Items in INIS scope have been separately indexed

  2. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  3. Solvent production by engineered Ralstonia eutropha: channeling carbon to biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Jayashree; Brigham, Christopher J

    2018-06-01

    Microbial production of solvents like acetone and butanol was a couple of the first industrial fermentation processes to gain global importance. These solvents are important feedstocks for the chemical and biofuel industry. Ralstonia eutropha is a facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacterium able to grow with organic substrates or H 2 and CO 2 under aerobic conditions. This bacterium is a natural producer of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymers. Recently, with the advances in the development of genetic engineering tools, the range of metabolites R. eutropha can produce has enlarged. Its ability to utilize various carbon sources renders it an interesting candidate host for synthesis of renewable biofuel and solvent production. This review focuses on progress in metabolic engineering of R. eutropha for the production of alcohols, terpenes, methyl ketones, and alka(e)nes using various resources. Biological synthesis of solvents still presents the challenge of high production costs and competition from chemical synthesis. Better understanding of R. eutropha biology will support efforts to engineer and develop superior microbial strains for solvent production. Continued research on multiple fronts is required to engineer R. eutropha for truly sustainable and economical solvent production.

  4. Advancing Consumer Product Composition and Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes EPA efforts to collect, model, and measure publically available consumer product data for use in exposure assessment. The development of the ORD Chemicals and Products database will be described, as will machine-learning based models for predicting chemical function. Finally, the talk describes new mass spectrometry-based methods for measuring chemicals in formulation and articles. This presentation is an invited talk to the ICCA-LRI workshop "Fit-For-Purpose Exposure Assessments For Risk-Based Decision Making". The talk will share EPA efforts to characterize the components of consumer products for use in exposure assessment with the international exposure science community.

  5. New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…

  6. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  7. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  8. Chemical engineering and chemistry : education in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijenga, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Current trends in science and engineering research are analyzed, together with an inventory of changes in the field of employment and practice in industry. The resulting demands on university education of chemists and chemical engineers have been translated into a more or less continuous updating of

  9. Chemical engineering problems of radioactive waste fixation by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Basic features are reviewed of the chemical engineering problems faced in the vitrification of the high-level radioactive liquid wastes resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. After an outline of glass solution properties and formation kinetics the constituent elements of the vitrification route are examined in turn: waste feed evaporation and denitration, calcination, offgas treatment, and finally melting and product quality. Plant and experimental data for each stage are discussed with comparison between process routes and with reference to the underlying principles. Attention is drawn to the future need for higher trapping efficiencies and for dealing with a wider range of species in offgas treatments as higher burnup fuels are processed after shorter cooling times from reactor. Two areas of present study where deeper insight into underlying process mechanics is needed are, firstly, the association of waste material with glass formers in the wet or sinter stages and secondly their incorporation and mixing reaction in the melt. Fuller understanding here would bring direct benefit to process performance and handling. The problems discussed are not of a nature to jeopardize the vitrification routes but if product quality does come to rely heavily on process control then demonstrable confidence in the behaviour of the central physico-chemical interactions is indispensable. (author)

  10. Engineering Information Infrastructure for Product Lifecycle Managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Fumihiko

    For proper management of total product life cycle, it is fundamentally important to systematize design and engineering information about product systems. For example, maintenance operation could be more efficiently performed, if appropriate parts design information is available at the maintenance site. Such information shall be available as an information infrastructure for various kinds of engineering operations, and it should be easily accessible during the whole product life cycle, such as transportation, marketing, usage, repair/upgrade, take-back and recycling/disposal. Different from the traditional engineering database, life cycle support information has several characteristic requirements, such as flexible extensibility, distributed architecture, multiple viewpoints, long-time archiving, and product usage information, etc. Basic approaches for managing engineering information infrastructure are investigated, and various information contents and associated life cycle applications are discussed.

  11. Discrete-Event Simulation in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheisz, Daniel; Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1988-01-01

    Gives examples, descriptions, and uses for various types of simulation systems, including the Flowtran, Process, Aspen Plus, Design II, GPSS, Simula, and Simscript. Explains similarities in simulators, terminology, and a batch chemical process. Tables and diagrams are included. (RT)

  12. Chemical Stimulation of Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter, E.

    2008-08-08

    The objective of this project is to design, develop and demonstrate methods for the chemical stimulation of candidate EGS reservoirs as well as the chemical treatment of mineral-scaled wellbores. First, a set of candidate chemical compounds capable of dissolving calcite was identified. A series of tests was then performed on each candidate in order to screen it for thermal stability and reactivity towards calcite. A detailed analysis was then performed on each compound that emerged from the screening tests in order to characterize its decay kinetics and reaction kinetics as functions of temperature and chemical composition. From among the compounds emerging from the laboratory studies, one compounds was chosen for a field experiment in order to verify the laboratory predictions.

  13. Novel trends in engineered milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and current status of some engineered milk products and to speculate regarding future trends. Much of the advancement has been directed towards production capacity, mechanisation, automation, hygiene within the processing plant, safety, extensions in shelf life, and new product introductions that bring variety and convenience for the consumer. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. In addition, further improvements focused on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have been made and will be needed in the future.

  14. Chemical analysis as production guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzigues, H.; Fontaine, A.; Patigny, P.

    1975-01-01

    All piloting data of chemical processing plants are based on the results of analysis. The first part of this article describes a system of analysers adapted to the needs of the Pierrelatte plant, with management of signals collected by the factory computer. Part two shows the influence of analytical development in the establishment of material balance sheets for the Marcoule spent fuel processing plant. Part three stresses the contribution of the automation of analytical test processes at the La Hague spent fuel processing plant. In all three cases the progress in analytical methods greatly improves the safety, reliability and response time of the various operations [fr

  15. Collaborative engineering for complex products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Erasmus_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6206 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Erasmus_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Collaborative engineering... with collaboration and cooperation • Now they compete on implementation (application) instead of standards (infrastructure) Reyes, V., 2014. Dealing with automotive software complexity with virtual prototyping – Part 1: Virtual HIL development basics (accessed 9...

  16. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Organic substances and pharmaceuticals engineering. Petrochemistry and chemical processing of alternative feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning organic substances and pharmaceuticals engineering, petrochemistry and chemical processing of alternative feedstock. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  17. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed...

  18. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  19. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  20. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  2. Chemical Engineering Education in a Bologna Three Cycle Degree System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    For the purpose of harmonization of European higher education, Europe’s education system has been going through major changes under what is commonly known as the ”Bologna Process”. The Bologna declaration in 1999 was the start of the introduction of a three cycle degree system in higher education...... in Europe. To date, many European universities have adopted this degree structure. The Working Party on Education (WPE) of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) carried out research to determine the contents of higher education in chemical engineering (ChE) and related disciplines...... such as applied chemistry and process engineering throughout Europe. The result has been a set of recommendations for the first (BS), second (MS) and third (PhD) cycle chemical engineering education aligned to the Bologna Process. They recommend that students studying towards bachelor and masters qualifications...

  3. Probabilistic risk analysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, F.

    1991-01-01

    In risk analysis in the chemical industry, recognising potential risks is considered more important than assessing their quantitative extent. Even in assessing risks, emphasis is not on the probability involved but on the possible extent. Qualitative assessment has proved valuable here. Probabilistic methods are used in individual cases where the wide implications make it essential to be able to assess the reliability of safety precautions. In this case, assessment therefore centres on the reliability of technical systems and not on the extent of a chemical risk. 7 figs

  4. Chemical engineering: Measurements for a competitive age

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) activities supporting chemical research, environmental research, combustion and fuel research, and related industries are described in this video. Highlights include private sector involvement in the research and associated and guest scientist programs, the calibration of customers' instruments, and the direct funding for the NIST research projects by outside industries.

  5. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  6. The Chemical Product Simulator - ProCAPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Eden, Mario Richard; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical product design simulator called ProCAPD is presented. ProCAPD works in the same way as a chemical process simulator, that is, it helps to verify product design decisions and generates information that can be used to make design decisions. Like the contents of the process...... simulator, the product simulator needs a database of chemicals and properties, a library of models, numerical routines to solve mathematical problems as well as various calculation options. Also, like the process simulator, the product simulator comes with a user-interface to describe the problems.......); calculation tools (product attributes, blend compositions, environmental impact, etc.); design templates (single molecules, blends, formulations, emulsions, devices); and, design-simulation-analysis functions. All these capabilities are based on the prototype tool developed by Kalakul et al. (2017...

  7. Fragrance chemicals in domestic and occupational products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Heydorn, S; Johansen, J D

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have described an increasing prevalence of fragrance allergy and indicated an association with hand eczema. 59 domestic and occupational products intended for hand exposure were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses to test the hypothesis...... that fragrance chemicals known to have the potential to cause contact allergy but not included in fragrance mix (FM) may be common ingredients in these products. A quantitative analysis of 19 selected fragrances was performed by GC-MS. Further analysis of GC-MS data revealed the presence of 43 other fragrance...... chemicals/groups of fragrance chemicals in the products investigated. Among the 19 target substances the most commonly detected were limonene in 78%, linalool in 61% and citronellol in 47% of the products investigated. The FM ingredients were present in these products with the following frequencies: oak...

  8. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy; Kania, John

    2018-01-23

    Methods, reactor systems, and catalysts are provided for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals, including methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  9. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  10. Chemicals in Household Products: Problems with Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Gillian A.; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2007-12-01

    The success of a regulatory regime in decreasing point-source emissions of some harmful chemicals has highlighted the significance of other sources. A growing number of potentially harmful chemicals have been incorporated into an expanding range of domestic household products and are sold worldwide. Tighter regulation has been proposed, and the European Commission has introduced the Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals to address this concern. However, it is clear that in addition to the regulation, there is a potential to effect change through retailer and consumer attitudes and behaviours. Interviews were conducted with 7 key stakeholder groups to identify critical issues, which were then explored using a public survey questionnaire (1,008 respondents) and 8 subsequent focus groups. The findings demonstrated that the issue of chemicals in products is of concern to consumers for reasons of personal health rather than environmental protection. Key obstacles to the wider purchase of “green-alternative” products included perceived high cost and poor performance, lack of availability of products, and poor information concerning such products. Although improved regulation was seen as part of the solution, consumers must also play a role. It was clear from this study that consumers are not currently able to make informed choices about the chemicals they use but that they would be receptive to moving toward a more sustainable use of chemicals in the future if empowered to do so.

  11. Recent Advances in Microbial Production of Aromatic Chemicals and Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shuhei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology tools, various microbes are being used to produce aromatic chemicals. In microbes, aromatics are mainly produced via a common important precursor, chorismate, in the shikimate pathway. Natural or non-natural aromatics have been produced by engineering metabolic pathways involving chorismate. In the past decade, novel approaches have appeared to produce various aromatics or to increase their productivity, whereas previously, the targets were mainly aromatic amino acids and the strategy was deregulating feedback inhibition. In this review, we summarize recent studies of microbial production of aromatics based on metabolic engineering approaches. In addition, future perspectives and challenges in this research area are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    . The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore...

  13. Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels (cambridge series in chemical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. The book examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures, and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented, and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is suitable for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  14. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.

  16. Bioprocess intensification for the effective production of chemical products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    The further implementation of new bioprocesses, using biocatalysts in various formats, for the synthesis of chemicals is highly dependent upon effective process intensification. The need for process intensification reflects the fact that the conditions under which a biocatalyst carries out...... a reaction in nature are far from those which are optimal for industrial processes. In this paper the rationale for intensification will be discussed, as well as the four complementary approaches used today to achieve bioprocess intensification. Two of these four approaches are based on alteration...... of the biocatalyst (either by protein engineering or metabolic engineering), resulting in an extra degree of freedom in the process design. To date, biocatalyst engineering has been developed independently from the conventional process engineering methodology to intensification. Although the integration of these two...

  17. Chemical engineer in business; Kemikaru enjinia to bijinesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yasuaki

    1999-05-05

    It is Coca-Cola and General Electric Co. (GE) that the aggregate market value is drastically expanding in U.S.A. throughout over past of 15. Direct common point is not very much found to these 2 companies. During over of 15 years, the leadership was demonstrated as management top of both companies, 2 managers who drastically contributed to the enterprise value improvement are the chemical engineer graduate both. It does be not done either mere in which that both persons with the grounded ability of chemical engineering contributed to the enterprise value improvement of the dramatic was not accidental. It is the essence of the chemical engineering,'By discerning essence of the process, the appropriate countermeasure is passed' there was it for the basis of the management of both persons. (NEDO)

  18. Using Simulation to Increase Yields in Chemical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Conley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Trying to increase the yields or profit or efficiency (less pollution of chemical processes is a central goal of the chemical engineer in theory and practice. Certainly sound training in chemistry, business and pollution control help the engineer to set up optimal chemical processes. However, the ever changing demands of customers and business conditions, plus the multivariate complexity of the chemical business can make optimization challenging. Mathematical tools such as statistics and linear programming have certainly been useful to chemical engineers in their pursuit of optimal efficiency. However, some processes can be modeled linearly and some can not. Therefore, presented here will be an industrial chemical process with potentially five variables affecting the yield. Data from over one hundred runs of the process has been collected, but it is not known initially whether the yield relationship is linear or nonlinear. Therefore, the CTSP multivariate correlation coefficient will be calculated for the data to see if a relationship exists among the variables. Then once it is proven that there is a statistically significant relationship, an appropriate linear or nonlinear equation can be fitted to the data, and it can be optimized for use in the chemical plant.

  19. Thermodynamics in finite time: A chemically driven engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrechen, M.J.; Berry, R.S.; Andresen, B.

    1980-01-01

    The methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to processes whose relaxation parameters are chemical rate coefficients within the working fluid. The direct optimization formalism used previously for heat engines with friction and finite heat transfer rates: termed the tricycle method: is extended to heat engines driven by exothermic reactions. The model is a flow reactor coupled by a heat exchanger to an engine. Conditions are established for the achievement of maximum power from such a system. Emphasis is on how the chemical kinetics control the finite-time thermodynamic extrema; first order, first order reversible, and second order reaction kinetics are analyzed. For the types of reactions considered here, there is always a finite positive flow rate in the reactor that yields maximum engine power. Maximum fuel efficiency is always attained in these systems at the uninteresting limit of zero flow rate

  20. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Engineering. In order to incorporate reactor design into process design in a meaningful way, the teachers of the respective courses need to collaborate (Standard 9 – Enhancement of Faculty CDIO skills). The students also see that different components of the chemical engineering curriculum relate......All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... of the CDIO standards – especially standard 3 – Integrated Curriculum - means that the course projects must draw on competences provided in other subjects which the students are taking in parallel with Process Design – specifically Process Control and Reaction Engineering. In each semester of the B...

  1. My contribution to broadening the base of chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Roger W H

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short account, from a personal viewpoint, of the various contributions I have made to expand the academic basis of chemical engineering from its origin in the unifying concept of unit operations, focussed on process design, to encompassing all the professional activities of industrial chemical engineers. This includes all aspects of planning and scheduling the operations as well as designing and controlling the process plant. The span of my career also happens to include the birth of the age of computing, with all the consequential implications.

  2. Synthetic and systems biology for microbial production of commodity chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Victor; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Martín, Héctor García

    2016-01-01

    The combination of synthetic and systems biology is a powerful framework to study fundamental questions in biology and produce chemicals of immediate practical application such as biofuels, polymers, or therapeutics. However, we cannot yet engineer biological systems as easily and precisely as we engineer physical systems. In this review, we describe the path from the choice of target molecule to scaling production up to commercial volumes. We present and explain some of the current challenges and gaps in our knowledge that must be overcome in order to bring our bioengineering capabilities to the level of other engineering disciplines. Challenges start at molecule selection, where a difficult balance between economic potential and biological feasibility must be struck. Pathway design and construction have recently been revolutionized by next-generation sequencing and exponentially improving DNA synthesis capabilities. Although pathway optimization can be significantly aided by enzyme expression characterization through proteomics, choosing optimal relative protein expression levels for maximum production is still the subject of heuristic, non-systematic approaches. Toxic metabolic intermediates and proteins can significantly affect production, and dynamic pathway regulation emerges as a powerful but yet immature tool to prevent it. Host engineering arises as a much needed complement to pathway engineering for high bioproduct yields; and systems biology approaches such as stoichiometric modeling or growth coupling strategies are required. A final, and often underestimated, challenge is the successful scale up of processes to commercial volumes. Sustained efforts in improving reproducibility and predictability are needed for further development of bioengineering.

  3. Production engineering jig and tool design

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, E J H

    1972-01-01

    Production Engineering: Jig and Tool Design focuses on jig and tool design as part of production engineering and covers topics ranging from inspection and gauging to multiple and consecutive tooling, tool calculation and development of form tools, deep-hole boring, and grinding-wheel form-crushing. Air and oil operated fixtures, negative rake machining, and the economics of jig and fixture practice are also discussed. This text is comprised of 22 chapters; the first of which provides an overview of the function and organization of the jig and tool department. Attention then turns to the subjec

  4. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

  5. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D. M.; Jarek, R.; Mariner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  6. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate

  7. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  8. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  9. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  10. Model Reduction in Chemical Engineering : Case studies applied to process analysis, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorneanu, B.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, models have become widely used for supporting a broad range of chemical engineering activities, such as product and process design and development, process monitoring and control, real time optimization of plant operation or supply chain management. Although tremendous

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for C4-dicarboxylic acid production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnological production of chemicals from renewable feedstocks offers a sustainable alternative to petrochemistry. Understanding of the biology of microorganisms and plants is increasing at an unprecedented rate and tools with which these organisms can be engineered for industrial application

  12. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

  13. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-21

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have enabled the biosynthesis of polymer compounds at high yield and productivities by governing the carbon flux towards the target chemicals. Using these methods, microbial strains have been engineered to produce monomer chemicals for replacing traditional petroleum-derived aliphatic polymers. These developments also raise the possibility of microbial production of aromatic chemicals for synthesizing high-performance polymers with desirable properties, such as ultraviolet absorbance, high thermal resistance, and mechanical strength. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in metabolic engineering approaches to optimize microbial strains for producing building blocks to synthesize aliphatic and high-performance aromatic polymers.

