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Sample records for chemical processing department

  1. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  2. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-22

    This report for June 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  3. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-04-21

    This report for March 1961, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  4. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.

    1965-11-12

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  5. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-21

    The May, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.(MB)

  6. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-22

    The September, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.

  7. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-22

    Record highs were set for Pu output in separations plants and for amount of U processed in Purex. UO{sub 3} production and shipments exceeded schedules. Fabrication of 200 and 250 Model assemblies is reported. Unfabricated Pu production was 8.5% short. Nitric acid recovery in Purex and Redox is reported. Prototype anion exchange system for Pu was tested in Purex. Hinged agitator arms with shear pin feature was installed in UO{sub 3} plant H calciner. Operation of continuous type Task I, II facility improved. DBBP is considered for Recuplex. Methods for Pu in product solutions agreed to within 0. 10%. Purex recycle dock shelter is complete. Other projects are reported.

  8. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F. K.; Johnson, W. E.; MacCready, W. K.; Warren, J. H.; Schroeder, O. C.; Groswith, C. T.; Mobley, W. N.; LaFollette, T. G.; Grim, K. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Richards, R. B.; Roberts, D. S.

    1957-08-22

    This report, for July 1957 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following; Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  9. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for December 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-01-21

    This report for December 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  10. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-03-21

    This report from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation, purex operation, redox operation, finished products operation, power and general maintenance operation, financial operation, facilities engineering operation, research and engineering operation, and employee relations operation.

  11. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-03-20

    This report for February 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  13. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for April 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.H.

    1958-05-21

    The separations plants operated on schedule, and Pu production exceeded commitment. UO{sub 3} production and shipments were also ahead of schedule. Purex operation under pseudo two-cycle conditions (elimination of HS and 1A columns, co-decontamination cycle concentrator HCP) was successful. Final U stream was 3{times} lower in Pu than ever before; {gamma} activity in recovered HNO{sub 3} was also low. Four of 6 special E metal batches were processed through Redox and analyzed. Boric acid is removed from solvent extraction process via aq waste. The filter in Task II hydrofluorinator was changed from carbon to Poroloy. Various modifications to equipment were made.

  15. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  16. Chemical radwaste solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Some of these processes and their problems are briefly reviewed: early cement systems; urea-formaldehyde; Dow solidification process; low-viscosity chemical agents (POLYPAC); and water-extensible polyester. 9 refs

  17. Ultrasound in chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, S.; Farooq, R.; Malik, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultrasound to promote chemical reactions or sono chemistry is a field of chemistry which involves the process of acoustic cavitations i.e. the collapse of microscopic bubbles in liquid. There are two essential components for the application of sono chemistry, a liquid medium and a source of high-energy vibrations. The liquid medium is necessary because sono chemistry is driven by acoustic cavitations that can only occur in liquids. The source of the vibrational energy is the transducer. The chemical effects of ultrasound include the enhancement of reaction rates at ambient temperatures and striking advancements in stoichiometric and catalytic reactions In some cases, ultrasonic irradiation can increase reactivities by nearly million fold. The ultrasound has large number of applications not only in emending old chemical processes but also in developing new synthetic strategies. Ultrasound enhances all chemical and physical processes e.g., crystallization, vitamin synthesis, preparation of catalysts, dissolution of chemicals, organometallic reactions, electrochemical processes, etc. High-power ultrasonics is a new powerful technology that is not only safe and environmentally friendly in its application but is also efficient and economical. It can be applied to existing processes to eliminate the need for chemicals and/or heat application in a variety of industrial processes. (author)

  18. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  19. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, November 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-12-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for November 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee-relations, and waste management.

  20. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, January 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-02-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for January 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  2. Cost-time management for environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourr, B.R.; Owen, A.H.; Williamson, D.J. (Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Nash, C.L. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-05-22

    Cost-time management methods have been developed by Westinghouse to examine business applications from a cost-time perspective. The initial application of cost-time management within Westinghouse was targeted at reducing cycle time in the manufacturing sector. As a result of the tremendous success of reduced cycle time in manufacturing, Westinghouse initiated application of the management technique to Environmental Restoration activities at its Government Owned Contractor Operated facilities. The Westinghouse initiative was proposed in support of the Department of Energy's goals for cost effective Environmental Restoration activities. This paper describes the application of the cost-time method to Environmental Restoration work currently being performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO).

  3. Cost-time management for environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourr, B.R.; Owen, A.H.; Williamson, D.J. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nash, C.L. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-05-22

    Cost-time management methods have been developed by Westinghouse to examine business applications from a cost-time perspective. The initial application of cost-time management within Westinghouse was targeted at reducing cycle time in the manufacturing sector. As a result of the tremendous success of reduced cycle time in manufacturing, Westinghouse initiated application of the management technique to Environmental Restoration activities at its Government Owned Contractor Operated facilities. The Westinghouse initiative was proposed in support of the Department of Energy`s goals for cost effective Environmental Restoration activities. This paper describes the application of the cost-time method to Environmental Restoration work currently being performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO).

  4. Cost-time management for environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourr, B.R.; Owen, A.H.; Williamson, D.J.; Nash, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cost-time management methods have been developed by Westinghouse to examine business applications from a cost-time perspective. The initial application of cost-time management within Westinghouse was targeted at reducing cycle time in the manufacturing sector. As a result of the tremendous success of reduced cycle time in manufacturing, Westinghouse initiated application of the management technique to Environmental Restoration activities at its Government Owned Contractor Operated facilities. The Westinghouse initiative was proposed in support of the Department of Energy's goals for cost effective Environmental Restoration activities. This paper describes the application of the cost-time method to Environmental Restoration work currently being performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO)

  5. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  6. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, January 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-02-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR Project.

  7. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-06-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and NPR Reactor.

  8. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, April 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-05-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of April, 1961. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR project.

  9. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, June 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-07-15

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of June 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  10. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, December 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-01-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of December 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  11. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, April 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-05-13

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  12. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, August 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-09-12

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, May 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1960-06-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, March 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-12

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly report, July 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-08-12

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  16. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  17. Yes! The Business Department Teaches Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Daryl; Seymour, Tom

    1978-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the history and current status of business data processing versus computer science, this article focuses on the characteristics of a business data processing curriculum as compared to a computer science curriculum, including distinctions between the FORTRAN and COBOL programming languages. (SH)

  18. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  19. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  20. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  1. [Anniversary of the medical department of the Federal Office for Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'menko, I E

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the process of formation and development of CW destruction management system and medical support of professional activities of personnel. Founders of Medical department of the Federal Directorate for Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons are presented. Main principles and ways of working of medical department in specific conditions are covered.

  2. Conceptual Chemical Process Design for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines the sustainable design of chemical processes, with a focus on conceptual design, hierarchical and short-cut methods, and analyses of process sustainability for alternatives. The chapter describes a methodology for incorporating process sustainability analyse...

  3. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document

  4. Building LGBTQ-Inclusive Chemical Engineering Classrooms and Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Anthony; McCormick, Alon; Farrell, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent advances in LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) equality in the United States and in many countries around the globe, LGBTQ+ students on college campuses still experience bias, hostility and discrimination. Engineering departments on campus in particular have been slower than other departments to respond to…

  5. CATALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: PARTICULAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    secondary/high schools and universities, the inhibition of the chemical reactions is frequently ... As a result, the lesson catalysis is frequently included in chemistry education curricula at ... Misinterpretations in teaching and perception of catalysis ... profile is shown as a dependence of energy on reaction progress, without ...

  6. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  7. Chemical process control using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Chun; Kim, Raeh Yeon; Kim, Yang Su; Oh, Min; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Jung, Yeon Su

    2001-07-01

    This book is about chemical process control, which includes the basis of process control with conception, function, composition of system and summary, change of laplace and linearization, modeling of chemical process, transfer function and block diagram, the first dynamic property of process, the second dynamic property of process, the dynamic property of combined process, control structure of feedback on component of control system, the dynamic property of feedback control loop, stability of closed loop control structure, expression of process, modification and composition of controller, analysis of vibration response and adjustment controller using vibration response.

