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Sample records for chemical processing department

  1. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, April 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-05-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, for April 1962 discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; finished products operation; maintenance; financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; special separation processing; and auxiliaries operation.

  2. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, February 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.H.

    1965-03-22

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: production operation; purex and redox operation; finished products operation; maintenance; financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  3. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  4. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-22

    This report for June 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  5. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, August 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-09-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, August 1965, discusses the following: Production Operation; Purex and Redox Operation; Finished Products Operation; Maintenance; Financial Operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee Relations.

  6. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, December 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-21

    This report for December 1964, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and weapons manufacturing operation.

  7. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-21

    The May, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.(MB)

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-22

    The September, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.

  9. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, November 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-21

    The November 1956 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed was the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operations. (MB)

  10. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, September 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-10-18

    The September, 1956 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished products operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operations. (MB)

  11. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, April 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-05-22

    Two new production records were set during April, for processed U and Pu production. 0.9 tons sheared NRX fuel were dissolved in Redox. Discrepancies in Pu yield are being studied. Alternate methods of recovering Np are being evaluated. The Purex prototype facility will be converted to the anion exchange process. Alternate designs for a Purex miniature service dissolver were reviewed. The Purex HA column will be replaced.

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-22

    Record highs were set for Pu output in separations plants and for amount of U processed in Purex. UO{sub 3} production and shipments exceeded schedules. Fabrication of 200 and 250 Model assemblies is reported. Unfabricated Pu production was 8.5% short. Nitric acid recovery in Purex and Redox is reported. Prototype anion exchange system for Pu was tested in Purex. Hinged agitator arms with shear pin feature was installed in UO{sub 3} plant H calciner. Operation of continuous type Task I, II facility improved. DBBP is considered for Recuplex. Methods for Pu in product solutions agreed to within 0. 10%. Purex recycle dock shelter is complete. Other projects are reported.

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-03-20

    This report for February 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F. K.; Johnson, W. E.; MacCready, W. K.; Warren, J. H.; Schroeder, O. C.; Groswith, C. T.; Mobley, W. N.; LaFollette, T. G.; Grim, K. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Richards, R. B.; Roberts, D. S.

    1957-08-22

    This report, for July 1957 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following; Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  15. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-07-21

    This report, for June 1961 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  16. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  17. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-02-20

    This report for January 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  18. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-21

    The December, 1956 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operations. (MB)

  19. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-22

    The September, 1958 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation. (MB)

  20. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for June 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-07-22

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for June 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; and employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  1. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for April 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.H.

    1958-05-21

    The separations plants operated on schedule, and Pu production exceeded commitment. UO{sub 3} production and shipments were also ahead of schedule. Purex operation under pseudo two-cycle conditions (elimination of HS and 1A columns, co-decontamination cycle concentrator HCP) was successful. Final U stream was 3{times} lower in Pu than ever before; {gamma} activity in recovered HNO{sub 3} was also low. Four of 6 special E metal batches were processed through Redox and analyzed. Boric acid is removed from solvent extraction process via aq waste. The filter in Task II hydrofluorinator was changed from carbon to Poroloy. Various modifications to equipment were made.

  2. Final Report from the Department of Kinetics of Chemical and Biological Processes, Institute of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    photokeratitis, senile cataract, macular degeneration and so on. In laboratory of physical-chemical basis of reception, Institute of Chemical... rehabilitating complex of vitamins according to the methods developed in the Institute improved the biophysical parameters and, hence, restored organism...forage of animals. 6. Environmental and human rehabilitation Antioxidants at Low Doses for Afforestation in Polluted Regions Burlakova E.B., Apasheva

  3. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  4. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, September 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.H.

    1966-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee-relations, and waste management.

  5. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, April 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-05-20

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for April 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and waste management.

  6. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, February 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-03-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for February 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  8. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, February 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-03-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of February 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-11-17

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  10. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, December 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-14

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December, 1963. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

  11. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-11-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1963. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-04-14

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR project.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, April 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-05-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR project.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, September 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-10-09

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; trips; and Financial Operation.

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, April 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-05-13

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  16. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, August 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-09-14

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

  17. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, January 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-02-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January, 1963. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

  18. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, April 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-05-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  19. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, March 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-04-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

  20. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, November 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-12-14

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operation; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR Project.

  1. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, July 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-08-12

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  2. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, October 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-11-14

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  3. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1960-06-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  4. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, July 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-08-14

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July 1963. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations: Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and Financial Operation.

  5. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, September 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-10-12

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  6. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, August 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-09-12

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  7. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-06-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and NPR Reactor.

  8. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-07-15

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of June, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, January 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-02-15

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of January, 1962. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; and NPR Project.

  10. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, January 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-02-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR Project.

  11. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, December 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December, 1964. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; trips; and Financial Operation.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, December 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-01-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, February 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A. B.

    1963-03-14

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-11-21

    Output of plutonium from the separations plants Purex, Redox was slightly less than that scheduled; however, year-to-date production exceeds the corresponding commitment. Production of UO{sub 3} met the commitment, and UO{sub 3} shipments conformed to the established shipping schedule. Production of buttons and shapes was slightly less than the commitment as shown in the current Official Forecast. Shipments of buttons conformed to the current Forecast, while large shape shipments were slightly less than those forecasted. Feasibility of neptunium recovery was studied. Employee relations are reported.

  15. Yes! The Business Department Teaches Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Daryl; Seymour, Tom

    1978-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the history and current status of business data processing versus computer science, this article focuses on the characteristics of a business data processing curriculum as compared to a computer science curriculum, including distinctions between the FORTRAN and COBOL programming languages. (SH)

  16. Personal Simulator of Chemical Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴重光

    2002-01-01

    The Personal Simulator of chemical process (PS) means that fully simulationsoftware can be run on one personal computer. This paper describes the kinds of PSprograms, its features, the graphic functions and three examples. PS programs are allbased on one object-oriented and real-time simulation software environment. Authordevelops this simulation software environment. An example of the batch reaction kineticsmodel is also described. Up to now a lot of students in technical schools and universitieshave trained on PS. The training results are very successful.

  17. Model Based Monitoring and Control of Chemical and Biochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    This presentation will give an overview of the work performed at the department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering related to process control. A research vision is formulated and related to a number of active projects at the department. In more detail a project describing model estimation...

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  19. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  20. Experiments To Demonstrate Chemical Process Safety Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorathy, Brian D.; Mooers, Jamisue A.; Warren, Matthew M.; Mich, Jennifer L.; Murhammer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the need to educate undergraduate chemical engineering students on chemical process safety and introduces the content of a chemical process safety course offered at the University of Iowa. Presents laboratory experiments demonstrating flammability limits, flash points, electrostatic, runaway reactions, explosions, and relief design.…

  1. Example process hazard analysis of a Department of Energy water chlorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    On February 24, 1992, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released a revised version of Section 29 Code of Federal Regulations CFR Part 1910 that added Section 1910.119, entitled ``Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (the PSM Rule). Because US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5480.4 and 5483.1A prescribe OSHA 29 CFR 1910 as a standard in DOE, the PSM Rule is mandatory in the DOE complex. A major element in the PSM Rule is the process hazard analysis (PrHA), which is required for all chemical processes covered by the PSM Rule. The PrHA element of the PSM Rule requires the selection and application of appropriate hazard analysis methods to systematically identify hazards and potential accident scenarios associated with processes involving highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs). The analysis in this report is an example PrHA performed to meet the requirements of the PSM Rule. The PrHA method used in this example is the hazard and operability (HAZOP) study, and the process studied is the new Hanford 300-Area Water Treatment Facility chlorination process, which is currently in the design stage. The HAZOP study was conducted on May 18--21, 1993, by a team from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Battelle-Columbus, the DOE, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The chlorination process was chosen as the example process because it is common to many DOE sites, and because quantities of chlorine at those sites generally exceed the OSHA threshold quantities (TQs).

  2. Department of Environmental Management Chemical Information System (DEMCIS). User documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, D.P.; Clark, T.T.

    1985-10-01

    This document is a reference tool to be used by those responsible for updating and maintaining the twelve files in the Chemical Information System. Detailed information is given on how to display information in the data base as well as how to add, change, and/or delete records.

  3. Strategic Planning for a Communication Department: Process and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsky, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Discusses advantages of creating a strategic plan, steps for the strategic-planning process, and application of the strategic-planning process. Suggests that communication departments should develop a strategic plan and use it as a guide in collectively pursuing initiatives related to teaching, research, and service as well as in advocating for…

  4. Analysis, synthesis and design of chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, R. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Bailie, R.C.; Whiting, W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The book illustrates key concepts through a running example from the real world: the manufacture of benzene; covers design, economic considerations, troubleshooting and health/environmental safety; and includes exclusive software for estimating chemical manufacturing equipment capital costs. This book will help chemical engineers optimize the efficiency of production processes, by providing both a philosophical framework and detailed information about chemical process design. Design is the focal point of the chemical engineering practice. This book helps engineers and senior-level students hone their design skills through process design rather than simply plant design. It introduces all the basics of process simulation. Learn how to size equipment, optimize flowsheets, evaluate the economics of projects, and plan the operation of processes. Learn how to use Process Flow Diagrams; choose the operating conditions for a process; and evaluate the performance of existing processes and equipment. Finally, understand how chemical process design impacts health, safety, the environment and the community.

  5. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-04-21

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of March, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  6. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1960-01-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  7. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, June 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-07-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of June 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  8. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, April 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-05-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, January 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-02-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  10. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-19

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of December 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  11. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations: Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-02-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operation; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-04-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  16. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1957-09-20

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and engineering; operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  17. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided int the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  18. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-10-23

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operations; and financial operation.

  19. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-08-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  20. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1958-04-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  1. Irradiation Processing Department, monthly record report, January 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1958-02-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  2. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-12-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operation; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operations; and financial operation.

  3. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-04-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  4. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  5. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-09-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  6. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of June 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  7. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, April 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-05-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  8. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-11-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial operation.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, February 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-03-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of February 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operations; employee relations operation; and, financial operation.

  10. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-10-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  11. Irradiation Processing Department, monthly record report, February, 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-03-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department at the Hanford Reservation during the month of February, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operation; Manufacturing Operation; Facilities Engineering Operation; Relations Practices Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR operation.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-09-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-08-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-20

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of November, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  15. Markov Chains and Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Views as important the relating of abstract ideas of modern mathematics now being taught in the schools to situations encountered in the sciences. Describes use of matrices and Markov chains to study first-order processes. (Author/DF)

  16. Business process re-engineering a cardiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Syed Murtuza Hussain

    2014-01-01

    The health care sector is the world's third largest industry and is facing several problems such as excessive waiting times for patients, lack of access to information, high costs of delivery and medical errors. Health care managers seek the help of process re-engineering methods to discover the best processes and to re-engineer existing processes to optimize productivity without compromising on quality. Business process re-engineering refers to the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality and speed. The present study is carried out at a tertiary care corporate hospital with 1000-plus-bed facility. A descriptive study and case study method is used with intensive, careful and complete observation of patient flow, delays, short comings in patient movement and workflow. Data is collected through observations, informal interviews and analyzed by matrix analysis. Flowcharts were drawn for the various work activities of the cardiology department including workflow of the admission process, workflow in the ward and ICCU, workflow of the patient for catheterization laboratory procedure, and in the billing and discharge process. The problems of the existing system were studied and necessary suggestions were recommended to cardiology department module with an illustrated flowchart.

  17. The role of chemical engineering in pharmaceutical chemical process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, R N; Blacklock, T J; Girgis, M J; Tedesco, A

    1998-11-01

    The task of chemical process development in the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a multidisciplinary endeavor requiring years to complete. Increased competition in the pharmaceutical Additionally, the ever-tightening regulatory environment further compromises the business objective (ultimately, profits). This has required careful analysis of the activities within development. This work discusses the results of this analysis, which shows how a balance between minimal resource utilization and phased development achievements can be reached. The cycle of development, from inception to completion, is examined. Special emphasis is placed upon the role of chemical engineering and its appropriate deployment. Simple examples of the synergies that are possible between chemistry and chemical engineering are also given.

  18. Chemical sensing in process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, T; Callis, J B; Kowalski, B R

    1984-10-19

    Improvements in process control, which determine production efficiency and product quality, are critically dependent upon on-line process analysis. The technology of the required instrumentation will be substantially expanded by advances in sensing devices. In the future, the hardware will consist of sensor arrays and miniaturized instruments fabricated by microlithography and silicon micromachining. Chemometrics will be extensively used in software to provide error detection, selfcalibration, and correction as well as multivariate data analysis for the determination of anticipated and unanticipated species. A number of examples of monolithically fabricated sensors now exist and more will be forthcoming as the new paradigms and new tools are widely adopted. A trend toward not only on-line but even in-product sensors is becoming discernible.

  19. Process Improvements to Reform Patient Flow in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Shawn D; Leung, Alexander K; Duic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) function to diagnose, stabilize, manage and dispose patients as efficiently as possible. Although problems may be suspected at triage, ED physician input is required at each step of the patient journey through the ED, from diagnosis to disposition. If we want timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and great outcomes, then ED processes should connect patients and physicians as quickly as possible. This article discusses the key concepts of ED patient flow, value and efficiency. Based on these fundamentals, it describes the significant impact of ED process improvements implemented on measures of ED efficiency at a large community ED in Ontario, Canada.

  20. Improving Emergency Department Door to Doctor Time and Process Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen J.; El-Eid, Ghada R.; Saliba, Miriam; Jabbour, Rima; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using lean management methods on improving emergency department door to doctor times at a tertiary care hospital. We performed a before and after study at an academic urban emergency department with 49,000 annual visits after implementing a series of lean driven interventions over a 20 month period. The primary outcome was mean door to doctor time and the secondary outcome was length of stay of both admitted and discharged patients. A convenience sample from the preintervention phase (February 2012) was compared to another from the postintervention phase (mid-October to mid-November 2013). Individual control charts were used to assess process stability. Postintervention there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean door to doctor time measure (40.0 minutes ± 53.44 vs 25.3 minutes ± 15.93 P < 0.001). The postintervention process was more statistically in control with a drop in the upper control limits from 148.8 to 72.9 minutes. Length of stay of both admitted and discharged patients dropped from 2.6 to 2.0 hours and 9.0 to 5.5 hours, respectively. All other variables including emergency department visit daily volumes, hospital occupancy, and left without being seen rates were comparable. Using lean change management techniques can be effective in reducing door to doctor time in the Emergency Department and improving process reliability. PMID:26496278

  1. Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prausnitz, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

  2. Supporting chemical process design under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsung,A.; Oldenburg, J; J. Yu; Polt,A.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in chemical process design is to make design decisions based on partly incomplete or imperfect design input data. Still, process engineers are expected to design safe, dependable and cost-efficient processes under these conditions. The complexity of typical process models limits intuitive engineering estimates to judge the impact of uncertain parameters on the proposed design. In this work, an approach to quantify the effect of uncertainty on a process design in order to enh...

  3. Modeling heterogeneous chemical processes on aerosol surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjun Deng; Tijian Wang; Li Liu; Fei Jiang

    2010-01-01

    To explore the possible impact of heterogeneous chemical processes on atmospheric trace components,a coupled box model including gas-phase chemical processes,aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium processes,and heterogeneous chemical processes on the surface of dust,black carbon(BC)and sea salt is set up to simulate the effects of heterogeneous chemistry on the aerosol surface,and analyze the primary factors affecting the heterogeneous processes.Results indicate that heterogeneous chemical processes on the aerosol surface in the atmosphere will affect the concentrations of trace gases such as H2O2,HO2,O3,NO2,NO3,HNO3 and SO2,and aerosols such as SO42-,NO3-and NH4+.Sensitivity tests suggest that the magnitude of the impact of heterogeneous processes strongly depends on aerosol concentration and the surface uptake coefficients used in the box model.However,the impact of temperature on heterogeneous chemical processes is considerably less.The"renoxification"of HNO3 will affect the components of the troposphere such as nitrogen oxide and ozone.

  4. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses.

  5. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  6. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  7. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  8. Occupational chemical burns: a 2-year experience in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touzopoulos P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Michael Karanikas1, Panagiotis Milothridis1, Dimitrios Matthaios1, Ioannis Kouroumichakis3, Stella Proikaki3, Paschalis Pavlioglou3, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis511st University Surgical Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 2Pulmonary Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 32nd Internal Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 4Surgical Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 5Medical School, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Regional Laboratory of Public Health (Eastern Macedonia-Thrace, GreeceAbstract: Chemical burn injuries are a result of exposure to acid, alkali, or organic compounds. In this retrospective study, a total of 21 patients suffering occupational chemical burns, came to the emergency room at the University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, from 2008 to 2010; 76.2% were workers, 19% were farmers, and 4.8% were desk officers. The majority of burns were due to exposure to acid (61.9%. Upper extremities were the most frequently injured area followed by the lower extremities and thorax. None of the patients needed further hospital care, but in the follow-up, four of the patients suffered keloid. Proper surgical treatment at the emergency room decreases the length of hospital stay for patients who suffer chemically induced burns.Keywords: chemical burns, surgical treatment, labor accidents

  9. Chemical computing with reaction-diffusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, J; Gizynski, K; Guzowski, J; Gorecka, J N; Garstecki, P; Gruenert, G; Dittrich, P

    2015-07-28

    Chemical reactions are responsible for information processing in living organisms. It is believed that the basic features of biological computing activity are reflected by a reaction-diffusion medium. We illustrate the ideas of chemical information processing considering the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and its photosensitive variant. The computational universality of information processing is demonstrated. For different methods of information coding constructions of the simplest signal processing devices are described. The function performed by a particular device is determined by the geometrical structure of oscillatory (or of excitable) and non-excitable regions of the medium. In a living organism, the brain is created as a self-grown structure of interacting nonlinear elements and reaches its functionality as the result of learning. We discuss whether such a strategy can be adopted for generation of chemical information processing devices. Recent studies have shown that lipid-covered droplets containing solution of reagents of BZ reaction can be transported by a flowing oil. Therefore, structures of droplets can be spontaneously formed at specific non-equilibrium conditions, for example forced by flows in a microfluidic reactor. We describe how to introduce information to a droplet structure, track the information flow inside it and optimize medium evolution to achieve the maximum reliability. Applications of droplet structures for classification tasks are discussed.

  10. History of the department of materials science and materials processing

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Bolshakov; KHARCHENKO V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Department of Metal Technology was established in 1945 year. For its 70th year existence the department has passed all of the major stages of development with its alma mater and it is Dnepropetrovsk Civil Engineering Institute (DCEI), then Prydniprovs’ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (PGASA since 1994 year).

  11. Utilization of chemical looping strategy in coal gasification processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshih Fan; Fanxing Li; Shwetha Ramkumar

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical looping gasification processes, i. e. Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process, Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process, and Calcium Looping process (CLP), are being developed at the Ohio State University (OSU). These processes utilize simple reaction schemes to convert carbonaceous fuels into products such as hydrogen, electricity, and synthetic fuels through the transformation of a highly reactive, highly recyclable chemical intermediate. In this paper, these novel chemical looping gasification processes are described and their advantages and potential challenges for commercialization are discussed.

  12. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......Process design and process control have been considered as independent problems for many years. In this context, a sequential approach is used where the process is designed first, followed by the control design. However, this sequential approach has its limitations related to dynamic constraint...... violations, for example, infeasible operating points, process overdesign or under-performance. Therefore, by using this approach, a robust performance is not always guaranteed. Furthermore, process design decisions can influence process control and operation. To overcome these limitations, an alternative...

  13. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-21

    This report details activities of the irradiation department during the month of September, 1957. The report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operations; Employee Relations Operations; and Financial Operation.

  15. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  16. Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Cu: Nanoscale Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael; Fishbeck, Kelly; Muessig, Kara; McDonald, James; Williams, Christine; White, Daniel; Koeck, Deborah; Perry, Scott; Galloway, Heather

    2002-10-01

    Interconnect lines in state of the art integrated circuits are made of copper in a process that requires the repeated planarization of the copper layer. During this process the material is subjected to an aqueous slurry containing active chemicals, corrosion inhibitors and abrasive particles. A model slurry buffered to pH2, pH4 and pH6, contained nitric acid, silica particles and benzotriazole (BTA) as a corrosion inhibitor. The degree of copper planarization was investigated as a function of slurry composition and pH using atomic force microscopy. Chemical surface changes can be explained by the effect of slurry composition on the charge at the material surface. This surface charge controls the amount of friction between the abrasive and the surface which, in turn, effects the global planarization of the material. Experiments using a macroscopic polishing system with AFM characterization along with the microscopic interaction of the AFM tip and sample provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms of a planarization process.

  17. SAPHYR: A new chemical stabilisation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratto, Gilles; Fernandes, Paulo; Patria; Lucie; Cretenot, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Odour control and dewaterability are the key criteria during biosolids storage either for use on land or incineration. In the case of use on land, stabilisation/sanitisation are also part of the key criteria. Vivendi Water Systems developed the SAPHYR process to answer those three requirements. The SAPHYR process principle is based on an acidification of biosolids associated to the addition of nitrite. The main results are a noticeable odour control lasting other periods of 6 to 9 months, an improved dewaterability (2 to 4 points of dryness) and depending on chemical dosages a stabilisation or a sanitisation of biosolids. Another characteristic is that biosolids conditioned with the Saphyr process can be used both on land or for incineration. After several demonstrations on more than 5 different plants throughout France on a 10 000 p.e. unit, the first industrial reference of the process was installed on a 50 000 population equivalent wastewater treatment plant in 2002 and has been in operation since december 2002. A close monitoring of the process operation, the biosolids quality and its storage and spreading on land is planned from November 2002 to spring 2003. A comparison with lime addition will take place on the same plant. The present paper will produce a presentation of the SAPHYR process, its operation on a 50 000 pe WWTP and its different applications for biosolids storage.

  18. 45 CFR 4.3 - Process against Department officials in their individual capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual capacities. 4.3 Section 4.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.3 Process against Department officials in their individual capacities. Process to be served on Department officials in their individual capacities must be served in...

  19. GREENSCOPE: A Method for Modeling Chemical Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current work within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory is focused on the development of a method for modeling chemical process sustainability. The GREENSCOPE methodology, defined for the four bases of Environment, Economics, Efficiency, and Energy, can evaluate processes with over a hundred different indicators. These indicators provide a means for realizing the principles of green chemistry and green engineering in the context of sustainability. Development of the methodology has centered around three focal points. One is a taxonomy of impacts that describe the indicators and provide absolute scales for their evaluation. The setting of best and worst limits for the indicators allows the user to know the status of the process under study in relation to understood values. Thus, existing or imagined processes can be evaluated according to their relative indicator scores, and process modifications can strive towards realizable targets. A second area of focus is in advancing definitions of data needs for the many indicators of the taxonomy. Each of the indicators has specific data that is necessary for their calculation. Values needed and data sources have been identified. These needs can be mapped according to the information source (e.g., input stream, output stream, external data, etc.) for each of the bases. The user can visualize data-indicator relationships on the way to choosing selected ones for evalua

  20. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the Act, the processed food will not...

  1. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the act, the processed food will not...

  2. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  3. Quantum Chemical Strain Analysis For Mechanochemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Tim; Dreuw, Andreas

    2017-03-24

    The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching. However, the influence of mechanical force on single molecules is still not understood at a fundamental level, which limits the applicability of mechanochemistry. As a result, many chemists still resort to rules of thumb when it comes to conducting mechanochemical syntheses. In this Account, we show that comprehension of mechanochemistry at the molecular level can be tremendously advanced by quantum chemistry, in particular by using quantum chemical force analysis tools. One such tool is the JEDI (Judgement of Energy DIstribution) analysis, which provides a convenient approach to analyze the distribution of strain energy in a mechanically deformed molecule. Based on the harmonic approximation, the strain energy contribution is calculated for each bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle, thus providing a comprehensive picture of how force affects molecules. This Account examines the theoretical foundations of quantum chemical force analysis and provides a critical overview of the performance of the JEDI analysis in various mechanochemical applications. We explain in detail how this analysis tool is to be used to identify the "force-bearing scaffold" of a distorted molecule, which allows both the rationalization and the optimization of diverse mechanochemical processes. More precisely, we show that the inclusion of every bond, bending and torsion of a molecule allows a particularly insightful discussion of the distribution of mechanical

  4. [Optimization of the pedagogical process at the department of otorhinolaryngology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmazov, M Iu; Zyrianova, K S; Dubinets, I D; Kornova, N V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to optimize the educational process with respect to teaching otorhinolaryngology based on the experience accumulated in this sphere with the use of fundamental management components. Special emphasis is laid on the innovative teaching methods employed in the higher education institutions for training clinical otorhinolaryngologists. The analysis of the functional responsibilities of the academic staff in medical institutions and the main components of the educational activity is presented. The basic principles of the quality management system are described. The conclusions made by the authors concern the possibility of standardization and prognostication in the higher education system that can be used for the development of practical guidelines for the academic staff.

  5. Pattern of drug overdose and chemical poisoning among patients attending an emergency department, western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad; Jan, Saber; Farahat, Fayssal; Attar, Ahmad; Alsaywid, Basim; Abuznadah, Wesam

    2015-02-01

    Poisoning is a medical emergency that represent a major health problem all over the world. Studies on drug overdose and chemical poisoning are very limited in Saudi Arabia (SA). We aimed to describe the current pattern and assess risk factors of drug overdose and chemical poisoning in King Khalid National Guard hospital, Jeddah, SA. Medical records of patients attended emergency department in King Khalid National Guard hospital during the period from January 2008 to December 2012 due to drug overdose and chemical poisoning were reviewed. A total of 129 cases were included in the study. The majority of the population was Saudi (97.7 %), and almost half of them were females (54.3 %). Children under 12 years were the most affected age group (44.2 %). Drug overdose was the most common cause of poisoning (92.2 %). Analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs represented the highest percentage of used medications (20.4 %). The most commonly reported symptoms were symptoms of the central nervous system (57.4 %) followed by GIT symptoms (41.9 %). Intentional poisoning was reported in 34 cases (26.4 %). Female patients were significantly more likely to attempt suicide than male patients (OR = 7.22, 95 % CI = 1.70, 30.62). Children continue to be at high risk for medication and chemical poisoning. Accessibility to medications at homes encountered for most of poisoning cases among children. Implementing methods to raise public awareness and minimize children access to medications would significantly contribute to reducing burden of this problem on the community.