  14. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  15. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  16. HBCUs and Chemical Engineering: Analysis of Baccalaureate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sheena; Thompson, Audie

    2018-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) provide significant STEM degrees to African Americans. Initiatives toward increasing diversity in STEM fields have been implemented by government and industry leaders. HBCUs annually award over 20% of all African American baccalaureate chemical engineering degrees. This speaks volume to the…

  17. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  18. Rurality as an Asset for Inclusive Teaching in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jamie; Svihla, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    We developed and tested a pedagogical strategy--asset-based design challenges--to enhance diversity in early chemical engineering coursework. Using qualitative methods, we found first-year students justified high-cost solutions with ethical arguments; teams that included rural expertise argued instead for economically-viable solutions. In the…

  19. Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques are presented for improving the technical writing of chemical engineering students enrolled in an undergraduate laboratory course. The principles of writing covered are adopted from the book, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, by Joseph M. Williams: General examples of writing are taken from this book and then are recast into examples…

  20. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  1. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  2. CHEMCAD as a tool when teaching Chemical Engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Imran Ullah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to design different chemical processes using Chemcad software. Following five Chemcad models that had industrial relevance were designed and discussed, production of nitric acid by ammonia oxidation process, Production of sodium carbonate by Solvay process, production of hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas, production of sulphuric acid by Contact process and production of sulphur by Claus process. Equilibrium reactor, Gibbs reactor, absorption tower, heat ex...

  3. Biobased production of alkanes and alkenes through metabolic engineering of microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Min Kyoung; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as ?drop-in? biofuels. Some microo...

  4. Compilation of contract research for the Chemical Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology. Annual report for FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This compilation of annual research reports by the contractors to the Chemical Engineering Branch, DET, is published to disseminate information from ongoing programs and covers research conducted during fiscal year 1985. The programs covered in this document include research on: (1) engineered safety feature (ESF) system effectiveness in terms of fission product retention under severe accident conditions; (2) effectiveness and safety aspects of selected decontamination methods; (3) decontamination impacts on solidification and waste disposal; (4) evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects and concepts, and (5) operational schemes to prevent or mitigate the effects of hydrogen combustion during LWR accidents

  5. Biogas Production and Engine Conversion From Diesel Engine to Biogas Engine for Lighting in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Seint Thandar

    2012-01-01

    The research of alternative fuels implemented in internal combustion engines are becoming the subjects of interest nowadays. This paper describes a production of biogas from cow dung, diesel engine conversion process with piston modification of ZH1115 diesel engine. To produce biogas, the usual practice is to mix water with some organic material, such as cow dung (a free source of the appropriate micro-organisms). The slurry is placed in a leak-proof container (called a digester) and leaves i...

  6. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Herrgård, Markus J

    2013-09-01

    With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes associated with the development and implementation of a sustainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process, chemical industry, economy, and ecosystem. In addition, we propose a multi-scale approach for integrating the existing models into a cohesive framework. The major benefit of this proposed framework is that the design and decision-making at each scale can be informed, guided, and constrained by simulations and predictions at every other scale. In addition, the development of this multi-scale framework would promote cohesive collaborations across multiple traditionally disconnected modeling disciplines to achieve sustainable chemical production. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geonyeop; Yang, Gwangseok; Cho, Ara; Han, Jeong Woo; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-05-25

    We report defect-engineered graphene chemical sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity (e.g., 33% improvement in NO2 sensing and 614% improvement in NH3 sensing). A conventional reactive ion etching system was used to introduce the defects in a controlled manner. The sensitivity of graphene-based chemical sensors increased with increasing defect density until the vacancy-dominant region was reached. In addition, the mechanism of gas sensing was systematically investigated via experiments and density functional theory calculations, which indicated that the vacancy defect is a major contributing factor to the enhanced sensitivity. This study revealed that defect engineering in graphene has significant potential for fabricating ultra-sensitive graphene chemical sensors.

  8. A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Origins of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Grover

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atoms and molecules assemble into materials, with the material structure determining the properties and ultimate function. Human-made materials and systems have achieved great complexity, such as the integrated circuit and the modern airplane. However, they still do not rival the adaptivity and robustness of biological systems. Understanding the reaction and assembly of molecules on the early Earth is a scientific grand challenge, and also can elucidate the design principles underlying biological materials and systems. This research requires understanding of chemical reactions, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, optimization, and control. Thus, the discipline of chemical engineering can play a central role in advancing the field. In this paper, an overview of research in the origins field is given, with particular emphasis on the origin of biopolymers and the role of chemical engineering phenomena. A case study is presented to highlight the importance of the environment and its coupling to the chemistry.

  9. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Plenary reports. Engineering of inorganic substances and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of inorganic substances and materials. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  10. Multi-scale modeling for sustainable chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Kai; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Herrgard, Markus

    2013-01-01

    associated with the development and implementation of a su stainable biochemical industry. The temporal and spatial scales of modeling approaches for sustainable chemical production vary greatly, ranging from metabolic models that aid the design of fermentative microbial strains to material and monetary flow......With recent advances in metabolic engineering, it is now technically possible to produce a wide portfolio of existing petrochemical products from biomass feedstock. In recent years, a number of modeling approaches have been developed to support the engineering and decision-making processes...... models that explore the ecological impacts of all economic activities. Research efforts that attempt to connect the models at different scales have been limited. Here, we review a number of existing modeling approaches and their applications at the scales of metabolism, bioreactor, overall process...

  11. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    process understanding. Developing a process within a more flexible design space based on sound engineering judgment potentially allows process optimization once the product has already been approved. Micro‐ and mini‐chemical systems have been envisaged as the optimal scale for pharmaceutical production...... are the highest benefits found? How can a continuous process be designed and implemented? Are continuous processes compatible with slow reactions? Do they allow problem free processing of solid particles? What is the cost needed to implement a continuous process? This PhD thesis tries to answer some of those...... questions through the development of a systematic framework that takes advantage of continuous processing technologies and process systems engineering for the efficient design of continuous pharmaceutical processes. The framework consists of a step‐by‐step procedure that guides the user from drug discovery...

  12. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  13. Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules).

  14. Engineering cyanobacteria to generate high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducat, Daniel C; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-02-01

    Although many microorganisms have been used for the bioindustrial generation of valuable metabolites, the productive potential of cyanobacterial species has remained largely unexplored. Cyanobacteria possess several advantages as organisms for bioindustrial processes, including simple input requirements, tolerance of marginal agricultural environments, rapid genetics, and carbon-neutral applications that could be leveraged to address global climate change concerns. Here, we review recent research involving the engineering of cyanobacterial species for the production of valuable bioindustrial compounds, including natural cyanobacterial products (e.g. sugars and isoprene), biofuels (e.g. alcohols, alkanes and hydrogen), and other commodity chemicals. Biological and economic obstacles to scaled cyanobacterial production are highlighted, and methods for increasing cyanobacterial production efficiencies are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of chemical substances in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboev, Kh.E.; Nazarov, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has signed Convention "On prohibition of chemical weapon application"and no chemical weapon (CHW) is produced on the territory of republic. However, the potential production of CHW by individual persons or groups can be organized, using available production and obtaining chemical substances from other countries. Chemical substances, which have strong damage effect, easily, can be synthesized in chemical laboratories. These are general toxic substances, as hydrocyanic acid acid, phosgene, mustard gas, lewisite, sarin and others. The similar chemical substances of industrial significance are produced in Tajikistan: ammonia, chlorine, explosives, caustic soda, carbamide, formaldehyde and others. For industrial needs and agriculture from other countries Tajikistan is receiving the following: sodium cyanide and potassium for gold-mining; mineral acids; pesticides and others. Besides, there are different deposits in Tajikistan, reprocessing of which gives an opportunity to obtain different chemical substances. What can be obtained from chemicals produced in Tajikistan? Chlorine - from this reagent the fluoride chlorine, phosgene COCl_2 and many other compounds are easily synthesized, which are CHW components. Obtained cyanic compounds for gold mining can be used as precursor for neuroparalytic action. A big amount of metallic aluminum is produced in the republic. The Al powder for rocket fuel can be obtained from it. Obtained from other countries pesticides are potential components for CHW creation. A strong control and account of pesticides use is necessary. It is extremely important to control materials, equipment and technologies which allow countries and separate groups to create weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The most important factor is goods identification. Firstly - inspection of external view, labeling, packing specifications, license availability and etc. Strong control of checklists is necessary according

  16. Chemical engineering challenges and investment opportunities in sustainable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and energy industries are transforming as they adjust to the new era of high-priced petroleum and severe global warming. As a result of the transformation, engineering challenges and investment opportunities abound. Rapid evolution and fast growth are expected in cathode and anode materials as well as polymeric electrolytes for vehicular batteries and in high-performance polymer-ceramic composites for wind turbines, fuel-efficient aircraft, and lighter and safer cars. Unique process-engineering opportunities exist in sand-oil, coal, and possibly also shale liquefaction to produce transportation fuel; and also in genetic engineering of photosynthesizing plants and other organisms for their processing into high-performance biodegradable polymers and high-value-added environmentally friendly chemicals. Also, research on the feasibility of mitigation of global warming through enhancement of CO(2) uptake by the southern oceans by fertilization with trace amounts of iron is progressing. Because chemical engineers are uniquely well trained in mathematical modeling of mass transport, flow, and mixing, and also in cost analysis, they are likely to join the oceanographers and marine biologists in this important endeavor.

  17. Enhanced isoprenoid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Suryang; Kim, Soo Rin; Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2017-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has limited capabilities for producing fuels and chemicals derived from acetyl-CoA, such as isoprenoids, due to a rigid flux partition toward ethanol during glucose metabolism. Despite numerous efforts, xylose fermentation by engineered yeast harboring heterologous xylose metabolic pathways was not as efficient as glucose fermentation for producing ethanol. Therefore, we hypothesized that xylose metabolism by engineered yeast might be a better fit for producing non-ethanol metabolites. We indeed found that engineered S. cerevisiae on xylose showed higher expression levels of the enzymes involved in ethanol assimilation and cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis than on glucose. When genetic perturbations necessary for overproducing squalene and amorphadiene were introduced into engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, we observed higher titers and yields of isoprenoids under xylose than glucose conditions. Specifically, co-overexpression of a truncated HMG1 (tHMG1) and ERG10 led to substantially higher squalene accumulation under xylose than glucose conditions. In contrast to glucose utilization producing massive amounts of ethanol regardless of aeration, xylose utilization allowed much less amounts of ethanol accumulation, indicating ethanol is simultaneously re-assimilated with xylose consumption and utilized for the biosynthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. In addition, xylose utilization by engineered yeast with overexpression of tHMG1, ERG10, and ADS coding for amorphadiene synthase, and the down-regulation of ERG9 resulted in enhanced amorphadiene production as compared to glucose utilization. These results suggest that the problem of the rigid flux partition toward ethanol production in yeast during the production of isoprenoids and other acetyl-CoA derived chemicals can be bypassed by using xylose instead of glucose as a carbon source. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2581-2591. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  18. Genetic Engineering In BioButanol Production And Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Rao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. Higher-chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Ethanol and butanol are two products which are used as biofuel. Butanol production was more concerned than ethanol because of its high octane number. Unfortunately, these alcohols are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. The synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of bio-butanol. Knock out and over-expression of genes is the major approaches towards genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering of microbes. Yet there are TargeTron Technology, Antisense RNA and CRISPR technology has a vital role in genome manipulation of C.acetobutylicum. This review concentrates on the recent developments for efficient production of butanol and butanol tolerance by various genetically engineered microbes.

  19. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  20. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new computational methodology called Computational Mass Transfer (CMT). It offers an approach to rigorously simulating the mass, heat and momentum transfer under turbulent flow conditions with the help of two newly published models, namely the C’2—εC’ model and the Reynolds  mass flux model, especially with regard to predictions of concentration, temperature and velocity distributions in chemical and related processes. The book will also allow readers to understand the interfacial phenomena accompanying the mass transfer process and methods for modeling the interfacial effect, such as the influences of Marangoni convection and Rayleigh convection. The CMT methodology is demonstrated by means of its applications to typical separation and chemical reaction processes and equipment, including distillation, absorption, adsorption and chemical reactors. Professor Kuo-Tsong Yu is a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Xigang Yuan is a Professor at the School of Chemical Engine...

  1. Production of nanomaterials: physical and chemical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, Leonardo; Salernitano, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Are define nanomaterials those materials which have at least one dimension in the range between 1 and 100 nm. By the term nanotechnology refers, instead, to the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular level. The materials brought to the nanometric dimensions take particular chemical-physical properties different from the corresponding conventional macro materials. Speaking about the structure of nanoscale, you can check some basic properties materials (eg. Melting temperature, magnetic and electrical properties) without changing its chemical composition. In this perspective are crucial knowledge and control of production processes in order to design and get the nanomaterial more suitable for a specific application. For this purpose, it describes a series of processes of production of nanomaterials with application examples. [it

  2. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.J.; Ravenscroft, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO 2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...

  4. Membrane engineering via trans unsaturated fatty acids production improves Escherichia coli robustness and production of biorenewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zaigao; Yoon, Jong Moon; Nielsen, David R; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-05-01

    Constructing microbial biocatalysts that produce biorenewables at economically viable yields and titers is often hampered by product toxicity. For production of short chain fatty acids, membrane damage is considered the primary mechanism of toxicity, particularly in regards to membrane integrity. Previous engineering efforts in Escherichia coli to increase membrane integrity, with the goal of increasing fatty acid tolerance and production, have had mixed results. Herein, a novel approach was used to reconstruct the E. coli membrane by enabling production of a novel membrane component. Specifically, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) were produced and incorporated into the membrane of E. coli MG1655 by expression of cis-trans isomerase (Cti) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the engineered strain was found to have no increase in membrane integrity, a significant decrease in membrane fluidity was observed, meaning that membrane polarization and rigidity were increased by TUFA incorporation. As a result, tolerance to exogenously added octanoic acid and production of octanoic acid were both increased relative to the wild-type strain. This membrane engineering strategy to improve octanoic acid tolerance was found to require fine-tuning of TUFA abundance. Besides improving tolerance and production of carboxylic acids, TUFA production also enabled increased tolerance in E. coli to other bio-products, e.g. alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds, a variety of adverse industrial conditions, e.g. low pH, high temperature, and also elevated styrene production, another versatile bio-chemical product. TUFA permitted enhanced growth due to alleviation of bio-product toxicity, demonstrating the general effectiveness of this membrane engineering strategy towards improving strain robustness. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patchoulol Production with Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja A. Henke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patchoulol is a sesquiterpene alcohol and an important natural product for the perfume industry. Corynebacterium glutamicum is the prominent host for the fermentative production of amino acids with an average annual production volume of ~6 million tons. Due to its robustness and well established large-scale fermentation, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a number of value-added compounds including terpenoids. Both C40 and C50 carotenoids, including the industrially relevant astaxanthin, and short-chain terpenes such as the sesquiterpene valencene can be produced with this organism. In this study, systematic metabolic engineering enabled construction of a patchoulol producing C. glutamicum strain by applying the following strategies: (i construction of a farnesyl pyrophosphate-producing platform strain by combining genomic deletions with heterologous expression of ispA from Escherichia coli; (ii prevention of carotenoid-like byproduct formation; (iii overproduction of limiting enzymes from the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP-pathway to increase precursor supply; and (iv heterologous expression of the plant patchoulol synthase gene PcPS from Pogostemon cablin. Additionally, a proof of principle liter-scale fermentation with a two-phase organic overlay-culture medium system for terpenoid capture was performed. To the best of our knowledge, the patchoulol titers demonstrated here are the highest reported to date with up to 60 mg L−1 and volumetric productivities of up to 18 mg L−1 d−1.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Velocity Mapping in Chemical Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Lynn F; Sederman, Andrew J

    2017-06-07

    This review aims to illustrate the diversity of measurements that can be made using magnetic resonance techniques, which have the potential to provide insights into chemical engineering systems that cannot readily be achieved using any other method. Perhaps the most notable advantage in using magnetic resonance methods is that both chemistry and transport can be followed in three dimensions, in optically opaque systems, and without the need for tracers to be introduced into the system. Here we focus on hydrodynamics and, in particular, applications to rheology, pipe flow, and fixed-bed and gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. With increasing development of industrially relevant sample environments and undersampling data acquisition strategies that can reduce acquisition times to chemical engineering research.

  7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together

  8. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration...... with a major international engineering company....