  8. Plasma-chemical processes and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro B, J.

    1987-01-01

    The direct applications of plasma technology on chemistry and metallurgy are presented. The physical fundaments of chemically active non-equilibrium plasma, the reaction kinetics, and the physical chemical transformations occuring in the electrical discharges, which are applied in the industry, are analysed. Some plasma chemical systems and processes related to the energy of hydrogen, with the chemical technology and with the metallurgy are described. Emphasis is given to the optimization of the energy effectiveness of these processes to obtain reducers and artificial energetic carriers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Example process hazard analysis of a Department of Energy water chlorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    On February 24, 1992, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released a revised version of Section 29 Code of Federal Regulations CFR Part 1910 that added Section 1910.119, entitled ``Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (the PSM Rule). Because US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5480.4 and 5483.1A prescribe OSHA 29 CFR 1910 as a standard in DOE, the PSM Rule is mandatory in the DOE complex. A major element in the PSM Rule is the process hazard analysis (PrHA), which is required for all chemical processes covered by the PSM Rule. The PrHA element of the PSM Rule requires the selection and application of appropriate hazard analysis methods to systematically identify hazards and potential accident scenarios associated with processes involving highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs). The analysis in this report is an example PrHA performed to meet the requirements of the PSM Rule. The PrHA method used in this example is the hazard and operability (HAZOP) study, and the process studied is the new Hanford 300-Area Water Treatment Facility chlorination process, which is currently in the design stage. The HAZOP study was conducted on May 18--21, 1993, by a team from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Battelle-Columbus, the DOE, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The chlorination process was chosen as the example process because it is common to many DOE sites, and because quantities of chlorine at those sites generally exceed the OSHA threshold quantities (TQs).

  10. Data management and processing plan, Department of Applied Geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This plan outlines Data Management and Data Processing requirements of the Department of Applied Geodesy (DAG) and presents the plan to meet these requirements (These requirements are derived from the functional needs of the Department to meet the SSCL alignment tolerances and schedules). In addition, this document presents a schedule for the implementation of this plan. This document is an integral part of the Alignment Plan of the SSCL

  11. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  12. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  13. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, September 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-10-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of September, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  14. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, August 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-09-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of August, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  15. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, May 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-06-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of May 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  16. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-19

    This document details activities of the Irradiation Processing Department during the month of December 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  17. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-12-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operation; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operations; and financial operation.

  18. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-08-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July, 1958. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  19. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, July 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-08-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of July 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  20. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, October 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of October, 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  1. Benchmarking of radiological departments. Starting point for successful process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Continuous optimization of the process of organization and medical treatment is part of the successful management of radiological departments. The focus of this optimization can be cost units such as CT and MRI or the radiological parts of total patient treatment. Key performance indicators for process optimization are cost- effectiveness, service quality and quality of medical treatment. The potential for improvements can be seen by comparison (benchmark) with other hospitals and radiological departments. Clear definitions of key data and criteria are absolutely necessary for comparability. There is currently little information in the literature regarding the methodology and application of benchmarks especially from the perspective of radiological departments and case-based lump sums, even though benchmarking has frequently been applied to radiological departments by hospital management. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss systematic benchmarking as an effective starting point for successful process optimization. This includes the description of the methodology, recommendation of key parameters and discussion of the potential for cost-effectiveness analysis. The main focus of this article is cost-effectiveness (efficiency and effectiveness) with respect to cost units and treatment processes. (orig.)

  2. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-04-21

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  3. Irradiation Processing Department, monthly record report, February, 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-03-22

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department at the Hanford Reservation during the month of February, 1960. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operation; Manufacturing Operation; Facilities Engineering Operation; Relations Practices Operation; Financial Operation; and NPR operation.

  4. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, November 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-12-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of November 1956. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: research and engineering operations; production and reactor operations; facilities engineering operation; employee relations operation; and financial operation.

  5. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, March 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-04-19

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of March, 1957. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering Operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  6. Irradiation Processing Department monthly record report, January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.

    1959-02-20

    This document details activities of the irradiation processing department during the month of January 1959. A general summary is included at the start of the report, after which the report is divided into the following sections: Research and Engineering Operations; Production and Reactor Operations; Facilities Engineering operation; Employee Relations Operation; and Financial Operation.

  7. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  8. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  9. The continuous improvement process and ergonomics in ultrasound department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Carolyn T

    2013-01-01

    Continuous improvement processes, such as Lean, Six Sigma and Quality Control Circles, have been implemented in the manufacturing industries in an effort to increase productivity, eliminate waste, and engage employees in problem solving. These processes can be adapted to the healthcare sector as medical facilities strive to improve the patient experience, increase financial returns, and improve worker safety and morale. In the ultrasound department, productivity can be improved and the quality of patient care can be ensured by standardizing exam protocols and decreasing work related musculoskeletal disorders among sonography professionals. This article summarizes the more commonly used continuous improvement processes and provides a description of how one method might be applied to the ultrasound department.

  10. Environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    A new era of university-industry-government partnership is required to address the intertwined problems of industrial economic competitiveness and environmental quality. Chemicals that go up the stacks and down the drains are simultaneously a serious detriment to the environment, a waste of natural resources, and a threat to industrial profitability. Recently, the NSF Divisions of Chemistry and chemical and Thermal Systems have joined with the Council for Chemical research in a new grant program to reduce pollution at the source by underwriting research aimed at environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing. Part of a broader NSF initiative on environmental science research, this new program serves as a model for university-industry-government joint action and technology transfer. Other features of this program and related activities will be described in this paper

  11. Improving the medical records department processes by lean management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh; Sadeghian, Akram; Saghaeinnejad-Isfahani, Sakine

    2015-01-01

    Lean management is a process improvement technique to identify waste actions and processes to eliminate them. The benefits of Lean for healthcare organizations are that first, the quality of the outcomes in terms of mistakes and errors improves. The second is that the amount of time taken through the whole process significantly improves. The purpose of this paper is to improve the Medical Records Department (MRD) processes at Ayatolah-Kashani Hospital in Isfahan, Iran by utilizing Lean management. This research was applied and an interventional study. The data have been collected by brainstorming, observation, interview, and workflow review. The study population included MRD staff and other expert staff within the hospital who were stakeholders and users of the MRD. The MRD were initially taught the concepts of Lean management and then formed into the MRD Lean team. The team then identified and reviewed the current processes subsequently; they identified wastes and values, and proposed solutions. The findings showed that the MRD units (Archive, Coding, Statistics, and Admission) had 17 current processes, 28 wastes, and 11 values were identified. In addition, they offered 27 comments for eliminating the wastes. The MRD is the critical department for the hospital information system and, therefore, the continuous improvement of its services and processes, through scientific methods such as Lean management, are essential. The study represents one of the few attempts trying to eliminate wastes in the MRD.

  12. MRI of chemical reactions and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Melanie M

    2017-08-01

    As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can spatially resolve a wealth of molecular information available from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), it is able to non-invasively visualise the composition, properties and reactions of a broad range of spatially-heterogeneous molecular systems. Hence, MRI is increasingly finding applications in the study of chemical reactions and processes in a diverse range of environments and technologies. This article will explain the basic principles of MRI and how it can be used to visualise chemical composition and molecular properties, providing an overview of the variety of information available. Examples are drawn from the disciplines of chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental science, physics, electrochemistry and materials science. The review introduces a range of techniques used to produce image contrast, along with the chemical and molecular insight accessible through them. Methods for mapping the distribution of chemical species, using chemical shift imaging or spatially-resolved spectroscopy, are reviewed, as well as methods for visualising physical state, temperature, current density, flow velocities and molecular diffusion. Strategies for imaging materials with low signal intensity, such as those containing gases or low sensitivity nuclei, using compressed sensing, para-hydrogen or polarisation transfer, are discussed. Systems are presented which encapsulate the diversity of chemical and physical parameters observable by MRI, including one- and two-phase flow in porous media, chemical pattern formation, phase transformations and hydrodynamic (fingering) instabilities. Lastly, the emerging area of electrochemical MRI is discussed, with studies presented on the visualisation of electrochemical deposition and dissolution processes during corrosion and the operation of batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Life cycle sustainability assessment of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Di; Lv, Liping; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an integrated vector-based three-dimensional (3D) methodology for the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of chemical process alternatives is proposed. In the methodology, a 3D criteria assessment system is first established by using the life cycle assessment, the life cycl...