  6. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  7. Physical and Chemical Processing in Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    than the classical Troe formula, and the development of a Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis ( CEMA ) computation algorithm that allows on-the-fly...6-311++G(d,p) method. 3. Flame Stabilization and Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis ( CEMA ) Flame stabilization is essential in the understanding of

  8. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  9. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  10. An Approach to Help Departments Meet the New ABET Process Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughen, Bruce K.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed program criteria changes by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. (ABET), for chemical, biochemical, biomolecular, and similarly named programs includes a fundamental awareness expectation of the hazards involved in chemical processing for a graduating chemical engineer. As of July 2010, these four new words…

  11. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  12. 45 CFR 4.2 - Other process directed to the Department or Secretary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... process (other than summonses and complaints) that are required to be served on the Department of Health and Human Services or the Secretary of Health and Human Services in his official capacity should be... the General Counsel, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence, S.W., Washington,...

  13. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  14. Administrative and operational strategies of the coffee processing industry department of Caldas (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Octavio Diaz Arango

    2016-07-01

    domestic and international markets. Furthermore, it was concluded that quality management depends on operating performance and productivity when it comes to increasing the competitiveness of the coffee processing industries in the Department of Caldas (Colombia.

  15. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  16. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  17. Quantum Matter-Photonics Framework: Analyses of Chemical Conversion Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, O

    2014-01-01

    A quantum Matter-Photonics framework is adapted to help scrutinize chemical reaction mechanisms and used to explore a process mapped from chemical tree topological model. The chemical concept of bond knitting/breaking is reformulated via partitioned base sets leading to an abstract and general quantum presentation. Pivotal roles are assigned to entanglement, coherence,de-coherence and Feshbach resonance quantum states that permit apprehend gating states in conversion processes. A view from above in the state energy eigenvalue ladder, belonging to full system spectra complement the standard view from ground state. A full quantum physical view supporting chemical change obtains.

  18. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  19. Chemical industrial wastewater treated by combined biological and chemical oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomin, Cao; Guoping, Yang; Mei, Sheng; Yongjian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Wastewaters from phenol and rubber synthesis were treated by the activated sludge process in a large-scale chemical factory in Shanghai, but the final effluent quality cannot conform with the local discharge limit without using river water for dilution. Therefore, this chemical factory had to upgrade its wastewater treatment plant. To fully use the present buildings and equipment during upgrading of the chemical factory's wastewater treatment plant and to save operation costs, a sequential biological pre-treatement, chemical oxidation, and biological post-treatment (or BCB for short) process had been proposed and investigated in a pilot trial. The pilot trial results showed that about 80% COD in the chemical wastewater could be removed through anoxic and aerobic degradation in the biological pre-treatement section, and the residual COD in the effluent of the biological pre-treatment section belongs to refractory chemicals which cannot be removed by the normal biological process. The refractory chemicals were partial oxidized using Fenton's reagent in the chemical oxidation section to improve their biodegradability; subsequently the wastewater was treated by the SBR process in the biological post-treatment section. The final effluent COD reached the first grade discharge limit (process, the operation cost of the BCB process increased by about 0.5 yuan (RMB) per cubic metre wastewater, but about 1,240,000 m(3) a(-1) dilution water could be saved and the COD emission could be cut down by 112 tonne each year.

  20. Sustainability Indicators for Chemical Processes: III. Biodiesel Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical industry is one of the most important business sectors, not only economically, but also societally; as it allows humanity to attain higher standards and quality of life. Simultaneously, chemical products and processes can be the origin of potential human health and ...

  1. Evaluation of Chemical Coating Processes for AXAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Mendrek, Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    The need existed at MSFC for the development and fabrication of radioisotope calibration sources of cadmium 109 and iron 55 isotopes. This was in urgent response to the AXA-F program. Several issues persisted in creating manufacturing difficulties for the supplier. In order to meet the MSFC requirements very stringent control needed to be maintained for the coating quality, specific activity and thickness. Due to the difficulties in providing the precisely controlled devices for testing, the delivery of the sources was seriously delayed. It became imperative that these fabrication issues be resolved to avoid further delays in this AXA-F observatory key component. The objectives are: 1) Research and provide expert advice on coating materials and procedures. 2) Research and recommend solutions to problems that have been experienced with the coating process. 3) Provide recommendations on the selection and preparation of substrates. 4) Provide consultation on the actual coating process including the results of the qualification and acceptance test programs. 5) Perform independent tests at UAH or MSFC as necessary.

  2. Occupational chemical burns: a 2-year experience in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Touzopoulos P; Zarogoulidis P; Mitrakas A; Karanikas M; Milothridis P; Matthaios D; Kouroumichakis I; Proikaki S; Pavlioglou P; Katsikogiannis N; Constantinidis TC

    2011-01-01

    Panagiotis Touzopoulos1, Paul Zarogoulidis2, Alexandros Mitrakas1, Michael Karanikas1, Panagiotis Milothridis1, Dimitrios Matthaios1, Ioannis Kouroumichakis3, Stella Proikaki3, Paschalis Pavlioglou3, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis4, Theodoros C Constantinidis511st University Surgical Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, 2Pulmonary Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexa...

  3. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    to each other. Similarly, in process design, steady state is always assumed for processes (i.e. production of a given chemical occurs at a constant rate, temperature, pressure and composition; feeds enter the plant at constant rates, etc.). However, in practice, chemical plants need to be carefully......, Process Design provides an opportunity for a comprehensive implementation of CDIO principles in a single course. Already the traditional chemical engineering “capstone” design course has for decades embodied many of the essential features of CDIO (for example the focus on group work, development......All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...

  4. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic...... gained considerable interest. Renewable feedstocks usually cannot be converted into fuels and chemicals with existing process facilities due to the molecular functionality and variety of the most common renewable feedstock (biomass). Therefore new types of catalytic methods as well as new types...

  5. From pulsed power to processing: Plasma initiated chemical process intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Smart electric power for process intensification is a challenging research field that integrates power engineering, chemistry and green technology. Pulsed power technology is offering elegant solutions. This work focuses on backgrounds of matching the power source to the process. Important items are

  6. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  7. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  8. New Developments in Thermo-Chemical Diffusion Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernd Edenhofer

    2004-01-01

    Thermo-chemical diffusion processes like carburising, nitriding and boronizing play an important part in modern manufacturing technologies. They exist in many varieties depending on the type of diffusing element used and the respective process procedure. The most important industrial heat treatment process is case-hardening, which consists of thermochemical diffusion process carburising or its variation carbonitriding, followed by a subsequent quench. The latest developments of using different gaseous carburising agents and increasing the carburising temperature are one main area of this paper. The other area is the evolvement of nitriding and especially the ferritic nitrocarburising process by improved process control and newly developed process variations using carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as diffusing elements in various process steps. Also boronizing and special thermo-chemical processes for stainless steels are discussed.

  9. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  10. Chemical Processes and Thresholds in Hawaiin Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, O.

    2007-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are a useful natural laboratory for studying soil development particularly those that can be understood using a matrix of chonosequences and climosequences. The islands are formed over a stationary mantle plume and then are carried to the northwest on the Pacific Plate. Thus the islands get older with distance from the hotspot; Kauai has remnant shield surfaces whose lavas date to about 4,000 ky. It is possible to sample soils that are developing on different age flows ranging from a few hundred years to a few million years. Additionally, individual volcanoes are impacted by differing amounts of rainfall depending on location with respect to the northeasterly trade winds. Whereas rainfall over the open ocean near Hawaii is about 700 mm, rainfall over the Islands ranges from 150 to 11,000 mm. Hawaii is minimally impacted by mineral aerosol additions compared to continental areas and this has a significant impact on soil development. More than 100 soil profiles have been sampled along the Hawaii time-climate matrix with some surprising results. For example, in arid soils might be expected to develop smectite clays, but they are rich in halloysite and allophane. Importantly, these same soils show a trend from high-Mg calcite to dolomite as carbonates accumulate within the profiles - this is one of the first documented occurrences of pedogenic dolomite that is not associated with high levels of salts. It appears that lack of smectite formation lowers the incorporation of Mg into silicate clays and increases its incorporation into carbonates. This is an unusual pedogenic process that seems to be enhanced by the lack of substantial amounts of mica in the basalt derived soils. The only mica is in surface horizons that receive dust derived from distant continents. Without mica there is no template to allow smectite clay formation under the rapid wetting and drying regimes encountered in the arid soils. At the same time that halloysite is forming, iron

  11. Computer simulation for designing waste reduction in chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, S.K. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Technology, TN (United States); Cabezas, H.; Bare, J.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new methodology has been developed for implementing waste reduction in the design of chemical processes using computer simulation. The methodology is based on a generic pollution balance around a process. For steady state conditions, the pollution balance equation is used as the basis to define a pollution index with units of pounds of pollution per pound of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass of each pollutant by a chemical ranking of environmental impact. The chemical ranking expresses the well known fact that all chemicals do not have the same environmental impact, e.g., all chemicals are not equally toxic. Adding the chemical ranking effectively converts the pollutant mass balance into a balance over environmental impact. A modified pollution index or impact index with units of environmental impact per mass of products is derived from the impact balance. The impact index is a measure of the environmental effects due to the waste generated by a process. It is extremely useful when comparing the effect of the pollution generated by alternative processes or process conditions in the manufacture of any given product. The following three different schemes for the chemical ranking have been considered: (i) no ranking, i.e., considering that all chemicals have the same environmental impact, (ii) a simple numerical ranking of wastes from 0 to 3 according to the authors judgement of the impact of each chemical, and (iii) ranking wastes according to a scientifically derived combined index of human health and environmental effects. Use of the methodology has been illustrated with an example of production of synthetic ammonia. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources......, are the needed models for such a framework available? Or, are modelling tools that can help to develop the needed models available? Can such a model-based framework provide the needed model-based work-flows matching the requirements of the specific chemical product-process design problems? What types of models...

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  14. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...... chemical processes is presented. The framework allows the use of appropriate computer-aided methods and tools in a hierarchical manner according to a developed work flow for a multilevel criteria analysis that helps generate competing and more sustainable process design options. The application...

  15. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  16. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  17. Dust as interstellar catalyst I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    CERN Document Server

    Minissale, M; Cazaux, S; Hocuk, S

    2015-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV and CR induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims. The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included into astrochemical models. Methods. We present a collection of experimental results of more than 10 reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice are used. We derive a formula to reproduce the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process, which considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II we extend these resul...

  18. A New Optimal Control System Design for Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛二丁; 胡明慧; 涂善东; 邵惠鹤

    2013-01-01

    Based on frequency response and convex optimization, a novel optimal control system was developed for chemical processes. The feedforward control is designed to improve the tracking performance of closed loop chemical systems. The parametric model is not required because the system directly utilizes the frequency response of the loop transfer function, which can be measured accurately. In particular, the extremal values of magnitude and phase can be solved according to constrained quadratic programming optimizer and convex optimization. Simula-tion examples show the effectiveness of the method. The design method is simple and easily adopted in chemical industry.

  19. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  20. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join......, the implementation of the computer-aided process-group based flowsheet synthesis-design framework is presented together with an extended library of flowsheet property models to predict the environmental impact, safety factors, product recovery and purity, which are employed to screen the generated alternatives. Also...... flowsheet (the well-known Hydrodealkylation of toluene process) and another for a biochemical process flowsheet (production of ethanol from lignocellulose). In both cases, not only the reported designs are found and matched, but also new innovative designs are found, which is possible because...

  1. The role of chemical engineering in process development and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, E; Osifchin, R

    2000-11-01

    This review focuses on the roles that chemical engineers can play in the development, scale-up and optimization of synthetic processes for the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This multidisciplinary endeavor involves close collaboration among chemists and chemical engineers, and, for successful products, involves bridging the R&D and manufacturing enterprises. Balancing these disparate elements in the face of ever-mounting competitive pressures to shorten development timelines and ever-tightening regulatory, safety and environmental constraints, has become a critical business objective for all pharmaceutical companies. The concept of focusing development resources on selected critical process features as a function of phase within the development cycle will be discussed. In addition, several examples of chemical engineering- focused process development and optimization will be presented.

  2. Treatment Process Requirements for Waters Containing Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, W. T.; Camarillo, M. K.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Jordan, P. D.; Heberger, M. G.; Reagan, M. T.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A wide variety of chemical additives are used as part of the hydraulic fracturing (HyF) process. There is concern that HyF chemicals will be released into the environment and contaminate drinking water, agricultural water, or other water used for beneficial purposes. There is also interest in using produced water (water extracted from the subsurface during oil and gas production) for irrigation and other beneficial purposes, especially in the arid Southwest US. Reuse of produced water is not speculative: produced water can be low in salts and is being used in California for irrigation after minimal treatment. In this study, we identified chemicals that are used for hydraulic fracturing in California and conducted an analysis to determine if those chemicals would be removed by a variety of technically available treatment processes, including oil/water separation, air stripping, a variety of sorption media, advanced oxidation, biological treatment, and a variety of membrane treatment systems. The approach taken was to establish major physiochemical properties for individual chemicals (log Koc, Henry's constant, biodegradability, etc.), group chemicals by function (e.g corrosion inhibition, biocides), and use those properties to predict the fate of chemical additives in a treatment process. Results from this analysis is interpreted in the context of what is known about existing systems for the treatment of produced water before beneficial reuse, which includes a range of treatment systems from oil/water separators (the most common treatment) to sophisticated treatment trains used for purifying produced water for groundwater recharge. The results show that most HyF chemical additives will not be removed in existing treatment systems, but that more sophisticated treatment trains can be designed to remove additives before beneficial reuse.

  3. Improving Emergency Department Door to Doctor Time and Process Reliability: A Successful Implementation of Lean Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen J; El-Eid, Ghada R; Saliba, Miriam; Jabbour, Rima; Hitti, Eveline A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using lean management methods on improving emergency department door to doctor times at a tertiary care hospital.We performed a before and after study at an academic urban emergency department with 49,000 annual visits after implementing a series of lean driven interventions over a 20 month period. The primary outcome was mean door to doctor time and the secondary outcome was length of stay of both admitted and discharged patients. A convenience sample from the preintervention phase (February 2012) was compared to another from the postintervention phase (mid-October to mid-November 2013). Individual control charts were used to assess process stability.Postintervention there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean door to doctor time measure (40.0 minutes ± 53.44 vs 25.3 minutes ± 15.93 P < 0.001). The postintervention process was more statistically in control with a drop in the upper control limits from 148.8 to 72.9 minutes. Length of stay of both admitted and discharged patients dropped from 2.6 to 2.0 hours and 9.0 to 5.5 hours, respectively. All other variables including emergency department visit daily volumes, hospital occupancy, and left without being seen rates were comparable.Using lean change management techniques can be effective in reducing door to doctor time in the Emergency Department and improving process reliability.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities.

  5. Electrochemistry and green chemical processes: electrochemical ozone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available After an introductory discussion emphasising the importance of electrochemistry for the so-called Green Chemical Processes, the article presents a short discussion of the classical ozone generation technologies. Next a revision of the electrochemical ozone production technology focusing on such aspects as: fundamentals, latest advances, advantages and limitations of this technology is presented. Recent results about fundamentals of electrochemical ozone production obtained in our laboratory, using different electrode materials (e.g. boron doped diamond electrodes, lead dioxide and DSAÒ-based electrodes also are presented. Different chemical processes of interest to the solution of environmental problems involving ozone are discussed.

  6. Occupational exposure to chemical and biological agents in the nonproduction departments of pulp, paper, and paper product mills: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Ahrens, W; Andersen, A; Boffetta, P; Fincham, S; Finkelstein, M; Henneberger, P; Kauppinen, T; Kogevinas, M; Korhonen, K; Liss, G; Liukkonnen, T; Osvoll, P; Savela, A; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I; Westberg, H; Widerkiewicz, K

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry, previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article describes 7293 measurements in nonproduction departments from 147 mills in 11 countries. The greatest variety of agents was measured in the maintenance, construction, and cleaning department, where high exposures to asbestos, chromium [VI] compounds, copper, mercury in urine, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, styrene, sulfur dioxide, trichloroethylene, and welding fumes were observed. Measurements in the storage, yard, loading, and shipping department indicated high exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, fungal spores, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and total dust. The steam and power generation department had high exposures to methyl mercaptan, silica, and total dust. Measurements in process and effluent water treatment, laboratory and research, engineering, and office, administration, and cafeteria areas had few elevated exposures. Throughout the nonproduction departments, measurements of pulp-production chemicals such as chlorine and sulfur compounds tended to be low, with many below detection limits. There were some problems with the available data; in particular, detection limits were often not specified, and the data tended to be clustered in such a way that sources of exposure variability could not be distinguished. Despite these problems, the data provide new insight into the exposures of nonproduction pulp and paper industry personnel.

  7. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  8. Composition and placement process for oil field chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu, L.A.; Yost, M.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for the continuous release of an oil field chemical within a subterranean hydrocarbon bearing formation or wellbore penetrating such formation. It comprises placing the oil field chemical in a polymeric microcapsule; dispersing such polymeric microcapsules; introducing the wellbore fluid containing the microcapsules into a well bore or subterranean formation through a wellbore; then allowing water and temperature at formation conditions to degrade; continuously releasing the chemical from the degraded microcapsules. This patent describes a composition comprising an oil field chemical incorporated in a polymeric microcapsule comprising the condensation product of hydroxyacetic acid monomer or hydroxyacetic acid co-condensed with up to 15 percent by weight of other hydroxy-, carboxylic acid-, or hydroxycarboxylic acid- containing moieties. The product has a number average molecular weight of from about 200 to about 4000.

  9. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  10. The kinetics of chemical processes affecting acidity in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienaar, J.J.; Helas, G. [Potchefstroom University of Christian Higher Education, Potchefstroom (South Africa). Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group

    1996-03-01

    The dominant chemical reactions affecting atmospheric pollution chemistry and in particular, those leading to the formation of acid rain are outlined. The factors controlling the oxidation rate of atmospheric pollutants as well as the rate laws describing these processes are discussed in the light of our latest results and the current literature.

  11. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  12. An Integrated Course and Design Project in Chemical Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstraw, David A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course curriculum on process design, analysis, and simulation. Includes information regarding the sequencing of engineering design classes and the location of the classes within the degree program at New Mexico State University. Details of course content are provided. (DDR)

  13. MIMO Self-Tuning Control of Chemical Process Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, L.; Jørgensen, S. B.; Goldschmidt, L.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of selecting a feasible model structure for a MIMO self-tuning controller (MIMOSC) is addressed. The dependency of the necessary structure complexity in relation to the specific process operating point is investigated. Experimental results from a fixed-bed chemical reactor are used...

  14. Reducing the occurrence of errors in a laboratory's specimen receiving and processing department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saleem, Nouf; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Frequent, preventable medical errors can have an adverse effect on patient safety and quality as well as leading to wasted resources. In the laboratory, errors can occur at any stage of sample processing; pre-analytical, analytical, and post analytical stages. However evidence shows most of the laboratory errors occur during the pre-analytical stage. The receipt and processing of specimens is one of the main steps in the pre-analytical stage. Errors in this stage could be due to mislabeling, incorrect test entry and entering the wrong location, among other reasons. Most of these errors are preventable. At the Riyadh Regional Laboratory of the Ministry of Health, we found that there was an average of 2.31 errors per 1000 processed samples; these errors had occurred during the pre-analytical stage. These samples were returned back from other laboratory departments, such as Chemistry, Hematology and Microbiology, to the receiving and processing department. We decided to carry out an improvement project where we applied a systematic approach to identify and analyse the root causes of the problem using quality tools such as a process flowchart and a fish-bone diagram. The Model for Improvement was used and several PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) cycles were run to test interventions which aimed to prevent laboratory processing errors and mistakes. The project results showed a 25% reduction in errors during the pre-analytical stage. PMID:27752311

  15. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  16. Lean Six Sigma applied to a process innovation in a mexican health institute's imaging department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porres, J; Ortiz-Posadas, M R; Pimentel-Aguilar, A B

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of services to a patient has to be given with an acceptable measure of quality that can be monitored through the patient's satisfaction. The objective of this work was to innovate processes eliminating waste and non value-added work in processes done at the Imaging Department in the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER for its Spanish acronym) in Mexico City, to decrease the time a patient spends in a study and increase satisfaction. This innovation will be done using Lean Six Sigma tools and applied in a pilot program.

  17. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  18. Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

    1988-02-01

    Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed.

  19. Approaches to Chemical and Biochemical Information and Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    We outline models and approaches for error control required to prevent buildup of noise when ``gates'' and other ``network elements'' based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information and signal processing. We also survey challenges and possible future research. [4pt] [1] Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing, V. Privman, Israel J. Chem. 51, 118-131 (2010).[0pt] [2] Biochemical Filter with Sigmoidal Response: Increasing the Complexity of Biomolecular Logic, V. Privman, J. Halamek, M. A. Arugula, D. Melnikov, V. Bocharova and E. Katz, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 14103-14109 (2010).[0pt] [3] Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems, E. Katz, V. Privman and J. Wang, in: Proc. Conf. ICQNM 2010 (IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. Publ. Serv., Los Alamitos, California, 2010), pages 1-9.

  20. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  1. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    eight mutants of yCE to increase organophosphorous acid anhydrase (OPAA) Achieved up to a 20-fold increase in the • specificity constant for carboxyl...Integrated Product Team or Overarching Integrated Process Team OPAA – Organophosphorous Acid Anhydrase OPCW – Organization for the Prohibition of

  2. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  3. Sustainability assessment of novel chemical processes at early stage: application to biobased processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.D.; Meesters, K.; Uil, H. den; Jong, E. de; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical conversions have been a cornerstone of industrial revolution and societal progress. Continuing this progress in a resource constrained world poses a critical challenge which demands the development of innovative chemical processes to meet our energy and material needs in a sustainable way.

  4. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    T) for model translation, analysis and solution. The integration of ModDev, MoT and ICAS or any other external software or process simulator (using COM-Objects) permits the generation of different models and/or process configurations for purposes of simulation, design and analysis. Consequently, it is possible......Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...... for model generation, analysis, solution and implementation is necessary for the development and application of the desired model-based approach for product-centric process design/analysis. This goal is achieved through the combination of a system for model development (ModDev), and a modelling tool (Mo...

  5. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of Primary Biological Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Amato, P.; Ariya, P. A.; Delort, A.-M.; Pöschl, U.; Chaumerliac, N.; Bauer, H.; Flossmann, A. I.; Morris, C. E.

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bioaerosols on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that biological matter represents a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affects the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of primary biological particles in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  7. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  8. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  9. Microfabricated Instrumentation for Chemical Sensing in Industrial Process Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, J. M.

    2000-06-01

    The monitoring of chemical constituents in manufacturing processes is of economic importance to most industries. The monitoring and control of chemical constituents may be of importance for product quality control or, in the case of process effluents, of environmental concern. The most common approach now employed for chemical process control is to collect samples which are returned to a conventional chemical analysis laboratory. This project attempts to demonstrate the use of microfabricated structures, referred to as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, that accomplish chemical measurement tasks that emulate those performed in the conventional laboratory. The devices envisioned could be used as hand portable chemical analysis instruments where samples are analyzed in the field or as emplaced sensors for continuous 'real-time' monitoring. This project focuses on the development of filtration elements and solid phase extraction elements that can be monolithically integrated onto electrophoresis and chromatographic structures pioneered in the laboratory. Successful demonstration of these additional functional elements on integrated microfabricated devices allows lab-on-a-chip technologies to address real world samples that would be encountered in process control environments. The resultant technology has a broad application to industrial environmental monitoring problems. such as monitoring municipal water supplies, waste water effluent from industrial facilities, or monitoring of run-off from agricultural activities. The technology will also be adaptable to manufacturing process control scenarios. Microfabricated devices integrating sample filtration, solid phase extraction, and chromatographic separation with solvent programming were demonstrated. Filtering of the sample was accomplished at the same inlet with an array of seven channels each 1 {micro}m deep and 18 {micro}m wide. Sample concentration and separation were performed on channels 5 {micro}m deep

  10. Realization of process improvement at a diagnostic radiology department with aid of simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hong-Choon; Toh, Hong-Guan; Giap Cheong, Eddy Seng

    2011-11-01

    Using the classical process improvement framework of Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA), the diagnostic radiology department of a tertiary hospital identified several patient cycle time reduction strategies. Experimentation of these strategies (which included procurement of new machines, hiring of new staff, redesign of queue system, etc.) through pilot scale implementation was impractical because it might incur substantial expenditure or be operationally disruptive. With this in mind, simulation modeling was used to test these strategies via performance of "what if" analyses. Using the output generated by the simulation model, the team was able to identify a cost-free cycle time reduction strategy, which subsequently led to a reduction of patient cycle time and achievement of a management-defined performance target. As healthcare professionals work continually to improve healthcare operational efficiency in response to rising healthcare costs and patient expectation, simulation modeling offers an effective scientific framework that can complement established process improvement framework like PDSA to realize healthcare process enhancement.

  11. Economic model predictive control theory, formulations and chemical process applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Matthew; Christofides, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes. In addition to being...

  12. A pollution reduction methodology for chemical process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, S.K.; Cabezas, H.; Bare, J.C.; Sikdar, S.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

    1996-11-01

    A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass flowrate of each pollutant by its potential environmental impact score. This converts the mass balance into an environmental impact balance. This balance defines an impact index with units of environmental impact per mass of products. The impact index measures the potential environmental effects of process wastes. Three different schemes for chemical ranking were considered: (1) no ranking, (2) simple ranking from 0 to 3, and (3) ranking by a scientifically derived measure of human health and environmental effects. Use of the methodology is illustrated with two examples from the production of (1) methyl ethyl ketone and (2) synthetic ammonia.