  9. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Materials of All-Russian Symposium on chemistry and extraction engineering. Chemical-metallurgical processes of ore and secondary raw material processing. Analytical control of chemical industries, man-made and natural objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning polymer and composite materials technology as well as catalysis in chemical engineering. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  10. Proceedings of 20. Symposium of Malaysian Chemical Engineers (SOMChE 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the symposium is to provide a platform for participants and relevant chemical engineering community to meet and encourage expertise and knowledge sharing and to allow recent chemical engineering research and innovation works to be properly documented, displayed and made known to interested parties. The subjects discussed are advanced material modeling and simulation bioprocess, catalysis, chemical engineering education (outcome-based education), computational fluid dynamics, drying technology, energy, environment, fine chemicals, food engineering, oil and gas, oleochemical, particle technology, petrochemical, pharmaceutical engineering, polymer technology, process control, process system, engineering, reaction engineering, renewable energy, separation

  11. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  12. Genome engineering for microbial natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Si-Sun; Katsuyama, Yohei; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2018-03-03

    The discovery and development of microbial natural products (MNPs) have played pivotal roles in the fields of human medicine and its related biotechnology sectors over the past several decades. The post-genomic era has witnessed the development of microbial genome mining approaches to isolate previously unsuspected MNP biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) hidden in the genome, followed by various BGC awakening techniques to visualize compound production. Additional microbial genome engineering techniques have allowed higher MNP production titers, which could complement a traditional culture-based MNP chasing approach. Here, we describe recent developments in the MNP research paradigm, including microbial genome mining, NP BGC activation, and NP overproducing cell factory design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathre, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  14. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  15. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  16. Microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients via metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuheng; Jain, Rachit; Yan, Yajun

    2014-04-01

    Antioxidants are biological molecules with the ability to protect vital metabolites from harmful oxidation. Due to this fascinating role, their beneficial effects on human health are of paramount importance. Traditional approaches using solvent-based extraction from food/non-food sources and chemical synthesis are often expensive, exhaustive, and detrimental to the environment. With the advent of metabolic engineering tools, the successful reconstitution of heterologous pathways in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms provides a more exciting and amenable alternative to meet the increasing demand of natural antioxidants. In this review, we elucidate the recent progress in metabolic engineering efforts for the microbial production of antioxidant food ingredients - polyphenols, carotenoids, and antioxidant vitamins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.

    2005-01-01

    Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption...... to the problem-need specified in the beginning of the project, but producing a novel formulation (chemical product design) represents a method that results to a completely xylene-free process which is environmentally and economically more interesting than those generated via the more traditional process...

  18. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R J [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P D [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  20. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  1. Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Valuable Chemicals in Synthetic Microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ai-Qun; Pratomo Juwono, Nina Kurniasih [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Synthetic Biology Research Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Leong, Susanna Su Jan [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Synthetic Biology Research Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore (Singapore); Chang, Matthew Wook, E-mail: bchcmw@nus.edu.sg [Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Synthetic Biology Research Program, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-12-23

    Fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxy fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters, and fatty alka(e)nes, have a wide range of industrial applications including plastics, lubricants, and fuels. Currently, these chemicals are obtained mainly through chemical synthesis, which is complex and costly, and their availability from natural biological sources is extremely limited. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has provided a platform for effective production of these valuable biochemicals. Notably, synthetic biology-based metabolic engineering strategies have been extensively applied to refactor microorganisms for improved biochemical production. Here, we reviewed: (i) the current status of metabolic engineering of microbes that produce fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals, and (ii) the recent progress of synthetic biology approaches that assist metabolic engineering, such as mRNA secondary structure engineering, sensor-regulator system, regulatable expression system, ultrasensitive input/output control system, and computer science-based design of complex gene circuits. Furthermore, key challenges and strategies were discussed. Finally, we concluded that synthetic biology provides useful metabolic engineering strategies for economically viable production of fatty acid-derived valuable chemicals in engineered microbes.

  2. Engineering and Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Biofuels and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Timothy L; Kim, Heejin; Kong, In Iok; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jin, Yong-Su

    To mitigate global climate change caused partly by the use of fossil fuels, the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has been attempted. The conversion of various sugars from renewable biomass into biofuels by engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is one major direction which has grown dramatically in recent years. As well as shifting away from fossil fuels, the production of commodity chemicals by engineered S. cerevisiae has also increased significantly. The traditional approaches of biochemical and metabolic engineering to develop economic bioconversion processes in laboratory and industrial settings have been accelerated by rapid advancements in the areas of yeast genomics, synthetic biology, and systems biology. Together, these innovations have resulted in rapid and efficient manipulation of S. cerevisiae to expand fermentable substrates and diversify value-added products. Here, we discuss recent and major advances in rational (relying on prior experimentally-derived knowledge) and combinatorial (relying on high-throughput screening and genomics) approaches to engineer S. cerevisiae for producing ethanol, butanol, 2,3-butanediol, fatty acid ethyl esters, isoprenoids, organic acids, rare sugars, antioxidants, and sugar alcohols from glucose, xylose, cellobiose, galactose, acetate, alginate, mannitol, arabinose, and lactose.

  3. Chemical reactor development : from laboratory synthesis to industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Development is written primarily for chemists and chemical engineers who are concerned with the development of a chemical synthesis from the laboratory bench scale, where the first successful experiments are performed, to the design desk, where the first commercial reactor is

  4. Selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons as a challenge to the chemical engineer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, G [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie 1

    1977-11-01

    In the conversion of the most important chemical raw materials, natural oil and natural gas, to intermediate or end products, selective catalytic oxidation plays an increasing role. This method makes it possible in many cases to use more economical, single-step processes instead of the older multi-step processes. Using the typical example of propylene oxidation or ammonoxidation, the problems encountered by chemical engineers in the development of a heterogeneous-catalytic method of oxidation are demonstrated. The importance of systematic catalyst development is stressed. General aspects of the development of novel processes or the improvement of existing catalytic processes are discussed.

  5. Chemical Methods for Peptide and Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Toth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of solid phase synthetic methods by Merrifield in 1963, the number of research groups focusing on peptide synthesis has grown exponentially. However, the original step-by-step synthesis had limitations: the purity of the final product decreased with the number of coupling steps. After the development of Boc and Fmoc protecting groups, novel amino acid protecting groups and new techniques were introduced to provide high quality and quantity peptide products. Fragment condensation was a popular method for peptide production in the 1980s, but unfortunately the rate of racemization and reaction difficulties proved less than ideal. Kent and co-workers revolutionized peptide coupling by introducing the chemoselective reaction of unprotected peptides, called native chemical ligation. Subsequently, research has focused on the development of novel ligating techniques including the famous click reaction, ligation of peptide hydrazides, and the recently reported a-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligations with 5-oxaproline. Several companies have been formed all over the world to prepare high quality Good Manufacturing Practice peptide products on a multi-kilogram scale. This review describes the advances in peptide chemistry including the variety of synthetic peptide methods currently available and the broad application of peptides in medicinal chemistry.

  6. Chemical methods for peptide and protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrudu, Saranya; Simerska, Pavla; Toth, Istvan

    2013-04-12

    Since the invention of solid phase synthetic methods by Merrifield in 1963, the number of research groups focusing on peptide synthesis has grown exponentially. However, the original step-by-step synthesis had limitations: the purity of the final product decreased with the number of coupling steps. After the development of Boc and Fmoc protecting groups, novel amino acid protecting groups and new techniques were introduced to provide high quality and quantity peptide products. Fragment condensation was a popular method for peptide production in the 1980s, but unfortunately the rate of racemization and reaction difficulties proved less than ideal. Kent and co-workers revolutionized peptide coupling by introducing the chemoselective reaction of unprotected peptides, called native chemical ligation. Subsequently, research has focused on the development of novel ligating techniques including the famous click reaction, ligation of peptide hydrazides, and the recently reported α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligations with 5-oxaproline. Several companies have been formed all over the world to prepare high quality Good Manufacturing Practice peptide products on a multi-kilogram scale. This review describes the advances in peptide chemistry including the variety of synthetic peptide methods currently available and the broad application of peptides in medicinal chemistry.

  7. Holographic black hole engineering at finite baryon chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougemont, Romulo

    2017-01-01

    This is a contribution for the Proceedings of the Conference Hot Quarks 2016, held at South Padre Island, Texas, USA, 12-17 September 2016. I briefly review some thermodynamic and baryon transport results obtained from a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model engineered to describe the physics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The results for the equation of state, baryon susceptibilities, and the curvature of the crossover band are in quantitative agreement with the corresponding lattice QCD results with 2 + 1 flavors and physical quark masses. Baryon diffusion is predicted to be suppressed by increasing the baryon chemical potential. (paper)

  8. Abstracts of the 47. Canadian chemical engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Chemical engineering and its role in the development of Western Canada's oil sands and heavy oil reserves was the main focus of this conference. The presentations revolved around the theme, 'The Competitive Advantage'. Features of the conference included strong participation by industry, professional development courses, and government. Energy-related sessions were entitled: (1) oil and bitumen recovery, (2) bitumen extraction and froth treatment, (3) bitumen upgrading, (4) in-situ recovery and enhanced oil recovery, (5) air quality, (6) cracking and hydrogenation, and (7) sulfur recovery and gas processing

  9. SYNBIOCHEM Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Manchester – A UK foundry for fine and speciality chemicals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Feuvre RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Synthetic Biology Research Centre, SYNBIOCHEM, hosted by the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester is delivering innovative technology platforms to facilitate the predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for fine and speciality chemicals production. We provide an overview of our foundry activities that are being applied to grand challenge projects to deliver innovation in bio-based chemicals production for industrial biotechnology.

  10. Chemical respiratory allergy: Reverse engineering an adverse outcome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Basketter, David A.; Boverhof, Darrell R.

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is associated with rhinitis and asthma and remains an important occupational health issue. Although less than 80 chemicals have been confirmed as respiratory allergens the adverse health effects can be serious, and in rare instances can be fatal, and there are, in addition, related socioeconomic issues. The challenges that chemical respiratory allergy pose for toxicologists are substantial. No validated methods are available for hazard identification and characterisation, and this is due in large part to the fact that there remains considerable uncertainty and debate about the mechanisms through which sensitisation of the respiratory tract is acquired. Despite that uncertainty, there is a need to establish some common understanding of the key events and processes that are involved in respiratory sensitisation to chemicals and that might in turn provide the foundations for novel approaches to safety assessment. In recent years the concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) has gained some considerable interest among the toxicology community as a basis for outlining the key steps leading to an adverse health outcome, while also providing a framework for focusing future research, and for developing alternative paradigms for hazard characterisation. Here we explore application of the same general principles to an examination of the induction by chemicals of respiratory sensitisation. In this instance, however, we have chosen to adopt a reverse engineering approach and to model a possible AOP for chemical respiratory allergy working backwards from the elicitation of adverse health effects to the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are implicated in the acquisition of sensitisation

  11. Engineered Barrier System Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01

  12. Use of bacterial co-cultures for the efficient production of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Andrew; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-02

    The microbial production of chemicals has traditionally relied on a single engineered microbe to enable the complete bioconversion of substrate to final product. Recently, a growing fraction of research has transitioned towards employing a modular co-culture engineering strategy using multiple microbes growing together to facilitate a divide-and-conquer approach for chemical biosynthesis. Here, we review key success stories that leverage the unique advantages of co-culture engineering, while also addressing the critical concerns that will limit the wide-spread implementation of this technology. Future studies that address the need to monitor and control the population dynamics of each strain module, while maintaining robust flux routes towards a wide range of desired products will lead the efforts to realize the true potential of co-culture engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flame synthesis of nanoparticles - Applications in catalysis and product/process engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Jensen, Joakim R.; Mosleh, Majid

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature flame processes for the production of nanoparticles can be applied in chemical product and process engineering. As an example one can produce well-defined spinel structures, e.g. zinc aluminate spinel (ZnAl2O4) and magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with high specific surface a...

  14. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  15. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  16. Applying chemical engineering concepts to non-thermal plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro AFFONSO, NOBREGA; Alain, GAUNAND; Vandad, ROHANI; François, CAUNEAU; Laurent, FULCHERI

    2018-06-01

    Process scale-up remains a considerable challenge for environmental applications of non-thermal plasmas. Undersanding the impact of reactor hydrodynamics in the performance of the process is a key step to overcome this challenge. In this work, we apply chemical engineering concepts to analyse the impact that different non-thermal plasma reactor configurations and regimes, such as laminar or plug flow, may have on the reactor performance. We do this in the particular context of the removal of pollutants by non-thermal plasmas, for which a simplified model is available. We generalise this model to different reactor configurations and, under certain hypotheses, we show that a reactor in the laminar regime may have a behaviour significantly different from one in the plug flow regime, often assumed in the non-thermal plasma literature. On the other hand, we show that a packed-bed reactor behaves very similarly to one in the plug flow regime. Beyond those results, the reader will find in this work a quick introduction to chemical reaction engineering concepts.

  17. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmino, I.; Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 70 0 C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease. [it

  18. Biobased production of alkanes and alkenes through metabolic engineering of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Min Kyoung; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Advancement in metabolic engineering of microorganisms has enabled bio-based production of a range of chemicals, and such engineered microorganism can be used for sustainable production leading to reduced carbon dioxide emission there. One area that has attained much interest is microbial...... hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and in particular, alkanes and alkenes are important high-value chemicals as they can be utilized for a broad range of industrial purposes as well as ‘drop-in’ biofuels. Some microorganisms have the ability to biosynthesize alkanes and alkenes naturally, but their production level...... is extremely low. Therefore, there have been various attempts to recruit other microbial cell factories for production of alkanes and alkenes by applying metabolic engineering strategies. Here we review different pathways and involved enzymes for alkane and alkene production and discuss bottlenecks...

  19. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for the synthesis of commodity products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.A.; Gorchs Rovira, A.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Through metabolic engineering cyanobacteria can be employed in biotechnology. Combining the capacity for oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation with an engineered metabolic pathway allows carbon-based product formation from CO2, light, and water directly. Such cyanobacterial 'cell factories'

  20. Microbial xylanases: engineering, production and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-01-01

    and paper industries for a longer time but more and more attention has been paid to using them in producing sugars and other chemicals from lignocelluloses in recent years. Mining new genes from nature, rational engineering of known genes and directed evolution of these genes are required to get tailor-made xylanases for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  2. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  3. Metabollic Engineering of Saccharomyces Cereviae a,omi acid metabolism for production of products of industrial interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao

    -based processes. This study has focused on metabolic engineering of the amino acid metabolism in S. cerevisiae for production of two types of chemicals of industrial interest. The first chemical is δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)–L-cysteinyl–D-valine (LLD-ACV). ACV belongs to non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), which......Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in microbial production of chemicals, metabolites and proteins, mainly because genetic manipulation of S. cerevisiae is relatively easy and experiences from its wide application in the existing industrial fermentations directly benefit new S. cerevisiae...

  4. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  5. Expanding the chemical palate of cells by combining systems biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kathleen A; Alper, Hal S

    2012-07-01

    The field of Metabolic Engineering has recently undergone a transformation that has led to a rapid expansion of the chemical palate of cells. Now, it is conceivable to produce nearly any organic molecule of interest using a cellular host. Significant advances have been made in the production of biofuels, biopolymers and precursors, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, and commodity and specialty chemicals. Much of this rapid expansion in the field has been, in part, due to synergies and advances in the area of systems biology. Specifically, the availability of functional genomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics data has resulted in the potential to produce a wealth of new products, both natural and non-natural, in cellular factories. The sheer amount and diversity of this data however, means that uncovering and unlocking novel chemistries and insights is a non-obvious exercise. To address this issue, a number of computational tools and experimental approaches have been developed to help expedite the design process to create new cellular factories. This review will highlight many of the systems biology enabling technologies that have reduced the design cycle for engineered hosts, highlight major advances in the expanded diversity of products that can be synthesized, and conclude with future prospects in the field of metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumer product chemical weight fractions from ingredient lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing human exposures to chemicals in consumer products requires composition information. However, comprehensive composition data for products in commerce are not generally available. Many consumer products have reported ingredient lists that are constructed using specific gu...

  7. The U.S. Chemical Industry, the Products It Makes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    This section of the annual report on the chemical industry presents data on these areas of chemical production: growth rates, man-made fibers; the 50 largest volume chemicals, major inorganics and organics, plastics, drugs, magnesium, and paint. Includes production figures for 1961, 1969, 1970, 1971 and percent change for 1970-71 and for 1961-71.…

  8. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  9. Abstracts Book of 42. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important chemical forum of Polish chemists organised annually. The state of art of many fundamental and applied investigations have been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: plenary session, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry and environment, chemistry and technology of polymers, chemistry didactics, electrochemistry, young scientists forum, chemical technology, chemical engineering, high energetics materials, computers in research and teaching of chemistry, structure modelling and polymer properties, silicon-organic compounds

  10. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  11. Personalized Education Approaches for Chemical Engineering and Relevant Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng-qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized education has drawn increasing attention in universities these years. With the purpose of improving the studentss’ comprehensive ability and developing teaching strategies to ensure students’ education is tailored to their needs, we proposed Three-Stage Approach (TSA to enhance personalized education for chemical engineering and relevant majors: professional tutorial system--equipping with professional guidance teachers for freshman students to guide their learning activities and provide professional guidance; open experimental project--setting up open experimental projects for sophomore and junior students to choose freely; individualized education module--setting up 10 different individualized education modules for senior students to select. After years of practice, the personalized education model is improved day by day and proved effective and fruitful.