  14. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  15. Chemical aspects of nuclear fuel fabrication processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, A; Ellis, J F; Watson, R H

    1986-04-01

    Processes used by British Nuclear Fuels plc for the conversion of uranium ore concentrates to uranium metal and uranium hexafluoride, are reviewed. Means of converting the latter compound, after enrichment, to sintered UO/sub 2/ fuel bodies are also described. An overview is given of the associated chemical engineering technology.

  16. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  17. Preparedness of emergency departments in northwest England for managing chemical incidents: a structured interview survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Darren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.

  18. Rock fracture processes in chemically reactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rock fracture is traditionally viewed as a brittle process involving damage nucleation and growth in a zone ahead of a larger fracture, resulting in fracture propagation once a threshold loading stress is exceeded. It is now increasingly recognized that coupled chemical-mechanical processes influence fracture growth in wide range of subsurface conditions that include igneous, metamorphic, and geothermal systems, and diagenetically reactive sedimentary systems with possible applications to hydrocarbon extraction and CO2 sequestration. Fracture processes aided or driven by chemical change can affect the onset of fracture, fracture shape and branching characteristics, and fracture network geometry, thus influencing mechanical strength and flow properties of rock systems. We are investigating two fundamental modes of chemical-mechanical interactions associated with fracture growth: 1. Fracture propagation may be aided by chemical dissolution or hydration reactions at the fracture tip allowing fracture propagation under subcritical stress loading conditions. We are evaluating effects of environmental conditions on critical (fracture toughness KIc) and subcritical (subcritical index) fracture properties using double torsion fracture mechanics tests on shale and sandstone. Depending on rock composition, the presence of reactive aqueous fluids can increase or decrease KIc and/or subcritical index. 2. Fracture may be concurrent with distributed dissolution-precipitation reactions in the hostrock beyond the immediate vicinity of the fracture tip. Reconstructing the fracture opening history recorded in crack-seal fracture cement of deeply buried sandstone we find that fracture length growth and fracture opening can be decoupled, with a phase of initial length growth followed by a phase of dominant fracture opening. This suggests that mechanical crack-tip failure processes, possibly aided by chemical crack-tip weakening, and distributed solution-precipitation creep in the

  19. Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Glan Devadhas G; Dr.Pushpakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system) tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based ...

  20. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses.

  2. Outline of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Katsuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Concerning the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF), a high level radioactive material research facility, to be installed in Tokai Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the detailed design and the governmental safety inspection were finished. The construction has been already started, and it will be completed in 1980. Under the national policy of establishing a nuclear fuel cycle, PNC is now carrying out the development of its downstream technology. The objects of the Chemical Processing Facility are the researches of the treatment techniques of high level radioactive liquid wastes from fuel reprocessing and of the reprocessing of fast reactor fuel. The following matters are described: purpose of the CPF, i.e. fast reactor fuel reprocessing and high-level liquid waste treatment; construction of the CPF, i.e. buildings, cells and an exhaust stack; test systems, i.e. fuel reprocessing and liquid waste vitrification; and facility safety. (Mori, K.)

  3. Department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Kibabii University. Abstract. This study ... Key Words: Climate Change, Regional Circulation Model, PRECIS, Bungoma County ... by different computer models is much.

  4. Reflow process stabilization by chemical characteristics and process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Joon; Kim, Il-Hyung; Jeon, Jae-Ha; Gil, Myung-Goon; Kim, Bong-Ho

    2002-07-01

    With the shrunken device rule below 130nm, the patterning of smaller contact hole with enough process margin is required for mass production. Therefore, shrinking technology using thermal reflow process has been applied for smaller contact hole formation. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of chemical characteristics such as molecular weight, blocking ratio of resin, cross-linker amount and solvent type with its composition to reflow process of resist and found the optimized chemical composition for reflow process applicable condition. And several process conditions like resist coating thickness and multi-step thermal reflow method have been also evaluated to stabilize the pattern profile and improve CD uniformity after reflow process. From the experiment results, it was confirmed that the effect of crosslinker in resist to reflow properties such as reflow temperature and reflow rate were very critical and it controlled the pattern profile during reflow processing. And also, it showed stable CD uniformity and improved resist properties for top loss, film shrinkage and etch selectivity. The application of lower coating thickness of resist induced symmetric pattern profile even at edge with wider process margin. The introduction of two-step baking method for reflow process showed uniform CD value, also. It is believed that the application of resist containing crosslinker and optimized process conditions for smaller contact hole patterning is necessary for the mass production with a design rule below 130nm.

  5. Process evaluation of treatment times in a large radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, R.; Burgess, K.; Stratford, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/objective: The Department of Health (DH) recognises access to appropriate and timely radiotherapy (RT) services as crucial in improving cancer patient outcomes, especially when facing a predicted increase in cancer diagnosis. There is a lack of ‘real-time’ data regarding daily demand of a linear accelerator, the impact of increasingly complex techniques on treatment times, and whether current scheduling reflects time needed for RT delivery, which would be valuable in highlighting current RT provision. Material/methods: A systematic quantitative process evaluation was undertaken in a large regional cancer centre, including a satellite centre, between January and April 2014. Data collected included treatment room-occupancy time, RT site, RT and verification technique and patient mobility status. Data was analysed descriptively; average room-occupancy times were calculated for RT techniques and compared to historical standardised treatment times within the department. Results: Room-occupancy was recorded for over 1300 fractions, over 50% of which overran their allotted treatment time. In a focused sample of 16 common techniques, 10 overran their allocated timeslots. Verification increased room-occupancy by six minutes (50%) over non-imaging. Treatments for patients requiring mobility assistance took four minutes (29%) longer. Conclusion: The majority of treatments overran their standardised timeslots. Although technique advancement has reduced RT delivery time, room-occupancy has not necessarily decreased. Verification increases room-occupancy and needs to be considered when moving towards adaptive techniques. Mobility affects room-occupancy and will become increasingly significant in an ageing population. This evaluation assesses validity of current treatment times in this department, and can be modified and repeated as necessary. - Highlights: • A process evaluation examined room-occupancy for various radiotherapy techniques. • Appointment lengths

  6. A ''master key'' to chemical separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, Ch.; Hill, C.

    2002-01-01

    One of the keys to sorting nuclear waste is extracting minor actinides - the most troublesome long-lived elements - from the flow of waste by separating them from lanthanides, which have very similar chemical properties to actinides, for possible transmutation into shorter-lived elements. Thanks to a European initiative coordinated by CEA, this key is now available: its name is Sanex. There now remains to develop tough, straightforward industrial processes to integrate it into a new nuclear waste management approach by 2005. Sanex joins the Diamex process, used for the combined separation of lanthanides and minor actinides from fission products. A third process, Sesame, designed to separate americium, completes the list of available separation processes. (authors)

  7. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  8. Chemical processes in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Research into the radiation chemical effects of neutron capture therapy are described. In the use of neutron capture therapy for the treatment of brain tumours, compounds containing an activatable nuclide are selectively concentrated within tumour tissue and irradiated with neutrons. Target compounds for use in therapy must accumulate selectively in high concentrations in the tumour and must be non toxic to the patient. The most suitable of these are the boron hydrides. Radiation dosages, resulting from neutron capture in normal tissue constituents are tabulated. As part of the program to study the radiation-induced chemical processes undergone by boron target compounds, the radiolytic degredation of boron hydride and phenyl boric acid system was investigated. No direct dependence between the yield of the transient radiolytic species and the concentration of the B-compound was observed. (author)

  9. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  10. Department of Energy's process waste assessment graded approach methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemberton, S.E.