  13. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  14. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  15. Numerical simulation of chemical processes in atmospheric plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Jian-Ming; Guo Wei; Wang Long; Shao Fu-Qiu

    2004-01-01

    A model is built to study chemical processes in atmospheric plasmas at low altitude (high pressure) and at high altitude (low pressure). The plasma lifetime and the temporal evolution of the main charged species are presented.The electron number density does not strictly obey the exponential damping law in a long period. The heavy charged species are dominant at low altitude in comparison with the light species at high altitude. Some species of small amount in natural air play an important role in the processes.

  16. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  17. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  18. The role of chemical interactions in ion-solid processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation of low-energy ion-solid processes has greatly broadened in scope in recent years. In particular, realistic descriptions of the ion-solid and solid-solid interactions can now be utilized. The molecular dynamics technique, in which the equations of motion of the interacting atoms are numerically integrated, can now be used to characterize ion-solid interactions in a range of model material systems. Despite practical limitations of this procedure, a number of substantial results have appeared. The available results are examined to investigate the qualitative influence that chemical interactions have on low-energy ion-solid processes. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  20. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  1. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, Minissale

    2014-01-01

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O$_2$) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80 $\\%$ at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-...

  2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  3. A Business Process Model and Reengineering Plan for the Student Services Department of the Marine Corps Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Department (SSD). The objective of this thesis is to develop the As-Is process model , redesign the processes to increase efficiency and reduce costs, and...develop a To-Be process model to improve the current business processes. Additionally, data flow diagrams of the To-Be processes are developed to assist

  4. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  5. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  6. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    , polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property......, they are not always available. Also, it may be too expensive to measure them or it may take too much time. In these situations and when repetitive calculations are involved (as in process simulation), it is useful to have appropriate models to reliably predict the needed properties. A collection of methods tools...... such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...

  7. Bioactives from fruit processing wastes: Green approaches to valuable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jhumur; Singh, Ramkrishna; Vijayaraghavan, R; MacFarlane, Douglas; Patti, Antonio F; Arora, Amit

    2017-06-15

    Fruit processing industries contribute more than 0.5billion tonnes of waste worldwide. The global availability of this feedstock and its untapped potential has encouraged researchers to perform detailed studies on value-addition potential of fruit processing waste (FPW). Compared to general food or other biomass derived waste, FPW are found to be selective and concentrated in nature. The peels, pomace and seed fractions of FPW could potentially be a good feedstock for recovery of bioactive compounds such as pectin, lipids, flavonoids, dietary fibres etc. A novel bio-refinery approach would aim to produce a wider range of valuable chemicals from FPW. The wastes from majority of the extraction processes may further be used as renewable sources for production of biofuels. The literature on value addition to fruit derived waste is diverse. This paper presents a review of fruit waste derived bioactives. The financial challenges encountered in existing methods are also discussed.

  8. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S

    2008-08-12

    The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management Engineering & Technology Roadmap (Roadmap), defines the Department's intent to reduce the technical risk and uncertainty in its cleanup programs. The unique nature of many of the remaining facilities will require a strong and responsive engineering and technology program to improve worker and public safety, and reduce costs and environmental impacts while completing the cleanup program. The technical risks and uncertainties associated with cleanup program were identified through: (1) project risk assessments, (2) programmatic external technical reviews and technology readiness assessments, and (3) direct site input. In order to address these needs, the technical risks and uncertainties were compiled and divided into the program areas of: Waste Processing, Groundwater and Soil Remediation, and Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D). Strategic initiatives were then developed within each program area to address the technical risks and uncertainties in that program area. These strategic initiatives were subsequently incorporated into the Roadmap, where they form the strategic framework of the EM Engineering & Technology Program. The EM-21 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstrations that will lead to a reduction of technical uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The current MYPP summarizes the strategic initiatives and the scope of the activities within each initiative that are proposed for the next five years (FY2008-2012) to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. As a result of the importance of reducing technical risk and uncertainty in the EM Waste

  9. Relationship between snow microstructure and physical and chemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bartels-Rausch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice and snow in the environment are important because they not only act as a host to rich chemistry but also provide a matrix for physical exchanges of contaminants within the ecosystem. This review discusses how the structure of snow influences both chemical reactivity and physical processes, which thereby makes snow a unique medium for study. The focus is placed on impacts of the presence of liquid and surface disorder using many experimental studies, simulations, and field observations from the molecular to the micro-scale.

  10. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  11. Process Mapping in a Pediatric Emergency Department to Minimize Missed Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Valene; Belostotsky, Vladimir; Roy, Madan; Yamamura, Deborah; Gambarotto, Kathryn; Lau, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children and are seen in emergency departments (EDs) frequently. Left untreated, UTIs can lead to more severe conditions. Our goal was to undertake a quality improvement (QI) initiative to help minimize the number of children with missed UTIs in a newly established tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED). A retrospective chart review was undertaken to identify missed UTIs in children < 3 years old who presented to a children's hospital's ED with positive urine cultures. It was found that there was no treatment or follow-up in 12% of positive urine cultures, indicating a missed or possible missed UTI in a significant number of children. Key stakeholders were then gathered and process mapping (PM) was completed, where gaps and barriers were identified and interventions were subsequently implemented. A follow-up chart review was completed to assess the impact of PM in reducing the number of missed UTIs. Following PM and its implementation within the ED, there was no treatment or follow-up in only 1% of cases. Based on our results, the number of potentially missed UTIs in the ED decreased dramatically, indicating that PM can be a successful QI tool in an acute care pediatric setting. PMID:27974897

  12. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  13. Streamlining of building permit approval processing of town and country planning department in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriss Kweku Hammah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Ghanaian development control system has proven unsuccessful in delivering quality planning application approvals in a timely manner and it is doubtful whether it is possible to achieve that basic goal in its current form. Planning application approval assessment is performed conjointly by various planning organizations spearheaded by Accra Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD. The success in delivering quality approvals in a timely manner therefore depends on the inter-organizational task interdependency, collaboration, and teamwork of the various planning agencies that form the Accra Metropolitan Assembly. The paper puts into perspective the TCPD organizational workflow and knowledge flow based on their strategies, size, leadership style, organizational complexities, and their competencies to contribute to the success of the approval process. Further, this paper examines the reasons behind the increasing amorphous planning and unapproved development/construction and identifies the various planning approval problems. Finally, it offers modalities to curtail planning approval delays.

  14. Development of balanced key performance indicators for emergency departments strategic dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons.

  15. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  16. DYNSYL: a general-purpose dynamic simulator for chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, G.K.; Rozsa, R.B.

    1978-09-05

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is conducting a safeguards program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Material Control Project of this program is to evaluate material control and accounting (MCA) methods in plants that handle special nuclear material (SNM). To this end we designed and implemented the dynamic chemical plant simulation program DYNSYL. This program can be used to generate process data or to provide estimates of process performance; it simulates both steady-state and dynamic behavior. The MCA methods that may have to be evaluated range from sophisticated on-line material trackers such as Kalman filter estimators, to relatively simple material balance procedures. This report describes the overall structure of DYNSYL and includes some example problems. The code is still in the experimental stage and revision is continuing.

  17. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  18. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities of chemical engineers. Therefore, the main question of this thesis is: how can a trained chemical engineer develop a conceptual design of a chemical process or a chemical product in such a way that ...

  19. Chemical Process Research and Development at DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Philip

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Chemical Process R&D Department at DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company is to supply drug substance in a timely fashion and to discover/develop a scalable, economical, environmentally friendly process for the commercial production of the bulk drug substance. Several examples will be presented to illustrate our effort to accomplish the mission. Brief discussion will include the following projects:1) Synthesis of DMP 728, a cyclic peptide of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor 2) Method for the preparation of a-chloroboronic acid, a key intermediate for DuP 714,a potent thrombin inhibitor3) Process research and development of Roxifiban, a potent and orally active GP IIb/Illa inhibitor  ……

  20. Integration of process design and controller design for chemical processes using model-based methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel systematic model-based methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for chemical processes is presented. The methodology uses a decomposition method to solve the IPDC typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization...... that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights to the solution of IPDC problems in chemical engineering practice....... with constraints) problem. Accordingly the optimization problem is decomposed into four sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification, which are relatively easier to solve. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process...

  1. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  2. Paperless and paper-based processes in the modern radiotherapy department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, M. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: mark.middleton@roq.net.au; Bradford, C. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Frantzis, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Ambler, A. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Sisson, T. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Montgomerie, D. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Martin, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the implications on workflow and efficiency in a paperless environment versus a traditional paper-based environment. This paper summarises the comparison of specific workflow practices conducted in a paperless and paper-based approach, comparing time taken, potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach. Methods and materials: A time study was undertaken on three specific workflow areas for 5 patients with breast and prostate cancer respectively, and comparison made between paperless and paper-based methodology. The workflow areas analysed were electronic treatment record (ETR) versus treatment sheet preparation, digital history check process versus paper-based and digital image and trend analysis versus paper-based. The cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach was then analysed. Additionally a staff questionnaire was undertaken, assessing Information Technology (IT) skills of staff and comfort levels pertaining to a paperless environment. Results: There was on average a 50% reduction in workload when comparing an ETR versus a paper-based treatment sheet, a 50% reduction in workload by utilising a paperless history check process and a 70% reduction in workload with a paperless image and trend analysis process. There was also significant cost savings by introducing a paperless workflow. The survey showed a higher level of comfort with information technology in the paperless environment, and less frustration with aspects of working in the paper-based centre. Conclusion: The digital radiotherapy department offers highly significant improvements in efficiency. These potentially translate into major financial savings and increased job satisfaction.

  3. Modular microcomponents for a flexible chemical process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesinger, Norbert

    2000-08-01

    Different types of modular micro components such as pumps, values, reactors, separators, residence structures, extractors have been developed. Silicon was used as basic material. Most external dimensions of all different modules are equal. The components contain deep micro structures like channels or groves produced in dry or in wet chemical etching procedures. Different types of bonding technologies were applied to cover the flow structures. Openings positioned at the surface allow the connection with external standard tubes. These openings are arranged on each module at the same position. Due to this basic design a highly flexible combination of the micro modules is possible. Specific process conditions of chemical reactions can be adapted very easily and cost effective by means of module combinations. Holders for the modules contain the fluidic/electric connectors and allow their flexible combination. They are made of PEEK or PTFE. Fixing and sealing of external tubes to the modules can be realised by simple screwing procedures of standard tubes into the holders. Due to this simple screwing procedure all modules can be exchanged on demand. Operating pressures up to the limitation values of the external tubes can be applied to the modules. Electrical contacts arranged inside the holders allow the electrical connection of the modules to an external power supply, as well as a read out of electrical signals delivered from possibly integrated specific sensors. Stand alone examinations of single modules as well as specific chemical reactions in modular combinations were carried out to verify the performance of the micro devices. Successful and hopeful results were found in all cases.

  4. Linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics of periodic processes and chemical oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Onsager's phenomenological equations successfully describe irreversible thermodynamic processes. They assume a symmetric coupling matrix between thermodynamic fluxes and forces. It is easily shown that the antisymmetric part of a coupling matrix does not contribute to dissipation. Therefore, entropy production is exclusively governed by the symmetric matrix even in the presence of antisymmetric terms. In this work we focus on the antisymmetric contributions which describe isentropic oscillations and well-defined equations of motion. The formalism contains variables that are equivalent to momenta, and coefficients that are analogous to an inertial mass. We apply this formalism to simple problems such as an oscillating piston and the oscillation in an electrical LC-circuit. We show that isentropic oscillations are possible even close to equilibrium in the linear limit and one does not require far-from equilibrium situations. One can extend this formalism to other pairs of variables, including chemical systems w...

  5. SDG-based Model Validation in Chemical Process Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贝克; 许欣; 马昕; 吴重光

    2013-01-01

    Signed direct graph (SDG) theory provides algorithms and methods that can be applied directly to chemical process modeling and analysis to validate simulation models, and is a basis for the development of a soft-ware environment that can automate the validation activity. This paper is concentrated on the pretreatment of the model validation. We use the validation scenarios and standard sequences generated by well-established SDG model to validate the trends fitted from the simulation model. The results are helpful to find potential problems, as-sess possible bugs in the simulation model and solve the problem effectively. A case study on a simulation model of boiler is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  6. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  7. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    or larger influence on the textural development. In the chalk interval below, compaction is not the only porosity reducing agent but it has a larger influence on texture than concurrent recrystallization. Below 850 m grain-bridging cementation becomes important resulting in a lithified limestone below 1100......Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...... in the Pacific, where a > 1 km thick package of chalk facies sediments accumulated from the Cretaceous to the present. In the upper 200-300 m the sediment is unconsolidated carbonate ooze, throughout this depth interval compaction is the principal porosity reducing agent, but recrystallization has an equal...

  8. Corrosion study in the chemical air separation (MOLTOX trademark ) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doohee; Wong, Kai P.; Archer, R.A.; Cassano, A.A.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at solving the corrosion problems encountered during operation of the MOLTOX{trademark} pilot plant. These studies concentrated on the screening of commercial and developmental alloys under conditions simulating operation conditions in this high temperature molten salt process. Process economic studies were preformed in parallel with the laboratory testing to ensure that an economically feasible solution would be achieved. In addition to the above DOE co-funded studies, Air Products and Chemicals pursued proprietary studies aimed at developing a less corrosive salt mixture which would potentially allow the use of chemurgically available alloys such as stainless steels throughout the system. These studies will not be reported here; however, the results of corrosion tests in the new less corrosive salt mixtures are reported. Because our own studies on salt chemistry impacts heavily on the overall process and thereby has an influence on the experimental work conducted under this contract, some of the studies discussed here were impacted by our own proprietary data. Therefore, the reasons behind some of the experiments presented herein will not be explained because that information is proprietary to Air Products. 14 refs., 42 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Accelerating chemical database searching using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Yang, Eric

    2011-08-22

    The utility of chemoinformatics systems depends on the accurate computer representation and efficient manipulation of chemical compounds. In such systems, a small molecule is often digitized as a large fingerprint vector, where each element indicates the presence/absence or the number of occurrences of a particular structural feature. Since in theory the number of unique features can be exceedingly large, these fingerprint vectors are usually folded into much shorter ones using hashing and modulo operations, allowing fast "in-memory" manipulation and comparison of molecules. There is increasing evidence that lossless fingerprints can substantially improve retrieval performance in chemical database searching (substructure or similarity), which have led to the development of several lossless fingerprint compression algorithms. However, any gains in storage and retrieval afforded by compression need to be weighed against the extra computational burden required for decompression before these fingerprints can be compared. Here we demonstrate that graphics processing units (GPU) can greatly alleviate this problem, enabling the practical application of lossless fingerprints on large databases. More specifically, we show that, with the help of a ~$500 ordinary video card, the entire PubChem database of ~32 million compounds can be searched in ~0.2-2 s on average, which is 2 orders of magnitude faster than a conventional CPU. If multiple query patterns are processed in batch, the speedup is even more dramatic (less than 0.02-0.2 s/query for 1000 queries). In the present study, we use the Elias gamma compression algorithm, which results in a compression ratio as high as 0.097.

  10. Radioactive decay as a forced nuclear chemical process: Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2015-11-01

    Concepts regarding the mechanism of radioactive decay of nuclei are developed on the basis of a hypothesis that there is a dynamic relationship between the electronic and nuclear subsystems of an atom, and that fluctuating initiating effects of the electronic subsystem on a nucleus are possible. Such relationship is reflected in experimental findings that show the radioactive decay of nuclei might be determined by a positive difference between the mass of an initial nucleus and the mass of an atom's electronic subsystem, i.e., the mass of the entire atom (rather than that of its nucleus) and the total mass of the decay products. It is established that an intermediate nucleus whose charge is lower by unity than the charge of the initial radioactive nucleus is formed as a result of the above fluctuating stimuli that initiate radioactive decay, and its nuclear matter is thus in an unbalanced metastable state of inner shakeup, affecting the quark subsystem of nucleons. The intermediate nucleus thus experiences radioactive decay with the emission of α or β particles. At the same time, the high energy (with respect to the chemical scale) of electrons in plasma served as a factor initiating the processes in different nuclear chemical transformations and radioactive decays in low-temperature plasma studied earlier, particularly during the laser ablation of metals in aqueous solutions of different compositions and in near-surface cathode layers upon glow discharge. It is shown that a wide variety of nucleosynthesis processes in the Universe can be understood on the same basis, and a great many questions regarding the formation of light elements in the solar atmosphere and some heavy elements (particularly p-nuclei) in the interiors of massive stars at late stages of their evolution can also be resolved.

  11. Chemical Processing and Characterization of Fiber Reinforced Nanocomposite Silica Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Steven Shannon

    Ultrasound techniques, acoustic and electroacoustic spectroscopy, are used to investigate and characterize concentrated fluid phase nanocomposites. In particular, the data obtained from ultrasound methods are used as tools to improve the understanding of the fundamental process chemistry of concentrated, multicomponent, nanomaterial dispersions. Silicon nitride nanofibers embedded in silica are particularly interesting for lightweight nanocomposites, because silicon nitride is isostructural to carbon nitride, a super hard material. However, the major challenge with processing these composites is retarding particle-particle aggregation, to maintain highly dispersed systems. Therefore, a systematic approach was developed to evaluate the affect of process parameters on particle-particle aggregation, and improving the chemical kinetics for gelation. From the acoustic analysis of the nanofibers, this thesis was able to deduce that changes in aspect ratio affects the ultrasound propagation. In particular, higher aspect ratio fibers attenuate the ultrasound wave greater than lower aspect fibers of the same material. Furthermore, our results confirm that changes in attenuation depend on the hydrodynamical interactions between particles, the aspect ratio, and the morphology of the dispersant. The results indicate that the attenuation is greater for fumed silica due to its elastic nature and its size, when compared to silica Ludox. Namely, the larger the size, the greater the attenuation. This attenuation is mostly the result of scattering loss in the higher frequency range. In addition, the silica nanofibers exhibit greater attenuation than their nanoparticle counterparts because of their aspect ratio influences their interaction with the ultrasound wave. In addition, this study observed how 3M NH 4 Cl's acoustic properties changes during the gelation process, and during that change, the frequency dependency deviates from the expected squared of the frequency, until the

  12. Parameter Optimization of Nitriding Process Using Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Firat; Lippmann, Nils

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamics of chemical kinetics, an investigation to search for an optimum condition for a gas nitriding process is performed over the solution space spanned by the initial temperature and gas composition of the furnace. For a two-component furnace atmosphere, the results are presented in temporal variations of gas concentrations and the nitrogen coverage on the surface. It seems that the exploitation of the nitriding kinetics can provide important feedback for setting the model-based control algorithms. The present work shows that when the nitrogen gas concentration is not allowed to exceed 6 pct, the Nad coverage can attain maximum values as high as 0.97. The time evolution of the Nad coverage also reveals that, as long as the temperature is above the value where nitrogen poisoning of the surface due to the low-temperature adsorption of excess nitrogen occurs, the initial ammonia content in the furnace atmosphere is much more important in the nitriding process than is the initial temperature.

  13. Use of BPPV processes in Emergency Department Dizziness Presentations: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Burke, James F.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Brown, Devin L.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Fendrick, A. Mark; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A common cause of dizziness, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), is effectively diagnosed and cured with the Dix-Hallpike test (DHT) and the canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM). We aimed to describe the use of these processes in Emergency Departments (ED), to assess for trends in use over time, and to determine provider level variability in use. Design Prospective population-based surveillance study Setting EDs in Nueces County, Texas, January 15, 2008 to January 14, 2011 Subjects and Methods Adult patients discharged from EDs with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance documented at triage. Clinical information was abstracted from source documents. A hierarchical logistic regression model adjusting for patient and provider characteristics was used to estimate trends in DHT use and provider level variability. Results 3,522 visits for dizziness were identified. A DHT was documented in 137 visits (3.9%). A CRM was documented in 8 visits (0.2%). Among patients diagnosed with BPPV, a DHT was documented in only 21.8% (34 of 156) and a CRM in 3.9% (6 of 156). In the hierarchical model (c statistic = 0.93), DHT was less likely to be used over time (odds ratio, 0.97, 95% CI [0.95, 0.99]) and the provider level explained 50% (ICC, 0.50) of the variance in the probability of DHT use. Conclusion BPPV is seldom examined for, and when diagnosed, infrequently treated in this ED population. DHT use is decreasing over time, and varies substantially by provider. Implementation research focused on BPPV care may be an opportunity to optimize management in ED dizziness presentations. PMID:23264119

  14. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  15. Characterization of biomass burning particles: chemical composition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.; Degouw, J.; Warneke, C.

    2003-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission in April and May of 2002, a forest fire plume was intercepted over Utah on May 19. Gas phase species acetonitrile (CH3CN) (a biomass burning tracer) and carbon monoxide (CO) measured greater than five fold enhancements over background concentrations during this plume crossing. In the 100 sec plume crossing, the Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry (PALMS) instrument acquired 202 positive mass spectra of biomass burning particles. Many of these particles contained potassium in addition to organics, carbon, and NO+ (which is a signature for any nitrogen containing compound such as ammonium or nitrate). From characterization of the particle mass spectra obtained during the plume crossing, a qualitative signature has been determined for identifying biomass burning particles. By applying this analysis to the entire ITCT mission, several transport events of smoke plumes have been identified and were confirmed by gas phase measurements. Additional species, such as sulfate, found in the mass spectra of the transported particles indicated processing or aging of the biomass burning particles that had taken place. The analysis has been extended to other field missions (Crystal-Face, ACCENT, and WAM) to identify biomass burning particles without the added benefit of gas phase measurements.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  17. A perspective on the states` role in the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management budget process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; Hinman, P. [Carter, Brock & Hinman, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responding in 1994 to proposed budget reductions and predicted funding shortfalls, the Office of Environmental Management at the Department of Energy began working closely with its regulators and stakeholders to prioritize activities. In a series of national and site specific meetings held with representatives of states, the Environmental Protection Agency, Indian tribes and the public, the Department of Energy brought regulators and other stakeholders into its budget development process in a {open_quotes}bottoms up{close_quotes} approach to the prioritization of activities at each of its sites. This paper presents an overview of this process which began last year and will highlight its unique cooperative nature. This paper will assess ways of institutionalizing this process. It also identifies issues to be addressed in resolving matters related to future budgets. Areas of concern to the Department of Energy`s host states and their regulators will be identified as they relate to waste management, cleanup and facility transition activities.

  18. Applications of Process Synthesis: Moving from Conventional Chemical Processes towards Biorefinery Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about diminishing petroleum reserves, enhanced worldwide demand for fuels and fluctuations in the global oil market, together with climate change and national security have promoted many initiatives for exploring alternative, non-petroleum based processes. Among these initiatives...... on petroleum-derive fuels....

  19. Experimental investigation of Mars meandering rivers: Chemical precipitation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Lim, Y.; Cleveland, J.; Reid, E.; Jew, C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, meandering streams occur where the banks are resistant to erosion, which enhances narrow and deep channels. Often this is because the stream banks are held firm by vegetation. The ancient, highly sinuous channels with cutoffs found on Mars are enigmatic because vegetation played no role in providing bank cohesion and enhancing fine sediment deposition. Possible causes of the meandering therefore include ice under permafrost conditions and chemical processes. We conducted carbonate flume experiments to investigate possible mechanisms creating meandering channels other than vegetation. The experiment includes a tank that dissolves limestone by adding CO2 gas and produces artificial spring water, peristaltic pumps to drive water through the system, a heater to control the temperature of the spring water, and a flume where carbonate sediment deposits. Spring water containing dissolved calcium and carbonate ions moves through a heater to increase temperature, and then into the flume. The flume surface is open to the air to allow CO2 degassing, decrease temperature, and increase pH, which promotes carbonate precipitation. A preliminary experiment was done and successfully created a meander pattern that evolved over a 3-day experiment. The experiment showed lateral migration of the bend and avulsion of the stream, similar to a natural meander. The lateral variation in flow speed increased the local residence time of water, thus increasing the degassing of CO2 on the two sides of the flow and promoting more precipitation. This enhanced precipitation on the sides provided a mechanism to build levees along the channel and created a stream confined in a narrow path. This mechanism also potentially applies to Earthly single thread and/or meandering rivers developed and recorded before vegetation appeared on Earth's surface.

  20. Institutional Effectiveness Assessment Process, 1993-94. Executive Summary. Hospitality and Service Occupations Division, Cosmetology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    A study was conducted to evaluate student and student employer satisfaction with the services provided by the South Seattle Community College (SSCC) Cosmetology Department. Specifically, the study gathered data related to four outcomes: that students receive an educational experience allowing them to meet their goals; that former and current…

  1. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  2. New trajectory-driven aerosol and chemical process model Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM has been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61° 51' N, 24° 17' E over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December–January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4], availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT are assumed to produce low volatile species and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink. This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration during transport from clean areas. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed

  3. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development. In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment. Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount. Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency. Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage efficiency, and uniformity. Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more heterogeneous than soil water distributions. The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount. Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount. Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uniformity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  4. Flow-Injection Responses of Diffusion Processes and Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    The technique of Flow-injection Analysis (FIA), now aged 25 years, offers unique analytical methods that are fast, reliable and consuming an absolute minimum of chemicals. These advantages together with its inherent feasibility for automation warrant the future applications of FIA as an attractive...... be used in the resolution of FIA profiles to obtain information about the content of interference’s, in the study of chemical reaction kinetics and to measure absolute concentrations within the FIA-detector cell....

  5. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  6. Impact and Process Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the impacts and processes of the former Wind Powering America(WPA) initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). WPA has an underlying goal of dramatically increasing the use of wind energy in the U.S.