  12. Chemical engineering in fuel reprocessing. The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Sombret, C.; Bernard, C.; Miquel, P.; Moulin, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reprocessing is the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, designed to recover valuable fissile materials, especially plutonium, and to condition safely all the wastes ready for disposal. For its new commercial reprocessing plants (UP 3 and UP 2 800) COGEMA decided to include many engineering innovations as well as new processes and key-components developed by CEA. UP 3 is a complete new plant with a capacity of 800 t/y which was put in operation in August 1990. UP 2 800 is an extension of the existing UP 2 facility, designed to achieve the same annual capacity of 800 t/y, to be put in operation at the end of 1993 by the commissioning of a new head-end and highly active chemical process facilities

  13. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  14. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...... established in the pharmaceutical industry but is moving down the value chain toward bulk chemicals. Chemical engineers will have an essential role in the development of new processes where the need is for new design methods for effective implementation, just as much as new technology. Most interesting...

  15. Engineering cyanobacteria for direct biofuel production from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savakis, Philipp; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2015-06-01

    For a sustainable future of our society it is essential to close the global carbon cycle. Oxidised forms of carbon, in particular CO2, can be used to synthesise energy-rich organic molecules. Engineered cyanobacteria have attracted attention as catalysts for the direct conversion of CO2 into reduced fuel compounds. Proof of principle for this approach has been provided for a vast range of commodity chemicals, mostly energy carriers, such as short chain and medium chain alcohols. More recently, research has focused on the photosynthetic production of compounds with higher added value, most notably terpenoids. Below we review the recent developments that have improved the state-of-the-art of this approach and speculate on future developments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  17. Global metabolic rewiring for improved CO2 fixation and chemical production in cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Carroll, Austin L.; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as hosts to recycle CO2 into valuable chemicals. Although cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce various compounds, production efficiencies are too low for commercialization. Here we engineer the carbon metabolism of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to improve glucose utilization, enhance CO2 fixation and increase chemical production. We introduce modifications in glycolytic pathways and the Calvin Benson cycle to increase carbon flux and redirect it towards carbon fixation. The engineered strain efficiently uses both CO2 and glucose, and produces 12.6 g l-1 of 2,3-butanediol with a rate of 1.1 g l-1 d-1 under continuous light conditions. Removal of native regulation enables carbon fixation and 2,3-butanediol production in the absence of light. This represents a significant step towards industrial viability and an excellent example of carbon metabolism plasticity.

  18. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-01-09

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  19. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  20. Improvement of FK506 Production in the High-Yielding Strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by Engineering the Supply of Allylmalonyl-CoA Through a Combination of Genetic and Chemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, SangJoon; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Jin, Ying-Yu; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-02-01

    FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that is produced by several Streptomyces species. FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011 was developed from the discovered Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P by random mutagenesis in our previous study. The results of transcript expression analysis showed that the transcription levels of tcsA, B, C, and D were increased in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 by 2.1-, 3.1-, 3.3-, and 4.1- fold, respectively, compared with Streptomyces sp. KCCM 11116P. The overexpression of tcsABCD genes in Streptomyces sp. RM7011 gave rise to approximately 2.5-fold (238.1 μg/ml) increase in the level of FK506 production compared with that of Streptomyces sp. RM7011. When vinyl pentanoate was added into the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011, the level of FK506 production was approximately 2.2-fold (207.7 μg/ml) higher than that of the unsupplemented fermentation. Furthermore, supplementing the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. RM7011 expressing tcsABCD genes with vinyl pentanoate resulted in an additional 1.7-fold improvement in the FK506 titer (498.1 μg/ml) compared with that observed under nonsupplemented condition. Overall, the level of FK506 production was increased approximately 5.2-fold by engineering the supply of allylmalonyl-CoA in the high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011, using a combination of overexpressing tcsABCD genes and adding vinyl pentanoate, as compared with Streptomyces sp. RM7011 (95.3 μg/ml). Moreover, among the three precursors analyzed, pentanoate was the most effective precursor, supporting the highest titer of FK506 in the FK506 high-yielding strain Streptomyces sp. RM7011.

  1. Engineering Ligninolytic Consortium for Bioconversion of Lignocelluloses to Ethanol and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Zohaib; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hou, Jialin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Cheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    Rising environmental concerns and recent global scenario of cleaner production and consumption are leading to the design of green industrial processes to produce alternative fuels and chemicals. Although bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels yet its production from food and feed has received much negative criticism. The main objective of this study was to present the noteworthy potentialities of lignocellulosic biomass as an enormous and renewable biological resource. The particular focus was also given on engineering ligninolytic consortium for bioconversion of lignocelluloses to ethanol and chemicals on sustainable and environmentally basis. Herein, an effort has been made to extensively review, analyze and compile salient information related to the topic of interest. Several authentic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, Bentham Science and other scientific databases were searched with utmost care, and inclusion/ exclusion criterion was adopted to appraise the quality of retrieved peer-reviewed research literature. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can largely satisfy the possible inconsistency of first-generation ethanol since it utilizes inedible lignocellulosic feedstocks, primarily sourced from agriculture and forestry wastes. Two major polysaccharides in lignocellulosic biomass namely, cellulose and hemicellulose constitute a complex lignocellulosic network by connecting with lignin, which is highly recalcitrant to depolymerization. Several attempts have been made to reduce the cost involved in the process through improving the pretreatment process. While, the ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF) including laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP) have appeared as versatile biocatalysts for delignification of several lignocellulosic residues. The first part of the review is mainly focused on engineering ligninolytic consortium

  2. Materials of 47. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum

  3. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Márquez Luzardoa; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically

  4. Fumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Xu

    Full Text Available Fumaric acid (FA is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L(-1 without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and (1H and (13C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L(-1 FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L(-1 FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate-fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering.

  5. Experiencing Production Ramp-Up Education for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, S.; Fiegenwald, V.; Cholez, C.; Mangione, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a game of industrialisation, based on a paper airplane, that mimics real world production ramp-up and blends classical engineering courses together. It is based on a low cost product so that it can be mass produced. The game targets graduate students and practitioners in engineering fields. For students, it offers an experiment…

  6. From pathways to genomes and beyond. The metabolic engineering toolbox and its place in biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Leqian; Reed, Ben; Alper, Hal [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Concerns about the availability of petroleum-derived fuels and chemicals have led to the exploration of metabolically engineered organisms as novel hosts for biofuels and chemicals production. However, the complexity inherent in metabolic and regulatory networks makes this undertaking a complex task. To address these limitations, metabolic engineering has adapted a wide-variety of tools for altering phenotypes. In this review, we will highlight traditional and recent metabolic engineering tools for optimizing cells including pathway-based, global, and genomic-enabled approaches. Specifically, we describe these tools as well as provide demonstrations of their effectiveness in optimizing biofuels production. However, each of these tools provides stepping stones towards the grand goal of biofuels production. Thus, developing methods for large-scale cellular optimization and integrative approaches are invaluable for further cell optimization. This review highlights the challenges that still must be met to accomplish this goal. (orig.)

  7. Rapid product development: project engineering joined to design engineering in a concurrent engineering context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Alain; Ouazzani, A.; Chambolle, F.; Bocquet, Jean Claud

    1997-01-01

    Software tools for designers are mainly based on geometry. Today, many industrial modelers have been rebuilt with C++, or any other object oriented language. This paper proposes to locate the research topics, in order to develop a functional link between project management tools, technical data management and product models. The 'design process' aspect will also be justified through the need of capitalizing designer intent and design history. This is related to different research works of Mechanical Engineering and Logistics Laboratory of Ecole Centrale Paris, and especially two PhD topics.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is used commercially as an animal feed supplement and food colorant. E. coli is a robust host for various genetic manipulations and has been employed for efficient production of biofuels, polymers, amino acids, and bulk chemicals. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the metabolic capacity of E. coli for the riboflavin production by modification of central metabolism, riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fermentation conditions. Results The basic producer RF01S, in which the riboflavin biosynthesis genes ribABDEC from E. coli were overexpressed under the control of the inducible trc promoter, could accumulate 229.1 mg/L of riboflavin. Further engineering was performed by examining the impact of expression of zwf (encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and gnd (encodes 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) from Corynebacterium glutamicum and pgl (encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase) from E. coli on riboflavin production. Deleting pgi (encodes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and genes of Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway successfully redirected the carbon flux into the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and overexpressing the acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase) reduced the acetate accumulation. These modifications increased riboflavin production to 585.2 mg/L. By further modulating the expression of ribF (encodes riboflavin kinase) for reducing the conversion of riboflavin to FMN in RF05S, the final engineering strain RF05S-M40 could produce 1036.1 mg/L riboflavin in LB medium at 37°C. After optimizing the fermentation conditions, strain RF05S-M40 produced 2702.8 mg/L riboflavin in the optimized semi-defined medium, which was a value nearly 12-fold higher than that of RF01S, with a yield of 137.5 mg riboflavin/g glucose. Conclusions The engineered strain RF05S-M40 has the highest yield among all

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenquan; Xu, Zhibo; Li, Yifan; Wang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2014-07-16

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is used commercially as an animal feed supplement and food colorant. E. coli is a robust host for various genetic manipulations and has been employed for efficient production of biofuels, polymers, amino acids, and bulk chemicals. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the metabolic capacity of E. coli for the riboflavin production by modification of central metabolism, riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fermentation conditions. The basic producer RF01S, in which the riboflavin biosynthesis genes ribABDEC from E. coli were overexpressed under the control of the inducible trc promoter, could accumulate 229.1 mg/L of riboflavin. Further engineering was performed by examining the impact of expression of zwf (encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and gnd (encodes 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) from Corynebacterium glutamicum and pgl (encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase) from E. coli on riboflavin production. Deleting pgi (encodes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and genes of Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway successfully redirected the carbon flux into the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and overexpressing the acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase) reduced the acetate accumulation. These modifications increased riboflavin production to 585.2 mg/L. By further modulating the expression of ribF (encodes riboflavin kinase) for reducing the conversion of riboflavin to FMN in RF05S, the final engineering strain RF05S-M40 could produce 1036.1 mg/L riboflavin in LB medium at 37°C. After optimizing the fermentation conditions, strain RF05S-M40 produced 2702.8 mg/L riboflavin in the optimized semi-defined medium, which was a value nearly 12-fold higher than that of RF01S, with a yield of 137.5 mg riboflavin/g glucose. The engineered strain RF05S-M40 has the highest yield among all reported riboflavin production

  10. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

  11. Generation of an atlas for commodity chemical production in Escherichia coli and a novel pathway prediction algorithm, GEM-Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campodonico, Miguel A.; Andrews, Barbara A.; Asenjo, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of 75% of the current drug molecules and 35% of all chemicals could be achieved through bioprocessing (Arundel and Sawava, 2009). To accelerate the transition from a petroleum based chemical industry to a sustainable bio-based industry, systems metabolic engineering has emerged...... to computationally design metabolic pathways for chemical production. Although algorithms able to provide specific metabolic interventions and heterologous production pathways are available, a systematic analysis for all possible production routes to commodity chemicals in Escherichia call is lacking. Furthermore...... could be identified for 1271 of the 6615 conditions evaluated. This study characterizes the potential for E coli to produce commodity chemicals, and outlines a generic strain design workflow to design production strains. (C) 2014 international Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc...

  12. Bryophytes - an emerging source for herbal remedies and chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabovljevic, Marko S.; Sabovljević, Aneta D.; Ikram, Nur Kusaira K.

    2016-01-01

    biomass in various ecosystems, bryophytes are a seldom part of ethnomedicine and rarely subject to medicinal and chemical analyses. Still, hundreds of novel natural products have been isolated from bryophytes. Bryophytes have been shown to contain numerous potentially useful natural products, including...... loss, plant growth regulators and allelopathic activities. Bryophytes also cause allergies and contact dermatitis. All these effects highlight bryophytes as potential source for herbal remedies and production of chemicals to be used in various products....

  13. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Min; Lee, Hyun Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Role of knowledge based engineering in Heavy Water Plants and its relevance to chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonde, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    The development of heavy water technology under the Department of Atomic Energy in India is carried out based on a mission oriented programme and this was backed up by a committed and highly trained manpower with a single minded pursuit to achieve the goal of making India self-sufficient in this challenging area. The paper gives step by step methodology followed in completion of the above mission which has become a benchmark in the chemical industry. A large sized chemical industry (Heavy Water plant being once such industry) has many features which are similar. The process design typically includes design of reactors, distillation columns, heat exchange networks, fluid transfer machinery, support utility systems etc. Besides, there are other issues like safety engineering, selection of materials, commissioning strategies and operating philosophies which are quite common to almost all chemical industries. Heavy water board has engineered and set up large scale heavy water plants and the technology for production of heavy water is completely assimilated in India and this paper tries to bring about some of the strategies which were instrumental in achieving this. The story of success in this technology can most certainly be followed in development of any other process technology. The important factors in the development of this technology is based on integration of R and D, process design, engineering backup, safety features, role of good construction and project management and good operating practices. One more important fact in this technology development is continuous improvement in operation and use of knowledge based engineering for debottlenecking. (author)

  15. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  16. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  17. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°. Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  18. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Choo, Hyunwook; Yun, Tae Sup; Lee, Changho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°). Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material. PMID:28774098

  19. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...

  20. Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability Concepts in Chemical Engineering Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Schmidt Rivera, Ximena C.; Stamford, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprinting represents an important professional and research opportunity for chemical engineers, but this is not broadly reflected in chemical engineering curricula worldwide. This paper aims to present the implementation of a coursework that is easy to apply, free of cost,…

  1. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  2. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  3. Mystery Well: Chemical-Engineering Solution to the Internal Rain Problem.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 174, DEC 31 (2017), s. 396-402 ISSN 0009-2509 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : precipitation * humidity-driven convection * buoyant instability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.895, year: 2016

  4. Appropriate Programs for Foreign Students in U.S. Chemical Engineering Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, M. E.

    Chemical engineers in developing countries may need abilities in a number of diverse areas including management, planning, chemistry, equipment, processes, politics, and improvisation. Chemical engineering programs for foreign students can be arranged by informed advisers with student input for inclusion of some of these areas in addition to…

  5. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains, floor covering, and upholstery of furniture) and consumers are in contact with these products for up to 24 hours a day. The Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) commissioned RIVM to mak...

  6. Analysis of the Lifecycle of Mechanical Engineering Products

    OpenAIRE

    Gubaidulina, Rauza Khamidovna; Gruby, S. V.; Davlatov, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Principal phases of the lifecycle of mechanical engineering products are analyzed in the paper. The authors have developed methods and procedures to improve designing, manufacturing, operating and recycling of the machine. It has been revealed that economic lifecycle of the product is a base for appropriate organization of mechanical engineering production. This lifecycle is calculated as a minimal sum total of consumer and producer costs. The machine construction and its manufacturing techno...

  7. Fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjin J. Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable and cost-effective energy resources. Advanced biofuels have potential to replace fossil fuels in supporting high-power demanding machinery such as aircrafts and trucks. Microbial biosynthesis is generally considered as an environmental friendly refinery process, and fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive route to synthesize chemicals and especially drop-in biofuels due to the high degree of reduction of fatty acids. The robustness and excellent accessibility to molecular genetics make the yeast S. cerevisiae a suitable host for the production of biofuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and recent advances in metabolic engineering as well as systems and synthetic biology allow us to engineer the yeast fatty acid metabolism and modification pathways for production of advanced biofuels and chemicals.

  8. Selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons as a challenge to the chemical engineer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, G [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie 1

    1978-08-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation is beginning to play a more and more significant role in the process of converting the most important chemical raw materials, crude oil and natural gas, into intermediate and end products. In many cases, this technique makes it possible to replace old processes consisting of many steps by more economical single-step reactions. The typical example of oxidation or ammoxidation of propylene demonstrates the problems which must be solved by the chemical engineer during the development of a heterogeneous catalytic oxidation process. The particular importance of a systematic development of a catalyst is emphasized. General aspects relating to the design of new catalytic processes, or the improvement of existing ones are also discussed.