    1994-03-01

    As the initial phase of the formal waste minimization program, the Department of Energy requires assessments of all its waste-generating operations. These assessments, called process waste assessments (PWAs), are a tool which helps achieve the pollution prevention goals. The DOE complex is comprised of numerous sites located in many different states. The facilities as a whole represent a tremendous diversity of technologies, processes, and activities. Due to this diversity, there are also a wide variety and number of waste streams generated. Many of these waste streams are small, intermittent, and not of consistent composition. The PWA graded approach methodology addresses these complexities and recognizes that processes vary in the quantity of pollution they generate, as well as in the perceived risk and associated hazards. Therefore, the graded approach was developed to provide a cost-effective and flexible methodology which allows individual sites to prioritize their local concerns and align their efforts with the resources allocated. This presentation will describe a project sponsored by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Waste Minimization Division, which developed a graded approach methodology for use throughout the DOE. This methodology was initiated in FY93 through a combined effort of the following DOE/Defense Program sites: Kansas City Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories. This presentation will describe the process waste assessment tool, benefits achieved through the completion of PWAs, DOE's graded approach methodology, and an update on the project's current status

  11. Kaizen: a method of process improvement in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gregory H; McCoin, Nicole Streiff; Lescallette, Richard; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M

    2009-12-01

    Recent position statements from health care organizations have placed a strong emphasis on continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI finds many of its roots in kaizen, which emphasizes small, low-cost, low-risk improvements. Based on the successful Kaizen Programs at organizations such as Toyota, the authors thought the emergency department (ED) would be an ideal environment to benefit from such a program. The authors sought to create a CQI program using a suggestion-based model that did not require a large time commitment, was easy to implement, and had the potential to empower all physicians in the department. It would not take the place of other improvement efforts, but instead augment them. The hypothesis was that such a program would foster sustainable engagement of emergency physicians in system improvement efforts and lead to a continuous stream of low-cost implementable system improvement interventions. A CQI program was created for the physician staff of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, focusing on a suggestion-based model using kaizen philosophy. Lectures teaching kaizen philosophy were presented. Over the past 4 years, a methodology was developed utilizing a Web-based application, the Kaizen Tracker, which aids in the submission and implementation of suggestions that are called kaizen initiatives (KIs). The characteristics of the KIs submitted, details regarding resident and faculty participation, and the effectiveness of the Kaizen Tracker were retrospectively reviewed. There were 169, 105, and 101 KIs placed in the postimplementation calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Seventy-six percent of KIs submitted thus far have identified a "process problem." Fifty-three percent of KIs submitted have led to operational changes within the ED. Ninety-three percent of the resident physicians entered at least one KI, and 73% of these residents submitted more than one KI. Sixty-nine percent of the

  12. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......, that the same principles that apply to a binary non-reactive compound system are valid also for a binary-element or a multi-element system. Therefore, it is advantageous to employ the element based method for multicomponent reaction-separation systems. It is shown that the same design-control principles...

  13. Department's Negotiated Rulemaking Process for Gainful Employment. Final Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Education (Department) is required to use negotiated rulemaking to develop proposed regulations for programs authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA). Under negotiated rulemaking, the Department works to develop the proposed regulations in collaboration with representatives of the parties…

  14. Using online analytical processing to manage emergency department operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley D; Asplin, Brent R

    2004-11-01

    The emergency department (ED) is a unique setting in which to explore and evaluate the utility of information technology to improve health care operations. A potentially useful software tool in managing this complex environment is online analytical processing (OLAP). An OLAP system has the ability to provide managers, providers, and researchers with the necessary information to make decisions quickly and effectively by allowing them to examine patterns and trends in operations and patient flow. OLAP software quickly summarizes and processes data acquired from a variety of data sources, including computerized ED tracking systems. It allows the user to form a comprehensive picture of the ED from both system-wide and patient-specific perspectives and to interactively view the data using an approach that meets his or her needs. This article describes OLAP software tools and provides examples of potential OLAP applications for care improvement projects, primarily from the perspective of the ED. While OLAP is clearly a helpful tool in the ED, it is far more useful when integrated into the larger continuum of health information systems across a hospital or health care delivery system.

  15. Ontario's emergency department process improvement program: the experience of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteau, Leahora; Webster, Fiona; Salkeld, Erin; Hellings, Chelsea; Guttmann, Astrid; Vermeulen, Marian J; Bell, Robert S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Nigam, Amit; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Lean manufacturing principles have been applied to health care quality improvement efforts to improve wait times. In Ontario, an emergency department (ED) process improvement program based on Lean principles was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care as part of a strategy to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) and to improve patient flow. This article aims to describe the hospital-based teams' experiences during the ED process improvement program implementation and the teams' perceptions of the key factors that influenced the program's success or failure. A qualitative evaluation was conducted based on semistructured interviews with hospital implementation team members, such as team leads, medical leads, and executive sponsors, at 10 purposively selected hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Sites were selected based, in part, on their changes in median ED LOS following the implementation period. A thematic framework approach as used for interviews, and a standard thematic coding framework was developed. Twenty-four interviews were coded and analyzed. The results are organized according to participants' experience and are grouped into four themes that were identified as significantly affecting the implementation experience: local contextual factors, relationship between improvement team and support players, staff engagement, and success and sustainability. The results demonstrate the importance of the context of implementation, establishing strong relationships and communication strategies, and preparing for implementation and sustainability prior to the start of the project. Several key factors were identified as important to the success of the program, such as preparing for implementation, ensuring strong executive support, creation of implementation teams based on the tasks and outcomes of the initiative, and using multiple communication strategies throughout the implementation process. Explicit incorporation of these factors into the

  16. Development of chemical profiles for U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Wilkins, B.D.; Meshkov, N.K.; Dolak, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and radiological profiles of waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide technical support information for evaluating waste management alternatives in the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The chemical profiles were developed for LLMW generated from both Waste Management (WM) operations and from Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at DOE facilities. Information summarized in the 1994 DOE Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Automated Remedial Assessment Methodology (ARAM), and associated PNL supporting data on ER secondary waste streams that will be treated in WM treatment facilities were used as the sources for developing chemical profiles. The methodology for developing the LLMW chemical profiles is discussed, and the chemical profiles developed from data for contact-handled (CH) non-alpha LLMW are presented in this paper. The hazardous chemical composition of remote-handled (RH) LLMW and alpha LLMW follow the chemical profiles developed for CH non-alpha LLMW

  17. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  18. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  19. HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND MATERIALS PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Department of Metal Technology was established in 1945 year. For its 70th year existence the department has passed all of the major stages of development with its alma mater and it is Dnepropetrovsk Civil Engineering Institute (DCEI, then Prydniprovs’ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (PGASA since 1994 year.

  20. Applications of Process Synthesis: Moving from Conventional Chemical Processes towards Biorefinery Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about diminishing petroleum reserves, enhanced worldwide demand for fuels and fluctuations in the global oil market, together with climate change and national security have promoted many initiatives for exploring alternative, non-petroleum based processes. Among these initiatives......, biorefinery processes for converting biomass-derived carbohydrates into transportation fuels and chemicals are now gaining more and more attention from both academia and industry. Process synthesis, which has played a vital role for the development, design and operation of (petro) chemical processes, can...

  1. [Cost management: the implementation of the activity-based costing method in sterile processing department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Castilho, Valéria

    2010-09-01

    This exploratory case study was performed aiming at implementing the Activity-based Costing (ABC) method in a sterile processing department (SPD) of a major teaching hospital. Data collection was performed throughout 2006. Documentary research techniques and non participant closed observation were used. The ABC implementation allowed for learning the activity-based costing of both the chemical and physical disinfection cycle/load: (dollar 9.95) and (dollar 12.63), respectively; as well as the cost for sterilization by steam under pressure (autoclave) (dollar 31.37) and low temperature steam and gaseous formaldehyde sterilization (LTSF) (dollar 255.28). The information provided by the ABC method has optimized the overall understanding of the cost driver process and provided the foundation for assessing performance and improvement in the SPD processes.

  2. 43 CFR 2.87 - How will the Department process my Touhy Request?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Legal Process: Testimony by Employees and Production of Records Responsibility of the Department § 2.87 How will the Department process my Touhy Request? (a) The appropriate...

  3. Chemical decontamination process and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryota; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a process and a device for chemical decontamination, which can suppress corrosion of low corrosion resistant materials, keep decontamination properties substantially as same as before and further, reduce the volume of secondary wastes. In a step of reductively melting oxide membranes on an objective material to be decontaminated, a mixture of oxalic acid and a salt thereof is used as a reducing agent, and the reductive melting is conducted while suppressing hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous liquid system. In order to enhance the reducibility of the oxalic acid ions, it is desirable to add a cyclic hetero compound thereto. The device of the present invention comprises, a decontamination loop including a member to be decontaminated, a heater and a pH meter, a medical injection pump for injecting a reducing agent to the decontamination loop, a metal ion recovering loop including an ion exchange resin tower, a reducing agent decomposing loop including an electrolytic vessel and/or a UV ray irradiation cell, a circulation pump for circulating the decontamination liquid to each of the loops and a plurality of opening/closing valves for switching the loop in which the decontamination liquid is circulated. (T.M.)