  7. Rapid neutron capture process in supernovae and chemical element formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baruah, Rulee; Duorah, Kalpana; Duorah, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the synthesis of heavy nuclei beyond iron. Isotopes beyond Fe are most exclusively formed in neutron capture processes and more heavier ones are produced by the r-process. Approximately half o

  8. The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge%The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旗; 胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 许杰; 张锦丽; 吴双

    2011-01-01

    By adopting the optical multi-channel analyzer combined with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, the dominant free radicals and products generated by arc discharge were measured and studied, and the main plasma chemical reaction process in the nitric oxide production by arc discharge was identified. Plasma chemical kinetic curves of O, O2, N2, N and NO were simulated by using CHEMKIN and MATLAB. The results show that the main plasma chemical reaction process of nitric oxide production by arc discharge is a replacement reaction between O and N2, where NO can be generated instantaneously when discharging reaches stable.

  9. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  10. Helping Students Develop a Critical Attitude towards Chemical Process Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nevers, Noel; Seader, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of computer-assisted programs that allow chemical engineering students to study textbook thermodynamics problems from different perspectives, including the classical graphical method, while utilizing more than one property correlation and/or operation model so that comparisons can be made and sensitivities determined more…

  11. Chemical dehumidification and thermal regeneration: Applications in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.; Longo, G.A.; Piccininni, F.

    1991-11-01

    Chemical dehumidification may be used in industrial dessiccation treatments operating with new air or closed cycle. The authors suggest a few schemes and analyze operation parameters and performance. Finally, comparisons are made with the most efficient systems that have been used so far: energy savings are between 25 and 40 per cent.

  12. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kang; ZHANG RenDuo; SHENG Feng

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development.In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment.Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount.Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency.Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage effi-ciency, and uniformity.Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more het-erogeneous than soil water distributions.The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount.Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount.Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uni-formity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  13. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  14. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  15. Chemical gas sensors and the characterization, monitoring and sensor technology needs of the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Office of Technology Development within the Dept. of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility of providing new technologies to aid the environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) activities of the DOE. There is a perception that application and judicious development of chemical sensor technologies could result in large cost savings and reduced risk to the health and safety of ER/WM personnel. A number of potential gas sensor applications which exist within DOE ER/WM operations are described. The capabilities of several chemical sensor technologies and their potential to meet the needs of ER/WM applications in the present or near term future are discussed.

  16. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  17. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  18. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy....

  19. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  20. Staff survey of organizational structure and process for a Public Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J J

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 227 North York Public Health Department (NYPHD) staff provided their perspective on the organizational structure. They perceived that (a) the departmental and divisional organizational structures are effective for program delivery, (b) the Central Resources structure and divisional and departmental reporting structures are moderately effective for program delivery, (c) the decentralized office structure is an advantage for service delivery but less so for administration and intra-division and inter-division communication, (d) the mandatory program structure involves low to moderate interdisciplinary teamwork and moderately impacts service delivery, (e) intra-division and management-staff communication are fair but inter-division and office communication are between poor and fair, (f) education, research, and service are moderately integrated, and (g) the divisional and departmental work atmospheres are a little positive. Management perceived greater participation in program planning, more frequent communication with other divisions, a number of education and research opportunities from various divisions/units, and more management recognition than front line staff did.

  1. Effectiveness of Information Technology Infrastructure Library Process Implementations by Information Technology Departments within United States Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, Jon F.

    2010-01-01

    This research study examined whether the overall effectiveness of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) could be predicted by measuring multiple independent variables. The primary variables studied included the number of ITIL process modules adopted and the overall ITIL "maturity level." An online survey was used to…

  2. Final Technical Report: A Paradigm Shift in Chemical Processing: New Sustainable Chemistries for Low-VOC Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenneth F.

    2006-07-26

    The project employed new processes to make emulsion polymers from reduced levels of petroleum-derived chemical feedstocks. Most waterborne paints contain spherical, emulsion polymer particles that serve as the film-forming binder phase. Our goal was to make emulsion polymer particles containing 30 percent feedstock that would function as effectively as commercial emulsions made from higher level feedstock. The processes developed yielded particles maintained their film formation capability and binding capacity while preserving the structural integrity of the particles after film formation. Rohm and Haas Company (ROH) and Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) worked together to employ novel polymer binders (ROH) and new, non-volatile, biomass-derived coalescing agents (ADM). The University of Minnesota Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science utilized its unique microscopy capabilities to characterize films made from the New Emulsion Polymers (NEP).

  3. Rapid Neutron Capture Process in Supernovae and Chemical Element Formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rulee Baruah; Kalpana Duorah; H. L. Duorah

    2009-09-01

    The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) is one of the major nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the synthesis of heavy nuclei beyond iron. Isotopes beyond Fe are most exclusively formed in neutron capture processes and more heavier ones are produced by the r-process. Approximately half of the heavy elements with mass number ≻ 70 and all of the actinides in the solar system are believed to have been produced in the r-process. We have studied the r-process in supernovae for the production of heavy elements beyond = 40 with the newest mass values available. The supernova envelopes at a temperature ≻ 109 K and neutron density of 1024 cm-3 are considered to be one of the most potential sites for the r-process. The primary goal of the r-process calculations is to fit the global abundance curve for solar system r-process isotopes by varying time dependent parameters such as temperature and neutron density. This method aims at comparing the calculated abundances of the stable isotopes with observation.We have studied the r-process path corresponding to temperatures ranging from 1.0 × 109 K to 3.0 × 109 K and neutron density ranging from 1020 cm-3 to 1030 cm-3. With temperature and density conditions of 3.0 × 109 K and 1020 cm-3 a nucleus of mass 273 was theoretically found corresponding to atomic number 115. The elements obtained along the r-process path are compared with the observed data at all the above temperature and density range.

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  5. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  6. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  8. Tailoring the Acquisition Process in the U.S. Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    acquisi- tion program. PMs need to think critically about what they want and need to do for the program to be successful and then compare that to rules...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and...to customize regulatory- based reviews, processes, and information requirements to accommo- date the unique characteristics of a program while still

  9. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite easily

  10. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  11. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials and energy. The implemented control strategy combines a biologically-inspired method with optimal control concepts for finding more sustainable operating trajectories. The sustainability assessment of process operating points is carried out by using the U.S. EPA’s Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator (GREENSCOPE tool that provides scores for the selected indicators in the economic, material efficiency, environmental and energy areas. The indicator scores describe process performance on a sustainability measurement scale, effectively determining which operating point is more sustainable if there are more than several steady states for one specific product manufacturing. Through comparisons between a representative benchmark and the optimal steady states obtained through the implementation of the proposed controller, a systematic decision can be made in terms of whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous fermentation process for fuel production, whose material and energy time variation models are characterized by multiple steady states and oscillatory conditions.

  12. Sustainable Chemical Process Development through an Integrated Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the application of a general integrated framework based on systematic model-based methods and computer-aided tools with the objective to achieve more sustainable process designs and to improve the process understanding. The developed framework can be applied...... to a wide range of problems, including the design of new processes as well as retrofit of existing batch-continuous production systems. The overview of the framework together with results from two case studies is presented to highlight the key aspects and the applicability of the framework. These case...

  13. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  14. Procafd: Computer Aided Tool for Synthesis-Design & Analysis of Chemical Process Flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    In practice, chemical process synthesis-design involves identification of the processing route to reach a desired product from a specified set of raw materials, design of the operations involved in the processing route, the calculations of utility requirements, the calculations of waste...... are synthesized to form molecules in computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. The main idea here was to apply the principle of group-contribution approach from chemical property estimation to the synthesis and design of chemical process flowsheets. That is, use process-groups representing different...... of mathematical programming techniques, (c) hybrid approach which combine two or more approaches. D’Anterroches [3] proposed a group contribution based hybrid approach to solve the synthesis-design problem where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms...

  15. EVALUATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS, ECONOMICS, AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: HEAT INTEGRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The design and improvement of chemical processes can be very challenging. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are incorporated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to alter the process design. In this work diff...

  16. [Investigation on chemical constituents of processed products of Eucommiae Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi; Sheng, Chen; Li, Wei-dong; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2014-11-01

    According to the 2010 Chinese pharmacopeia, salt processed and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were pre- pared. HPLC-DAD analysis of the content of the bark and leaf of Eucommiae Cortex showed that the bark of Eucommiae Cortex mainly contained lignans such as pinoresinol glucose and iridoid including genipin, geniposide, geniposidic acid, while the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex consisted of flavonoids such as quercetin and phenolic compound such as chlorogenic acid. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 18 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of pinoresinol diglucoside in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased approximately by 30% and 85%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in the bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times, 23 times, 28 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in salted Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 25%, 40% and 40%, respectively. The content of genipin, geniposide and geniposidic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 98%, 70%, 70%, respectively. The content of caffeic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 3 times more than that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of caffeic acid was decreased by about 50% in the salted Eucommiae Cortex. While the content of caffeic acid in charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex was decreased approximately 75%; the content of chlorogenic acid in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was about 1/6 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of chlorogenic acid in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex decreased by 40% and 75%, respectively; the content of quercetin in bark of Eucommiae Cortex was only 1/40 of that in the leaf of Eucommiae Cortex. The content of quercetin in salted and charcoal processed Eucommiae Cortex were reduced by 60% and 50%, respectively.

  17. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  19. Process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform for chemical engineering design projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is studied to improve knowledge sharing and project management of chemical engineering design enterprises. First, problems and characteristics of knowledge sharing in multi-projects of chemical engineering design are analyzed. Then based on theories of project management, process management, and knowledge management, a process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is proposed. The platform has three characteristics: knowledge is divided into professional knowledge...

  20. The Survey of Viewpoint of Teleworkers in Department of Information Processing about Advantages and Disadvantages of Teleworking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tahavori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Information and communication technology has had effects on the different aspects of living, like working ways. One of these effects is to work anywhere, far away office and without geographical limitation. This working method has advantages and disadvantages that can affect on its performance and contituity in organizations and offices. This article reviewed shortly the literature of teleworking and the advantages and disadvantages of teleworking, then surveyed the viewpoint of teleworkers in department of information processing in National Libray and Archives of I.R. of Iran. The results showed that teleworking had benefits and porblems in this department and despite of that fact (especially weakness in techonogical infrastructs, all of teleworkers in research population (100% tended continue teleworking. Teleworkers had a high satisfaction of teleworking (5/53.

  1. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  2. Microwave Field Applicator Design in Small-Scale Chemical Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first experiments nearly three decades ago, microwave enhanced chemistry has received incessant scientific attention. Many studies report improved process performance in terms of speed and conversion under microwave exposure and therefore it is recognized as a promising alternative me

  3. Thermo-Chemical Modelling Strategies for the Pultrusion Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, three dimensional (3D) numerical modeling strategies of a thermosetting pultrusion process are investigated considering both transient and steady state approaches. For the transient solution, an unconditionally stable alternating direction implicit Douglas-Gunn (ADI-DG) sche...

  4. Harnessing the Department of Energy’s High-Performance Computing Expertise to Strengthen the U.S. Chemical Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A.; Dupuis, Michel; Garrett, Bruce C.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Plata, Charity; Tarr, Matthew A.; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Golab, Joseph T.

    2012-01-17

    High-performance computing (HPC) is one area where the DOE has developed extensive expertise and capability. However, this expertise currently is not properly shared with or used by the private sector to speed product development, enable industry to move rapidly into new areas, and improve product quality. Such use would lead to substantial competitive advantages in global markets and yield important economic returns for the United States. To stimulate the dissemination of DOE's HPC expertise, the Council for Chemical Research (CCR) and the DOE jointly held a workshop on this topic. Four important energy topic areas were chosen as the focus of the meeting: Biomass/Bioenergy, Catalytic Materials, Energy Storage, and Photovoltaics. Academic, industrial, and government experts in these topic areas participated in the workshop to identify industry needs, evaluate the current state of expertise, offer proposed actions and strategies, and forecast the expected benefits of implementing those strategies.

  5. Titan. [physical and chemical processes in satellite atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunten, D. M.; Tomasko, M. G.; Flasar, F. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Strobel, D. F.; Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that Titan, which is the second largest satellite in the solar system, is considerably larger than Mercury. It is made unique by its dense atmosphere, which consists mainly of nitrogen, although a substantial component of methane is present. The basic properties of Titan are summarized in a table. Many of the data were obtained during the close pass of Voyager 1 in November 1980. The atmospheric temperature decreases from its surface value of 94 K at a pressure of 1500 mbar to a minimum of 71 K at a height of 42 km and a pressure of 128 mbar. Details of atmospheric composition and thermal structure are discussed, taking into account chemical identifications and abundances, the vertical temperature structure, the horizontal temperature and opacity structure, and the radiative equilibrium. The upper atmosphere composition and temperature is considered along with the properties of aerosols, and meteorology and atmospheric dynamics. Titan's interior has an average density of 1.88 g per cu cm. Attention is given to Titan's surface and interior, and its formation.

  6. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... application. The chemical product tree is potentially very large and a wide range of options exist for selecting the product to make, the raw material to use as well as the processing route to employ. It is shown that systematic computer-aided methods and tools integrated within a model-data based design...

  7. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  8. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  9. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  10. Swimming Pool Water Treatment Chemicals and/or Processes. Standard No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Chemicals or processes used or intended for use, in the treatment of swimming pool water are covered. Minimum public health limits or acceptability in regard to toxicity, biocidal effectiveness, and chemical behavior and analysis are presented. The appendices give guidelines to the scientific and statistically sound evaluations to determine the…

  11. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities o

  12. The Technology for Intensification of Chemical Reaction Process Envisaged in the "863" Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is learned from the Ministry of Science and Technology that in order to promote the shift of China's chemical industry toward an energy efficient and environmentally friendly product mode, the technology for intensification of chemical reaction processes has been included in the National "863" Project of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan", and the application for research project proposals is to be accepted.

  13. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis...

  14. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  15. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  16. Active Chemical Sensing With Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    We present an active-perception strategy to optimize the temperature program of metal-oxide sensors in real time, as the sensor reacts with its environment. We model the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), where actions correspond to measurements at particular temperatures, and the agent is to find a temperature sequence that minimizes the Bayes risk. We validate the method on a binary classification problem with a simulated sensor. Our results show that the method provides a balance between classification rate and sensing costs.

  17. Application of Artificial Neural Networks and Chaos in Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otawara, Kentaro

    1995-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) and chaos, conceived and developed independently, are beginning to play essential roles in chemical engineering. Nonetheless, the ANN possesses an appreciable number of deficiencies that need be remedied, and the capability of the ANN to explore and tame chaos or an irregularly behaving system is yet to be fully realized. The present dissertation attempts to make substantial progress toward such ends. The problem of controlling the temperature of an industrial reactor carrying out semibatch polymerization has been solved by an innovative adaptive hybrid control system comprising an ANN and fuzzy expert system (FES) complemented by two supervisory ANN's. The system enhances the strength and compensates for the weaknesses of both the ANN and FES. The system, named dual ANN (DANN), has been proposed for characterizing the nonlinear nature of chaotic time -series data. Its capability to approximate the behavior of a chaotic system has been found to far exceed that of a conventional ANN. A novel approach has been devised for training an ANN through the modified interactive training (MIT) mode. This mode of training has been demonstrated to substantially outperform a conventional interactive training (CIT) mode. A method has been established for synchronizing chaos by resorting to an ANN. This method is capable of causing to be coherent the trajectories of systems whose deterministic governing equations are insufficiently known. This requires training the ANN with a time series and a common driving signal or signals. Examples are given for chaos generated by difference as well as differential equations. An alternative to the OGY method has been proposed for controlling chaos; it meticulously perturbs an accessible parameter of the chaotic system. A single, highly precise ANN suffices to render stable any of an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic or strange attractor. A method for estimating sub

  18. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviano dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. PMID:26904662

  19. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food.

  20. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  1. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  2. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES USING HIERARCHICAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The design of chemical processes is normally an interactive process of synthesis and analysis. When one also desires or needs to limit the amount of pollution generated by the process the difficulty of the task can increase substantially. In this work, we show how combining hier...

  4. Safety of life activity and environmental friendliness in beet processing department of a beet-sugar factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of processing of a beet is characterized by a variety of dangerous and harmful production factors. To maintain the optimal values of microclimate in beet processing department carried out installation of systems of ventilation and heating. To implement the protection measures for impacts include the use of low-power equipment; the attenuation of the noise in the way of its propagation by means of sound insulation; maintenance equipment; install equipment on vibration isolation bases. Electrical safety in industrial environments by the appropriate design of electrical installations, technical means and means of protection, organizational and technical measures. For protection against static electricity use of protective grounding. The safe operation of lifting and handling equipment is provided by the audit of the reliability and strength of their structural elements, as well as ropes, lifting devices. To reduce the harmful impact of the use of the Department of toxic substances into the running, you must use individual protection equipment: special clothing, anti-dust respirators. Of technical means of protection used in the supply and exhaust ventilation, are also used cyclones. To protect surface and groundwater from effluent applied field of filtration, aeration tanks, biofilters. The amount of emissions into the atmosphere can reduce the reduction of steam consumption for technological needs. For dust removal in dusty offices with equipment install the cyclone. One of the measures to prevent the explosion is to install explosion protection. For fire in a sugar factory used fire boards, fire hoses, automatic water extinguishing systems, steam and gas fire. All facilities and process plant should be provided with primary fire extinguishing means. Place them in conspicuous places, readily accessible at any time. In addition, the company is required to lay special network of fire water. Thus, security and compliance with of

  5. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  6. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  7. A Systematic Computer-Aided Framework for Integrated Design and Control of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;

    Chemical processes are conventionally designed through a sequential approach. In this sequential approach, first, a steady-state process design is obtained and then, control structure synthesis that, in most of the cases, is based on heuristics is performed. Therefore, process design and process......-defined operational conditions whereas controllability is considered to maintain desired operating points of the process at any kind of imposed disturbance under normal operating conditions. In this work, a systematic hierarchical computer-aided framework for integrated process design and control of chemical...... control and operation considerations have been studied independently. Furthermore, this sequential approach does not adequately answer this question, “How process design decisions influence process control and operation?”. In order to answer this question, it is necessary to consider process...

  8. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  9. Chemicals in the process chain from raw material to product; Kjemikalier i verdikjeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstad, Ellen N. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    As described in this presentation, chemicals are added at various points along the physical flow from oil/gas well to sold products. They have several functions and are added in different amounts. The chemicals may have a negative impact on the environment by emission to sea. But they can also reduce the regularity of the processing equipment and the prices of the products. Therefore, Statoil has begun a research project that aims to develop improved methods and tools for the prediction of the distribution of chemicals in the process chain and the unwanted effects they might have on the environment, on downstream installations and on the products. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  11. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimohammadzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. Objectives The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. Materials and Methods This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. Results “Management and empowerment of human resources’’ (weight = 0.465 and “requirements and facilities” (weight = 0.139 were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316, MD (weight = 0.259, AT (weight = 0.14, TS (weight = 0.108, MO (weight = 0.095, and LH (0.082 achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. Conclusion The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country’s hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of

  12. Spin-locking versus chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of nonequivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolite phantoms with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: (i) on-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate-exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. (ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer (J Magn Reson 2002;154:157-160). (iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. (iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate-exchange regime, MTR(asym) becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care.

  13. Chemical characterisation of rainwater at Stromboli Island (Italy): The effect of post-depositional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Marianna; Madonia, Paolo; Favara, Rocco

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes emit fluids and solid particles into the atmosphere that modify the chemical composition of natural precipitation. We have investigated the geochemistry of Stromboli's rainfall during the period from November 2014 to March 2016 using a network of a new type of sampler specifically designed for operations on volcanic islands. We found that most of the chemical modifications are due to processes occurring after the storage of rainwater in the sampling bottles. These processes include dissolution of volcanogenic soluble salts encrusting volcanic ash and a variable contribution of sea spray aerosol. Our data showed noticeably less scatter than has previously been achieved with a different sampling system that was more open to the atmosphere. This demonstrates the improved efficacy of the new sampler design. The data showed that post-depositional chemical alteration of rain samples dominates over processes occurring during droplet formation ad precipitation. This has important implications for the calculation of fluxes of chemicals from rainfall in volcanic regions.

  14. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  15. Thermo-chemical process with sewage sludge by using CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Kwon, Hyun-Han

    2013-10-15

    This work proposed a novel methodology for energy recovery from sewage sludge via the thermo-chemical process. The impact of CO2 co-feed on the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification) of sewage sludge was mainly investigated to enhance thermal efficiency and to modify the end products from the pyrolysis and gasification process. The CO2 injected into the pyrolysis and gasification process enhance the generation of CO. As compared to the thermo-chemical process in an inert atmosphere (i.e., N2), the generation of CO in the presence of CO2 was enhanced approximately 200% at the temperature regime from 600 to 900 °C. The introduction of CO2 into the pyrolysis and gasification process enabled the condensable hydrocarbons (tar) to be reduced considerably by expediting thermal cracking (i.e., approximately 30-40%); thus, exploiting CO2 as chemical feedstock and/or reaction medium for the pyrolysis and gasification process leads to higher thermal efficiency, which leads to environmental benefits. This work also showed that sewage sludge could be a very strong candidate for energy recovery and a raw material for chemical feedstock.

  16. Particle size distribution and removal in the chemical-biological flocculation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-bin; ZHAO Jian-fu; XIA Si-qing; LIU Chang-qing; KANG Xing-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The particle characterization from the influent and effluent of a chemical-biological flocculation (CBF) process was studied with a laser diffraction device. Water samples from a chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process and a primary sediment tank process were also analyzed for comparison. The results showed that CBF process was not only effective for both the big size particles and small size particles removal, but also the best particle removal process in the three processes. The results also indicated that CBF process was superior to CEPT process in the heavy metals removal. The high and non-selective removal for heavy metals might be closely related to its strong ability to eliminate small particles. Samples from different locations in CBF reactors showed that small particles were easier to aggregate into big ones and those disrupted flocs could properly flocculate again along CBF reactor because of the biological flocculation.

  17. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  18. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Román-Martinez, Alicia; Woodley, John;

    2010-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. PI creates an enormous number of process options. In order to manage the complexity of options in which a feasible...... and optimal process solution may exist, the application of process synthesis tools results in the development of a systematic methodology to implement PI. Starting from an analysis of existing processes, this methodology generates a set of feasible process options and reduces their number through a number...

  19. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  20. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  1. The top 50 commodity chemicals: Impact of catalytic process limitations on energy, environment, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Gerber, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The production processes for the top 50 U.S. commodity chemicals waste energy, generate unwanted byproducts, and require more than a stoichiometric amount of feedstocks. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has quantified this impact on energy, environment, and economics for the catalytically produced commodity chemicals. An excess of 0.83 quads of energy per year in combined process and feedstock energy is required. The major component, approximately 54%, results from low per-pass yields and the subsequent separation and recycle of unreacted feedstocks. Furthermore, the production processes, either directly or through downstream waste treatment steps, release more than 20 billion pounds of carbon dioxide per year to the environment. The cost of the wasted feedstock exceeds 2 billion dollars per year. Process limitations resulting from unselective catalysis and unfavorable reaction thermodynamic constraints are the major contributors to this waste. Advanced process concepts that address these problems in an integrated manner are needed to improve process efficiency, which would reduce energy and raw material consumption, and the generation of unwanted byproducts. Many commodity chemicals are used to produce large volume polymer products. Of the energy and feedstock wasted during the production of the commodity chemicals, nearly one-third and one-half, respectively, represents chemicals used as polymer precursors. Approximately 38% of the carbon dioxide emissions are generated producing polymer feedstocks.

  2. Effectiveness of prior consultation on the environmental licensing process in the department of Chocó 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Mena Valencia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Chocó is a “territory with an incalculable natural, ethnic and cultural wealth” (¿Qué es él Chocó Biogeográfico?, 2013; Prior consultation is a right and a mechanism involving ethnic groups, however, is not effective, or is an appropriate means to protect the constitutional rights of black communities in the process of environmental licensing in Chocó, because there is no appropriate procedure to ensure the effective participation of speakers. A descriptive study where the analytical method used was performed. It was proved that the decisions of the communities are not binding upon execution of environmental licenses, the lack of regulation generates abuse authorities in the procedural steps.

  3. Using a configurable EMR and decision support tools to promote process integration for routine HIV screening in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert; Moore, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Given the clinical and public health benefits of routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing in the emergency department (ED) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, Maricopa Medical Center, as part of Maricopa Integrated Health System, started Test, Educate, Support, and Treat Arizona (TESTAZ) and became the first and, to-date, only hospital in Arizona to implement routine, non-targeted, opt-out, rapid HIV screening in the ED. The authors describe the implementation of a universal, routine, opt-out HIV screening program in the adult ED of an urban safety-net hospital serving under-served populations, including the uninsured and under-insured. Through a controlled and collaborative process, the authors integrated custom documentation elements specific to HIV screening into the triage/intake process, implemented and utilized clinical decision support tools to guide clinicians in each step of the process, and used electronic data collection and reporting to drive new screening protocols that led to a significant increase in overall HIV testing rates.

  4. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  5. Application showcases for a small scale membrane contactor for fine chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, C.P.M.; Ngene, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from batch to continuous processing in fine-chemicals industries offers many advantages; among these are a high volumetric productivity, improved control over reaction conditions resulting in a higher yield and selectivity, a small footprint and a safer process due to a smaller reacti

  6. Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring and Control:Recent Developments and Applications to Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 钱积新

    2003-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process monitoring and control (MSPM& C) methods for chemical process monitoring with statistical projection techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) are surveyed in this paper,The four-step procedure of performing MSPM &C for chemical process ,modeling of processes ,detecting abnormal events or faults,identifying the variable(s) responible for the faults and diagnosing the source cause for the abnormal behavior,is analyzed,Several main research directions of MSPM&C reported in the literature are discussed,such as multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) for batch process ,statistical monitoring and control for nonlinear process,dynamic PCA and dynamic PLS,and on -line quality control by infer-ential models,Industrial applications of MSPM&C to several typical chemical processes ,such as chemical reactor,distillation column,polymeriztion process ,petroleum refinery units,are summarized,Finally,some concluding remarks and future considerations are made.