  9. Abstracts Book of 41. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important scientific forum of Polish Chemists. The state of the art in many basic, fundamental and applied investigations has been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: theoretical chemistry; molecular interactions; metal compounds - chemical, physical, electronic and biological aspects; catalysis and surface physico-chemistry; polymers - radiochemistry, modifications, physics and analytical methods; organic and bioorganic chemistry; physico-chemistry of condensed matter; chemical metallurgy; environmental protection; inorganic technology; chemistry and technology of coal; radiation chemistry; analytical chemistry; chemical engineering; young scientists forum; chemical didactics; petrochemistry; energetic materials; membranes and membrane processes; medical chemistry

  10. Abstracts Book of Jubilee Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are most important chemical discussion forum organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as sections and symposia topics: organic chemistry, physical chemistry (chemical kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics), membranes and membrane processes, biological chemistry, biotechnology, metalorganic compounds and complexes, polymer chemistry, crystallochemical study, spectroscopy in nowadays chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, high-energetic materials, environment protection, didactics in chemistry, radiation chemistry, photochemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry and technology of carbohydrates, theoretical and computer chemistry, young scientists forum, history of chemistry

  11. Systems metabolic engineering design: fatty acid production as an emerging case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-05-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acetone production with metabolically engineered strains of Acetobacterium woodii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Sabrina; Gerdom, Marzena; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Linder, Sonja; Flüchter, Sebastian; Öztürk, Hatice; Blümke, Wilfried; May, Antje; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Bahl, Hubert; Dürre, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Expected depletion of oil and fossil resources urges the development of new alternative routes for the production of bulk chemicals and fuels beyond petroleum resources. In this study, the clostridial acetone pathway was used for the formation of acetone in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The acetone production operon (APO) containing the genes thlA (encoding thiolase A), ctfA/ctfB (encoding CoA transferase), and adc (encoding acetoacetate decarboxylase) from Clostridium acetobutylicum were cloned under the control of the thlA promoter into four vectors having different replicons for Gram-positives (pIP404, pBP1, pCB102, and pCD6). Stable replication was observed for all constructs. A. woodii [pJIR_actthlA] achieved the maximal acetone concentration under autotrophic conditions (15.2±3.4mM). Promoter sequences of the genes ackA from A. woodii and pta-ack from C. ljungdahlii were determined by primer extension (PEX) and cloned upstream of the APO. The highest acetone production in recombinant A. woodii cells was achieved using the promoters PthlA and Ppta-ack. Batch fermentations using A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] in a bioreactor revealed that acetate concentration had an effect on the acetone production, due to the high Km value of the CoA transferase. In order to establish consistent acetate concentration within the bioreactor and to increase biomass, a continuous fermentation process for A. woodii was developed. Thus, acetone productivity of the strain A. woodii [pMTL84151_actthlA] was increased from 1.2mgL(-1)h(-1) in bottle fermentation to 26.4mgL(-1)h(-1) in continuous gas fermentation. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains,

  14. Building an Evaluation Strategy for an Integrated Curriculum in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph J.; Parker, Robert S.; Abatan, Adetola; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Increasing knowledge integration has gained wide-spread support as an important goal in engineering education. The Chemical Engineering Pillars curriculum at the University of Pittsburgh, unique for its use of block scheduling, is one of the first four-year, integrated curricula in engineering, and is specifically designed to facilitate knowledge…

  15. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  16. The Intersection of Gender and Race: Exploring Chemical Engineering Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Allison; Verdín, Dina; Kirn, Adam; Satterfield, Derrick

    2018-01-01

    We surveyed 342 first-year engineering students at four U.S. institutions interested in a chemical engineering career about their feelings of belonging in engineering, motivation, and STEM identities. We compared these students by both gender and race/ethnicity on these attitudinal factors. We found several significant differences in…

  17. An Alternative Route to Chemical Engineering for Minority and Other Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, E. L.

    The following three alternative ways in which minority group chemistry majors may be trained as chemical engineers are examined in this paper: (l) they are admitted as engineers and take the same courses as engineering students at the graduate level; (2) undergraduate courses are taken as part of the transition from chemistry to chemical…

  18. Shape Memory Polymers: A Joint Chemical and Materials Engineering Hands-On Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Mujan; Beck, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Hands-on experiences are excellent tools for increasing retention of first year engineering students. They also encourage interdisciplinary collaboration, a critical skill for modern engineers. In this paper, we describe and evaluate a joint Chemical and Materials Engineering hands-on lab that explores cross-linking and glass transition in…

  19. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for itaconate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuoristo, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in sustainable development together with limited amounts of fossil resources have increased the demand for production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources. The market potential for bio-based products is growing and a transition from petrochemicals to biomass-based chemicals is

  20. A Summer Leadership Development Program for Chemical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie E.; Evans, Greg J.; Reeve, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering Leaders of Tomorrow Program (LOT) is a comprehensive curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular leadership development initiative for engineering students. LOT envisions: "an engineering education that is a life-long foundation for transformational leaders and outstanding citizens." Academic courses, co-curricular certificate…

  1. Virtual Chemical Engineering: Guidelines for E-Learning in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Schofield

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced three-dimensional virtual environment technology, similar to that used by the film and computer games industry can allow educational developers to rapidly create realistic three-dimensional, virtual environments. This technology has been used to generate a range of interactive learning environments across a broad spectrum of industries.The paper will discuss the implementation of these systems and extrapolate the lessons learnt into general guidelines to be considered for the development of a range of educational learning resources. These guidelines will then be discussed in the context of the development of ViRILE (Virtual Reality Interactive Learning Environment, software which simulates the configuration and operation of a polymerisation plant. This software package has been developed for use by undergraduate chemical engineers at the University of Nottingham.

  2. Production of nitrogen containing chemicals from cyanophycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.

    2011-01-01


    Currently nitrogen containing bulk chemicals are produced from naphtha. However, as explained in Chapter 1 it would be more energy efficient, less capital intensive and eventually more economical to start from functionalized compounds that already have nitrogen incorporated, such as amino

  3. The statutory approach: the control of chemical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briens, F.

    1997-01-01

    The evaluation and management of risks linked with chemical products and in particular with petroleum products is now performed using all the available tools developed by the OECD or the European Union in order to harmonize the procedures between member states. This paper describes the statutory liabilities linked to the trade of chemical products of industrial use in the case of new and of existing chemical substances (classification, labelling, risk evaluation and reduction, physico-chemical properties, toxicological and eco-toxicological studies, neutralization, limitation of trade and use, import/export, protection of the ozone layer, etc..). It refers to the legal framework (orders, by-laws, decrees, guidelines..) defined by the OECD and the European Community and recalls the organization and administration of the competent authorities for the control of chemical products. (J.S.)

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for limonene and perillyl alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Chan, Rossana; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Petzold, Christopher J; Lee, Taek Soon

    2013-09-01

    Limonene is a valuable monoterpene used in the production of several commodity chemicals and medicinal compounds. Among them, perillyl alcohol (POH) is a promising anti-cancer agent that can be produced by hydroxylation of limonene. We engineered E. coli with a heterologous mevalonate pathway and limonene synthase for production of limonene followed by coupling with a cytochrome P450, which specifically hydroxylates limonene to produce POH. A strain containing all mevalonate pathway genes in a single plasmid produced limonene at titers over 400mg/L from glucose, substantially higher than has been achieved in the past. Incorporation of a cytochrome P450 to hydroxylate limonene yielded approximately 100mg/L of POH. Further metabolic engineering of the pathway and in situ product recovery using anion exchange resins would make this engineered E. coli a potential production platform for any valuable limonene derivative. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Guest Editorial: The Professional Status of European Chemists and Chemical Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Reiner; Taylor, Philip; Majcen, Nineta H; De Angelis, Francesco; Wilmet, Sophie; Varella, Evangelia; Kozaris, Ioannis

    2015-07-06

    Which country pays its chemists and chemical engineers the highest salaries? Where can I find a new job quickest? Which chemical sub-discipline offers most jobs? Reliable answers for these and other questions have been derived from the first European employment survey for chemists and chemical engineers, which was carried out in 2013. Here we publish the first general evaluation of the results of this survey. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Incidence of the biotechnology in the academic development of the chemical engineering in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, Oscar Fernando; Rueda Maria Angelica; Ramirez, Julio Cesar

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, the biotechnology, during the last years, it has been developed in a quick way, particularly in their fundamental and theoretical aspect. In the national market consumption there are products obtained with the help of the advances of the industrial biotechnology, which, for their implementation, it has had to appeal to import technologies and of transfer. This way, among the theoretical investigations in biotechnology and the applicability of their results in production processes in our country a direct relationship has not existed generally. At the moment, the necessities of scientific and technological progress demand the harmonic interaction of the different aspects of the biotechnology. For it, it is indispensable the formation of professionals, able to apply engineering concepts in the processes developed in biotechnical laboratories, like they have already made it other countries, with more scientific and economic advance. In the Colombian universities it is hour of reinforcing the line considerably in biochemical engineering of chemical engineering programs in the different pre and graduate levels; this profundity will allow significantly shortening distances between the different areas of the biotechnology and its industrial application

  7. Innovative technology to meet the demands of the white biotechnology revolution of chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2007-01-01

    by which a technological revolution termed "white biotechnology" for production of commodity chemicals has proved its credibility. Obviously, the rapid advances in biology has been crucial for the development of industrial biotechnology towards a position where even its cheap products such as bio-fuels can...... of sophisticated models, supported by accurate data obtained in experimental equipment that did not exist a few years ago. The need to update the chemical engineering education to meet the needs of the bio-industry is also evident. Much of the progress of the bio-industry has up to now been based on fundamental...

  8. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütken, Henrik; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-07-01

    Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduction of chemicals applied during production of ornamental plants. Numerous chemicals used in modern plant production have negative impacts on human health and are hazardous to the environment. In Europe, several compounds have lost their approval and further legal restrictions can be expected. This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed as alternative to growth retardants, comprising recombinant DNA approaches targeting relevant hormone pathways, e.g. the gibberellic acid (GA) pathway. A reduced content of active GAs causes compact growth and can be facilitated by either decreased anabolism, increased catabolism or altered perception. Moreover, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors. In conclusion, molecular breeding approaches are dealt with in a way allowing a critical biological assessment and enabling the scientific community and public to put genetic engineering of ornamental plants into a perspective regarding their usefulness in plant breeding.

  9. Product Realization | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympiad Girls Who Code Club FIRST Tech Challenge NSF I-Corps Site of Southeastern Wisconsin UW-Milwaukee Product Realization Course Companies need time and talent to develop new product prototypes. Students need

  10. Chemical phenomena in primary titanium production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Vuuren, DS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 $ 490m p.a. $ 2500 p.a. Pigment Production ~20 kt TiO2 5100 kt TiO2 $ 37m p.a. $ 10000 m.p.a. Sponge Production Nil 125 kt p.a. Ti $ 1250 m.p.a. Ingot Production Nil 145 kt p.a. Ti $ 2600 m.p.a. Mill Products Nil ~90 kt p.a. Ti $ 4500 m... Museum Photo courtesy of the Kyushu National Museum http://web-japan.org/nipponia/nipponia38/en/travel/travel03.html V AL U E TiCl4 TiO2 Sponge Powder M2TiF6 Ingot INC R EAS ING COS T PRECURSOR REDUCTANT PRODUCT...

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of germacrene A, a precursor of beta-elemene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yating; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Bao, Jichen

    2017-01-01

    inefficient and suffers from limited natural resources. Here, we engineered a yeast cell factory for the sustainable production of germacrene A, which can be transformed to beta-elemene by a one-step chemical reaction in vitro. Two heterologous germacrene A synthases (GASs) converting farnesyl pyrophosphate...... (FPP) to germacrene A were evaluated in yeast for their ability to produce germacrene A. Thereafter, several metabolic engineering strategies were used to improve the production level. Overexpression of truncated 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and fusion of FPP synthase with GAS, led...

  12. Concurrent Engineering in seafood product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    benefit from the CE approach which can support product developers to provide concurrent specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging, and production methods. The approach involves the use of product models from which line extensions are more easily generated than by use of customary stepwise...... techniques. it is anticipated that other food industries also can benefit from the more simultaneous approach...

  13. Electrifying microbes for the production of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Luc eTremblay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable strategy to reduce our dependence on oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES is one of the bioelectrochemical approaches developed in the last decade that could have critical impact on the current methods of chemical synthesis. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes use electrical current as electron source to reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources such as solar energy, wind turbine or wastewater treatment processes. The net outcome is that renewable energy is stored in the covalent bonds of organic compounds synthesized from greenhouse gas. This review will discuss the future of MES and the challenges that lie ahead for its development into a mature technology.

  14. Electrifying microbes for the production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    have critical impact on the current methods of chemical synthesis. MES is a process in which electroautotrophic microbes use electrical current as electron source to reduce CO2 to multicarbon organics. Electricity necessary for MES can be harvested from renewable resources such as solar energy, wind......Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable strategy to reduce our dependence on oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is one of the bioelectrochemical approaches developed in the last decade that could...... turbine, or wastewater treatment processes. The net outcome is that renewable energy is stored in the covalent bonds of organic compounds synthesized from greenhouse gas. This review will discuss the future of MES and the challenges that lie ahead for its development into a mature technology....

  15. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  16. User oriented definition of product requirements within mechatronic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Gerst, M.;Gierhardt, H.;Braun, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the application of a modeling technique from software engineering to mechatronic engineering is presented. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to model users´ needs and relate them to product requirements. Within a bus seat development project a Use Case Model and an Analyses Model were elaborated. Advantages and Disadvantages of the presented procedure are shown.

  17. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Commercial production of specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The chemical substances utilized in consumer products, and for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses are generally referred to as specialty chemicals. These may be flavor or fragrance substances, intermediates for synthesis of drugs or agrochemicals or the drugs or agrochemicals themselves, insecticides or insect pheromones or antifeedants, plant growth regulators, etc. These are in contrast to chemicals which are utilized in large quantities for fuels or preparation of plastics, lubricants, etc., which are usually referred to as industrial chemicals. The specific utilization of specialty chemicals is associated with a specific important physiochemical or biological property. They may possess unique properties as lubricants or waxes or have a very desirable biological activity such as a drug, agrochemical or perfume ingredient. These unique properties convey significant economic value to the specific specialty chemical. The economic commercial production of specialty chemicals commonly requires the isolation of a precursor or the specialty chemical itself from a natural source. The discovery, development and commercialization of specialty chemicals is presented and reviewed. The economic and sustainable production of specialty chemicals is discussed.

  19. Product Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is and excerpt from a recently published CIRP Key-Note paper on surfaces in Precision Engineering, Micorengineering and Nanotechnology [1]. It is focussed on the relevance of surface metrology at the micrometric and nanometric length scales. The applied measurement technologies...... are strongly dependent from the functional requirements on those surfaces. Examples of surfaces obtained with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are mentioned, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, ligth and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface...... in surface metrology at micro and nanoscale are strongly required for future progress of Precision Engineering, Microengineering, and Nanotechnology; and their fundamental importance can not be overestimated....

  20. Security Requirements Management in Software Product Line Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Daniel; Fernández-Medina, Eduardo; Piattini, Mario

    Security requirements engineering is both a central task and a critical success factor in product line development due to the complexity and extensive nature of product lines. However, most of the current product line practices in requirements engineering do not adequately address security requirements engineering. Therefore, in this chapter we will propose a security requirements engineering process (SREPPLine) driven by security standards and based on a security requirements decision model along with a security variability model to manage the variability of the artefacts related to security requirements. The aim of this approach is to deal with security requirements from the early stages of the product line development in a systematic way, in order to facilitate conformance with the most relevant security standards with regard to the management of security requirements, such as ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 15408.

  1. A grand model for chemical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Ka Y.; Ng, Ka M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    , a pricing model, an economic model as well as factors such as company strategy, government policies and regulations. This article introduces the model and highlights selected aspects of the model with two case studies. One is a die attach adhesive that illustrates how pricing affects profitability, and how...... product composition changes with market conditions. Another is a hand lotion that illustrates how product quality affects the profit.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Applying Product Configuration Systems in Engineering Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde

    This Ph.D. thesis looks into the application of configuration systems in engineering companies, and how configuration systems can be used to support business processes in engineering companies. Often the motivation stated by researchers and practitioners is, that a configuration project...... and sustain competitive advantage” (Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997, pp.509) This question has puzzled academics and preoccupied managers for the last century. Yet, it seems there is still no consensus regarding the meaning of strategy, and how strategy works. Type in the word “strategy” on Amazon.co.uk and 76......,133 books apply. Type it in on Google scholar and 8,580,000 homepages apply3. Obviously, strategy is an important subject. However, the subject also seems to be difficult to perceive. Although this thesis is not about strategy, or strategizing, I would like to pursue the definition of strategy one step...

  3. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainability of biofuels and renewable chemicals production from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2015-12-01

    In the sectors of biofuel and renewable chemicals the big feedstock demand asks, first, to expand the spectrum of carbon sources beyond primary biomass, second, to establish circular processing chains and, third, to prioritize product sectors exclusively depending on carbon: chemicals and heavy-duty fuels. Large-volume production lines will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission significantly but also low-volume chemicals are indispensable in building 'low-carbon' industries. The foreseeable feedstock change initiates innovation, securing societal wealth in the industrialized world and creating employment in regions producing biomass. When raising the investments in rerouting to sustainable biofuel and chemicals today competitiveness with fossil-based fuel and chemicals is a strong issue. Many countries adopted comprehensive bioeconomy strategies to tackle this challenge. These public actions are mostly biased to biofuel but should give well-balanced attention to renewable chemicals as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Productivity improvement through industrial engineering in the semiconductor industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyersdorf, Doron

    1996-09-01

    Industrial Engineering is fairly new to the semiconductor industry, though the awareness to its importance has increased in recent years. The US semiconductor industry in particular has come to the realization that in order to remain competitive in the global market it must take the lead not only in product development but also in manufacturing. Industrial engineering techniques offer one ofthe most effective strategies for achieving manufacturing excellence. Industrial engineers play an important role in the success of the manufacturing facility. This paper defines the Industrial engineers role in the IC facility, set the visions of excellence in semiconductor manufacturing and highlights 10 roadblocks on the journey towards manufacturing excellence.