  4. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

  5. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  6. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Kuchynka, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as waste contaminated with chemically hazardous (governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) and radioactive species [governed by US Department of Energy (DOE) orders]. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is responding to the need for DOE mixed waste treatment technologies that meet these dual regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing emerging and innovative treatment technologies to determine process feasibility. Technology demonstrations will be used to determine whether processes are superior to existing technologies in reducing risk, minimizing life-cycle cost, and improving process performance. The Program also provides a forum for stakeholder and customer involvement in the technology development process. MWIP is composed of six technical areas that support a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas is described in this paper

  7. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Chemical aspects of radiation damage processes: radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of primary species and radiation chemical yields are discussed. In a section on chemical scavenging of primary species the author considers scavenging kinetics and competition reactions and gives a brief outline of some experimental methods. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions is discussed as an example for polar solvents. Cyclohexane is used as an example for non-polar solvents. The importance of excited states and energy transfer is considered. Reactions in the solid state are discussed and results on linear energy transfer and average ion pair formation for various kinds of radiation are surveyed. (B.R.H.)

  9. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b)

  10. The effect of boarders on emergency department process flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Eoin; Saunders, Jean; Cummins, Fergal

    2014-05-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding with boarders and waiting times are a significant concern in many countries. We aim to show the relationship between boarders in the ED and the percentage time to disposition in under 6 h for our ED patients. A review was carried out to show the percentage of patients presenting to the ED compliant with a 6-h standard per day compared to the number of attendances, the number of admissions to the hospital, and the number of boarders in the ED per day. Over the 2-year study period, there was an average 0.37% fall in the ED's rate of compliance per day, with a 6-h standard for each boarder in the ED. Boarding patients in the ED has a negative effect on compliance with our 6-h standard of time to disposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Focused process improvement events: sustainability of impact on process and performance in an academic radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lawson, Kirk; Ally, Rosina; Chen, David; Donno, Frank; Rittberg, Steven; Rodriguez, Joan; Recht, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sustainability of impact of rapid, focused process improvement (PI) events on process and performance within an academic radiology department. Our department conducted PI during 2011 and 2012 in CT, MRI, ultrasound, breast imaging, and research billing. PI entailed participation by all stakeholders, facilitation by the department chair, collection of baseline data, meetings during several weeks, definition of performance metrics, creation of an improvement plan, and prompt implementation. We explore common themes among PI events regarding initial impact and durability of changes. We also assess performance in each area pre-PI, immediately post-PI, and at the time of the current study. All PI events achieved an immediate improvement in performance metrics, often entailing both examination volumes and on-time performance. IT-based solutions, process standardization, and redefinition of staff responsibilities were often central in these changes, and participants consistently expressed improved internal leadership and problem-solving ability. Major environmental changes commonly occurred after PI, including a natural disaster with equipment loss, a change in location or services offered, and new enterprise-wide electronic medical record system incorporating new billing and radiology informatics systems, requiring flexibility in the PI implementation plan. Only one PI team conducted regular post-PI follow-up meetings. Sustained improvement was frequently, but not universally, observed: in the long-term following initial PI, measures of examination volume showed continued progressive improvements, whereas measures of operational efficiency remained stable or occasionally declined. Focused PI is generally effective in achieving performance improvement, although a changing environment influences the sustainability of impact. Thus, continued process evaluation and ongoing workflow modifications are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology

  12. Redefining the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, H.; Wessiani, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Government of Indonesia has been launched the bureaucratic reform program since 2010. One of the action is conducted restructuring organization in all city governments. Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City is the result of merger from two Department, namely Bureau of Food Security and Department of Agriculture. This merger makes Department of Food Security and Agriculture to redefine their business process. The new business process is needed to be defined in order to align the new structure with the long term strategic planning of Surabaya City Government. This research aims to redefine the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City. The CIMOSA model is adopted for identifying the activities in the business process. The new business process is important for the department to allocate their resource, mainly the human resource and as the main input for the department to build their standard operating procedure.

  13. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  14. Examination of the Residency Interview Process for Academic Pathology Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Annual resident recruitment is a complex undertaking that requires many departmental resources of faculty time and effort and in many cases financial investment for meals and lodging. The applicants represent the future of the profession as well as the providers of patient care in the respective training programs. Although we understand the importance of this process, as we become more and more distracted by financial, administrative, and academic duties, the demands of recruitment have not decreased and continue annually. In an attempt to find the best practices for the improvement in our methods of recruitment, a review of the literature on the employment interviews with a specific eye to pathology residency relevant information was conducted. This article reviews some of the factors proven to be important to the applicants as well as an examination of the structure of the interview and the postinterview applicant evaluation process. PMID:28725755

  15. Waste processing practices at waste management department from INR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), subsidiary of the Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities has its own Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (STDR). The object of activity of STDR within the INR Pitesti is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. Also, it will must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from other decommissioning activities. In according with the National Nuclear Program and the Governmental order no. 11/2003, the Institute for Nuclear Research is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The classes and criteria of classification for radioactive waste generated in operation and decommissioning in Romania are established in compliance with the classification recommended by IAEA and generally valid in EU countries. The general classification takes into consideration the disposal requirements to isolate the radioactive waste from environment. In Romania, waste minimization is considered by Order No. 56/2004 of CNCAN President for approval of Fundamental regulations on the safe management of radioactive waste. According to this regulation, the generation of radioactive waste is to be kept to the minimum practicable level in terms of both its activity and volume through appropriate design measures, facility operation and decommissioning practices. In order to meet this requirement, the operator must ensure: - selection and control of materials; - recycling and reuse of materials, including clearance of materials; - implementing adequate operating procedures, including those referring to the physical, chemical and radiological characterization of the waste and sorting of different type of materials. (orig.)

  16. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  17. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  18. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    . In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...

  19. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role

  20. Development of chemical process for synthesis of polyunsaturated esters

    OpenAIRE

    Vera LÃcia Viana do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to develop refining processes, chemical alcoholysis followed by separation of fatty acids using the complexation with urea technique for the synthesis of poly-unsaturated esters from waste of fish oils. The special crude fish oil was purchased from Company Campestre - SÃo Paulo. Initially this oil has undergone a process of physical and chemical refining. From the refined oil, an alcoholysis process was carried out to obtain the mixture of free fatty acids. From the hydrolyzed...

  1. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  2. A survey of process control computers at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is charged with the safe processing of spent nuclear fuel elements for the United States Department of Energy. The ICPP was originally constructed in the late 1950s and used state-of-the-art technology for process control at that time. The state of process control instrumentation at the ICPP has steadily improved to keep pace with emerging technology. Today, the ICPP is a college of emerging computer technology in process control with some systems as simple as standalone measurement computers while others are state-of-the-art distributed control systems controlling the operations in an entire facility within the plant. The ICPP has made maximal use of process computer technology aimed at increasing surety, safety, and efficiency of the process operations. Many benefits have been derived from the use of the computers for minimal costs, including decreased misoperations in the facility, and more benefits are expected in the future

  3. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  4. Microwave plasma emerging technologies for chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, Javier F.; Kiss, Anton A.; Radoiu, Marilena T.; Stefanidis, Georgios D.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave plasma (MWP) technology is currently being used in application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition and waste remediation. Specific advantages of the technology include the enablement of a high energy density source and a highly reactive medium,

  5. Modelling of chemical reactions in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaci, M. Efe; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Iron-ore reduction has attracted much interest in the last three decades since it can be considered as a core process in steel industry. The iron-ore is reduced to iron with the use of blast furnace and fluidized bed technologies. To investigate the harsh conditions inside fluidized bed reactors, computational tools can be utilized. One such tool is the CFD-DEM method, in which the gas phase reactions and governing equations are calculated in the Eulerian (CFD) side, whereas the particle reac...

  6. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  7. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...

  8. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Chemical process synthesis-design involve the identification of the processing route to reach a desired product from a specified set of raw materials, design of the operations involved in the processing route, the calculations of utility requirements, the calculations of waste and emission...... to the surrounding and many more. Different methods (knowledge-based [1], mathematical programming [2], hybrid, etc.) have been proposed and are also currently employed to solve these synthesis-design problems. D’ Anterroches [3] proposed a group contribution based approach to solve the synthesis-design problem...... of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join...

  9. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  10. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  11. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  12. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance in chemical department of the Exact Science Institute of the Minas Gerais Federal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The specifications for acquisition of pulsed NMR spectrometer by chemical department of Minas Gerais Federal University are described. The researches carried out using the NMR spectrometer are presented as well as installation and operation of NMR equipments. (M.C.K.)