  7. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    be intensified for biggest improvement, process synthesis and design tools are applied which results in the development of a systematic methodology incorporating PI. In order to manage the complexity of PI process options in which a feasible and optimal process solution may exist, the solution procedure......Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. Potentially, PI creates an enormous number of process options. For identification where and how the process should...... of this methodology is based on the decomposition approach. Starting from an analysis of existing processes, this methodology generates a set of feasible process options and reduces their number through several screening steps until from the remaining feasible options, the optimal is found. In this presentation...

  8. Chemical input and I-V output: stepwise chemical information processing in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Norifusa; Han, Liyuan

    2012-12-14

    As a complex system, a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) exhibits emergent photovoltaics not obvious from the properties of the individual components. The chemical input of 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) into DSC improves the open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and reduces the short circuit current (I(sc)) in I-V output through multiple interactions with the components, yet it has been difficult to distinguish the multiple interactions and correlate the interactions with the influences on I-V output due to the complexity of the system. To deal with the multiple interactions, we have adapted a conceptual framework and methodology from coordination chemistry. First, we titrated the photovoltaic interface and electrolyte with TBP to identify the stepwise chemical interaction processes. An isopotential point observed in I-V output indicates that most of the inputted chemicals interact with the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetric titration of the electrolyte demonstrates asymmetric redox peaks and two different isopotential points, indicating that the two-step coordination-decoordination process inhibits the reduction current of the electrolyte. Second, we set an interaction model bridging the hierarchical gaps between the multiple interactions and the I-V output to address the influences on outputs from the amount of the inputs. From the viewpoint of the interaction model and interactions observed, we are able to comprehend the processes of the complex system and suggest a direction to improve V(oc) without sacrificing I(sc) in DSCs. We conclude that the conceptual framework and methodology adapted from coordination chemistry is beneficial to enhance the emergent outputs of complex systems.

  9. Micro-fluidic partitioning between polymeric sheets for chemical amplification and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian L.

    2017-01-24

    A system for fluid partitioning for chemical amplification or other chemical processing or separations of a sample, comprising a first dispenser of a first polymeric sheet, wherein the first polymeric sheet contains chambers; a second dispenser of a second polymeric sheet wherein the first dispenser and the second dispenser are positioned so that the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet become parallel; a dispenser of the fluid positioned to dispense the fluid between the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet; and a seal unit that seals the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet together thereby sealing the sample between the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet and partitioning the fluid for chemical amplification or other chemical processing or separations.

  10. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus.

  11. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered.

  12. Development of a Procedure to Apply Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms to CFD Simulations as Post Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker;

    2003-01-01

    It is desired to make detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms applicable to the complex geometries of practical combustion devices simulated with computational fluid dynamics tools. This work presents a novel general approach to combining computational fluid dynamics and a detailed chemical kinetic...... mechanism. It involves post-processing of data extracted from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Application of this approach successfully describes combustion chemistry in a standard swirl burner, the so-called Harwell furnace. Nevertheless, it needs validation against more complex combustion models...

  13. Optimal design of sustainable chemical processes via a combined simulation-optimization approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet Solé, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The society is every day more conscious about the scarce of resources, the global economy, and the environmental changes. Hence, chemical companies have the necessity to be adapted and develop more sustainable processes. There is a clear demanding to the scientific community to develop systematic tools to achieve reductions in the production costs as well as the associated environmental impact in order to develop decision support tools for the design of chemical plants. This thesis introdu...

  14. The Influence of Nanoadditives on the Biological Properties and Chemical Composition of Process Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borůvková K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study process fluids were tested after the addition of nanoparticles. Cooling and lubricating process fluids are used in machining to reduce wear on tools, to increase machine performance and to improve product quality. The use of process fluids leads to their pollution and contamination. Nanoparticles were added to the process fluids in order to increase their antibacterial activity. The selected nanoparticles were nanoparticles of metallic silver. The process fluids were modified by the addition of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid. Reduction of silver nanoparticles in the volume of the fluid was achieved using UV. The modified fluids were tested for their cytotoxicity and changes in chemical composition. The cytotoxicity of process fluids was tested for the purpose of verifying whether the process fluids, which are in direct contact with the skin of the operator, affect the health of the operator. The cytotoxicity of the process fluids was tested on human fibroblast cells. Fibroblasts are the basic cells of fibrous tissue. The cytotoxicity was tested by measuring the cell viability and using XTT. Analysis of chemical composition was performed for the purpose of determining the individual substances in the process fluids and their chemical stability. Qualitative analysis of the process fluids was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC - MS.

  15. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  16. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  17. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  18. Integrated Electrochemical Processes for CO2 Capture and Conversion to Commodity Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, T. Alan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jamison, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Siemens Corporations (SCR) are developing new chemical synthesis processes for commodity chemicals from CO2. The process is assessed as a novel chemical sequestration technology that utilizes CO2 from dilute gas streams generated at industrial carbon emitters as a raw material to produce useful commodity chemicals. Work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) commenced on October 1st, 2010, and finished on September 30th, 2013. During this period, we have investigated and accomplished five objectives that mainly focused on converting CO2 into high-value chemicals: 1) Electrochemical assessment of catalytic transformation of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates; 2) Investigation of organocatalytic routes to convert CO2 and epoxide to cyclic carbonates; 3) Investigation of CO2 Capture and conversion using simple olefins under continuous flow; 4) Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins using sodium bicarbonates in a green pathway; 5) Life cycle analyses of integrated chemical sequestration process. In this final report, we will describe the detailed study performed during the three year period and findings and conclusions drawn from our research.

  19. Processing of poly(lactic acid): characterization of chemical structure, thermal stability and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Alonso, Félix Ángel; Pagès Figueras, Pere; Gamez Pérez, José; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa

    2010-01-01

    The processing of poly(lactic acid) (injection and extrusion/injection) as well as annealing of processed materials were studied in order to analyze the variation of its chemical structure, thermal degradation and mechanical properties. Processing of PLA was responsible for a decrease in molecular weight, as determined by GPC, due to chain scission. The degree of crystallinity was evaluated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. It was found that mech...

  20. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Roman Martinez, Alicia; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options, which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. In principle, an enormous number of process options can be generated but where and how the process should...... be intensified for the biggest improvement is difficult to identify. In this paper the development of a systematic computer aided model-based synthesis and design methodology incorporating PI is presented. In order to manage the complexities involved, the methodology employs a decomposition-based solution...... approach. Starting from an analysis of existing processes, the methodology generates a set of process options and reduces their number through several screening steps until from the remaining options, the optimal is found. The application of the methodology is highlighted through a case study involving...

  1. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  2. Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliaroli Véronique

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors.... Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist. Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3. Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The

  3. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  5. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

  6. Welcome to Processes—A New Open Access Journal on Chemical and Biological Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Henson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the result of remarkable technological progress, this past decade has witnessed considerable advances in our ability to manipulate natural and engineered systems, particularly at the molecular level. These advancements offer the potential to revolutionize our world through the development of novel soft and hard materials and the construction of new cellular platforms for chemical and pharmaceutical synthesis. For these technologies to truly impact society, the development of process technology that will enable effective large-scale production is essential. Improved processes are also needed for more established technologies in chemical and biochemical manufacturing, as these industries face ever increasing competitive pressure that mandates continuous improvement. [...

  7. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation.

  8. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental...

  9. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  10. The effect of wash cleaning and demagnetization process on the fly ash physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems related in this study concern the possibility of improving the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base granular material in moulding mixtures. The investigations were carried out mainly to evaluate the process of the fly ash modification performed in order to stabilize its mineralogical and chemical composition. Changes in chemical composition, specific surface and helium density of fly ash after the process of its wash cleaning and demagnetization were examined. The analysis of the data has proved that the process of wash cleaning considerably reduces the content of sodium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium are washed out, too. The wash cleaning process of fly ash reduces also its true density. This fact can be due to the washing out of illite as well as some fractions of haematite (the grains weakly bonded to the glassy phase. The process of demagnetization allows removing about 25.7% of the magnetic phase calculated in terms of Fe2O3. The process of demagnetization is accompanied by a decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium, and a reduction in the size of the specific surface by over one half. The possible processes of transformation have also been discussed.

  11. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  12. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    are calculated in Stage 2. Using model analysis, controllability issues are incorporated in Stage 3 to calculate the process sensitivity and to pair the identified manipulated variables with the corresponding controlled variables. From a controller design point of view, at targets defined in Stage 1...... ensure the optimal solution not only for the process design but also for the controller design. From a process design point of view at these targets, the optimal design objectives can be obtained. Then by using the reverse solution approach, values of design-process variables that match those targets......, control and economic criteria. From an optimization point of view, solution targets at the maximum point of the attainable region and driving force diagrams are shown the higher value of the objective function, hence the optimal solution for the IPDC problem is verified. While other optimization methods...

  13. Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part I: Chemical processing in acidic bromine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouttemy, M.; Tran-Van, P. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Gerard, I., E-mail: gerard@chimie.uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Hildebrandt, T.; Causier, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Pelouard, J.L.; Dagher, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Jehl, Z.; Naghavi, N. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Voorwinden, G.; Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Elektronik Research GmbH, Industriestr. 4, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Powalla, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Guillemoles, J.F. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Lincot, D. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2011-08-31

    CIGSe absorber was etched in HBr/Br{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O to prepare defined thicknesses of CIGSe between 2.7 and 0.5 {mu}m. We established a reproducible method of reducing the absorber thickness via chemical etching. We determine the dissolution kinetics rate of CIGSe using trace analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of Ga and Cu. The roughness of the etching surface decreases during the first 500 nm of the etching to a steady state value of the root-mean-square roughness near 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate an etching process occurring with a constant chemical composition of the treated surface acidic bromine solutions provide a controlled chemical thinning process resulting in an almost flat surface and a very low superficial Se{sup 0} enrichment.

  14. Accident Management & Risk-Based Compliance With 40 CFR 68 for Chemical Process Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Ashbaugh, S.G. [Innovative Technology Solutions, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-23

    A risk-based logic model is suggested as an appropriate basis for better predicting accident progression and ensuing source terms to the environment from process upset conditions in complex chemical process facilities. Under emergency conditions, decision-makers may use the Accident Progression Event Tree approach to identify the best countermeasure for minimizing deleterious consequences to receptor groups before the atmospheric release has initiated. It is concluded that the chemical process industry may use this methodology as a supplemental information provider to better comply with the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program rule. An illustration using a benzene-nitric acid potential interaction demonstrates the value of the logic process. The identification of worst-case releases and planning for emergency response are improved through these methods, at minimum. It also provides a systematic basis for prioritizing facility modifications to correct vulnerabilities.

  15. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  16. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were...... varied systematically at two levels. The data obtained were evaluated using the multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA models were used to identify which process parameters were actually most important for the quality of the frozen cod....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...

  17. Development of the software for energy savings in chemical processes. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.C.; Kim, K.I.; Park, J.K. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Chemical industry is the most energy consuming industry in the nation and the thermal separation processes such as distillation and drying are the major energy consuming processes. Especially, distillation processes consume about 40% of energy in chemical industry. Special interest in energy saving in thermal separation processes is necessary and a software to select appropriate technology is required. On the first year term of this project, energy saving technology was composed. A program for selecting adequate technology was developed based on the algorithm on the second year term of this project. On this year term of the project, soft-wares for optimizing thermal insulation thickness and optimal design of multi-effect mechanical vapor re-compression evaporator were developed. Also, methods to calculate efficiency of distillation feed preheater and optimize feed preheater were introduced. (author). 16 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Chemical trimming overcoat: an enhancing composition and process for 193nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Rowell, Kevin; Joesten, Lori; Baranowski, Paul; Kaur, Irvinder; Huang, Wanyi; Leonard, JoAnne; Jeong, Hae-Mi; Im, Kwang-Hwyi; Estelle, Tom; Cutler, Charlotte; Pohlers, Gerd; Yin, Wenyan; Fallon, Patricia; Li, Mingqi; Jeon, Hyun; Xu, Cheng Bai; Trefonas, Pete

    2016-03-01

    As the critical dimension of devices is approaching the resolution limit of 193nm photo lithography, multiple patterning processes have been developed to print smaller CD and pitch. Multiple patterning and other advanced lithographic processes often require the formation of isolated features such as lines or posts by direct lithographic printing. The formation of isolated features with an acceptable process window, however, can pose a challenge as a result of poor aerial image contrast at defocus. Herein we report a novel Chemical Trimming Overcoat (CTO) as an extra step after lithography that allows us to achieve smaller feature size and better process window.

  19. Environmentally Friendly Propylene/Propane Recovery Process Increases Economic Benefits to Daqing Chemical Research Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "The process for recovering propylene/propane from Oxo-synthesis purge gas" performed by Daqing Chemical Re-search Center has been granted the Heilongjiang Governor's Special Award. This technology since its application at Daqing Petrochemical Company starting at the end of 2001 has contributed to effective materials utilization and envi-ronmental protection.

  20. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  1. Solar-Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Simultaneous Removal of Pathogens and Chemical Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Batoev, Valeriy; Batoeva, Agniya

    2015-08-14

    The review explores the feasibility of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by solar-enhanced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The AOPs are based on in-situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most notably hydroxyl radicals •OH, that are capable of destroying both pollutant molecules and pathogen cells. The review presents evidence of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by photocatalytic processes, namely TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton. Complex water matrices with high loads of pathogens and chemical pollutants negatively affect the efficiency of disinfection and pollutant removal. This is due to competition between chemical substances and pathogens for generated ROS. Other possible negative effects include light screening, competitive photon absorption, adsorption on the catalyst surface (thereby inhibiting its photocatalytic activity), etc. Besides, some matrix components may serve as nutrients for pathogens, thus hindering the disinfection process. Each type of water/wastewater would require a tailor-made approach and the variables that were shown to influence the processes-catalyst/oxidant concentrations, incident radiation flux, and pH-need to be adjusted in order to achieve the required degree of pollutant and pathogen removal. Overall, the solar-enhanced AOPs hold promise as an environmentally-friendly way to substitute or supplement conventional water/wastewater treatment, particularly in areas without access to centralized drinking water or sewage/wastewater treatment facilities.

  2. Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

    2004-09-03

    The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

  3. Modelling of the Absorption and Desorption Process of Chemical Heat Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-PingLin; Xiu-GanYuan

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the desorption and absorption process of the chemical heat pump is presented in this paper .It is based on the assumption of a definite reaction front.The results from this model are compared with those obtained by finite difference method and it is observed that there is almost no difference between them.

  4. A MIXED CHEMICAL REDUCTANT FOR TREATING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a method for delivering ferrous iron into the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a chromite ore processing solid waste (COPSW). The COPSW is characterized by high pH (8.5 -11.5), high Cr(VI) concentrations in the solid phase (up to 550 mg kg-1) and...

  5. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  6. Synthesis of chemicals and polymers: towards cleaner processes and atom economy, session 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, A.; Thivolle-Cazat, J.; Hutchings, G.; Murata, K.; Leininger, S.; Sorokin, A.; Angelis, A. de; Apesteguia, C.I.; Mayoral, J.A.; Hardacre, C.; Jeon, J.; Tominaga, K.; Plasseraud, L.; Kervennal, J.; Souza, R.F. de; Ciardelli, F.; Dominguez, J.M.

    2004-07-01

    The abstracts of all the presentations (1 plenary session, 2 keynotes, 16 oral communications, 151 posters) of the thematic session 5 'synthesis of chemicals and polymers: towards cleaner processes and atom economy' are gathered in the CD-Rom of the conference. (O.M.)

  7. Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge,…

  8. A new productivity function and stability criterion in chemical vapor transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klosse, K.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth rate in a chemical vapor transport process using a closed system is analyzed on the basis of a one-dimensional configuration. A simplified model of vapor transport enables one to obtain a set of equations yielding the rates of reaction without a complete evaluation of the partial

  9. Mechanism for the Environmental Process & Ecological Effects of Typical Chemical Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaobai; WANG Liansheng; DAI Shugui; HUANG Yuyao

    2007-01-01

    @@ Principally being engaged in the field of earth sciences, this research project explores the mechanism which governs the environmental process of some typical chemical contaminants and their eco-toxic effects at various levels. The research project features the following achievements:

  10. Analysis of physical-chemical processes governing SSME internal fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A. K.; Owens, S. F.; Mukerjee, T.; Prakash, C.; Przekwas, A. J.; Kannapel, M.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues concerning the physical chemical processes of the Space Shuttle Main Engine are discussed. The objectives being to supply the general purpose CFD code PHOENICS and the associated interactive graphics package - GRAFFIC; to demonstrate code usage on SSME related problems; to perform computations and analyses of problems relevant to current and future SSME's; and to participate in the development of new physical models of various processes present in SSME components. These objectives are discussed in detail.

  11. Chemical fractionation resulting from the hypervelocity impact process on metallic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libourel, Guy; Ganino, Clément; Michel, Patrick; Nakamura, Akiko

    2016-10-01

    In a regime of hypervelocity impact cratering, the internal energy deposited in target + projectile region is large enough to melt and/or vaporize part of the material involved, which expands rapidly away from the impact site. Fast and energetic impact processes have therefore important chemical consequences on the projectile and target rock transformations during major impact events. Several physical and chemical processes occurred indeed in the short duration of the impact, e.g., melting, coating, mixing, condensation, crystallization, redox reactions, quenching, etc., all concurring to alter both projectile and target composition on the irreversible way.In order to document such hypervelocity impact chemical fractionation, we have started a program of impact experiments by shooting doped (27 trace elements) millimeter–sized basalt projectiles on metallic target using a two stages light gas gun. With impact velocity in the range from 0.25 to 7 km.s-1, these experiments are aimed i) to characterize chemically and texturally all the post-mortem materials (e.g., target, crater, impact melt, condensates, and ejectas), in order ii) to make a chemical mass balance budget of the process, and iii) to relate it to the kinetic energy involved in the hypervelocity impacts for scaling law purpose. Irrespective of the incident velocities, our preliminary results show the importance of redox processes, the significant changes in the ejecta composition (e.g., iron enrichment) and the systematic coating of the crater by the impact melt [1]. On the target side, characterizations of the microstructure of the shocked iron alloys to better constrain the shielding processes. We also show how these results have great implications in our understanding on the current surface properties of small bodies, and chiefly in the case of M-type asteroids. [1] Ganino C, Libourel G, Nakamura AM & Michel P (2015) Goldschmidt Abstracts, 2015 990.

  12. Application of response surface methodology to the chemical cleaning process of ultrafiltration membrane☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caihong Wang; Aishu Wei; Hao Wu; Fangshu Qu; Weixiong Chen; Heng Liang; Guibai Li

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model was established to predict and optimise the chemical cleaning process of Polyvinylidene Fluo-ride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with the results from the experiment that applied the Response Sur-face Method (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD). The factors considered in the experimental design were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration, sodium hypochlorite concentration (NaClO), citric acid concentration and cleaning duration. The interactions between the factors were investigated with the numerical model. Humic acid (20 mg·L−1) was used as the model foulant, and chemical enhanced backflush (CEB) was employed to sim-ulate the chemical cleaning process. The concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and cleaning duration tested during the experiments were in the range of 0.1%–0.3%, 100–300 mg·L−1, 1%–3%and 0.5–1.5 h, respectively. Among the variables, the sodium hypochlorite concentration and the cleaning dura-tion showed a positive relationship involving the increased efficiency of the chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning efficiency was hardly improved with increasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide. However, the data was sharply decreased when at a low level of sodium hydroxide concentration. In total, 54 sets of cleaning schemes with 80%to 100%cleaning efficiency were observed with the RSM model after calibration.

  13. Biologically inspired large scale chemical sensor arrays and embedded data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, A.; Lansner, A.; Martinez, D.; Rospars, J. P.; Beccherelli, R.; Perera, A.; Pearce, T.; Vershure, P.; Persaud, K.

    2013-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. EU Funded Project NEUROCHEM (Bio-ICT-FET- 216916) has developed novel computing paradigms and biologically motivated artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator has been built featuring a large scale sensor array (65K elements) in conducting polymer technology mimicking the olfactory receptor neuron layer, and abstracted biomimetic algorithms have been implemented in an embedded system that interfaces the chemical sensors. The embedded system integrates computational models of the main anatomic building blocks in the olfactory pathway: the olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex in vertebrates (alternatively, antennal lobe and mushroom bodies in the insect). For implementation in the embedded processor an abstraction phase has been carried out in which their processing capabilities are captured by algorithmic solutions. Finally, the algorithmic models are tested with an odour robot with navigation capabilities in mixed chemical plumes

  14. In vitro perturbations of targets in cancer hallmark processes predict rodent chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Dix, David J; Houck, Keith A; Kavlock, Robert J; Knudsen, Thomas B; Martin, Matthew T; Paul, Katie B; Reif, David M; Crofton, Kevin M; Hamilton, Kerry; Hunter, Ronald; Shah, Imran; Judson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes to build models for priority setting and further testing. We describe a model for predicting rodent carcinogenicity based on HTS data from 292 chemicals tested in 672 assays mapping to 455 genes. All data come from the EPA ToxCast project. The model was trained on a subset of 232 chemicals with in vivo rodent carcinogenicity data in the Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB). Individual HTS assays strongly associated with rodent cancers in ToxRefDB were linked to genes, pathways, and hallmark processes documented to be involved in tumor biology and cancer progression. Rodent liver cancer endpoints were linked to well-documented pathways such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and TP53 and novel targets such as PDE5A and PLAUR. Cancer hallmark genes associated with rodent thyroid tumors were found to be linked to human thyroid tumors and autoimmune thyroid disease. A model was developed in which these genes/pathways function as hypothetical enhancers or promoters of rat thyroid tumors, acting secondary to the key initiating event of thyroid hormone disruption. A simple scoring function was generated to identify chemicals with significant in vitro evidence that was predictive of in vivo carcinogenicity in different rat tissues and organs. This scoring function was applied to an external test set of 33 compounds with carcinogenicity classifications from the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs and successfully (p = 0.024) differentiated between chemicals classified as "possible"/"probable"/"likely" carcinogens and those designated as "not likely" or with "evidence of noncarcinogenicity." This model represents a chemical carcinogenicity prioritization tool supporting targeted

  15. Study of verification, validation, and testing in the automated data processing system at the Department of Veterans Affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy Systems Div.); Formento, J.W.; Hill, L.G.; Riemer, C.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) studied the role of verification, validation, and testing (VV T) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) automated data processing (ADP) system development life cycle (SDLC). In this study, ANL reviewed and compared standard VV T practices in the private and government sectors with those in the VA. The methodology included extensive interviews with, and surveys of, users, analysts, and staff in the Systems Development Division (SDD) and Systems Verification and Testing Division (SV TD) of the VA, as well as representatives of private and government organizations, and a review of ADP standards. The study revealed that VA's approach to VV T already incorporates some industry practices -- in particular, the use of an independent organization that relies on the acceptability of test results to validate a software system. Argonne recommends that the role of SV TD be limited to validation and acceptance testing (defined as formal testing conducted independently to determine whether a software system satisfies its acceptance criteria). It also recommends that the role of the SDD be expanded to include verification testing (defined as formal testing or revaluation conducted by the developer to determine whether a software development satisfies design criteria). Integrated systems testing should be performed by Operations in a production-like environment under stressful situations to assess how trouble-free and acceptable the software is to the end user. A separate, independent, quality assurance group should be responsible for ADP auditing and for helping to establish policies for managing software configurations and should report directly to the VA central office. Finally, and of no less importance, an in-house training program and procedures manual should be instituted for the entire SDLC for all involved staff; it should incorporate or reference ADP standards.

  16. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  17. Quantum-chemical approach to defect formation processes in non-metallic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotomin, E.A.; Shluger, A.L. (Latvijskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Riga (USSR))

    1989-01-01

    Results of the quantum-chemical simulation of the formation of structural and radiation defects are reviewed, using ice, silicon, and silicon dioxide as examples. The relationship between the structural elements of these crystals and the structural defects is analysed. Models of the main defects, their optical characteristics, and the activation energy of their migration are discussed. The relationship between the characteristics obtained by quantum-chemical calculations and the parameters of the macroscopic kinetics of the processes induced by defects in dielectric crystals is considered. (author).

  18. Synthesis of magnetic tunnel junctions with full in situ atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Vangelista, S.; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B.; Cocco, S.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Mameli, D. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli studi Milano-Bicocca, Via R Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions, i.e. the combination of two ferromagnetic electrodes separated by an ultrathin tunnel oxide barrier, are core elements in a large variety of spin-based devices. We report on the use of combined chemical vapor and atomic layer deposition processes for the synthesis of magnetic tunnel junctions with no vacuum break. Structural, chemical and morphological characterizations of selected ferromagnetic and oxide layers are reported, together with the evidence of tunnel magnetoresistance effect in patterned Fe/MgO/Co junctions.

  19. First-principles calculation of core-level binding energy shift in surface chemical processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Combined with third generation synchrotron radiation light sources, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with higher energy resolution, brilliance, enhanced surface sensitivity and photoemission cross section in real time found extensive applications in solid-gas interface chemistry. This paper reports the calculation of the core-level binding energy shifts (CLS) using the first-principles density functional theory. The interplay between the CLS calculations and XPS measurements to uncover the structures, adsorption sites and chemical reactions in complex surface chemical processes are highlight. Its application on clean low index (111) and vicinal transition metal surfaces, molecular adsorption in terms of sites and configuration, and reaction kinetics are domonstrated.

  20. The Chemical Evolution of Narrow Emission Line Galaxies: the Key to their Formation Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Torres-Papaqui, J P; Ortega-Minakata, R A

    2011-01-01

    Using the largest sample of narrow emission line galaxies available so far, we show that their spectral characteristics are correlated with different physical parameters, like the chemical abundances, the morphologies, the masses of the bulge and the mean stellar age of the stellar populations of the host galaxies. It suggests that the spectral variations observed in standard spectroscopic diagnostic diagrams are not due solely to variations of ionization parameters or structures but reflect also the chemical evolution of the galaxies, which in turn can be explained by different galaxy formation processes.