  6. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  7. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  8. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of terpenoids for use as perfume ingredients, pharmaceuticals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueping; Nielsen, Jens; Liu, Zihe

    2017-12-01

    Terpenoids represent a large class of natural products with significant commercial applications. These chemicals are currently mainly obtained through extraction from plants and microbes or through chemical synthesis. However, these sources often face challenges of unsustainability and low productivity. In order to address these issues, Escherichia coli and yeast have been metabolic engineered to produce non-native terpenoids. With recent reports of engineering yeast metabolism to produce several terpenoids at high yields, it has become possible to establish commercial yeast production of terpenoids that find applications as perfume ingredients, pharmaceuticals and advanced biofuels. In this review, we describe the strategies to rewire the yeast pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis. Recent advances will be discussed together with challenges and perspectives of yeast as a cell factory to produce different terpenoids. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Numerical analysis of knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine based on LES with detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine was modeled. • A detailed methanol mechanism was used to simulate the knocking combustion. • Compared with the SI engines, the HCCI knocking combustion burnt faster. • The reaction rate of HCO had two obvious peaks, one was positive, and another was negative. • Compared with the SI engines, the values of the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 were higher, and it had negative peaks. - Abstract: In this study, knock during HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) was studied based on LES (large eddy simulation) with methanol chemical kinetics (84-reaction, 21-species) in a high compression ratio methanol engine. The non-knocking and knocking combustion of SI (spark ignition) and HCCI engines were compared. The results showed that the auto-ignition spots were initially occurred near the combustion chamber wall. The knocking combustion burnt faster during HCCI than SI methanol engine. The HCO reaction rate was different from SI engine, it had two obvious peaks, one was positive peak, and another was negative peak. Compared with the SI methanol engine, in addition to the concentration of HCO, the concentrations of the other intermediate products and species such as CO, OH, CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , HO 2 were increased significantly; the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 had negative peaks, and whose values were several times higher than SI methanol engine

  10. Materials of 48. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: chemistry of metalorganic and supramolecular compounds; organic and bioorganic chemistry; coordination and bioinorganic chemistry; chemistry of polymers and biopolymers; physical and theoretical chemistry; catalysis; structural chemistry; analytical chemistry and environmental protection chemistry of materials and nanomaterials; technology and chemical engineering; didactics of chemistry; young scientist forum; chemistry for economy

  11. Product engineering by high-temperature flame synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid

    product gas can be applied directly in additional product engineering concepts. A brief overview of on-going product developments and product engineering projects is outlined below. These projects, which are all founded on flame synthesis of nano-structured materials, include: • Preparation of catalyzed...... hardware by direct deposition of catalysts on process equipment • Modifications of the substrate surfaces to obtain good adhesion during flame-coating • Formation of membrane layers by gas-phase deposition of nano-particles • Catalyst deposition in micro-reactors for rapid catalyst screening...

  12. Consumer Product Chemical Weight Fractions from Ingredient Lists

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data and model predictions supporting the manuscript: Isaacs K.K., Phillips K.A., Biryol D., Dionisio K.L., and Price P. Consumer product chemical weight fractions...

  13. Energy efficiency as an example of cross-discipline collaboration in chemical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hemptinne, J.-C; Ferrasse, J.-H.; Górak, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the round-table discussion that was held during the European Congress of Chemical Engineering (ECCE) in Nice, France, in October 2015 on this topic. The panellists come from different fields of chemical engineering and have thus brought in different perspectives. The objective...... (industrials, mostly market-driven, or academic), or in terms of discipline. The role of professional societies as the European Federation for Chemical Engineers (EFCE) is stressed as a promotor of collaboration between disciplines.Finally, once willingness for collaboration is identified, the final question...

  14. Engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for production of astaxanthin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Adiego Pérez, Belén; Doménech Belda, David

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a red-colored carotenoid, used as food and feed additive. Astaxanthin is mainly produced by chemical synthesis, however, the process is expensive and synthetic astaxanthin is not approved for human consumption. In this study, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica f...

  15. Biorefineries for chemical and biofuel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene

    crops for biofuel production is research in biorefineries using a whole-crop approach with the aim of having an optimal use of all the components of the specific crop. Looking at rape as a model crop, the components can be used for i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, feed, food and plant...

  16. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  17. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  18. Linking neuroethology to the chemical biology of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivera, Baldomero M.; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively...... a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads. The larger goal is to establish a new sub-discipline in the broader field of neuroethology that we refer to as “Chemical Neuroethology”, linking...... the substantial work carried out by chemists on natural products with accelerating advances in neuroethology....

  19. Production of amino acids - Genetic and metabolic engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-12-01

    The biotechnological production of amino acids occurs at the million-ton scale and annually about 6milliontons of l-glutamate and l-lysine are produced by Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. l-glutamate and l-lysine production from starch hydrolysates and molasses is very efficient and access to alternative carbon sources and new products has been enabled by metabolic engineering. This review focusses on genetic and metabolic engineering of amino acid producing strains. In particular, rational approaches involving modulation of transcriptional regulators, regulons, and attenuators will be discussed. To address current limitations of metabolic engineering, this article gives insights on recent systems metabolic engineering approaches based on functional tools and method such as genome reduction, amino acid sensors based on transcriptional regulators and riboswitches, CRISPR interference, small regulatory RNAs, DNA scaffolding, and optogenetic control, and discusses future prospects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Composition of Defatted Cottonseed and Soy Meal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Zhang, Hailin; Olk, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition is critical information for product quality and exploration of new use. Hence defatted cottonseed meals from both glanded (with gossypol) and glandless (without gossypol) cotton seeds were separated into water soluble and insoluble fractions, or water soluble, alkali soluble as well as total protein isolates. The contents of gossypol, total protein and amino acids, fiber and carbohydrates, and selected macro and trace elements in these products were determined and compared with each other and with those of soy meal products. Data reported in this work improved our understanding on the chemical composition of different cottonseed meal products that is helpful for more economical utilization of these products. These data would also provide a basic reference for product standards and quality control when the production of the cottonseed meal products comes to pilot and industrial scales. PMID:26079931

  1. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof...... biology has the potential to bring down this cost by improving our ability to predictably engineer biological systems. This review highlights synthetic biology applications for design, assembly, and optimization of non-native biochemical pathways in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe......-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic...

  2. Optimization of enzyme parameters for fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of where knowledge of these parameters have been used to select, evolve or engineer enzymes for the desired performance and enabled increased production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. Examples include production of ethanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol and tyrosine and furfural tolerance. The Michaelis-Menten parameters can also be used to judge the cofactor dependence of enzymes and quantify their preference for NADH or NADPH. Similarly, enzymes can be selected, evolved or engineered for the preferred cofactor preference. Examples of exporter engineering and selection are also discussed in the context of production of malate, valine and limonene.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF ENZYME PARAMETERS FOR FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION OF BIORENEWABLE FUELS AND CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biocatalysts such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been extensively subjected to Metabolic Engineering for the fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. This often entails the introduction of new enzymes, deletion of unwanted enzymes and efforts to fine-tune enzyme abundance in order to attain the desired strain performance. Enzyme performance can be quantitatively described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten type parameters Km, turnover number kcat and Ki, which roughly describe the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate, the speed of a reaction and the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by regulatory molecules. Here we describe examples of where knowledge of these parameters have been used to select, evolve or engineer enzymes for the desired performance and enabled increased production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. Examples include production of ethanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol and tyrosine and furfural tolerance. The Michaelis-Menten parameters can also be used to judge the cofactor dependence of enzymes and quantify their preference for NADH or NADPH. Similarly, enzymes can be selected, evolved or engineered for the preferred cofactor preference. Examples of exporter engineering and selection are also discussed in the context of production of malate, valine and limonene.

  4. Computer Applications in Production and Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    This paper address how neutral product model interfaces can be identified, specified, and implemented to provide intelligent and flexible means for information management in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products.The use of advanced computer based systems, such as CAD, CAE, CNC, and robotics......, offers a potential for significant cost-savings and quality improvements in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products.However, these systems are introduced into production as 'islands of automation' or 'islands of information', and to benefit from the said potential, the systems must be integrated...... domains; the CA(X) systems are placed in two different domains for design and planning, respectively. A third domain within the CIME architecture comprises the automated equipment on the shop floor....

  5. Work production of quantum rotor engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Stella; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Scarani, Valerio

    2018-04-01

    We study the mechanical performance of quantum rotor heat engines in terms of common notions of work using two prototypical models: a mill driven by the heat flow from a hot to a cold mode, and a piston driven by the alternate heating and cooling of a single working mode. We evaluate the extractable work in terms of ergotropy, the kinetic energy associated to net directed rotation, as well as the intrinsic work based on the exerted torque under autonomous operation, and we compare them to the energy output for the case of an external dissipative load and for externally driven engine cycles. Our results connect work definitions from both physical and information-theoretical perspectives. In particular, we find that apart from signatures of angular momentum quantization, the ergotropy is consistent with the intuitive notion of work in the form of net directed motion. It also agrees with the energy output to an external load or agent under optimal conditions. This sets forth a consistent thermodynamical description of rotating quantum motors, flywheels, and clocks.

  6. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  7. Computer-aided modeling for efficient and innovative product-process engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina

    Model-based computer aided product-process engineering has attained increased importance in a number of industries, including pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, fine chemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food, energy and water. This trend is set to continue due to the substantial benefits computer...... in chemical and biochemical engineering have been solved to illustrate the application of the generic modelling methodology, the computeraided modelling framework and the developed software tool.......-aided methods provide. The key prerequisite of computer-aided productprocess engineering is however the availability of models of different types, forms and application modes. The development of the models required for the systems under investigation tends to be a challenging, time-consuming and therefore cost...

  8. Unifying principles of irreversibility minimization for efficiency maximization in steady-flow chemically-reactive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Sankaran; Edwards, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Systems research has led to the conception and development of various steady-flow, chemically-reactive, engine cycles for stationary power generation and propulsion. However, the question that remains unanswered is: What is the maximum-efficiency steady-flow chemically-reactive engine architecture permitted by physics? On the one hand the search for higher-efficiency cycles continues, often involving newer processes and devices (fuel cells, carbon separation, etc.); on the other hand the design parameters for existing cycles are continually optimized in response to improvements in device engineering. In this paper we establish that any variation in engine architecture—parametric change or process-sequence change—contributes to an efficiency increase via one of only two possible ways to minimize total irreversibility. These two principles help us unify our understanding from a large number of parametric analyses and cycle-optimization studies for any steady-flow chemically-reactive engine, and set a framework to systematically identify maximum-efficiency engine architectures. - Highlights: • A unified thermodynamic model to study chemically-reactive engine architectures is developed. • All parametric analyses of efficiency are unified by two irreversibility-minimization principles. • Variations in internal energy transfers yield a net work increase that is greater than engine irreversibility reduced. • Variations in external energy transfers yield a net work increase that is lesser than engine irreversibility reduced

  9. The Chemical Weapons Convention and the Role of Engineers and Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical weapons, like all military technology, are associated with activities of scientists and engineers. However, chemical weapons differ from any other military technology because they were invented, and their first mass use directly developed by famous chemists. The active contribution of engineers and scientists and their organisations in the negotiations on chemical disarmament, including drafting the Chemical Weapons Convention, is described. Their present and future role in implementing the Convention is analysed, taking into consideration the threats and benefits of advances in science and technology, and stressing the independent expertise of the OPCW Scientific Advisory Board.

  10. Engineering of rolled constructional microalloyed steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, J.

    2003-01-01

    Flexibility of the microalloyed steels on manufacturing of products with high mechanical and technological properties at not exaggerated production costs, it caused of their application for different constructions and machines in many branches of economy. It is a reason of the big interest of this steel group and the improvement of metallurgical and technological processing. In the work the examples of applications of C-Mn microalloyed steels with V and N microadditions for production of long shape products of R p0.2 > 650 MPa and KCU2 > 57 Jcm -2 are presented. They are manufactured in the controlled rolling process. Moreover this work presents liquid metal treatment in ladlemann process and influence of ingots solidification conditions, controlled rolling of weldable plates with Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions which after quenching and tempering have R p0.2 > 870 MPa, KV -50 o C > 27 J and plastic strain ratio equals 1.2. This work also presents the energy saving rolling technology with controlled recrystallization (method of thermomechanical treatment) of improved Weldox 960 steel plates with Mb, Ti, V and B microadditions which have after high-temperature tempering R p0.2 > 100 MPa, KV -50 o C >90 J and plastic strain ratio is less than 1.2. The introduction of microalloyed constructional steels and the appropriate technology in the domestic industry will contribute to high-processed products with properties competitive to products manufactured in high-industrialized countries. Thanks to that it will be possible to increase the technical level as well as to reduce production costs and import. (author)

  11. Cyanobacteria as a Platform for the High-Value Chemicals Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek

    and cheap fertilizer as a medium for the cultivation of engineered cyanobacterial strains is shown. Alternative strategy to engineer Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a universal platform for the sustainable production of diverse range high-value phenylpropanoids which find use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics......Emerging problems like increasing global warming and depletion of fossil fuels bring serious concerns regarding production of food and various chemicals in the future. Clearly, there is a need for finding alternative and more sustainable ways of producing chemicals in order to satisfy increasing...... consumer demands of an ever growing population. Considering the ability to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into biomass, cyanobacteria and microalgae have potential for becoming such alternative in the future. Biosynthesis of a great number of plant high-value secondary metabolites requires...

  12. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Possibility of chemical products from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G A; Sinnett, C E; Swift, H E

    1982-01-01

    An account of the SRC-II plant, which produces solvent refined coal (SRC), a liquid product. SRC is a raw material with potential as a new source of hydrocarbons. Topics discussed include the possibilities of its use as a petrochemical feedstock; derivatives and the amounts obtained; economic assessments and expected prices. The translator of this article puts forward the view that, due to the difficulty of obtaining the type of coal needed for SRC-II, the best policy for Japanese coal liquefaction is methanol synthesis.

  14. Chemical Biology of Microbial Anticancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    than 100 years. New natural products (NPs) are continually discovered and with the increase in selective biological assays, previously described compounds often also display novel bioactivities, justifying their presence in novel screening efforts. Screening and discovery of compounds with activity...... towards chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is crucial since CLL is considered as an incurable disease. To discover novel agents that targets CLL cells is complicated. CLL cells rapidly undergo apoptosis in vitro when they are removed from their natural microenvironment, even though they are long...

  15. Engineering of secondary metabolite production in streptomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertsen, Helene Lunde; Gram, Lone

    Streptomycetes are known for their ability to produce a range of different secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-fungals, and anti-cancer compounds. Of these compounds, antibiotics play an important role in the clinics for treatment of both mild and severe bacterial...... the computational prediction of suitable 20 bp protospacers for the single guide RNAs and a USER-cloning method for construction of the CRISPR plasmids. Additional improvement to the system was achieved through the development of an optimised USER assembly workflow for cheaper and faster plasmid construction....... The workflow was verified by manual knock-down of two biosynthetic gene clusters in model organism Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), which confirmed the applicability of the system. A second part of the thesis was devoted to engineering of Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, which is a known producer of the narrow...

  16. The Genome-Based Metabolic Systems Engineering to Boost Levan Production in a Halophilic Bacterial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Busra; Ozer, Tugba; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2018-03-01

    Metabolic systems engineering is being used to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest with the aim of transforming microbial hosts into cellular factories. In this study, a genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach was designed and performed to improve biopolymer biosynthesis capability of a moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6 T producing levan, which is a fructose homopolymer with many potential uses in various industries and medicine. For this purpose, the genome-scale metabolic model for AAD6 T was used to characterize the metabolic resource allocation, specifically to design metabolic engineering strategies for engineered bacteria with enhanced levan production capability. Simulations were performed in silico to determine optimal gene knockout strategies to develop new strains with enhanced levan production capability. The majority of the gene knockout strategies emphasized the vital role of the fructose uptake mechanism, and pointed out the fructose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS fru ) as the most promising target for further metabolic engineering studies. Therefore, the PTS fru of AAD6 T was restructured with insertional mutagenesis and triparental mating techniques to construct a novel, engineered H. smyrnensis strain, BMA14. Fermentation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the high efficiency of the mutant strain BMA14 in terms of final levan concentration, sucrose consumption rate, and sucrose conversion efficiency, when compared to the AAD6 T . The genome-based metabolic systems engineering approach presented in this study might be considered an efficient framework to redirect microbial metabolism for the overproduction of chemicals of interest, and the novel strain BMA14 might be considered a potential microbial cell factory for further studies aimed to design levan production processes with lower production costs.

  17. Recent Developments on Genetic Engineering of Microalgae for Biofuels and Bio-Based Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I-Son; Tan, Shih-I; Kao, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yu-Kaung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-10-01

    Microalgae serve as a promising source for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. They are superior to terrestrial plants as feedstock in many aspects and their biomass is naturally rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments, and other valuable compounds. Due to the relatively slow growth rate and high cultivation cost of microalgae, to screen efficient and robust microalgal strains as well as genetic modifications of the available strains for further improvement are of urgent demand in the development of microalgae-based biorefinery. In genetic engineering of microalgae, transformation and selection methods are the key steps to accomplish the target gene modification. However, determination of the preferable type and dosage of antibiotics used for transformant selection is usually time-consuming and microalgal-strain-dependent. Therefore, more powerful and efficient techniques should be developed to meet this need. In this review, the conventional and emerging genome-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9, TALEN, and ZFN) used in editing the genomes of nuclear, mitochondria, and chloroplast of microalgae are thoroughly surveyed. Although all the techniques mentioned above demonstrate their abilities to perform gene editing and desired phenotype screening, there still need to overcome higher production cost and lower biomass productivity, to achieve efficient production of the desired products in microalgal biorefineries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for production of astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Rueksomtawin Kildegaard

    2017-12-01

    Our study for the first time reports engineering of Y. lipolytica for the production of astaxanthin. The high astaxanthin content and titer obtained even in a small-scale cultivation demonstrates a strong potential for Y. lipolytica-based fermentation process for astaxanthin production.