  14. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies in...

  15. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  16. Administrative and operational strategies of the coffee processing industry department of Caldas (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Octavio Diaz Arango

    2016-07-01

    domestic and international markets. Furthermore, it was concluded that quality management depends on operating performance and productivity when it comes to increasing the competitiveness of the coffee processing industries in the Department of Caldas (Colombia.

  17. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  18. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  19. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  20. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  2. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  3. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  4. Chemical-cleaning process evaluation: Westinghouse steam generators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, W.F.; Gockley, G.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Secondary Side Chemical Cleaning Program, under develpment since 1978, has resulted in a generic process for the removal of accumulated corrosion products and tube deposits in the tube support plate crevices. The SGOG/EPRI Project S150-3 was established to obtain an evaluation of the generic process in regard to its applicability to Westinghouse steam generators. The results of the evaluation form the basis for recommendations for transferring the generic process to a plant specific application and identify chemical cleaning corrosion guidelines for the materials in Westinghouse Steam Generators. The results of the evaluation, recommendations for plant-specific applications and corrosion guidelines for chemical cleaning are presented in this report

  5. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  6. Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljevic, Darko; Muric, Branka; Pantelic, Dejan; Panic, Bratimir

    2009-01-01

    Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Workers' mental models of radiation and chemical hazards in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Blanchard, K.A.; Lundgren, R.E.; McMakin, A.H.; Mosley, M.T.; Strom, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    A pilot study was performed to test the mental models methodology regarding knowledge and perceptions of U.S. Department of Energy contractor radiation workers about ionizing radiation and hazardous chemicals. The mental models methodology establishes a target population's beliefs about risks and compares them with current scientific knowledge. The ultimate intent is to develop risk communication guidelines that address information gaps or misperceptions that could affect decisions and behavior. In this study, 15 radiation workers from the Hanford Site in Washington State were interviewed about radiation exposure processes and effects. Their beliefs were mapped onto a science model of the same topics to see where differences occurred. In general, workers' mental models covered many of the high-level parts of the science model but did not have the same level of detail. The following concepts appeared to be well understood by most interviewees: types, form, and properties of workplace radiation; administrative and physical controls to reduce radiation exposure risk; and the relationship of dose and effects. However, several concepts were rarely mentioned by most interviewees, indicating potential gaps in worker understanding. Most workers did not discuss the wide range of measures for neutralizing or decontaminating individuals following internal contamination. Few noted specific ways of measuring dose or factors that affect dose. Few mentioned the range of possible effects, including genetic effects, birth defects, or high dose effects. Variables that influence potential effects were rarely discussed. Workers rarely mentioned how basic radiation principles influenced the source, type, or mitigation of radiation risk in the workplace

  8. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  9. Hierarchical optimal control of large-scale nonlinear chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Sadati, Nasser

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for optimal control of large-scale chemical processes. In this approach, the chemical process is decomposed into smaller sub-systems at the first level, and a coordinator at the second level, for which a two-level hierarchical control strategy is designed. For this purpose, each sub-system in the first level can be solved separately, by using any conventional optimization algorithm. In the second level, the solutions obtained from the first level are coordinated using a new gradient-type strategy, which is updated by the error of the coordination vector. The proposed algorithm is used to solve the optimal control problem of a complex nonlinear chemical stirred tank reactor (CSTR), where its solution is also compared with the ones obtained using the centralized approach. The simulation results show the efficiency and the capability of the proposed hierarchical approach, in finding the optimal solution, over the centralized method.

  10. Quality Assessment of Film Processing Chemicals in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the qualities of the four different processing chemicals (solutions). With EP 21 films (Ektaspeed plus film, Kodak Co., USA), nine unexposed and nine exposed films of a step wedge were processed utilizing automatic film processor (XR 24, Durr Co., Germany) for 5 days. During 5 days, the total number of processed films including out-patient's intraoral films were about 400-500 for each brand. Base plus fog density, film density, contrast of processed films were measured with densitometer (model 07-443 digital densitometer, Victoreen Co., USA). These measurements were analyzed for comparison. The results were as follows,1. For the base plus fog density, there was significant difference among the four chemicals (p<0.05). The sequence of the base plus fog densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Agfa and Konica. 2. For the film density, all chemicals showed useful range of photographic densities (0.25-2.5). The sequence of the film densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Konica and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of film density between X-dol and Kodak (p<0.05). 3. The sequence of the contrasts was in ascending order by Konica, X-dol 90, Kodak and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of contrast between X-dol and Konica (p<0.05). These results indicated that the four processing chemicals had the clinically useful film density and contrast, but only Kodak processing chemical had useful base plus fog density.

  11. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Engineering. In order to incorporate reactor design into process design in a meaningful way, the teachers of the respective courses need to collaborate (Standard 9 – Enhancement of Faculty CDIO skills). The students also see that different components of the chemical engineering curriculum relate......All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... of the CDIO standards – especially standard 3 – Integrated Curriculum - means that the course projects must draw on competences provided in other subjects which the students are taking in parallel with Process Design – specifically Process Control and Reaction Engineering. In each semester of the B...

  12. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources...... to be employed for validation and fine-tuning of the solutions from the model-based framework, thereby, removing the need for trial and error experimental steps. Also, questions related to economic feasibility, operability and sustainability, among others, can be considered in the early stages of design. However...

  13. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  14. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...

  15. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D.

    1965-01-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [fr

  16. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  17. Physico-chemical, functional and processing attributes of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was generated from six commercial potato varieties and studied for their physical, chemical, functional and processing attributes. Lady Rosetta followed by Hermes was the most appreciable varieties concerning their physical attributes. A positive correlation (R = 0.765) existed between tuber firmness and specific ...

  18. MIMO Self-Tuning Control of Chemical Process Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, L.; Jørgensen, S. B.; Goldschmidt, L.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of selecting a feasible model structure for a MIMO self-tuning controller (MIMOSC) is addressed. The dependency of the necessary structure complexity in relation to the specific process operating point is investigated. Experimental results from a fixed-bed chemical reactor are used...

  19. Near miss reporting in the chemical process industry: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The research programme described in this paper focuses on the human component of system failure in general, and more specifically on the design and implementation of information systems for registration and analysis of so called near misses (or: near accidents) in the chemical process industry. Its

  20. Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate

  1. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  2. Impacting key performance indicators in an academic MR imaging department through process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Michael; Macari, Michael; Lawson, Kirk; Mulholland, Tom; Chen, David; Kim, Danny; Babb, James

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate all aspects of workflow in a large academic MRI department to determine whether process improvement (PI) efforts could improve key performance indicators (KPIs). KPI metrics in the investigators' MR imaging department include daily inpatient backlogs, on-time performance for outpatient examinations, examination volumes, appointment backlogs for pediatric anesthesia cases, and scan duration relative to time allotted for an examination. Over a 3-week period in April 2011, key members of the MR imaging department (including technologists, nurses, schedulers, physicians, and administrators) tracked all aspects of patient flow through the department, from scheduling to examination interpretation. Data were analyzed by the group to determine where PI could improve KPIs. Changes to MRI workflow were subsequently implemented, and KPIs were compared before (January 1, 2011, to April 30, 2011) and after (August 1, 2011, to December 31, 2011) using Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests. The data analysis done during this PI led to multiple changes in the daily workflow of the MR department. In addition, a new sense of teamwork and empowerment was established within the MR staff. All of the measured KPIs showed statistically significant changes after the reengineering project. Intradepartmental PI efforts can significantly affect KPI metrics within an MR imaging department, making the process more patient centered. In addition, the process allowed significant growth without the need for additional equipment or personnel. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  4. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  5. DYNSIR; A dynamic simulator for the chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Byeon, Kee Hoh; Park, Jeong Hwa; Park, Seong Won

    1990-03-01

    A program code for dynamic simulation of arbitrary chemical process, called DYNSIR, is developed. The code can simulate rather arbitrary arrangements of individual chemical processing units whose models are described by ordinary differential equations. The code structure to handle input/output, memory and data management, numerical interactive or predetermined changes in parameter values during the simulation. Individual model is easy to maintain since the modular approach is used. The integration routine is highly effective because of the development of algorithm for modular integration method using the cubic spline. DYNSIR's data structures are not the index but the pointer structure. This pointer structure allows the dynamic memory allocation for the memory management. The dynamic memory allocation methods is to minimize the amount of memories and to overcome the limitation of the number of variables to be used. Finally, it includes various functions, such as the input preprocessor, the effective error processing, and plotting and reporting routines. (author)

  6. Laser isotope separation - a new class of chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, K.B.; Mannik, L.; O'Neill, J.A.; Mader, D.L.; Nickerson, S.B.; Robins, J.R.; Bartoszek, F.E.; Gratton, D.