  1. Solar-Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Simultaneous Removal of Pathogens and Chemical Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyuna Tsydenova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The review explores the feasibility of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by solar-enhanced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. The AOPs are based on in-situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, most notably hydroxyl radicals •OH, that are capable of destroying both pollutant molecules and pathogen cells. The review presents evidence of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by photocatalytic processes, namely TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton. Complex water matrices with high loads of pathogens and chemical pollutants negatively affect the efficiency of disinfection and pollutant removal. This is due to competition between chemical substances and pathogens for generated ROS. Other possible negative effects include light screening, competitive photon absorption, adsorption on the catalyst surface (thereby inhibiting its photocatalytic activity, etc. Besides, some matrix components may serve as nutrients for pathogens, thus hindering the disinfection process. Each type of water/wastewater would require a tailor-made approach and the variables that were shown to influence the processes—catalyst/oxidant concentrations, incident radiation flux, and pH—need to be adjusted in order to achieve the required degree of pollutant and pathogen removal. Overall, the solar-enhanced AOPs hold promise as an environmentally-friendly way to substitute or supplement conventional water/wastewater treatment, particularly in areas without access to centralized drinking water or sewage/wastewater treatment facilities.

  2. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith; Harris, Nick; Cranny, Andy; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the travel times, pathways and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor) potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for three stream reaches in Luxembourg. Sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters and allow spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical 'dead zones' in the study reaches.

  3. A CHEMICAL PROCESS FOR PREPARING CELLULOSIC FIBERS HIERARCHICALLY FROM KENAF BAST FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshu Shi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate an all-chemical process to prepare nano-scale to macro-scale cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast fibers, for polymer composite reinforcement. The procedure used in this all-chemical process included alkaline retting to obtain single cellulosic retted fiber, bleaching treatment to obtain delignified bleached fiber, and acidic hydrolysis to obtain both pure-cellulose microfiber and cellulose nanowhisker (CNW. At each step of this chemical process, the resultant fibers were characterized for crystallinity using X-ray diffraction (XRD, for functional groups using the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and for surface morphology using both the scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The chemical components of the different scale fibers were analyzed. Based on the raw kenaf bast fibers, the yields of retted fibers and bleached fibers were 44.6% and 41.4%. The yield of the pure cellulose microfibers was 26.3%. The yield of CNWs was 10.4%, where about 22.6% α-cellulose had been converted into CNWs. The fiber crystallinity increased as the scale of the fiber decreased, from 49.9% (retted single fibers to 83.9% (CNWs. The CNWs had fiber lengths of 100 nm to 1400 nm, diameters of 7 to 84 nm, and aspect ratios of 10 to 50. The incorporation of 9% (wt% CNWs in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composites increased the tensile strength by 46%.

  4. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous... the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DATES: Comments must be... collection. Title: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR...

  5. Chemical and biological flocculation process to treat municipal sewage and analysis of biological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Si-qing; YANG Dian-hai; XU Bin; ZHAO Jian-fu

    2005-01-01

    The pilot-scale experimental apparatus and the procedure of the chemical and biological flocculation process to verify the feasibility in treating Shanghai municipal sewage were introduced in this paper. In addition, the biological function of the process was discussed. The results of optimal running showed that in the reaction tank, the concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid(MLSS) was2 g/L, hydraulic retention time(HRT) was 35 min, dosage of liquid polyaluminium chloride(PAC) was 60 mg/L, and the concentration of polyacrylamide(PAM) was 0.5 mg/L. The effluent average concentrations of CODcr, TP, SS and BOD5 were 50 mg/L, 0.62 mg/L, 18mg/L, and 17 mg/L, respectively. These were better than the designed demand. In addition, the existence of biological degradation in this system was proven by several methods. The removal efficiencies of the chemical and biological flocculation process were 20% higher than that of the chemical flocculation process above at the same coagulant dosage. The treatment process under different situations was evaluated on a pilot-scale experiment, and the results provided magnificent parameters and optimal condition for future operation of the plant.

  6. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts...... for subsequent polymer replication by injection moulding was analyzed. New tooling solutions to produce nano structured mould surfaces were investigated. Experiments based on three different chemical-based-batch techniques to establish surface nano (i.e. sub-μm) structures on large areas were performed. Three...... approaches were selected: (1) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition for direct patterning of a 4” silicon wafer; (2) using Ø500 nm nano beads deposition as mask for 4” silicon wafer etching and subsequent nickel electroplating; (3) using the anodizing process to produce Ø500 nm structures on a 30x80 mm2...

  7. Fault Diagnosis in Chemical Process Based on Self-organizing Map Integrated with Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinyi; YAN Xuefeng

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis and monitoring are very important for complex chemical process.There are numerous methods that have been studied in this field,in which the effective visualization method is still challenging.In order to get a better visualization effect,a novel fault diagnosis method which combines self-organizing map (SOM) with Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) is proposed.FDA can reduce the dimension of the data in terms of maximizing the separability of the classes.After feature extraction by FDA,SOM can distinguish the different states on the output map clearly and it can also be employed to monitor abnormal states.Tennessee Eastman (TE) process is employed to illustrate the fault diagnosis and monitoring performance of the proposed method.The result shows that the SOM integrated with FDA method is efficient and capable for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex chemical process.

  8. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Glodok Fish by High Thermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purwaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glodok is an economically underrated fish with a high nutrient content. The research aims to study the changes on chemical composition, fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3 ratio in glodok muscle after processing with different methods of boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt (3%. The results showed that the treatment (boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt gives a significant effect (α=0.05 in water content, ash, lipid content, nervonat acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA. The best processing method was steaming. The ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 in fresh glodok fish was 2,1:1, which is higher than WHO recommendation of 0,6:1,7.Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acid, glodok fish, processing

  9. Carbon stripping - a critical process step in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, M.; Thon, A.; Hartge, E.U.; Heinrich, S.; Werther, J. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Solids Process Engineering and Particle Technology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In chemical looping combustion of solid fuels the well-mixed solids flow from the fuel reactor consisting of char, ash, and oxygen carrier particles cannot be completely separated into its constituents before it enters the air reactor. The slip of carbon will thus lead to char oxidation in the wrong reactor. Process simulation was applied to investigate the carbon stripping process in chemical looping combustion of solid fuels. Depending on the fuel choice, without carbon stripping CO{sub 2} capture rates below 50 % are calculated for 4 min of solids residence time in the fuel reactor. In a process with carbon stripper, however, CO{sub 2} capture rates exceeding 90 % can be achieved for both fuels investigated in this work. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Contributions to cleaner chemical waste treatment and production processes; Beitraege zu zukuenftigen chemischen Entsorgungs- und Produktionsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, H.; Bleyl, H.J.; Boukis, N.; Ederer, H.; Galla, U.; Goldacker, H.; Grimm, R.; Henrich, E.; Kluth, M.; Petrich, G.; Schoen, J.; Weirich, F.

    1992-09-01

    Ways and chances for the development of cleaner chemical waste treatment and production processes are discussed. Supercritical fluids as reaction media and as separation solvents and the application of indirect electroredox processes were selected for process developments. The R and D activities are described in detail. (orig.). [Deutsch] Wege und Chancen zur Entwicklung oekologisch vertraeglicher Entsorgungs- und Produktionsverfahren werden diskutiert. Fuer die Verfahrensentwicklungen wurde die Nutzung von ueberkritischen Fluiden als Reaktionsmedium und Solvent zur Trennung sowie die Anwendung von indirekten Elektroredox-Verfahren ausgewaehlt. Die einzelnen Entwicklungsarbeiten werden detailliert beschrieben. (orig.).

  11. A Study on the Structural Analysis of Controllability in Chemical Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.W.; Kim, Y.S.; Yoon, E.S. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Chemical processes are highly nonlinear, multivariable systems and have complex structures. However, the controllability evaluation procedures are complicated, and the required information is very often unknown at the early design stage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a procedure to evaluate and enhance controllability while designing processes and plants. To evaluate controllability in the design stage, it is most efficient to analyze process structure. Relative order can be used as a measure of 'physical closeness' between input and output variable. Structural controllability analysis using relative order is shown to be effective in a case study of heat exchanger network synthesis. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. 49 CFR 26.89 - What is the process for certification appeals to the Department of Transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of disadvantage has been rebutted, your letter must state the name and address of any other recipient... the matter and does not conduct a hearing. The Department may supplement the administrative record...

  13. Systematic methods for synthesis and design of sustainable chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    , biomass, coal, natural gas, rock, etc., that are usually extracted), to a bigger set of basic chemical products (such as, ethylene, benzene sulfuric acid, ammonia, etc., that are produced in large quantities), to an even bigger set of intermediates (such as, methanol, urea, succinic acid, ethylene glycol...... from the renewable resources, the sustainability of the product and therefore the process can be improved. Also, the number of alternatives that exist provide opportunities and challenges to find the best synthesis routes, for example, for process intensification or a multi-product processing complex...... like a biorefinery. The process synthesis design problem can be formulated as one where first a synthesis-design target (a process with desired qualities) is defined and then design alternatives (process flowsheets for different raw material-product connection) that match the target are identified...

  14. The bioliq {sup registered} bioslurry gasification process for the production of biosynfuels, organic chemicals, and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Nicolaus; Henrich, Edmund; Dinjus, Eckhard; Weirich, Friedhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. of Catalysis Research and Technology

    2012-12-15

    Biofuels may play a significant role in regard to carbon emission reduction in the transportation sector. Therefore, a thermochemical process for biomass conversion into synthetic chemicals and fuels is being developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) by producing process energy to achieve a desirable high carbon dioxide reduction potential. In the bioliq process, lignocellulosic biomass is first liquefied by fast pyrolysis in distributed regional plants to produce an energy-dense intermediate suitable for economic transport over long distances. Slurries of pyrolysis condensates and char, also referred to as biosyncrude, are transported to a large central gasification and synthesis plant. The bioslurry is preheated and pumped into a pressurized entrained flow gasifier, atomized with technical oxygen, and converted at > 1,200 C to an almost tar-free, low-methane syngas. Syngas - a mixture of CO and H2 - is a well-known versatile intermediate for the selectively catalyzed production of various base chemicals or synthetic fuels. At KIT, a pilot plant has been constructed together with industrial partners to demonstrate the process chain in representative scale. The process data obtained will allow for process scale-up and reliable cost estimates. In addition, practical experience is gained. The paper describes the background, principal technical concepts, and actual development status of the bioliq process. It is considered to have the potential for worldwide application in large scale since any kind of dry biomass can be used as feedstock. Thus, a significant contribution to a sustainable future energy supply could be achieved.

  15. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-07-26

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

  16. Heparins: process-related physico-chemical and compositional characteristics, fingerprints and impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Lino; Mascellani, Giuseppe; Spelta, Franco

    2009-11-01

    During the past 25 years, heparin extraction and purification processes have changed. The results of these changes are reflected by the continuous increase in potency of the International Standard for heparin. This increase is due not only to a higher purity, but also to a number of changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of heparin. For long time, all these changes have been disregarded as non-critical by regulatory authorities. Heparin marketing authorisation was reviewed only two years ago and Pharmacopoeia monographs were reviewed just for the addition of new tests, mainly aimed at tackling the oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) crisis. Currently, heparin monographs are again under revision. Such changes, different for each manufacturer, have caused a further increase in the heterogeneity of individual batches of heparin. This review aims at showing that chemical, physical and biological characteristics of heparin (such as disaccharide composition, amount of low sulfated and high sulfated sequences, molecular weight profiles [MW], activities, structural artifacts, fingerprints and glycosaminoglycans impurities) are all process-dependent and may significantly vary when different processes are used to minimise the content of dermatan sulfate. The wide heterogeneity of the physico-chemical characteristics of currently marketed heparin and the lack of suitable and shareable reference standards for the identification/quantification of process-related impurities caused, and are still causing, heated debates among scientific institutions, companies and authorities.

  17. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  18. Processes and environmental significance of the subglacial chemical deposits in Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Gengnian; LUO; Risheng; CAO; Jun

    2005-01-01

    On the bedrock surface of Glacier No.1 in the headwater of Urumqi River, Tianshan Mts., well layered and crystallized subglacial calcite precipitations were discovered. Based on observations and analysis of the surface form, sedimentary texture and structure, and chemical composition of the deposits, clues about the subglacial processes and environment are deduced. The radial-growth crustation texture of the deposits, which builds up in the saturated CaCO3 solution, proves the existence of pressure melting water and water films under Glacier No.1; and their rhythmic beddings, dissolved planes and unconformable contacts show that the water films responsible for the formation of these structures were in a wide range of spatial as well as temporal variations. Though formed under continental glacier in non-limestone area, the deposits are quite similar to those formed under temperate glaciers in limestone areas, a fact that shows a similar process of chemical precipitation between the two. Hence the enrichment of calcium in the subglacial melting water and the process of precipitation have actually little to do with the bedrock lithology and the glacier types. The cemented detritus in the deposits are rich in Fe and Al while depleted in K, Na and Si; also the included clay mineral consists mainly of illite, which reveals some weak chemical weathering under the continental glacier. The subglacial CaCO3 precipitates when plenty of Ca++ melt into the subglacial melting water on a comparatively enclosed ice-bedrock interface under a high CO2 partial pressure, the forming of subglacial chemical deposits therefore offers unequivocal evidence for the ongoing of subglacial chemical reactions.

  19. An analysis of the initial decision process of organizing the Navy Medical Department's Executive Management Education module conversion to network-based instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Odvina, Cesar A.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the initial decision process of organizing to convert a course module from the Navy Medical Department Executive Management Education. The objective is to track and model the process used to integrate Network-Based Instruction technology into an existing traditional classroom course of instruction. This research include survey of Network-Based Instruction literature, and an assessment of the decision process involv...

  20. Enhanced visible emission from vertically aligned ZnO nanostructures by aqueous chemical growth process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiruddin, R., E-mail: amirphy9@yahoo.com; Kumar, M.C. Santhosh, E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu

    2014-11-15

    ZnO nanostructures consisting of nanowires and nanorods have been grown by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) process on the ZnO seed layers. ACG process has been carried out for 5 h and 15 h to obtain the one dimensional nanostructures. This ZnO nanostructure comprises mixture of vertically aligned nanorods and nanowires. Structural analysis reveals that the crystal orientation is along (002) plane exhibiting a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures increases after aqueous chemical treatment with respect to the growth duration. Optical studies revealed that when the duration of aqueous chemical treatment is increased, the transmittance of the films decreases considerably. The as-deposited ZnO seed layers exhibit electron carrier concentration of 4.69×10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and the value increases to 9.44×10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} after 5 h and 1.53×10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} after 15 h of aqueous chemical treatment. It has been observed that ZnO nanostructures exhibit enhanced luminescence properties in visible region which covers the entire visible region of the spectrum. - Highlights: • Mixture of nanorods and nanowires are grown upon same glass substrates. • The grown nanostructures are found to be vertically aligned. • Improved electron carrier concentration is observed. • Luminescence properties of these ZnO nanostructures are highly enhanced.

  1. Mesoscale Phenomena Associated with Mineral Surfaces and Pathway-Dependent Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. E.; Johnson, N. C.; Garcia Del Real, P.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Thomas, B.; Levard, C.

    2012-12-01

    Multiphase physicochemical transport and interfacial processes in natural and synthetic permeable media are pervasive in energy and Earth systems, where interfacial chemical reactions play an enormous role. These coupled reactions control the composition of our environment, including the atmosphere, oceans, and groundwaters, and the soils derived from interactions of atmospheric gases and natural waters with solid phases. Aqueous fluids, liquid hydrocarbons, and gases flow through permeable geological media along pathways that can be exceedingly complex at the nano- to microscales. Adding to this complexity are the chemical reactions occurring along these pathways that can irreversibly alter permeability and porosity as well as the compositions of fluid, gas, and solid phases, depending on physicochemical conditions. This talk will discuss the role of chemical reactions on mineral surfaces in several areas, including the structure of the electrical double layer at mineral/water interfaces and how it changes as a function of solution conditions, sequestration and transformation of environmental contaminants on mineral surfaces, mineral carbonation reactions and CO2 sequestration, and nanoparticle stability and transformations in natural systems. It will also include examples of pathway-dependent mesoscale chemical processes in the synthetic world involving energy materials. Examples in this area will include a synchrotron-based high-resolution 3D tomography study of Li-NiO battery electrodes under in operando conditions and metal-organic framework structures that can be used for hydrogen storage, separation, catalysis, and sequestration.

  2. An Intelligent System for Modelling, Design and Analysis of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    ICAS, Integrated Computer Aided System, is a software that consists of a number of intelligent tools, which are very suitable, among others, for computer aided modelling, sustainable design of chemical and biochemical processes, and design-analysis of product-process monitoring systems. Each...... the computer aided modelling tool will illustrate how to generate a desired process model, how to analyze the model equations, how to extract data and identify the model and make it ready for various types of application. In sustainable process design, the example will highlight the issue of integration...... of these tools are characterized by a framework that follows an established work-flow and data-flow, developed to guide the user through the many steps of the problem solution process. At each, the specific tool knows which data, model and/or algorithm to use. The tool also provides analysis of the calculated...

  3. A novel double loop control model design for chemical unstable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Er-Ding; Hu, Ming-Hui; Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Shao, Hui-He

    2014-03-01

    In this manuscript, based on Smith predictor control scheme for unstable process in industry, an improved double loop control model is proposed for chemical unstable processes. Inner loop is to stabilize integrating the unstable process and transform the original process to first-order plus pure dead-time dynamic stable process. Outer loop is to enhance the performance of set point response. Disturbance controller is designed to enhance the performance of disturbance response. The improved control system is simple with exact physical meaning. The characteristic equation is easy to realize stabilization. Three controllers are separately design in the improved scheme. It is easy to design each controller and good control performance for the respective closed-loop transfer function separately. The robust stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed. Finally, case studies illustrate that the improved method can give better system performance than existing design methods.

  4. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  5. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Analysis of Surface Chemistry and Detector Performance of Chemically Process CdZnTe crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOSSAIN, A.; Yang, G.; Sutton, J.; Zergaw, T.; Babalola, O. S.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda. ZG. S.; Gul, R.; Roy, U. N., and James, R. B.

    2015-10-05

    The goal is to produce non-conductive smooth surfaces for fabricating low-noise and high-efficiency CdZnTe devices for gamma spectroscopy. Sample preparation and results are discussed. The researachers demonstrated various bulk defects (e.g., dislocations and sub-grain boundaries) and surface defects, and examined their effects on the performance of detectors. A comparison study was made between two chemical etchants to produce non-conductive smooth surfaces. A mixture of bromine and hydrogen peroxide proved more effective than conventional bromine etchant. Both energy resolution and detection efficiency of CZT planar detectors were noticeably increased after processing the detector crystals using improved chemical etchant and processing methods.

  7. Chemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal processes on Mars: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal processes are thought to have had significant roles in the development of surficial mineralogies and morphological features on Mars. For example, a significant proportion of the Martian soil could consist of the erosional products of hydrothermally altered impact melt sheets. In this model, impact-driven, vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems hydrothermally altered the surrounding rocks and transported volatiles such as S and Cl to the surface. Further support for impact-driven hydrothermal alteration on Mars was provided by studies of the Ries crater, Germany, where suevite deposits were extensively altered to montmorillonite clays by inferred low-temperature (100-130 C) hydrothermal fluids. It was also suggested that surface outflow from both impact-driven and volcano-driven hydrothermal systems could generate the valley networks, thereby eliminating the need for an early warm wet climate. We use computer-driven chemical reaction path calculation to model chemical processes which were likely associated with postulated Martian hydrothermal systems.

  8. Faradiac Impedance of a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction and an Adsorption Process

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel 302 has been investigated in 0.10 M K2SO4 solution using the impedance technique at several anodic potentials. Stainless steel 302 is passive up to 1300 mV, due to the main formation of Cr2O3. Above this potential stainless steel became active. Faradiac impedances of a heterogeneous chemical reaction and an adsorption process were discussed.

  9. Physico-chemical Conditions of the Surface Modification Process of Steels by Vanadium, Carbon and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Harchenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of the physical and chemical conditions of the nitrogenvanading process of steels are performed. The diagrams of the equilibrium composition of the reaction medium are presented. The phase composition of gaseous and condensed states of the systems, the optimum saturation temperature and mixture composition are derived. The optimal temperature range of nitrogenvanading of steels is established as follows: 1100-1300 K.

  10. Oxidation of the Martian surface - Constraints due to chemical processes in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, M. B.; Kong, T. Y.

    1976-01-01

    Dissociation of water in the Martian atmosphere may supply oxygen to the surface and may result in the formation of minerals such as goethite, as proposed by Huguenin. The supply rate is limited by chemical processes in the atmosphere which regulate the abundance of O2. The net surface sink for atmospheric oxygen can be as large as 33 million atoms per sq cm per sec which compares to the escape rate of 60 million atoms per sq cm per sec.

  11. “LA COLATURA DI ALICI CETARESE”: EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panzardi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The entire manufacturing process of colatura di alici di Cetara, a fish product derived from anchovies, was monitored. Physico-chemical characteristics, TVN and TMA content and fatty acid profile was determined from raw anchovies to colatura ready to use. Results showed a high TVN level also at initial steps of ripening period. The fatty acid content showed a high presence of polunsatured acids also in finished product.

  12. Numerical simulation of chemical processes in helium plasmas in atmosphere environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建明; 郭伟; 王龙; 邵福球

    2005-01-01

    A model is built to study chemical processes in plasmas generated in helium with trace amounts of air at atmospheric pressure or low pressures. The plasma lifetimes and the temporal evolutions of the main charged species are presented. The plasma lifetimes are longer than that in air plasma at atmospheric pressure, but this is not true at low pressures. The electron number density does not strictly obey the exponential damping law in a longer period.

  13. In-situ examination of diffusion and precipitation processes during the evolution of chemical garden systems

    OpenAIRE

    Glaab, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    “Chemical” or “silicate gardens” are a well known example for the spontaneous formation of a complex and structured system from ordinary educts. Simply by addition of soluble metal salt crystals to alkaline silica sols, dissolution of the metal salt and subsequent solidification initiate a self-organization process, which not only produces two separated compartments with drastically different chemical conditions by precipitation of a closed and tubular membrane but also produces a variety of ...

  14. Research on Abrasives in the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process for Silicon Nitride Balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si 3N 4) has been the main material for balls in ceramic ball bearings, for its lower density, high strength, high hardness, fine thermal stability and anticorrosive, and is widely used in various fields, such as high speed and high temperature areojet engines, precision machine tools and chemical engineer machines. Silicon nitride ceramics is a kind of brittle and hard material that is difficult to machining. In the traditional finishing process of silicon nitride balls, balls are lapped...

  15. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  16. Soft Sensor for Inputs and Parameters Using Nonlinear Singular State Observer in Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锋; 汪晔晔; 罗雄麟

    2013-01-01

    Chemical processes are usually nonlinear singular systems. In this study, a soft sensor using nonlinear singular state observer is established for unknown inputs and uncertain model parameters in chemical processes, which are augmented as state variables. Based on the observability of the singular system, this paper presents a simplified observability criterion under certain conditions for unknown inputs and uncertain model parameters. When the observability is satisfied, the unknown inputs and the uncertain model parameters are estimated online by the soft sensor using augmented nonlinear singular state observer. The riser reactor of fluid catalytic cracking unit is used as an example for analysis and simulation. With the catalyst circulation rate as the only unknown input without model error, one temperature sensor at the riser reactor outlet will ensure the correct estimation for the catalyst cir-culation rate. However, when uncertain model parameters also exist, additional temperature sensors must be used to ensure correct estimation for unknown inputs and uncertain model parameters of chemical processes.

  17. On-line Dynamic Model Correction Based Fault Diagnosis in Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文德; 孙素莉

    2007-01-01

    A novel fault detection and diagnosis method was proposed,using dynamic simulation to monitor chemical process and identify faults when large tracking deviations occur.It aims at parameter failures,and the parameters are updated via on-line correction.As it can predict the trend of process and determine the existence of malfunctions simultaneously,this method does not need to design problem-specific observer to estimate unmeasured state variables.Application of the proposed method is presented on one water tank and one aromatization reactor,and the results are compared with those from the traditional method.

  18. A Combined Heuristic and Indicator-based Methodology for Design of Sustainable Chemical Process Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Iskandar; Carvalho, Ana; Srinivasan, Rajagopalan;

    2011-01-01

    The current emphasis on sustainable production has prompted chemical plants to minimize raw material and energy usage without compromising on economics. While computer tools are available to assistin sustainability assessment, their applications are constrained to a specific domain of the design...... synthesis problem. This paper outlines a design synthesis strategy that integrates two computer methodologies – ENVOPExpert and SustainPro – for simultaneous generation, analysis, evaluation, and optimization of sustainable process alternatives. ENVOPExpert diagnoses waste sources, identifies alternatives......, comprehensive generation of design alternatives, and effective reduction of the optimization search space. The frame-work is illustrated using anacetone process and a methanol and dimethyl ether production case study....

  19. Festschrift in Honor of Prof. Gordon McKay -On occasion of his retirement from Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Professor Gordon McKay has a long, exciting and distinguished professional career as a chemical engineer. From his early days in industry through to his most recent appointment as professor and Acting Head of Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), he has made a substantial contribution to the profession. Professor McKay has authored over 300 research publications and 5 books in areas of chemical engineering, mainly in adsorption but also in energy and other areas.

  20. The Department of Defense Information Security Process: A Study of Change Acceptance and Past-Performance-Based Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Dennis W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Subchapter III of Chapter 35 of Title 44, United States Code, Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002; Department of Defense (DoD) Directive 8500.01E, Information Assurance, October 24, 2002; DoD Directive 8100.1, Global Information Grid Overarching Policy, September 19, 2002; and DoD Instruction 8500.2, Information Assurance…

  1. First Chinese public hospital wins Joint Commission International accreditation: the Health Information Department played a key role in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Audrey; Jun, Cheng Li

    2008-07-01

    Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China spent five years preparing for a Joint Commission International accreditation survey. In March 2007 it became the first public hospital on the Chinese mainland to attain international accreditation. The Health Information Department, managed according to Western standards, played an integral role in preparing the hospital for the survey.