  19. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  20. Engineering Documentation Control Handbook Configuration Management and Product Lifecycle Management

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, Frank B

    2011-01-01

    In this new edition of his widely-used Handbook, Frank Watts, widely recognized for his significant contributions to engineering change control processes, provides a thoroughly practical guide to the implementation and improvement of Engineering Documentation Control (EDC), Product Lifecycle Management and Product Configuration Management (CM). Successful and error-free implementation of EDC/CM is critical to world-class manufacturing. Huge amounts of time are wasted in most product manufacturing environments over EDC/CM issues such as interchangeability, document release and change control -

  1. Engineering yeast for high-level production of stilbenoid antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingji; Schneider, Konstantin; Kristensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of stilbenoids on a simple mineral medium typically used for industrial production. We applied a pull-push-block strain engineering strategy that included overexpression of the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway, optimization of the electron transfer...... to the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, increase of the precursors supply, and decrease of the pathway intermediates degradation. Fed-batch fermentation of the final strain resulted in a final titer of 800 mg l(-1) resveratrol, which is by far the highest titer reported to date for production of resveratrol from...

  2. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design, Assess, and Retrofit Chemical Processes for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. I...

  3. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of biopharmaceutical proteins by yeast: Advances through metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins for use as pharmaceuticals, so-called biopharmaceuticals, is a multi-billion dollar industry. Many different cell factories are used for the production of biopharmaceuticals, but the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important cell factory as it is used for p...... production. The involvement of directed metabolic engineering through the integration of tools from genetic engineering, systems biology and mathematical modeling, is also discussed....... by yeast are human serum albumin, hepatitis vaccines and virus like particles used for vaccination against human papillomavirus. Here is given a brief overview of biopharmaceutical production by yeast and it is discussed how the secretory pathway can be engineered to ensure more efficient protein...

  5. Concurrent engineering and product models in seafood companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Stella; Vesterager, Johan; Børresen, Torger

    1998-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) can provide an improved approach to product development for extending the lines of seafood products. Information technology (IT) support tools based on product models can provide an integrated and simultaneous approach for specifying new recipes. The seafood industry can...... benefit from the CE approach which can support product developers to provide concurrent specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging, and production methods. The approach involves the use of product models from which line extensions are more easily generated than by use of customary stepwise...

  6. An autonomous organic reaction search engine for chemical reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Vincenza; Sans, Victor; Henson, Alon B.; Granda, Jaroslaw M.; Cronin, Leroy

    2017-06-01

    The exploration of chemical space for new reactivity, reactions and molecules is limited by the need for separate work-up-separation steps searching for molecules rather than reactivity. Herein we present a system that can autonomously evaluate chemical reactivity within a network of 64 possible reaction combinations and aims for new reactivity, rather than a predefined set of targets. The robotic system combines chemical handling, in-line spectroscopy and real-time feedback and analysis with an algorithm that is able to distinguish and select the most reactive pathways, generating a reaction selection index (RSI) without need for separate work-up or purification steps. This allows the automatic navigation of a chemical network, leading to previously unreported molecules while needing only to do a fraction of the total possible reactions without any prior knowledge of the chemistry. We show the RSI correlates with reactivity and is able to search chemical space using the most reactive pathways.

  7. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  8. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  9. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...

  10. The Heck reaction in the production of fine chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Johannes G. de

    2001-01-01

    An overview is given of the use of the Heck reaction for the production of fine chemicals. Five commercial products have been identified that are produced on a scale in excess of 1 ton/year. The herbicide Prosulfuron™ is produced via a Matsuda reaction of 2-sulfonatobenzenediazonium on

  11. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

  12. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role

  13. Metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathway for production of renewable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijai; Mani, Indra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Dhar, Pawan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic engineering is an important area of research that involves editing genetic networks to overproduce a certain substance by the cells. Using a combination of genetic, metabolic, and modeling methods, useful substances have been synthesized in the past at industrial scale and in a cost-effective manner. Currently, metabolic engineering is being used to produce sufficient, economical, and eco-friendly biofuels. In the recent past, a number of efforts have been made towards engineering biosynthetic pathways for large scale and efficient production of biofuels from biomass. Given the adoption of metabolic engineering approaches by the biofuel industry, this paper reviews various approaches towards the production and enhancement of renewable biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, hydrogen, and biodiesel. We have also identified specific areas where more work needs to be done in the future.

  14. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  15. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  16. CURRICULUM: A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students--Indigo: A World of Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sophomore liberal arts and engineering students enrolled in a course to learn and practice some basic chemical engineering side by side. The course was developed around the theme of indigo dyeing, which has an interesting history, fascinating chemistry and is accessible to all students. The students participated in a variety of active learning…

  17. Chemical Reaction Engineering Applications in Non-traditional Technologies. A Textbook Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Phillip E.; Blaine, Steven

    1991-01-01

    A set of educational materials that have been developed which deal with chemical engineering applications in emerging technologies is described. The organization and the content of the supplemental textbook materials and how they can be integrated into an undergraduate reaction engineering course are discussed. (KR)

  18. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  19. Chemical Engineering of Photoactivity in Heterometallic Titanium-Organic Frameworks by Metal Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells-Gil, Javier; Padial, Natalia M; Almora-Barrios, Neyvis; Albero, Josep; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; González-Platas, Javier; García, Hermenegildo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos

    2018-06-06

    We report a new family of titanium-organic frameworks that enlarges the limited number of crystalline, porous materials available for this metal. They are chemically robust and can be prepared as single crystals at multi-gram scale from multiple precursors. Their heterometallic structure enables engineering of their photoactivity by metal doping rather than by linker functionalization. Compared to other methodologies based on the post-synthetic metallation of MOFs, our approach is well-fitted for controlling the positioning of dopants at an atomic level to gain more precise control over the band-gap and electronic properties of the porous solid. Changes in the band-gap are also rationalized with computational modelling and experimentally confirmed by photocatalytic H 2 production. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO 3 Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed

  1. ADVANCED APPROACH TO PRODUCTION WORKFLOW COMPOSITION ON ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE PORTALS

    OpenAIRE

    Novogrudska, Rina; Kot, Tatyana; Globa, Larisa; Schill, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the environment of engineering knowledge portals great amount of partial workflows is concentrated. Such workflows are composed into general workflow aiming to perform real complex production task. Characteristics of partial workflows and general workflow structure are not studied enough, that affects the impossibility of general production workflowdynamic composition.Objective. Creating an approach to the general production workflow dynamic composition based on the partial wor...

  2. Biometrics in wearable products: Reverse Engineering and numerical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Reverse Engineering (RE) techniques and the Finite Element Modelling (FEM) are widely used tools in many scientific fields. They were firstly developed for the mechanics but in the last times became common for other disciplines. In the thesis these techniques are used for the customization of the wearable products. It is possible to observe that the geometry of whatever wearable product is fundamental for the comfort. In particular, starting from the need of wearable product it is possibl...

  3. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  4. Engineering a Polyketide Synthase for In Vitro Production of Adipic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, A; Poust, S; De Rond, T; Fortman, JL; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD

    2015-10-26

    Polyketides have enormous structural diversity, yet polyketide synthases (PKSs) have thus far been engineered to produce only drug candidates or derivatives thereof. Thousands of other molecules, including commodity and specialty chemicals, could be synthesized using PKSs if composing hybrid PKSs from well-characterized parts derived from natural PKSs was more efficient. Here, using modern mass spectrometry techniques as an essential part of the design–build–test cycle, we engineered a chimeric PKS to enable production one of the most widely used commodity chemicals, adipic acid. To accomplish this, we introduced heterologous reductive domains from various PKS clusters into the borrelidin PKS’ first extension module, which we previously showed produces a 3-hydroxy-adipoyl intermediate when coincubated with the loading module and a succinyl-CoA starter unit. Acyl-ACP intermediate analysis revealed an unexpected bottleneck at the dehydration step, which was overcome by introduction of a carboxyacyl-processing dehydratase domain. Appending a thioesterase to the hybrid PKS enabled the production of free adipic acid. Using acyl-intermediate based techniques to “debug” PKSs as described here, it should one day be possible to engineer chimeric PKSs to produce a variety of existing commodity and specialty chemicals, as well as thousands of chemicals that are difficult to produce from petroleum feedstocks using traditional synthetic chemistry.

  5. Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing. Keywords: Cell-free, Biosynthesis, Metabolic pathways, Design-build-test cycle

  6. Computational metabolic engineering strategies for growth-coupled biofuel production by Synechocystis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyan Shabestary

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and fuel production by photosynthetic cyanobacteria is a promising technology but to date has not reached competitive rates and titers. Genome-scale metabolic modeling can reveal limitations in cyanobacteria metabolism and guide genetic engineering strategies to increase chemical production. Here, we used constraint-based modeling and optimization algorithms on a genome-scale model of Synechocystis PCC6803 to find ways to improve productivity of fermentative, fatty-acid, and terpene-derived fuels. OptGene and MOMA were used to find heuristics for knockout strategies that could increase biofuel productivity. OptKnock was used to find a set of knockouts that led to coupling between biofuel and growth. Our results show that high productivity of fermentation or reversed beta-oxidation derived alcohols such as 1-butanol requires elimination of NADH sinks, while terpenes and fatty-acid based fuels require creating imbalances in intracellular ATP and NADPH production and consumption. The FBA-predicted productivities of these fuels are at least 10-fold higher than those reported so far in the literature. We also discuss the physiological and practical feasibility of implementing these knockouts. This work gives insight into how cyanobacteria could be engineered to reach competitive biofuel productivities. Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Modeling, Flux balance analysis, Biofuel, MOMA, OptFlux, OptKnock

  7. Propagation of engineering changes to multiple product data views using history of product structure changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, N.; Choi, I.; Song, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The present paper proposes a comprehensive procedure for engineering change propagation in order to maintain consistency between various product data views. A product data model is also proposed for the propagation procedure, which integrates base product definitions for product design, and

  8. Production of L-valine from metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Quinn, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production. Metabolic engineering based on the metabolic biosynthesis and regulation of L-valine provides an effective alternative to the traditional breeding for strain development. Industrially competitive L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strains have been constructed by genetically defined metabolic engineering. This article reviews the global metabolic and regulatory networks responsible for L-valine biosynthesis, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, and the strategies employed in C. glutamicum strain engineering.

  9. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  10. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Reactor Analysis: A Web-Based Reactor Design Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbey, Nese; Clay, Molly; Russell, T.W. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    An approach to explain chemical engineering through a Web-based interactive game design was developed and used with college freshman and junior/senior high school students. The goal of this approach was to demonstrate how to model a lab-scale experiment, and use the results to design and operate a chemical reactor. The game incorporates both…

  11. Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Core Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Michael; Borrego, Maura; Henderson, Charles; Cutler, Stephanie; Froyd, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Traditional lecturing remains the most prevalent mode of instruction despite overwhelming research showing the increased effectiveness of many alternate instructional strategies. This study examines chemical engineering instructors' awareness and use of 12 such instructional strategies. The study also examines how chemical engineering…

  12. [Chemical pollution of baby food products in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarov, Yu P; Milushkina, O Yu; Tikhonova, y l; Aksenova, O I; Kalinovskaya, M V

    One of the main problems of nutrition of children and adolescents is to assess chemical contamination of baby food products and the establishment of the relation with the health of the child population. With the entering different chemical compounds in the body of the child there can be observed disorders of the nervous, urinary, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, as well as metabolic deteriorations, degenerative processes in parenchymal organs and bone destruction. The aim of the study was to analyze data on chemical contamination of baby food products in the Russian Federation for 2012-2014. The analysis was executed on the data of Federal Information Fund of social and hygienic monitoring of the Russian Federation. There were identified priority pollutants (toxic elements, nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines, pesticides, hydroxymethylfurfural, mycotoxins) and risk areas (the Lipetsk region, the Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Adygea, city of Moscow, Tatarstan, the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, the Ryazan region). There are detected contamination levels not exceeding MAC (in the dynamics of the three years offollow up, on average 22%), requiring their hygienic assessment. There were determined the baby food products containing most common occurred chemical contaminants: fruits and vegetables products, canned products, canned meat, cereals, dairy products, liquid and adapted and partially adapted milk formalas. Identified data indicate to a need for further studies of chemical substances in products for children’s nutrition in order to establish the causal relationships with a various diseases and the substantiation of methodological approaches to the risk assessment of combined exposure to chemical contaminants in concentrations up to the MPC on health of children, including infants.

  13. Characterizing aquifer hydrogeology and anthropogenic chemical influences on groundwater near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual model of the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of monitoring well USGS-44, downgradient of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was developed by synthesis and comparison of previous work (40 years) and new investigations into local natural hydrogeological conditions and anthropogenic influences. Quantitative tests of the model, and other recommendations are suggested. The ICPP recovered fissionable uranium from spent nuclear fuel rods and disposed of waste fluids by release to the regional aquifer and lithosphere. Environmental impacts were assessed by a monitoring well network. The conceptual model identifies multiple, highly variable, interacting, and transient components, including INEL facilities multiple operations and liquid waste handling, systems; the anisotropic, in homogeneous aquifer; the network of monitoring and production wells, and the intermittent flow of the Big Lost River. Pre anthropogenic natural conditions and early records of anthropogenic activities were sparsely or unreliably documented making reconstruction of natural conditions or early hydrologic impacts impossible or very broad characterizations

  14. Semantic modeling and interoperability in product and process engineering a technology for engineering informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, feature-based design and manufacturing has gained some momentum in various engineering domains to represent and reuse semantic patterns with effective applicability. However, the actual scope of feature application is still very limited. Semantic Modeling and Interoperability in Product and Process Engineering provides a systematic solution for the challenging engineering informatics field aiming at the enhancement of sustainable knowledge representation, implementation and reuse in an open and yet practically manageable scale.   This semantic modeling technology supports uniform, multi-facet and multi-level collaborative system engineering with heterogeneous computer-aided tools, such as CADCAM, CAE, and ERP.  This presented unified feature model can be applied to product and process representation, development, implementation and management. Practical case studies and test samples are provided to illustrate applications which can be implemented by the readers in real-world scenarios. �...

  15. Effects of chemical equilibrium on turbine engine performance for various fuels and combustor temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Donald H.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the differences in turbine engine performance with and without the chemical dissociation effects for various fuel types over a range of combustor temperatures. Both turbojet and turbofan engines were studied with hydrocarbon fuels and cryogenic, nonhydrocarbon fuels. Results of the study indicate that accuracy of engine performance decreases when nonhydrocarbon fuels are used, especially at high temperatures where chemical dissociation becomes more significant. For instance, the deviation in net thrust for liquid hydrogen fuel can become as high as 20 percent at 4160 R. This study reveals that computer central processing unit (CPU) time increases significantly when dissociation effects are included in the cycle analysis.

  16. Building LGBTQ-Inclusive Chemical Engineering Classrooms and Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Anthony; McCormick, Alon; Farrell, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent advances in LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) equality in the United States and in many countries around the globe, LGBTQ+ students on college campuses still experience bias, hostility and discrimination. Engineering departments on campus in particular have been slower than other departments to respond to…

  17. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  18. Computational chemical product design problems under property uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Cignitti, Stefano; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Three different strategies of how to combine computational chemical product design with Monte Carlo based methods for uncertainty analysis of chemical properties are outlined. One method consists of a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) solution and a post-processing property uncertainty...... fluid design. While the higher end of the uncertainty range of the process model output is similar for the best performing fluids, the lower end of the uncertainty range differs largely....

  19. Mapping Global Flows of Chemicals: From Fossil Fuel Feedstocks to Chemical Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Peter G; Cullen, Jonathan M

    2018-02-20

    Chemical products are ubiquitous in modern society. The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy consumer and the third largest industrial emitter of carbon dioxide. The current portfolio of mitigation options for the chemical sector emphasizes upstream "supply side" solutions, whereas downstream mitigation options, such as material efficiency, are given comparatively short shrift. Key reasons for this are the scarcity of data on the sector's material flows, and the highly intertwined nature of its complex supply chains. We provide the most up to date, comprehensive and transparent data set available publicly, on virgin production routes in the chemical sector: from fossil fuel feedstocks to chemical products. We map global mass flows for the year 2013 through a complex network of transformation processes, and by taking account of secondary reactants and by-products, we maintain a full mass balance throughout. The resulting data set partially addresses the dearth of publicly available information on the chemical sector's supply chain, and can be used to prioritise downstream mitigation options.

  20. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís M Nazareth

    Full Text Available Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF. We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group.

  1. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources...... to be employed for validation and fine-tuning of the solutions from the model-based framework, thereby, removing the need for trial and error experimental steps. Also, questions related to economic feasibility, operability and sustainability, among others, can be considered in the early stages of design. However...

  2. Stochastic thermodynamics and entropy production of chemical reaction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium stationary states of systems consisting of chemical reactions among molecules of several chemical species. To this end, we introduce and develop a stochastic formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reaction systems based on a master equation defined on the space of microscopic chemical states and on appropriate definitions of entropy and entropy production. The system is in contact with a heat reservoir and is placed out of equilibrium by the contact with particle reservoirs. In our approach, the fluxes of various types, such as the heat and particle fluxes, play a fundamental role in characterizing the nonequilibrium chemical state. We show that the rate of entropy production in the stationary nonequilibrium state is a bilinear form in the affinities and the fluxes of reaction, which are expressed in terms of rate constants and transition rates, respectively. We also show how the description in terms of microscopic states can be reduced to a description in terms of the numbers of particles of each species, from which follows the chemical master equation. As an example, we calculate the rate of entropy production of the first and second Schlögl reaction models.