    1983-01-01

    Lasers may soon find several applications in chemical processing. The applications that have attracted the most research funding to date involve isotope separation for the nuclear industry. These isotopes have an unusually high value (≥$1000/kg) compared to bulk chemicals (∼$1/kg) and are generally required in very large quantities. In a laser isotope separation process, light is used to convert a separation that is very difficult or even impossible by conventional chemical engineering techniques to one that is readily handled by conventional separation technology. For some isotopes this can result in substantial capital and energy savings. A uranium enrichment process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the closest to commercialization of the large scale laser isotope separation processes. Of particular interest to the Canadian nuclear industry are the laser separation of deuterium, tritium, zirconium-90 and carbon-14. In this paper, the basic principles behind laser isotope separation are reviewed and brief dscriptions of the more developed processes are given

  7. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  8. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  9. Sustainability assessment of novel chemical processes at early stage: application to biobased processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.D.; Meesters, K.; Uil, H. den; Jong, E. de; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical conversions have been a cornerstone of industrial revolution and societal progress. Continuing this progress in a resource constrained world poses a critical challenge which demands the development of innovative chemical processes to meet our energy and material needs in a sustainable way.

  10. Supercritical Fluids Processing of Biomass to Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Norman K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-09-28

    The main objective of this project is to develop and/or enhance cost-effective methodologies for converting biomass into a wide variety of chemicals, fuels, and products using supercritical fluids. Supercritical fluids will be used both to perform reactions of biomass to chemicals and products as well as to perform extractions/separations of bio-based chemicals from non-homogeneous mixtures. This work supports the Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Platform Goals. Supercritical fluids are a thermochemical approach to processing biomass that, while aligned with the Biomass Program’s interests in gasification and pyrolysis, offer the potential for more precise and controllable reactions. Indeed, the literature with respect to the use of water as a supercritical fluid frequently refers to “supercritical water gasification” or “supercritical water pyrolysis.”

  11. Study on microwave assisted process in chemical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Ali; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Ramlan Abd Aziz

    2001-01-01

    The microwave assisted process is a revolutionary method of extraction that reduces the extraction time to as little as a few seconds, with up to a ten-fold decrease in the use of solvents. The target material is immersed in solvent that is transparent to microwaves, so only the target material is heated, and because of the microwaves tend to heat the inside of the material quickly, the target chemical are expelled in a few seconds. benefits from this process include significant reductions in the amount of energy required and substantial reductions in the cost and dispose of hazardous solvents. A thorough review has been displayed on: using the microwave in extraction, applications of microwave in industry, process flow diagram, mechanism of the process and comparison between microwave process and other extraction techniques (soxhlet, steam distillation and supercritical fluid). This review attempts to summarize the studies about microwave assisted process as a very promising technique. (Author)

  12. Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program. Volume I: Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    nerve agents. * Identified specific gene products that are either enhanced or depressed in the brain following low-level chemical warfare nerve agent...with ample time to properly treat for injury. This model was used to determine that N- acetylcysteine given intraperitoneally increased survival rates in

  13. Status summary of chemical processing development in plutonium-238 supply program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DePaoli, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sherman, Steven R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the status of development of chemical processing in the Plutonium-238 Supply Program (PSP) near the end of Demonstration 1. The objective of the PSP is “to develop, demonstrate, and document a production process that meets program objectives and to prepare for its operation” (Frazier et al. 2016). Success in the effort includes establishing capability using the current infrastructure to produce Np targets for irradiation in Department of Energy research reactors, chemically processing the irradiated targets to separate and purify the produced Pu and transferring the PuO2 product to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at an average rate of 1.5 kg/y.

  14. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  15. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... is missing, the atom connectivity based model is employed to predict the missing group interaction. In this way, a wide application range of the property modeling tool is ensured. Based on the property models, targeted computer-aided techniques have been developed for design and analysis of organic chemicals......, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property...

  16. Economic model predictive control theory, formulations and chemical process applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Matthew; Christofides, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes. In addition to being...

  17. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, J.; McCurry, M.; Hackett, W.; Welhan, J.

    1994-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  19. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  20. Development of treatment technologies of the processing of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J. Jr.; Lurk, P.; Wolf, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to mixed-waste technology development, the Office of Technology Development of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The program is identifying and evaluating treatment technologies to treat present and estimated future mixed wastes at DOE sites. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, waste destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  1. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  2. Chemical and mechanical decontamination processes to minimize secondary waste decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, M.; Ichikawa, N.; Yaita, Y.; Kanasaki, T.; Sakai, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the decommissioning of commercial nuclear reactors in Japan, prior to the dismantling of the nuclear power plants, there are plans to use chemical techniques to decontaminate reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), internal parts, primary loop recirculation systems (PLRs), reactor water clean up systems (RWCUs), etc., so as to minimize radiation sources in the materials to be disposed of. After dismantling the nuclear power plants, chemical and mechanical decontamination techniques will then be used to reduce the amounts of radioactive metallic waste. Toshiba Corporation has developed pre-dismantling and post-dismantling decontamination systems. In order to minimize the amounts of secondary waste, the T-OZON process was chosen for decontamination prior to the dismantling of nuclear power plants. Dismantling a nuclear power plant results in large amounts of metallic waste requiring decontamination; for example, about 20,000 tons of such waste is expected to result from the dismantling of a 110 MWe Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Various decontamination methods have been used on metallic wastes in preparation for disposal in consideration of the complexity of the shapes of the parts and the type of material. The materials in such nuclear power plants are primarily stainless steel and carbon steel. For stainless steel parts having simple shapes, such as plates and pipes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surface of the parts by bipolar electrolysis (electrolyte: H 2 SO 4 ). For stainless steel parts having complicated shapes, such as valves and pumps, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surfaces by redox chemical decontamination treatments (chemical agent: Ce(IV)). For carbon steel parts having simple shapes, decontamination by blasting with zirconia grit is effective in removing major sources of radioactivity at the surface, whereas for carbon steel parts having complicated shapes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from

  3. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  4. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  5. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  6. The Eco Logic gas-phase chemical reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallett, D.J.; Campbell, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1986, Eco Logic has conducted research with the aim of developing a new technology for destroying aqueous organic wastes, such as contaminated harbor sediments, landfill soil and leachates, and lagoon sludges. The goal was a commercially-viable chemical process that could deal with these watery wastes and also process stored wastes. The process described in this paper was developed with a view to avoiding the expense and technical drawbacks of incinerators, while still providing high destruction efficiencies and waste volume capabilities. A lab-scale process unit was constructed in 1988 and tested extensively. Based on the results of these tests, it was decided to construct a mobile pilot-scale unit that could be used for further testing and ultimately for small commercial waste processing operations. It was taken through a preliminary round of tests at Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, where the waste processed was coal-tar-contaminated harbor sediment. In 1992, the same unit was taken through a second round of tests in Bay City, Michigan. In this test program, the pilot-scale unit processed PCBs in aqueous, organic and soil matrices. This paper describes the process reactions and the pilot-scale process unit, and presents the results of pilot-scale testing thus far

  7. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  8. Application of repetitive pulsed power technology to chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.J.; Hamil, R.