  2. The Process of Organizational Capacity Development in Action in Post-Conflict Setting of the Literacy Department of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, Habibullah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of capacity development for public organizations in post-conflict settings. The paper reveals the challenges faced by the author as a "change agent" who tried to understand and develop the basic capacity of the Literacy Department of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan. The author used an action-research…

  3. The Process of Plasma Chemical Photoresist Film Ashing from the Surface of Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarhei Bordusau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research for finding new technical methods of treating materials with plasma, including the development of energy and resource saving technologies for microelectronic manufacturing, is particularly actual.In order to improve the efficiency of microwave plasma chemical ashing of photoresist films from the surface of silicon wafers a two-stage process of treating was developed. The idea of the developed process is that wafers coated with photoresist are pre-heated by microwave energy. This occurs because the microwave energy initially is not spent on the excitation and maintenance of a microwave discharge but it is absorbed by silicon wafers which have a high tangent of dielectric losses. During the next step after the excitation of the microwave discharge the interaction of oxygen plasma with a pre-heated photoresist films proceeds more intensively. The delay of the start of plasma forming process in the vacuum chamber of a plasmatron with respect to the beginning of microwave energy generation by a magnetron leads to the increase of the total rate of photoresist ashing from the surface of silicon wafers approximately 1.7 times. The advantage of this method of microwave plasma chemical processing of semi-conductor wafers is the possibility of intensifying the process without changing the design of microwave discharge module and without increasing the input microwave power supplied into the discharge.

  4. Zero discharge tanning: a shift from chemical to biocatalytic leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2002-10-01

    Beam house processes (Beam house processes generally mean liming-reliming processes, which employ beam.) contribute more than 60% of the total pollution from leather processing. The use of lime and sodium sulfide is of environmental concern (1, 2). Recently, the authors have developed an enzyme-based dehairing assisted with a very low amount of sodium sulfide, which completely avoids the use of lime. However, the dehaired pelt requires opening up of fiber bundles for further processing, where lime is employed to achieve this through osmotic swelling. Huge amounts of lime sludge and total solids are the main drawbacks of lime. An alternative bioprocess, based on alpha-amylase for fiber opening, has been attempted after enzymatic unhairing. This totally eliminates the use of lime in leather processing. This method enables subsequent processes and operations in leather making feasible without a deliming process. A control experiment was run in parallel using conventional liming-reliming processes. It has been found that the extent of opening up of fiber bundles using alpha-amylase is comparable to that of the control. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis, and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on a par with leathers produced by the conventional process through physical and hand evaluation. Importantly, softness of the leathers is numerically proven to be comparable with that of control. The process also demonstrates reduction in chemical oxygen demand load by 45% and total solids load by 20% compared to the conventional process. The total dry sludge from the beam house processes is brought down from 152 to 8 kg for processing 1 ton of raw hides.

  5. Comparison the Physico-Chemical Model of Ferrosilicon Smelting Process with Results Observations of the Process under the Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the minimum Gibbs Free Enthalpy algorithm (FEM, model of the ferrosilicon smelting process has been presented. It is a system of two closed isothermal reactors: an upper one with a lower temperature T1, and a lower one with a higher temperature T2. Between the reactors and the environment as well as between the reactors inside the system, a periodical exchange of mass occurs at the moments when the equilibrium state is reached. The condensed products of chemical reactions move from the top to the bottom, and the gas phase components move in the opposite direction. It can be assumed that in the model, the Reactor 1 corresponds to the charge zone of submerged arc furnace where heat is released as a result of resistive heating, and the Reactor 2 corresponds to the zones of the furnace where heat is produced by electric arc. Using the model, a series of calculations was performed for the Fe-Si-O-C system and was determined the influence of temperatures T1, T2 on the process. The calculation results show a good agreement model with the real ferrosilicon process. It allows for the determination of the effects of temperature conditions in charge zones and arc zones of the ferrosilicon furnace on the carbothermic silica reduction process. This allows for an explanation of many characteristic states in the ferrosilicon smelting process.

  6. Incorporation of environmental impact criteria in the design and operation of chemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Bauer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment is becoming indispensable for the design and operation of chemical plants. Structured and consistent methods for this purpose have experienced a rapid development. The more rigorous and sophisticated these methods become, the greater is the demand for convenient tools. On the other hand, despite the incredible advances in process simulators, some aspects have still not been sufficiently covered. To date, applications of these programs to quantify environmental impacts have been restricted to straightforward examples of steady-state processes. In this work, a life-cycle assessment implementation with the aim of process design will be described, with a brief discussion of a dynamic simulation for analysis of transient state operations, such as process start-up. A case study shows the importance of this analysis in making possible operation at a high performance level with reduced risks to the environment.

  7. Systematic, efficient and consistent LCA calculations for chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petchkaewkul, Kaesinee; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    that allow a wider coverage of chemical and biochemical processes. Improvements of LCIA calculations and eco-efficiency evaluation are introduced. Also, a new model for photochemical ozone formation has been developed and implemented. Performance of LCSoft in terms of accuracy and reliability is compared......Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is a technique, which is applied for the study and evaluation of quantitative environmental impacts through the entire life cycle of products, processes or services in order to improve and/or evaluate the design of existing as well as new processes. The LCA factors can...... with another well-known LCA-software, SimaPro for a biochemical process – the production of bioethanol from cassava rhizome. The results show a very good match of new added impact categories. Also, the results from a new feature in LCSoft, which is eco-efficiency evaluation, are presented....

  8. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Després, V.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Psenner, R.; Ariya, P. A.; Pósfai, M.; Ahern, H. E.; Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2009-04-01

    The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques) required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  9. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  10. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  11. Ecotoxicological and chemical characterization of selected treatment process effluents of municipal sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Yi; Kiefer, F; Yediler, A; Wang, Zijian; Kettrup, A

    2003-10-01

    The triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed for 4 weeks in a sewage treatment plant in Beijing, China, to sample and concentrate priority hydrophobic organic pollutants in a sewage treatment process. The chemical analyses and ecotoxicities of the residuals of SPMDs dialysate were examined. The data from the chemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring mode indicated the lower removal for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coincided with the persistence of them in the environment. The acute toxicity examined by bioluminescence test with Vibrio fischeri revealed approximately only 20% decrease in the overall toxicity of the influent after the activate sludge treatment process. The ethoxy resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction with a micro-EROD assay in vitro using H4-IIE rat hepatoma cell cultures demonstrated the presence of persistent organics in influent and sequency effluents. Results obtained suggested that integration of the SPMD technique and chemical analyses and bioassay might be a valuable approach for the risk assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water ecosystem. It revealed the necessity for organic pollutants monitoring and ecotoxicities examining of sewage treatment plants.

  12. Modeling of the HiPco process for carbon nanotube production. I. Chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Gokcen, Tahir; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    A chemical kinetic model is developed to help understand and optimize the production of single-walled carbon nanotubes via the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process, which employs iron pentacarbonyl as the catalyst precursor and carbon monoxide as the carbon feedstock. The model separates the HiPco process into three steps, precursor decomposition, catalyst growth and evaporation, and carbon nanotube production resulting from the catalyst-enhanced disproportionation of carbon monoxide, known as the Boudouard reaction: 2 CO(g)-->C(s) + CO2(g). The resulting detailed model contains 971 species and 1948 chemical reactions. A second model with a reduced reaction set containing 14 species and 22 chemical reactions is developed on the basis of the detailed model and reproduces the chemistry of the major species. Results showing the parametric dependence of temperature, total pressure, and initial precursor partial pressures are presented, with comparison between the two models. The reduced model is more amenable to coupled reacting flow-field simulations, presented in the following article.

  13. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ, may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA. Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae.

  14. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  15. Effect of chemicals, heat, and histopathologic processing on high-infectivity hamster-adapted scrapie virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P; Rohwer, R G; Green, E M; Gajdusek, D C

    1982-05-01

    High-titered (greater than 10(10) LD50 [50% lethal dose[/g) preparations of scrapie virus-infected hamster brain were subjected to inactivation by various chemicals, autoclaving, and histopathologic processing. Sodium hypochlorite, which reduced infectivity by approximately 4 log LD50/g of brain (99.99%), was somewhat superior to sodium metaperiodate and clearly superior to chlorine dioxide, Lysol (National Laboratories, Montvale, N.J.), iodine, potassium permanganate, and hydrogen peroxide. Most inactivation occurred within 15-30 min of exposure to a chemical, and little if any additional inactivation occurred after 1 hr. Brains processed for histopathologic examination (formalin fixation followed by dehydration in methanol, clearing in chloroform, and embedding in paraffin) retained greater than or equal to 6.8 log LD50/g of the infectivity present in unprocessed control tissues (9.6 log LD50/g). One hour in an autoclave at 121 C reduced the titer of scrapie virus by approximately 7.5 log LD50/g of brain but left 2.5 log LD50/g of residual infectivity. A combination of exposure to chemicals and autoclaving may be necessary to sterilize high-titered scrapie virus-infected tissue.

  16. A study of a nursing department performance measurement system: using the Balanced Scorecard and the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsuan-Lien; Wang, Chen-Chin; Dai, Yu-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    The health care industry is under pressure from government and private entities as well as from market conditions to contain costs. In an effort to respond to these pressures, the case hospital in this study implemented a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) in January 2003 and integrated it with the hospital's formal incentive plan for non-physicians in January 2005. The nursing department's performance improved in the 2 years following the introduction of the plan. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the performance improvement that results from integrating the BSC with an incentive plan in the nursing field. The results provide insight into the current BSC performance metrics applied by the case nursing department, and could be used as guidelines by other health care organizations that wish to implement BSC-based incentive plans.

  17. Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Victor; Valcárcel, Manuel; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2002-07-17

    The work described here concerns a study of the chemical and biochemical transformations in sherry vinegar during the different aging stages. The main factors that contribute to the nature and special characteristics of sherry vinegar are the raw sherry wine, the traditional process of acetic acid fermentation in butts (the solera system), and the physicochemical activity during the aging process in the solera system. A number of chemical and biochemical changes that occur during sherry vinegar aging are similar to those that take place in sherry wine during its biological activity process (where the wine types obtained are fino and manzanilla) or physicochemical activity process (to give oloroso wines). Significant increase in acetic acid levels was observed during the biological activity phase. In addition, the concentrations of tartaric, gluconic, succinic, and citric acids increased during the aging, as did levels of amino acids and acetoin. A color change was also produced during this stage. Glycerol was not consumed by acetic acid bacteria, and levels of higher alcohols decreased because of the synthesis of acetates. On the other hand, in the physicochemical phase the microbiological activity was lower. Concentrations of some cations increased because of evaporation of water through the wood. A color change was also produced in this stage. Concentrations of different amino acids decreased because of reaction with carbonyl compounds. A precipitation of potassium with tartaric acid was also observed.

  18. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  19. Process simulation and maximization of energy output in chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ling Zhou, Ramesh Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is currently considered as a leading technology for reducing the economic cost of CO2 capture. In this paper, several process simulations of chemical-looping combustion are conducted using the ASPEN Plus software. The entire CLC process from the beginning of coal gasification to the reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled and validated against experimental data. The energy balance of each major component of the CLC process, e.g., the fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is examined. Different air flow rates and oxygen carrier feeding rates are used in the simulations to obtain the optimum ratio of coal, air, and oxygen carrier that produces the maximum power. Two scaled-up simulations are also conducted to investigate the influence of increase in coal feeding on power generation. It is demonstrated that the optimum ratio of coal, air supply, and oxygen carrier for maximum power generation remains valid for scaled-up cases with substantially larger coal feeding rates; the maximum power generation scales up linearly by using the process simulation models in ASPEN Plus. The energy output from four different types of coals is compared, and the optimum ratio of coal, air supply and oxygen carrier for maximum power generation for each type of coal is determined.

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  1. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  2. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...... of nano-molar quantification in few seconds, in addition to an accelerated extraction-free GC-MS method that through automation can deliver results much faster than other similar methods. The implementation of these high tech methods will provide the meat industry with a leading edge not only with product...

  3. A complete model of CH+ rotational excitation including radiative and chemical pumping processes

    CERN Document Server

    Godard, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Excitation of far-infrared and submillimetric molecular lines may originate from nonreactive collisions, chemical formation, or far infrared, near-infrared, and optical fluorescences. As a template, we investigate the impact of each of these processes on the excitation of the methylidyne cation CH+ and on the intensities of its rotational transitions recently detected in emission in dense photodissociation regions (PDRs) and in planetary nebulae. Methods. We have developed a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) excitation model that includes the entire energy structure of CH+, i.e. taking into account the pumping of its vibrational and bound and unbound electronic states by near-infrared and optical photons. The model includes the theoretical cross-sections of nonreactive collisions with H, H2, He, and e-, and a Boltzmann distribution is used to describe the probability of populating the excited levels of CH+ during its chemical formation by hydrogenation of C+. To confirm our results we also pe...

  4. Boundary conditions for the paleoenvironment: Chemical and Physical Processes in dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    The present research includes searches for important new interstellar constituents; observations relevant to differentiating between different models for the chemical processes that are important in the interstellar environment; and coordinated studies of the chemistry, physics, and dynamics of molecular clouds which are the sites or possible future sites of star formation. Recent research has included the detection and study of four new interstellar molecules; searches which have placed upper limits on the abundance of several other potential constituents of interstellar clouds; quantitative studies of comparative molecular abundances in different types of interstellar clouds; investigation of reaction pathways for astrochemistry from a comparison of theory and the observed abundance of related species such as isomers and isotopic variants; studies of possible tracers of energenic events related to star formation, including silicon and sulfur containing molecules; and mapping of physical, chemical, and dynamical properties over extended regions of nearby cold molecular clouds.

  5. A quality management system for chemical processes; Qualita' dei processi chimici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantalo, P. [Tecnopolis Casata Novus Ortus s.c.r.l., Bari (Italy). Servizi Informativi

    2000-06-01

    The requirements of the international quality assurance standards are briefly discussed in connection with the safety and the environment protection needs of chemical industry. The paper summarizes some general techniques useful for the analyses and describes a managing system to improve the commercial quality of products, the safety at work and the environmental quality of chemical processes. [Italian] Vengono brevemente discussi i requisiti delle norme Iso 9000 sui Sistemi di Assicurazione della Qualita' relativamente al contesto dell'industria chimica e con particolare riferimento ai problemi di sicurezza e compatibilita' ambientale degli impianti produttivi e dei prodotti. A tale scopo, sono riassunte alcune fondamentali tecniche di analisi dell'affidabilita' e sicurezza dei sistemi tecnici ed e' presentata una filosofia generale di gestione atta a migliorare contemporaneamente sia la qualita' commerciale dei prodotti, sia la qualita' ambientale e la sicurezza dei processi.

  6. Non-standard tests for process control in chemically bonded sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramrattan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemically bonded sand cores and molds are more commonly referred to as precision sand systems in the high production automotive powertrain sector. Their behavior in contact with molten metal can lead to casting defects. Consequently, the interaction is of great interest and an important part of metal casting technology. The American Foundry Society (AFS sand testing is based on physical, mechanical, thermal and chemical properties of the sand system. Foundry engineers have long known that certain AFS sand tests provide limited information regarding control of molding and casting quality. The inadequacy is due to the fact that sand casting processes are inherently thermo-mechanical, thermo-chemical and thermo-physical. Non-standard foundry sand testing has proven useful for laboratory measurement of these characteristics in foundry sand using a disc-shaped specimen. Similarly, the equivalent disc-shaped specimens are used for casting trials. In order to accomplish near-net-shape casting with minimal defects, it is necessary to understand both the properties of the sand system, as well as the interface of molten metal when different binders, additives and/or refractory coatings are used. The methodology for the following non-standard chemically bonded sand tests is described: (1 disc transverse; (2 impact; (3 modified permeability; (4 abrasion; (5 thermal distortion; (6 quick loss on ignition. The data related to the non-standard sand tests were analyzed and interpreted. The test results indicate that there is relatively lower test-to-test variability with the disc-shaped specimens. The non-standard tests were able to discriminate between the chemically bonded polyurethane cold box sand specimens. Further studies should be conducted on various other sand and binder systems as well as on different specimen thicknesses.

  7. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures...... and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...

  8. Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, V Faye

    2015-02-03

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed.

  9. New Applications of Magnetic Separation Using Superconducting Magnets and Colloid Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, S.; Yu, S.-J.; Nakahira, A.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.; Watanabe, T.

    2005-07-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) can be a promising new environmental purification technique as it produces no contaminants, such as flocculants, and could possibly treat large amounts of waste water within a short time frame. A colloid chemical process for magnetic seeding can allow us to rapidly recover a large quantity of adsorbate and to strongly magnetize individual particles in order to improve the recovery efficiency of magnetic separation. In this paper, we will report on the fundamental study of the magnetic seeding process and purification processes using HGMS, and also on studies of applications of the water treatment system for actual factories. Emphasized is a report on a system constructed for water treatment from a paper-manufacturing factory.

  10. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1979-10-30

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  11. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-26

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose from Green Bamboo by Chemical Treatment with Mechanical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fui Kiew Liew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo cellulose was prepared by chemical process involving dewaxing, delignification, and mercerization process. Four samples namely, green bamboo fiber (GBF, dewaxed bamboo fiber (DBF, delignified bamboo fiber (DLBF, and cellulose fiber (CF had been analysed. FTIR and TGA analysis confirmed the removal of hemicellulose and lignin at the end stage of the process. FTIR results reveal that the D-cellulose OH group occurred at 1639 cm−1 region. SEM micrograph showed that mercerization leads to fibrillation and breakage of the fiber into smaller pieces which promote the effective surface area available for contact. Barrer, Joiyner, and Halenda (BJH method confirmed that the effective surface area of CF is two times larger compared to GBF. CF showed the highest activation energy compared to GBF. It indicates that CF was thermally stable.

  13. Chemical surface modification of glass beads for the treatment of paper machine process waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, Khalil, E-mail: khalil.jradi@uqtr.c [Centre de Recherche en Pates et Papiers, Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, 3351 boul. des forges, C.P. 500, Trois Rivieres, QC, G9A-5H7 (Canada); Daneault, Claude [Canada Research Chair in Value-Added Paper Manufacturing (Canada); Chabot, Bruno [Centre de Recherche en Pates et Papiers, Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, 3351 boul. des forges, C.P. 500, Trois Rivieres, QC, G9A-5H7 (Canada)

    2011-04-29

    Adsorption of detrimental contaminants on a solid sorbent is proposed to remove these contaminants from process waters to increase water recycling and reduce effluent loads in the papermaking industry. A self-assembly process of attaching (covalent grafting) cationic aminosilane molecules to glass beads was investigated. The existence and the hydrolytic stability of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers were confirmed by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Effects of reaction time and curing on aminosilane layer structures are also discussed. The curing step after silanization seems to be crucial in the hydrophobization of the quaternary ammonium silane coated onto glass beads, and curing could affect the final chemical structure of the ammonium groups of grafted organosilane. Results indicated that modified glass beads have a strong hydrophobicity, which is attributed to the hydrophobic property of the longest carbon chain grafted onto the glass surface. Adsorption of a model contaminant (stearic acid) onto chemically modified glass beads was determined using colloidal titration. Hydrophobic interactions could be the main driving force involved between the long carbon chains of stearic acid and the carbon chains of the aminosilane layers on glass bead surfaces. Finally, self-assembly processes applied onto glass beads may have two promising applications for papermaking and self-cleaning systems.

  14. Chemical Process R&D for Pharmaceutical Industry in the New Millennium, Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Tony; Yantao

    2001-01-01

    The genomic revolution has offered scientists in the world with unprecedented number of targets and opportunities to eradicate human diseases. High throughput screening technology using enzymatic and receptor binding assays has shifted the bottleneck in drug discovery to the laboratories of chemistry. Recent upsurge of interest in combinatorial chemistry is a testimony to the urgency of increasing the efficiency of how drug-like molecules are made. What the implication of all these on chemical process research? If the Internet has revolutionized the distribution and of data, information, and knowledge, how can this powerful tool be utilized to harness the collective intellect of chemists all across the world? If the effort of a few thousands people was able to send men to the moon, can the cross-pollination of ideas from chemists all over the world, each of them thinking in his or her unique way, produce the most cost effective way of making a particular molecule, reduce pollution of a current process, or deliver a cure for cancer? We will examine the brief history of modern organic chemistry and provide some personal musings on different course one can take in the area of chemical process R&D.  ……

  15. Chemical Process R&D for Pharmaceutical Industry in the New Millennium, Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tony Yantao; BINGHAM Alphus

    2001-01-01

    @@ The genomic revolution has offered scientists in the world with unprecedented number of targets and opportunities to eradicate human diseases. High throughput screening technology using enzymatic and receptor binding assays has shifted the bottleneck in drug discovery to the laboratories of chemistry. Recent upsurge of interest in combinatorial chemistry is a testimony to the urgency of increasing the efficiency of how drug-like molecules are made. What the implication of all these on chemical process research? If the Internet has revolutionized the distribution and of data, information, and knowledge, how can this powerful tool be utilized to harness the collective intellect of chemists all across the world? If the effort of a few thousands people was able to send men to the moon, can the cross-pollination of ideas from chemists all over the world, each of them thinking in his or her unique way, produce the most cost effective way of making a particular molecule, reduce pollution of a current process, or deliver a cure for cancer? We will examine the brief history of modern organic chemistry and provide some personal musings on different course one can take in the area of chemical process R&D.

  16. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  17. The contribution of enzymes and process chemicals to the life cycle of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, Heather L [Department of Civil Engineering and School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada); Spatari, Sabrina [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)], E-mail: hmaclean@ecf.utoronto.ca

    2009-01-15

    Most life cycle studies of biofuels have not examined the impact of process chemicals and enzymes, both necessary inputs to biochemical production and which vary depending upon the technology platform (feedstock, pretreatment and hydrolysis system). We examine whether this omission is warranted for sugar-platform technologies. We develop life cycle ('well-to-tank') case studies for a corn dry-mill and for one 'mature' and two near-term lignocellulosic ethanol technologies. Process chemical and enzyme inputs contribute only 3% of fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol. Assuming considerable improvement compared to current enzyme performance, the inputs for the near-term lignocellulosic technologies studied are found to be responsible for 30%-40% of fossil energy use and 30%-35% of GHG emissions, not an insignificant fraction given that these models represent technology developers' nth plant performance. Mature technologies which assume lower chemical and enzyme loadings, high enzyme specific activity and on-site production utilizing renewable energy would significantly improve performance. Although the lignocellulosic technologies modeled offer benefits over today's corn ethanol through reducing life cycle fossil energy demand and GHG emissions by factors of three and six, achieving those performance levels requires continued research into and development of the manufacture of low dose, high specific activity enzyme systems. Realizing the benefits of low carbon fuels through biological conversion will otherwise not be possible. Tracking the technological performance of process conversion materials remains an important step in measuring the life cycle performance of biofuels.

  18. Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-01-01

    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.

  19. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  20. Kinetics of physico-chemical processes during intensive mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M. [CIICAp-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Juarez-Arellano, E.A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.mx [Universidad del Papaloapan, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca (Mexico); Bykov, A. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Leon, I. [CIQ-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Siqueiros-Diaz, A. [FCQI-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Experimental results of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the kinetic of the physical and chemical processes that takes place during prolonged intensive mechanical processing (MP, 03120min) of powder mixtures of 50%wt ZnO+50%wt MnO{sub 2} can be described as a three stage process. (1) 030min, particles destruction, formation of superficial defects, fast increment of sample average temperature (from 290 to {approx}600K) and annealing of defects with the lowest energy of activation E{sub ac}. (2) 30390min, further particle destruction, slow increment of sample average temperature (from {approx}600 to {approx}700K), formation and growth of a very disordered layer of {beta}-MnO{sub 2} around ZnO particles, dehydration of MnO{sub 2}, formation of solid solution of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO, formation of nano-quasiamorphous states in the ZnO-MnO{sub 2} mixture and onset of the formation of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. (3) 3903120min, the sample average temperature remains constant ({approx}700K), the reaction is completed and the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase with a unit cell a=8.431(1) A and space group Fd3-barm is the only phase present in the sample. No ferromagnetism at room temperature was detected in this study. - Highlights: > The kinetics during mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} samples is a three stage process. > First stage, reduction of crystallites size and accumulation of defects. > Second stage, nano-quasiamorphous states formation and onset of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. > Third stage, complete reaction to the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase.

  1. Improved Marquardt Algorithm for Training Neural Networks for Chemical Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建昱; 何小荣

    2002-01-01

    Back-propagation (BP) artificial neural networks have been widely used to model chemical processes. BP networks are often trained using the generalized delta-rule (GDR) algorithm but application of such networks is limited because of the low convergent speed of the algorithm. This paper presents a new algorithm incorporating the Marquardt algorithm into the BP algorithm for training feedforward BP neural networks. The new algorithm was tested with several case studies and used to model the Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of stabilizer gasoline. The new algorithm has faster convergence and is much more efficient than the GDR algorithm.

  2. Virtual Metrology applied in Run-to-Run Control for a Chemical Mechanical Planarization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, M. A.; El Adel, E. M.; Graton, G.; Ouladsine, M.; Pinaton, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with missing data in semiconductor manufacturing derived from a measurement sampling strategies. The idea is to construct a virtual metrology module to estimate non measured variables using a new modified Just-In-Time Learning approach (JITL). The aim of this paper is to integrate estimated data into product control loop. In collaboration with our industrial partner STMicroelectronics Rousset, the accuracy of the proposed method is illustrated by using industrial data-sets derived from Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process that enables us to compare results obtained with the classical and the modified version of JITL approach. Then, the contribution of the estimated data is shown in product quality improvement.