  3. Chemicalization in water treatment in peat production areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madekivi, O.; Marja-Aho, J.; Selin, P.; Jokinen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chemicalization of runoff waters of peat production has been studied since 1989, first in laboratory and since 1990 in practice. The methods have been developed as cooperation between Vapo Oy and Kemira Chemicals Oy. In chemicalization the dissolved substances are coagulated and they settle after that into sedimentation basins. Good purification results require rapid and effective mixing, so the formed particles are combined to larger particles, and they form settleable flock. The coagulation efficiency depends on the properties of the water to be purified, such as alkalinity and pH, the quality and the quantity of humic substances, and the quality and the quantity of the flocking chemicals. Chemicalization is at present the most effective, but also the most expensive method for purification of drying waters of peat production areas. The chemicalized water is on the basis of most quality factors cleaner than water running off a virgin bog. The most visible change is the clarification of the water which is due to the coagulation of the colouring humic substances and iron. The colorimetric value is decreased by over 70 %, the best results being over 90 %. The colorimetric value of the purified water (30-100 mg Pt/l) is below the values of the runoff water of a virgin bog (100-200 mg Pt/l). The chemicalization process and the results of the researches are presented in the article. (3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  5. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E; Van Buren, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood.

  6. Product design engineering - a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering training. Product design engineering (PDE) is a new interdisciplinary programme combining the strengths of the industrial design and engineering. This paper examines the emergence of PDE in an environment of critique of conventional engineering education and exemplifies the current spread of programmes endorsing a hybrid programme of design and engineering skills. The paper exemplifies PDE with the analysis of the programme offered at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), showing how the teaching of 'designerly' thinking to engineers produces a new graduate particularly suited to the current and future environment of produce design practice. The paper concludes with reflections on the significance of this innovative curriculum model for the field of product design and for engineering design in general.

  7. Application of Product Configuration Systems in Engineering Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin

    Engineering companies increasingly face the challenge of delivering highly customized products where time, cost, and quality are critical factors. To provide customized products efficiently, a product configuration system (PCS) is commonly implemented. A PCS supports the product configuration...... process, which consists of activities that involve gathering requirements from customers and generating the required product-related specifications. The application of a PCS in the industry has revealed benefits that include shorter lead-times, improved quality of specifications and products, and lower...... overall cost of the product. However, many PCS projects do encounter failure. With an increased focus on customized and personalized products, there is a growing need for the automation of business processes. For this reason, a PCS is becoming an essential part of IT strategy in different industries...

  8. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  9. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, J D

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered.

  10. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered

  11. Engineering the fatty acid metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for advanced biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals have attracted a great deal of attention in recent decades, due to their following properties of high compatibility to gasoline-based fuels and existing infrastructure for their direct utilization, storage and distribution. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ideal biofuel producing candidate, based on the wealth of available genetic information and versatile tools designed to manipulate its metabolic pathways. Engineering the fatty acid metabolic pathways in S. cerevisiae is an effective strategy to increase its fatty acid biosynthesis and provide more pathway precursors for production of targeted products. This review summarizes the recent progress in metabolic engineering of yeast cells for fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives production, including the regulation of acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, NADPH production, fatty acid elongation, and the accumulation of activated precursors of fatty acids for converting enzymes. By introducing specific enzymes in the engineered strains, a powerful platform with a scalable, controllable and economic route for advanced biofuel production has been established. Keywords: Metabolic engineering, Fatty acid biosynthesis, Fatty acid derivatives, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  12. Frontiers in chemical engineering: research needs and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council

    1988-01-01

    ...: Research Needs and Opportunities Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original ret...

  13. Circumventing Graphical User Interfaces in Chemical Engineering Plant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romey, Noel; Schwartz, Rachel M.; Behrend, Douglas; Miao, Peter; Cheung, H. Michael; Beitle, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are pervasive elements of most modern technical software and represent a convenient tool for student instruction. For example, GUIs are used for [chemical] process design software (e.g., CHEMCAD, PRO/II and ASPEN) typically encountered in the senior capstone course. Drag and drop aspects of GUIs are challenging for…

  14. Multi-disciplinary engineering for cyber-physical production systems data models and software solutions for handling complex engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Lüder, Arndt; Gerhard, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses challenges and solutions for the required information processing and management within the context of multi-disciplinary engineering of production systems. The authors consider methods, architectures, and technologies applicable in use cases according to the viewpoints of product engineering and production system engineering, and regarding the triangle of (1) product to be produced by a (2) production process executed on (3) a production system resource. With this book industrial production systems engineering researchers will get a better understanding of the challenges and requirements of multi-disciplinary engineering that will guide them in future research and development activities. Engineers and managers from engineering domains will be able to get a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of applicable methods, architectures, and technologies for selected use cases. IT researchers will be enabled to identify research issues related to the development of new methods, arc...

  15. Engineering furfural tolerance in Escherichia coli improves the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars into renewable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Yomano, Lorraine P; Lee, James Y; York, Sean W; Zheng, Huabao; Mullinnix, Michael T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2013-03-05

    Pretreatments such as dilute acid at elevated temperature are effective for the hydrolysis of pentose polymers in hemicellulose and also increase the access of enzymes to cellulose fibers. However, the fermentation of resulting syrups is hindered by minor reaction products such as furfural from pentose dehydration. To mitigate this problem, four genetic traits have been identified that increase furfural tolerance in ethanol-producing Escherichia coli LY180 (strain W derivative): increased expression of fucO, ucpA, or pntAB and deletion of yqhD. Plasmids and integrated strains were used to characterize epistatic interactions among traits and to identify the most effective combinations. Furfural resistance traits were subsequently integrated into the chromosome of LY180 to construct strain XW129 (LY180 ΔyqhD ackA::PyadC'fucO-ucpA) for ethanol. This same combination of traits was also constructed in succinate biocatalysts (Escherichia coli strain C derivatives) and found to increase furfural tolerance. Strains engineered for resistance to furfural were also more resistant to the mixture of inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysates, confirming the importance of furfural as an inhibitory component. With resistant biocatalysts, product yields (ethanol and succinate) from hemicellulose syrups were equal to control fermentations in laboratory media without inhibitors. The combination of genetic traits identified for the production of ethanol (strain W derivative) and succinate (strain C derivative) may prove useful for other renewable chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars.

  16. Genetic engineering for improvement of Musa production in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transgenic approach shows potential for the genetic improvement of the crop using a wide set of transgenes currently available which may confer resistance to nematode pests, fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. This article discusses the applications of genetic engineering for the enhancement of Musa production.

  17. Active Learning and Reflection in Product Development Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Aruna

    2007-01-01

    Traditional engineering courses at tertiary level have been traditionally theory-based, supported by laboratory work, but there is now a world-wide trend towards project-based learning. In product development education, project-based learning is essential in order to integrate the disciplines of design, marketing and manufacturing towards the…

  18. Metabolic engineering of yeast for fermentative production of flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica; Strucko, Tomas; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav

    2017-01-01

    Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for de novo production of six different flavonoids (naringenin, liquiritigenin, kaempferol, resokaempferol, quercetin, and fisetin) directly from glucose, without supplementation of expensive intermediates. This required reconstruction of long...... demonstrates the potential of flavonoid-producing yeast cell factories....

  19. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Three: The Engine Lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the third of four topic areas: the engine lathe. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  20. Development of Management Methodology for Engineering Production Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlenko, O.; Miroshnikov, V.; Borbatc, N.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper propose four directions of the methodology developing the quality management of engineering products that implement the requirements of new international standard ISO 9001:2015: the analysis of arrangement context taking into account stakeholders, the use of risk management, management of in-house knowledge, assessment of the enterprise activity according to the criteria of effectiveness

  1. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Nicholas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  2. Ion exchange and adsorption in nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.W.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Godbee, H.; Mallory, C.W.; Burney, G.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear industry involves a number of operations. Uranium ore must first be mined and the uranium recovered from the ore, purified, and concentrated. After the uranium has been enriched and fabricated into fuel elements, it is placed in nuclear reactors where it produces energy, fission products, and transmutation products. Finally, if the fuel cycle is completed, the uranium and useful transmutation products are recovered and separated from each other as well as from the fission products. The uranium may be recycled or used elsewhere, while most of the fission products become waste. Ion exchange finds use in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle; these uses are the subject of this paper

  3. Challenges and solutions in natural gas engine development and productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Izanloo, Hossein [Irankhodro Powertrain Co. (IPCO) (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    As an alternative fuel, natural gas is generally accepted for internal combustion engines and some developments have been conducted in order to adopt it for the road vehicles and stationary applications. Foresights shows natural gas vehicles will be a part of the future transportation technology regarding to their mid and long-term benefits. Therefore inherent problems of natural gas engine technology should be overcome to produce a competitive engine. In this paper major problems and their possible solutions in developing and producing natural gas engine for passenger cars are detailed and discussed. Challenging materials are sorted and presented in two categorizes: technical and econo-strategical problems. In the technical section major difficulties faced in components or systems of natural gas engine are analysed in different aspects of design, validation, and production. In addition problems arisen from the fuel characteristics which influence the function and durability of engine are argued. Subjects like freezing in gas regulator, cold start fuel injection, gas leakage, impurities within compressed natural gas, variation in fuel composition, thermo-mechanics of cylinder head and block, wear of valve seat inserts, spark plug erosion, back-fire phenomenon, engine oil quality requirement, low power density and mileage are described. In the econo-strategical discussion, challenges like limited gas distribution infrastructure, lack of specific manufacturing standards and codes, and non-dedicated emission standards are explained. In both part of the paper a comprehensive view is extended to clarify the effect, risk and solutions of each problem. Due to the fact that almost all information and analysis presented in this paper are based on the experience of developing a natural gas engine family, and an extensive literature review, discussions and conclusions could be useful as a guide line for future natural gas engine projects. (orig.)

  4. Expanding the chemical diversity of natural esters by engineering a polyketide-derived pathway into Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Bravo, Simón; Comba, Santiago; Sabatini, Martín; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Microbial fatty acid (FA)-derived molecules have emerged as promising alternatives to petroleum-based chemicals for reducing dependence on fossil hydrocarbons. However, native FA biosynthetic pathways often yield limited structural diversity, and therefore restricted physicochemical properties, of the end products by providing only a limited variety of usually linear hydrocarbons. Here we have engineered into Escherichia coli a mycocerosic polyketide synthase-based biosynthetic pathway from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and redefined its biological role towards the production of multi-methyl-branched-esters (MBEs) with novel chemical structures. Expression of FadD28, Mas and PapA5 enzymes enabled the biosynthesis of multi-methyl-branched-FA and their further esterification to an alcohol. The high substrate tolerance of these enzymes towards different FA and alcohol moieties resulted in the biosynthesis of a broad range of MBE. Further metabolic engineering of the MBE producer strain coupled this system to long-chain-alcohol biosynthetic pathways resulting in de novo production of branched wax esters following addition of only propionate. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and chemical engineering of bacteriophages for potential medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyra, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug discovery. Phages also offer solutions for modern cell imaging, biosensor construction or food pathogen detection. Here we present a review of bacteriophage research as a dynamically developing field with promising prospects for further development of medicine and biotechnology.

  6. 40 CFR 1048.301 - When must I test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines? 1048.301 Section 1048.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.301 When must I test my production-line engines? (a) If you produce engines...

  7. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Changing Landscape of Hydrocarbon Feedstocks for Chemical Production: Implications for Catalysis: Proceedings of a Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Alexis T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Alger, Monty M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Gunnoe, T. Brent [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lercher, Johannes A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevens, James [Dow Chemical Company, Torrance, CA (United States); Alper, Joe; Tran, Camly [National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-14

    A decade ago, the U.S. chemical industry was in decline. Of the more than 40 chemical manufacturing plants being built worldwide in the mid-2000s with more than $1 billion in capitalization, none were under construction in the United States. Today, as a result of abundant domestic supplies of affordable natural gas and natural gas liquids resulting from the dramatic rise in shale gas production, the U.S. chemical industry has gone from the world’s highest-cost producer in 2005 to among the lowest-cost producers today. The low cost and increased supply of natural gas and natural gas liquids provides an opportunity to discover and develop new catalysts and processes to enable the direct conversion of natural gas and natural gas liquids into value-added chemicals with a lower carbon footprint. The economic implications of developing advanced technologies to utilize and process natural gas and natural gas liquids for chemical production could be significant, as commodity, intermediate, and fine chemicals represent a higher-economic-value use of shale gas compared with its use as a fuel. To better understand the opportunities for catalysis research in an era of shifting feedstocks for chemical production and to identify the gaps in the current research portfolio, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conducted an interactive, multidisciplinary workshop in March 2016. The goal of this workshop was to identify advances in catalysis that can enable the United States to fully realize the potential of the shale gas revolution for the U.S. chemical industry and, as a result, to help target the efforts of U.S. researchers and funding agencies on those areas of science and technology development that are most critical to achieving these advances. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  10. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... that the engineering designers have core design competences to carry through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented side and a technical side, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the new and upgraded product. The authors of this paper see an educational challenge in staging...... a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have developed and refined...

  11. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  12. Sustainable Product Design, Engineering and Management Education for Industrial Design Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, C.; Diehl, J.C.; Wever, R.

    2006-01-01

    Developments in the field of sustainable product design are manifold, which means that education in this field is rapidly evolving as well. In this paper, the continuously evolving portfolio of courses offered at Delft University of Technology’s Industrial Design Engineering faculty is

  13. 40 CFR 1045.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1045.305 Section 1045.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines...

  14. 40 CFR 1048.305 - How must I prepare and test my production-line engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production-line engines? 1048.305 Section 1048.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.305 How must I prepare and test my production-line engines? This...

  15. Production of vanillin by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Li, Cui; Kim, Ju-Eun; Lee, Sook-Hee; Yoon, Ji-Young; Choi, Myung-Suk; Seo, Weon-Taek; Yang, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Won

    2005-11-01

    E. coli was metabolically engineered to produce vanillin by expression of the fcs and ech genes from Amycolatopsis sp. encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively. Vanillin production was optimized by leaky expression of the genes, under the IPTG-inducible trc promoter, in complex 2YT medium. Supplementation with glucose, fructose, galactose, arabinose or glycerol severely decreased vanillin production. The highest vanillin production of 1.1 g l(-1) was obtained with cultivation for 48 h in 2YT medium with 0.2% (w/v) ferulate, without IPTG and no supplementation of carbon sources.

  16. Traditional technologies of fuels production for air-jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бойченко С. В.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available energy resources for various fuels, mainly for gas-turbine engines are presented in the given article. Traditional technologies for jet fuels production from nonrenewable raw materials, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil-shales and others are analyzed in details. Cause and effect relationship between production and use of such fuels and their impact on natural environment is defined. The timeliness and necessity for development of alternative technologies of aviation biofuels production are determined in the given article.

  17. Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Zhang, Fuzhong; del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-08-16

    Advanced biofuels produced by microorganisms have similar properties to petroleum-based fuels, and can 'drop in' to the existing transportation infrastructure. However, producing these biofuels in yields high enough to be useful requires the engineering of the microorganism's metabolism. Such engineering is not based on just one specific feedstock or host organism. Data-driven and synthetic-biology approaches can be used to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize fuel production. Despite some success, challenges still need to be met to move advanced biofuels towards commercialization, and to compete with more conventional fuels.

  18. Engineering oilseeds for sustainable production of industrial and nutritional feedstocks: solving bottlenecks in fatty acid flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Edgar B; Shockey, Jay M; Dietrich, Charles R; Gidda, Satinder K; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

    2007-06-01

    Oilseeds provide a unique platform for the production of high-value fatty acids that can replace non-sustainable petroleum and oceanic sources of specialty chemicals and aquaculture feed. However, recent efforts to engineer the seeds of crop and model plant species to produce new types of fatty acids, including hydroxy and conjugated fatty acids for industrial uses and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for farmed fish feed, have met with only modest success. The collective results from these studies point to metabolic 'bottlenecks' in the engineered plant seeds that substantially limit the efficient or selective flux of unusual fatty acids between different substrate pools and ultimately into storage triacylglycerol. Evidence is emerging that diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2, which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol assembly, is an important contributor to the synthesis of unusual fatty acid-containing oils, and is likely to be a key target for future oilseed metabolic engineering efforts.

  19. Engineering strategy of yeast metabolism for higher alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising host for cost-effective biorefinary processes due to its tolerance to various stresses during fermentation, the metabolically engineered S. cerevisiae strains exhibited rather limited production of higher alcohols than that of Escherichia coli. Since the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae is distinct from that of E. coli, there might be a problem in the structure of the central metabolism of S. cerevisiae. In this study, the potential production of higher alcohols by S. cerevisiae is compared to that of E. coli by employing metabolic simulation techniques. Based on the simulation results, novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving higher alcohol production by S. cerevisiae were investigated by in silico modifications of the metabolic models of S. cerevisiae. Results The metabolic simulations confirmed that the high production of butanols and propanols by the metabolically engineered E. coli strains is derived from the flexible behavior of their central metabolism. Reducing this flexibility by gene deletion is an effective strategy to restrict the metabolic states for producing target alcohols. In contrast, the lower yield using S. cerevisiae originates from the structurally limited flexibility of its central metabolism in which gene deletions severely reduced cell growth. Conclusions The metabolic simulation demonstrated that the poor productivity of S. cerevisiae was improved by the introduction of E. coli genes to compensate the structural difference. This suggested that gene supplementation is a promising strategy for the metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae to produce higher alcohols which should be the next challenge for the synthetic bioengineering of S. cerevisiae for the efficient production of higher alcohols.

  20. Characterization and Prediction of Chemical Functions and Weight Fractions in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose fil...