  3. Modified Augmented Lagrange Multiplier Methods for Large-Scale Chemical Process Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chemical process optimization can be described as large-scale nonlinear constrained minimization. The modified augmented Lagrange multiplier methods (MALMM) for large-scale nonlinear constrained minimization are studied in this paper. The Lagrange function contains the penalty terms on equality and inequality constraints and the methods can be applied to solve a series of bound constrained sub-problems instead of a series of unconstrained sub-problems. The steps of the methods are examined in full detail. Numerical experiments are made for a variety of problems, from small to very large-scale, which show the stability and effectiveness of the methods in large-scale problems.

  4. Ensemble velocity of non-processive molecular motors with multiple chemical states

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    We study the ensemble velocity of non-processive motor proteins, described with multiple chemical states. In particular, we discuss the velocity as a function of ATP concentration. Even a simple model which neglects the strain-dependence of transition rates, reverse transition rates and nonlinearities in the elasticity can show interesting functional dependencies, which deviate significantly from the frequently assumed Michaelis-Menten form. We discuss how the oder of events in the duty cycle can be inferred from the measured dependence. The model also predicts the possibility of velocity reversal at a certain ATP concentration if the duty cycle contains several conformational changes of opposite directionalities.

  5. Hot-pressed transparent PLZT ceramics from low cost chemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Santos

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT ceramics were obtained with high transmittance in the visible range by a combination of an inexpensive chemical processing and hot pressing. Optical, microstructural, pyroelectric, ferroelectric and dielectric properties characterized in this study attested the applicability of the employed method in the production of PLZT transparent ferroelectric ceramics. In fact, the corresponding analyzed physical parameters are in very good agreement with those obtained in samples traditionally prepared by other methods. Furthermore, due to high sample quality, a phenomenological analysis of the PLZT 10/65/35 relaxor features was performed in these ceramics.

  6. Interactions between ingredients in IMX-101: Reactive Chemical Processes Control Insensitive Munitions Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard,; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) measurements have been conducted on a new Insensitive Munitions (IM) formulation. IMX-101 is the first explosive to be fully IM qualified under new NATO STANAG guidelines for fielded munitions. The formulation uses dinitroanisole (DNAN) as a new melt cast material to replace TNT, and shows excellent IM performance when formulated with other energetic ingredients. The scope of this work is to explain this superior IM performance by investigating the reactive processes occurring in the material when subjected to a well-controlled thermal environment. The dominant reactive processes observed were a series of complex chemical interactions between the three main ingredients (DNAN, NQ, and NTO) that occurs well below the onset of the normal decomposition process of any of the individual ingredients. This process shifts the thermal response of the formulations to a much lower temperature, where the kinetically controlled reaction processes are much slower. This low temperature shift has the effect of allowing the reactions to consume the reactive solids (NQ, NTO) well before the reaction rates increase and reach thermal runaway, resulting in a relatively benign response to the external stimuli. The main findings on the interaction processes are presented.

  7. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Oguseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-03-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. This article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents four recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA; adopting a stepwise process to employing predicative toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern; leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting trans-disciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Chemicals of Interest to the Department of Defense and U.S. Air Force Among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System Chemicals that are Due for Reassessment of their Toxicity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    10-087, 16 March 2010 LIST OF ACRONYMS ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry CASRN Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number...included 473 chemicals with Chemical Abstract Services Registry Numbers (CASRNs) that are evaluated in this report (additional detail in Appendix A). The... Chemical Abstract Services Registry Numbers (CASRNs): 2,4-/2,6- dinitrotoluene mixture; refractory ceramic fibers; uranium, soluble salts; nickel, soluble

  9. Metallurgy Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The activities of the Metallurgy Department at Risø during 1981 are described. The work is presented in three chapters: General Materials Research, Technology and Materials Development, Fuel Elements. Furthermore, a survey is given of the department's participation in international collaboration...

  10. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  11. Using the Seismology of Non-magnetic Chemically Peculiar Stars as a Probe of Dynamical Processes in Stellar Interiors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sylvain Turcotte

    2005-06-01

    Chemical composition is a good tracer of the hydrodynamical processes that occur in stars as they often lead to mixing and particle transport. By comparing abundances predicted by models and those observed in stars we can infer some constraints on those mixing processes. As pulsations in the stars are often very sensitive to chemical composition, we can use asteroseismology to probe the internal chemical composition of stars where no direct observations are possible. In this paper I focus on main sequence stars Am, Bootis, and HgMn stars and discuss what we can learn of mixing processes in these stars from seismology.

  12. Using the seismology of non-magnetic chemically peculiar stars as a probe of dynamical processes in stellar interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2005-01-01

    Chemical composition is a good tracer of hydrodynamical processes that occur in stars as they often lead to mixing and particle transport. By comparing abundances predicted by models and those observed in stars we can infer some constraints on those mixing processes. As pulsations in stars are often very sensitive to chemical composition, we can use asteroseismology to probe the internal chemical composition of stars where no direct observations are possible. In this paper I focus on main sequence stars Am, lambda bootis, and HgMn stars and discuss what we can learn of mixing processes in those stars from seismology.

  13. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  14. Kinematic analysis of in situ measurement during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongkai; Wang, Tongqing; Zhao, Qian; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is the most widely used planarization technique in semiconductor manufacturing presently. With the aid of in situ measurement technology, CMP tools can achieve good performance and stable productivity. However, the in situ measurement has remained unexplored from a kinematic standpoint. The available related resources for the kinematic analysis are very limited due to the complexity and technical secret. In this paper, a comprehensive kinematic analysis of in situ measurement is provided, including the analysis model, the measurement trajectory, and the measurement time of each zone of wafer surface during the practical CMP process. In addition, a lot of numerical calculations are performed to study the influences of main parameters on the measurement trajectory and the measurement velocity variation of the probe during the measurement process. All the efforts are expected to improve the in situ measurement system and promote the advancement in CMP control system.

  15. An integrated computer aided system for integrated design of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hytoft, Glen; Jaksland, Cecilia;

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS), which is particularly suitable for solving problems related to integrated design of chemical processes; is presented. ICAS features include a model generator (generation of problem specific models including model simplification and model...... reduction), a simulator (use of problem specific simulation strategies for steady state and dynamic simulation), toolboxes (thermodynamic toolbox, synthesis toolbox, control toolbox, design toolbox and analysis toolbox), and an interface for problem defintion. Each toolbox solves aspecific set of problems...... and communicates with all other computational tools available in ICAS. A large range of thermodynamic models for estimation of the necessary thermo-physical properties, a large range of computational algorithms for determination of various types of phase diagrams, algorithms for process synthesis, design, control...

  16. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...... employs a template approach, where each template follows the same common steps in the workflow for design of formulated products, but has the option to employ different product specific property models, data and calculation routines, when necessary. With the new additions, the software is able to support...... the design and analysis of a wide range of homogeneous formulated products: tailor-made blends, single phase liquid formulations and emulsion-based products. The decision making process is supported by dedicated property models and structured databases, specifically developed for each design problem scenario...

  17. Fluid Diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes progress made during the second year of the three-year project, Fluid diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes.'' The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gasfloods. The work examines how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. 93 refs., 39 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Operations variables in the transesterification process of vegetable oil: a review - chemical catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a bibliographic review of the effects of operation conditions on process yield in the chemical transesterification of vegetable oil. The parameters studied were: temperature and time reaction, alcohol:oil molar ratio, catalyst and alcohol type, catalyst concentration, mixed intensity and free fatty acid and water concentration. It also reports that this pro- cess has been carried out with basic and acid catalysts using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes for a wide va- riety of oils. It was found that reaction yield increased when temperature and time reaction increased; however this parameter de- creased at low catalyst concentration ( 1% w/w and water (> 3% w/w concentration in oil.

  19. Investigations on an environment friendly chemical reaction process (eco-chemistry). 2; Kankyo ni yasashii kagaku hanno process (eko chemistry) ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to structure a chemical reaction process that does not discharge a large amount of waste by-products or harmful chemical substances, or so-called environment friendly process, investigations and discussions were given based on the results derived in the previous fiscal year. A proposal was made to reduce environmental load on development of oxidized and dehydrogenated catalysts that can produce selectively ethylene, propylene and isobutylene in an oxidation process. In liquid phase oxidation, redox-based oxidation and solid catalyzation of automatic oxidation reaction were enumerated. In acid base catalyst reaction, development of ultra strong solid acid was described to structure no pollution discharging process. In the fine chemical and pharmaceutical fields, the optical active substance method and the position-selective aromatics displacement reaction were evaluated to reduce environmental load. A questionnaire survey performed on major chemical corporations inside and outside the country revealed the following processes as the ones that can cause hidden environmental problems: processes discharging large amount of wastes, processes treating dangerous materials, and processes consuming large amount of energy. Development of catalysts is important that can realize high yield, high selectivity and reactions under mild conditions as a future environment harmonizing chemical process. 117 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Influence of Design Margin on Operation Optimization and Control Performance of Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锋; 蒋慧蓉; 王锐; 罗雄麟

    2014-01-01

    Operation optimization is an effective method to explore potential economic benefits for existing plants. The maximum potential benefit from operation optimization is determined by the distances between current operat-ing point and process constraints, which is related to the margins of design variables. Because of various distur-bances in chemical processes, some distances must be reserved for fluctuations of process variables and the opti-mum operating point is not on some process constraints. Thus the benefit of steady-state optimization can not be fully achieved while that of dynamic optimization can be really achieved. In this study, the steady-state optimization and dynamic optimization are used, and the potential benefit is divided into achievable benefit for profit and un-achievable benefit for control. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is used for case study. With the analysis on how the margins of design variables influence the economic benefit and control performance, the bottlenecks of process design are found and appropriate control structure can be selected.

  1. Process Design for the Biocatalysis of Value-Added Chemicals from Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman

    2005-11-01

    This report describes results toward developing a process to sequester CO{sub 2} centered on the enzyme pyruvate carboxylase. The process involves the use of bacteria to convert CO{sub 2} and glucose as a co-substrate and generates succinic acid as a commodity chemical product. The first phase of this research has focused on strain development and on process development. Progress in strain development has been made in three areas. The gene encoding for alcohol dehydrogenase has been ''knocked out'' of the bacteria, and thereby eliminating the synthesis of the by-product ethanol. The gene for glucokinase has been overexpressed in the production strain with the goal of faster utilization of glucose (and hence CO{sub 2}). Efforts have continued toward integrating pyruvate carboxylase gene (pyc) onto the E. coli chromosome. Progress in process development has come in conducting several dozen fermentation experiments to find a defined medium that would be successful for the growth of the bacteria, while permitting a high rate of CO{sub 2} utilization in a subsequent prolonged production phase. Using this defined medium, the strains that continue to be constructed are being compared for CO{sub 2} utilization, so that we may understand the factors that govern the biological sequestration process.

  2. Process Design for the Biocatalysis of Value-Added Chemicals from Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Eiteman

    2007-07-31

    This report describes results toward developing a process to sequester CO{sub 2} centered on the enzymes PEP carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase. The process involves the use of bacteria to convert CO{sub 2} and glucose as a co-substrate and generates succinic acid as a commodity chemical product. The study reports on strain development and process development. In the area of strain development, knockouts in genes which divert carbon from the enzymatic steps involved in CO{sub 2} consumption were completed, and were shown not to affect significantly the rate of CO{sub 2} sequestration and succinic acid generation. Furthermore, the pyc gene encoding for pyruvate carboxylase proved to be unstable when integrated onto the chromosome. In the area of process development, an optimal medium, pH and base counterion were obtained, leading to a sequestration rate as great as 800 mg/Lh. Detailed studies of gas phase composition demonstrated that CO{sub 2} composition has a significant affect on CO{sub 2} sequestration, while the presence of 'toxic' compounds in the gas, including NO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} did not have a detrimental effect on sequestration. Some results on prolonging the rate of sequestration indicate that enzyme activities decrease with time, suggesting methods to prolong enzyme activity may benefit the overall process.

  3. Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan H. Mistry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies driven by different combinations of heat, work, and chemical energy. This paper develops a consistent basis for comparing the energy consumption of such technologies using Second Law efficiency. The Second Law efficiency for a chemical separation process is defined in terms of the useful exergy output, which is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of product from a feed stream of a given composition. For a desalination process, this is the minimum least work of separation for producing one kilogram of product water from feed of a given salinity. While definitions in terms of work and heat input have been proposed before, this work generalizes the Second Law efficiency to allow for systems that operate on a combination of energy inputs, including fuel. The generalized equation is then evaluated through a parametric study considering work input, heat inputs at various temperatures, and various chemical fuel inputs. Further, since most modern, large-scale desalination plants operate in cogeneration schemes, a methodology for correctly evaluating Second Law efficiency for the desalination plant based on primary energy inputs is demonstrated. It is shown that, from a strictly energetic point of view and based on currently available technology, cogeneration using electricity to power a reverse osmosis system is energetically superior to thermal systems such as multiple effect distillation and multistage flash distillation, despite the very low grade heat input normally applied in those systems.

  4. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  5. The Role of Chemical Processes in the Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, S.; Palumbo, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Boulouchos, K.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G.; Siegwolf, R.; Wokaun, A

    2002-01-01

    Chemical science and engineering play a central role in improving the eco- efficiency of energy services, be it by optimizing fossil fuel utilization from the source to the sinks, be it by exploring new ways of replacing fossil fuels with renewable ones. Catalytic fuel processing is required for providing clean and easy to convert inputs from contaminated and/or high molecular weight primary resources into efficient energy conversion systems such as advanced combustion engines and fuel cells. The switch from conventional fossil fuel resources to renewables such as solar or biomass requires new approaches in chemical engineering. Efficiency vs. emissions trade-offs for improving the eco-performance of combustion engines need to be optimized with improved understanding of the complex chemistry taking place in flames. New materials for fuel cells and batteries provide a means of making these devices applicable, thereby drastically cutting down on emissions from energy systems. Chemistry is not only involved in fuel processing and conversion, but it is also important at the end of the pipe, i.e. in catalytic emission control devices, in the treatment of hazardous residues from the incineration of waste materials, and in the complex interactions of air pollutants with the biosphere. (author)

  6. Heavy metals and its chemical speciation in sewage sludge at different stages of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytła, Malwina; Widziewicz, Kamila; Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal concentrations and forms in sewage sludge constitutes an important issue in terms of both health and environmental hazards the metals pose. The total heavy metals concentration enables only the assessment of its contamination. Hence the knowledge of chemical forms is required to determine their environmental mobility and sludge final disposal. Heavy metals speciation was studied by using four-stage sequential extraction BCR (Community Bureau of Reference). This study was aimed at determining the total concentration of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg) and their chemical forms (except for Hg) in sludge collected at different stages of its processing at two municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in southern Poland. Metals contents in sludge samples were determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). This study shows that Zn and Cu appeared to be the most abundant in sludge, while Cd and Hg were in the lowest concentrations. The sewage sludge revealed the domination of immobile fractions over the mobile ones. The oxidizable and residual forms were dominant for all the heavy metals. There was also a significant difference in metals speciation between sludges of different origin which was probably due to differences in wastewater composition and processes occurring in biological stage of wastewater treatment. The results indicate a negligible capability of metals to migrate from sludge into the environment. Our research revealed a significant impact of thickening, stabilization and hygienization on the distribution of heavy metals in sludge and their mobility.

  7. The Influence of the Chemical Structures of Chitosan and Acid Dye on the Adsorption Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Ben Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the study of the influence of the chemical structures of adsorbent and adsorbate on the adsorption process. By using of crab shell chitosan (CC and deep-pink shrimp chitosan (CP for removal of acid 183 and AR114 from aqueous solutions, it is shown that CP, which corresponds to the highest molecular weight, is the most efficient adsorbent material. In addition, the best extent of decolorization is obtained for AR 183 that is the smallest molecule. Langmuir model represents the best fit of the experimental data, indicating monolayer coverage of chitosan outer surface. Pseudo-second order kinetic model describes accurately the adsorption processes, suggesting chemical rate limiting steps. The positive values of the enthalpy changes indicated endothermic attachment of dyes to the biomaterials. CP/AR183 system corresponds to the most energetically favorable phenomenon. Besides, desorption of AR from chitosan was found to be very low in acidic aqueous medium for all couples.

  8. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  9. Extraction of alumina and sodium oxide from red mud by a mild hydro-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi

    2009-12-30

    A mild hydro-chemical process to extract Al(2)O(3) in red mud to produce sodium aluminate hydrate was investigated, and the optimum conditions of Al(2)O(3) extraction were verified by experiments as leaching in 45% NaOH solution with CaO-to-red mud mass ratio of 0.25 and liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.9, under 0.8 MPa at 200 degrees C for 3.5h. Subsequent process of extracting Na(2)O from the residue of Al(2)O(3) extraction was carried out in 7% NaOH solution with liquid-to-solid ratio of 3.8 under 0.9 MPa at 170 degrees C for 2h. Overall, 87.8% of Al(2)O(3) and 96.4% of Na(2)O were extracted from red mud. The final residues with less than 1% Na(2)O could be utilized as feedstock in construction materials. The chemical reactions taking place in both Al(2)O(3) and Na(2)O extractions from red mud are proposed.

  10. Processing yield and chemical composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with regard to body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of weight (W category of the rainbow trout on processing yield and chemical composition of the entire eviscerated fish and fish fillet was analyzed. A completely randomized design was employed for processing variables (W1 = 300 to 370 g and W2 = 371 to 440 coupled to a 2 x 2 factorial scheme for the chemical composition (W1 and W2 and forms of presentation: fillet and whole eviscerated fish. W1 showed higher yield for entire eviscerated fish (83.00% and head (13.27%, but a lower yield for the viscera (17.00%, when compared to W2. We did not affect abdominal muscle yield, fillet with or without skin, skin percentage and residues. There were significant differences between W for moisture (W1 = 72.30% and W2 = 71.15% and lipids (CP1 = 7.96% and CP2 = 9.04% rates. Fillet moisture contents (73.74% and crude protein (19.05% were higher (p < 0.01 than for entire eviscerated fish (69.71% and 17.81%, respectively. Ash (2.15% and lipid (10.48% rates were higher (p < 0.01 for entire fish when compared to those of fillets (1.16% and 6.52%, respectively. The slaughter of fish weighing between 300 and 370 g and their fillets are more adequate for the market.

  11. Chemically deposited CdS by an ammonia-free process for solar cells window layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Landin, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Vigil-Galan, O. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional UP Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Chemically deposited CdS window layers were studied on two different transparent conductive substrates, namely indium tin oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO), to determine the influence of their properties on CdS/CdTe solar cells performance. Three types of CdS films obtained from different chemical bath deposition (CBD) processes were studied. The three CBD processes employed sodium citrate as the complexing agent in partial or full substitution of ammonia. The CdS films were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical transmission spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. CdS/CdTe devices were completed by depositing 3 {mu}m thick CdTe absorbent layers by means of the close-spaced vapor transport technique (CSVT). Evaporated Cu-Au was used as the back contact in all the solar cells. Dark and under illumination J-V characteristic and quantum efficiency measurements were done on the CdS/CdTe devices to determine their conversion efficiency and spectral response. The efficiency of the cells depended on the window layer and on the transparent contact with values between 5.7% and 8.7%. (author)

  12. Automatic differentiation tools in the dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Differentiation is a relatively recent technique developed for the differentiation of functions applicable directly to the source code to compute the function written in standard programming languages. That technique permits the automatization of the differentiation step, crucial for dynamic simulation and optimization of processes. The values for the derivatives obtained with AD are exact (to roundoff. The theoretical exactness of the AD comes from the fact that it uses the same rules of differentiation as in differential calculus, but these rules are applied to an algorithmic specification of the function rather than to a formula. The main purpose of this contribution is to discuss the impact of Automatic Differentiation in the field of dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes. The influence of the differentiation technique on the behavior of the integration code, the performance of the generated code and the incorporation of AD tools in consistent initialization tools are discussed from the viewpoint of dynamic simulation of typical models in chemical engineering.

  13. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of wettability alternation phenomena in the chemical flooding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobo Li; Yuewu Liu; Jianfei Tang; Shujiao Li

    2009-01-01

    Wettability alternation phenomena is considered one of the most important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms in the chemical flooding process and induced by the adsorption of surfactant on the rock surface. These phenomena are studied by a mesoscopic method named as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both the alteration phenomena of water-wet to oil-wet and that of oil-wet to waterwet are simulated based on reasonable definition of interaction parameters between beads. The wetting hysteresis phenomenon and the process of oil-drops detachment from rock surfaces with different wettability are simulated by adding long-range external forces on the fluid particles. The simulation results show that, the oil drop is liable to spread on the oil-wetting surface and move in the form of liquid film flow, whereas it is likely to move as a whole on the waterwetting surface. There are the same phenomena occuring in wettability-alternated cases. The results also show that DPD method provides a feasible approach to the problems of seepage flow with physicochemical phenomena and can be used to study the mechanism of EOR of chemical flooding.

  14. Electromagnetic absorbing property of the flaky carbonyl iron particles by chemical corrosion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dianliang; Liu, Ting; Zhou, Li; Xu, Yonggang

    2016-12-01

    The flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) were prepared using a milling process at the first step, then the chemical corrosion process was done to optimize the particle shape. The particle morphology was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy, the static magnetic property was evaluated on a vibrating sample magnetometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed that the saturation magnetization value of the CIPs decreased as the CIPs was corroded to the small flakes in chemical corrosion process. The diffraction peaks of the single α-Fe existed in the XRD pattern of CIPs, and the characteristic peaks was more obvious and the intensity of the diffraction pattern was lower by corrosion. The permittivity and the permeability of the corroded milling CIPs was a little larger than the milling CIPs, it was due to the larger aspect ratio based on the fitting calculation process. At thickness 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm, the corroded milling CIPs composite had the better absorbing property than the other two samples. The frequency band (RL<-5 dB) could be widened to 8.96-18 GHz at 0.6 mm and 5.92-18 GHz at 0.8 mm, and RL less than -8 dB began to exist in 8.96-14.72 GHz at 0.8 mm.

  15. Microfluidic electrochemical device and process for chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis at the electrode-liquid interface in-situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li; Zhu, Zihua; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2016-03-01

    A microfluidic electrochemical device and process are detailed that provide chemical imaging and electrochemical analysis under vacuum at the surface of the electrode-sample or electrode-liquid interface in-situ. The electrochemical device allows investigation of various surface layers including diffuse layers at selected depths populated with, e.g., adsorbed molecules in which chemical transformation in electrolyte solutions occurs.

  16. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-03-20

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust–ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol–cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42−), bisulfate

  17. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Preparation process for implantation of the quality management system: study of the difficulties from viewpoint of quality management department staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiane Aparecida Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the need for continuous improvement by companies to differentiate themselves against competitors and provide reliability to customers, quality management systems prove to be a valuable tool. However, the preparation process for their implementation is extensive and presents some difficulties. The aim of this research was therefore to understand the difficulties faced by the Quality Management Departament staff during the preparation process for implementing a quality management system at a distributor of electrical products. A qualitative study was developed, using participatory and documentary research. The results showed a difficulty at each step that should be worked on in due time for successful implementation. The main difficulty was the resistance to change by employees, a factor that tends to persist, demanding regular awareness training. In addition, investments showed a need to adapt and improve processes, with it being necessary to assess the advantages of the system in order to prove its viability.

  19. Studies on the process aspects related to chemical decontamination of chromium-containing alloys with redox processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.S.; Suresh, S.; Chandran, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Lab. of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Rajesh, P. [Applied Chemistry Div. of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2004-08-01

    Presence of chromium in the oxide layer makes oxidative pre-treatment with oxidizing agents such as potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) a must for the decontamination of stainless steels and other chromium containing alloys. The effectiveness of pre-treatment with oxidizing reagent varies with the conditions of treatment such as temperature, concentration and whether the medium is acidic or alkaline. A comparative study of the two acidic oxidizing agents, i.e., nitric acid-permanganate and permanganic acid was made. The dissolution behavior of copper and its oxide in permanganic acid was found to be comparable to that of chromium oxide. Citric acid and ascorbic acid were investigated as alternatives to oxalic acid for the reduction/decomposition of permanganate left over after the oxidizing pre-treatment step. It has been established that the reduction of chromate by citric acid is instantaneous only in presence of Mn{sup 2+} ions. It has also been established that reduction of residual permanganate can be achieved with ascorbic acid and with minimum chemical requirement. The capabilities of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-ascorbic acid mixture for the dissolution of hematite have been explored. This study would help to choose the suitable oxidizing agent, the reducing agent used for decomposition of permanganate and to optimize the concentration of reducing formulation so that the process of decontamination is achieved with a minimum requirement of chemicals. The generation of radioactive ion exchange resin as waste is therefore held at a minimum. Ion exchange studies with metal ion complexes of relevance to decontamination were carried out with a view to choose a suitable type of ion exchanger. It has been established that treatment of the ion exchange resin with brine solution can solve the problem of leaching out of non-ionic organics from the resin. (orig.)

  20. Corn silage management I: effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing on chemical and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Robutti, J L; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of hybrid, maturity, and mechanical processing of whole plant corn on chemical and physical characteristics, particle size, pack density, and dry matter recovery. In the first experiment, hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. In the second experiment, hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with a theoretical length-of-cut of 12.7 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with and without mechanical processing by using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an onboard kernel processor. The percentage of intact corn kernels present in unprocessed corn silage explained 62% of variation in total tract starch digestibility. As the amount of intact kernels increased, total tract starch digestibility decreased. Post-ensiled vitreousness of corn kernels within the corn silage explained 31 and 48% of the variation of total tract starch digestibility for processed and unprocessed treatments, respectively. For a given amount of vitreous starch in corn kernels, total tract starch digestibility was lower for cows fed unprocessed corn silage compared with processed corn silage. This suggests that processing corn silage disrupts the dense protein matrix within the corn kernel where starch is embedded, therefore making the starch more available for digestion. Particle size of corn silage and orts that contained corn silage was reduced when it was processed. Wet pack density was greater for processed compared with unprocessed corn silage.