    1995-01-01

    The numerous sites of soil and water contaminated with organic chemicals present an urgent environmental concern that continues to grow. Electron and x-ray irradiation have been shown to be effective methods to destroy a wide spectrum of organic chemicals, nitrates, nitrites, and cyanide in water by breaking molecules to non-toxic products or entirely mineralizing the by-products to gas, water, and salts. Sandia National Laboratories is developing Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) technology capable of producing high average power, broad area electron or x-ray beams. The 300 kW RHEPP-II facility accelerates electrons to 2.5 MeV at 25 kA over 1,000 cm 2 in 60 ns pulses at repetition rates of over 100 Hz. Linking this modular treatment capability with the rapid optical-sensing diagnostics and neutral network characterization software algorithms will provide a Smart Waste Treatment (SWaT) system. Such a system would also be applicable for chemical manufacture and processing of industrial waste for reuse or disposal. This talk describes both the HREPP treatment capability and sensing technologies. Measurements of the propagated RHEPP-II beam and dose profiles are presented. Sensors and rapid detection software are discussed with application toward chemical treatment

  9. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  10. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  11. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  12. Catechol-Based Hydrogel for Chemical Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyoung Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Catechols offer diverse properties and are used in biology to perform various functions that range from adhesion (e.g., mussel proteins to neurotransmission (e.g., dopamine, and mimicking the capabilities of biological catechols have yielded important new materials (e.g., polydopamine. It is well known that catechols are also redox-active and we have observed that biomimetic catechol-modified chitosan films are redox-active and possess interesting molecular electronic properties. In particular, these films can accept, store and donate electrons, and thus offer redox-capacitor capabilities. We are enlisting these capabilities to bridge communication between biology and electronics. Specifically, we are investigating an interactive redox-probing approach to access redox-based chemical information and convert this information into an electrical modality that facilitates analysis by methods from signal processing. In this review, we describe the broad vision and then cite recent examples in which the catechol–chitosan redox-capacitor can assist in accessing and understanding chemical information. Further, this redox-capacitor can be coupled with synthetic biology to enhance the power of chemical information processing. Potentially, the progress with this biomimetic catechol–chitosan film may even help in understanding how biology uses the redox properties of catechols for redox signaling.

  13. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San Jose State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; Silber, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    A Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the American Chemical Society has been held at San Jose State University for the past 20 years. The intent of the program is to introduce outstanding college students to the field of nuclear and radiochemistry with the goal that some of these students will consider careers on nuclear science. The program features radiochemistry experiments along with radiation safety training, guest lectures by well known nuclear scientists and field trips to nuclear chemistry facilities in the San Francisco area. (author)

  14. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  15. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  16. Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, C.J.; Frazer, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor

  17. Field experience with KWU SG chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1989-01-01

    The ingress of corrosion products into PWR steam generators (SG's) their deposition and the subsequent concentration of salt impurities can induce a variety of mechanisms for corrosion attack on SG tubing. Already, some plants have had to replace their steam generators due to severe corrosion damage and others are seriously considering the same costly action in the near future. One of the most effective ways to counteract corrosion mechanisms and thus to reduce the likelihood of SG replacement becoming necessary is to clean the SG's and to keep them clean. For many years, the industry has been involved in developing different types of cleaning techniques. Among these, chemical cleaning has been shown to be especially effective. In this article, the KWU chemical cleaning process, for which there is considerable application experience, is described. The results of field applications will be presented together with material compatibility data and information on cleaning effectiveness. (author)

  18. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  19. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  20. Subfemtosecond directional control of chemical processes in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaser, Ali S.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.

    2017-02-01

    Laser pulses with a waveform-controlled electric field and broken inversion symmetry establish the opportunity to achieve directional control of molecular processes on a subfemtosecond timescale. Several techniques could be used to break the inversion symmetry of an electric field. The most common ones include combining a fundamental laser frequency with its second harmonic or with higher -frequency pulses (or pulse trains) as well as using few-cycle pulses with known carrier-envelope phase (CEP). In the case of CEP, control over chemical transformations, typically occurring on a timescale of many femtoseconds, is driven by much faster sub-cycle processes of subfemtosecond to few-femtosecond duration. This is possible because electrons are much lighter than nuclei and fast electron motion is coupled to the much slower nuclear motion. The control originates from populating coherent superpositions of different electronic or vibrational states with relative phases that are dependent on the CEP or phase offset between components of a two-color pulse. In this paper, we review the recent progress made in the directional control over chemical processes, driven by intense few-cycle laser pulses a of waveform-tailored electric field, in different molecules.

  1. Chemical elements dynamic in the fermentation process of ethanol producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides useful information about the dynamics of chemical elements analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and, found in the various segments of the fermentation process of producing ethanol from sugar cane. For this, a mass balance of Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, and Th, terrigenous elements, as well as Br, K, Rb, and Zn, sugar cane plant elements, has been demonstrated for the fermentation vats in industrial conditions of ethanol production. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  3. An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process.

  4. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S P; Waitz, I A [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R C; Brown, R C; Anderson, M R [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W N [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  5. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  6. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brain B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, Miles E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  7. [Engagement as motivational driver. Processes of change in an Italian department of mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschillo, Carmine; Orazzo, Catello; Orazzo, Gabriele Gennaro; Capriola, Elena; Palumbo, Rocco; Grimaldi, Manlio

    2017-01-01

    The health care reforms of last years have deeply affected the National Health System, resulting in the need for a change in organizational processes and a more efficient and dynamic change management. An effective change management is not possible without a deep involvement (engagement) of professionals, which is itself a key requisite for motivation. This study aims to examine the main instruments of engagement management, as a tool of change according to a modern reorganization approach. We examine the results of this process in the Mental Health Department of the Local Health Company Naples 3 South in recent years, starting with the analysis of its main weaknesses.

  8. Lean Six Sigma applied to a process innovation in a mexican health institute's imaging department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porres, J; Ortiz-Posadas, M R; Pimentel-Aguilar, A B

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of services to a patient has to be given with an acceptable measure of quality that can be monitored through the patient's satisfaction. The objective of this work was to innovate processes eliminating waste and non value-added work in processes done at the Imaging Department in the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases (INER for its Spanish acronym) in Mexico City, to decrease the time a patient spends in a study and increase satisfaction. This innovation will be done using Lean Six Sigma tools and applied in a pilot program.

  9. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  10. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Kilpinen, P [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  11. Combined Noncyclic Scheduling and Advanced Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Petersen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel formulation for combined scheduling and control of multi-product, continuous chemical processes is introduced in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and noncyclic continuous-time scheduling are efficiently combined. A decomposition into nonlinear programming (NLP dynamic optimization problems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problems, without iterative alternation, allows for computationally light solution. An iterative method is introduced to determine the number of production slots for a noncyclic schedule during a prediction horizon. A filter method is introduced to reduce the number of MILP problems required. The formulation’s closed-loop performance with both process disturbances and updated market conditions is demonstrated through multiple scenarios on a benchmark continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR application with fluctuations in market demand and price for multiple products. Economic performance surpasses cyclic scheduling in all scenarios presented. Computational performance is sufficiently light to enable online operation in a dual-loop feedback structure.

  12. DYNSYL: a general-purpose dynamic simulator for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, G.K.; Rozsa, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is conducting a safeguards program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Material Control Project of this program is to evaluate material control and accounting (MCA) methods in plants that handle special nuclear material (SNM). To this end we designed and implemented the dynamic chemical plant simulation program DYNSYL. This program can be used to generate process data or to provide estimates of process performance; it simulates both steady-state and dynamic behavior. The MCA methods that may have to be evaluated range from sophisticated on-line material trackers such as Kalman filter estimators, to relatively simple material balance procedures. This report describes the overall structure of DYNSYL and includes some example problems. The code is still in the experimental stage and revision is continuing

  13. Chemical process for improved oil recovery from Bakken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Hongxin; Lu, Zayne [ChemEOR Inc (United States); Tang, Youngchun [Power Environmental Energy Research Institute (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the new chemically-improved oil recovery process (IOR) process for Bakken formation reservoirs. A custom surfactant agent can be used in standard hydraulic fracturing treatments in the Bakken to increase oil recovery. The rock formation consists of three members: the lower shale, middle dolostone and the upper shale. The dolostone was deposited as a coastal carbonate during shallower water and the shales were deposited in a relatively deep marine condition. With the widespread advent of horizontal well drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatments, production from the Bakken has become very active. The experimental results exhibited that specialized surfactant formulations will interact with this mixed oil-wet low permeability middle member to produce more oil. It was also observed that oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition was fast and significant. The best surfactant found in this study is compatible with a common fracture fluid system.

  14. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  15. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  16. ROLE OF HYDROBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS, DEVELOPMENT OF FISHING INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE IN THE UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Yevtushenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article summarized the information concerning the basic objectives and lines of action of hydrobiology department in training the specialists in major Water Bioresources and Aquaculture. The value of the complex of disciplines, which disclose processes of studying the water quality, condition of aquatic ecosystems, biological and fish productivity of different water types, is shown. The main focus is on the structure and content of educational disciplines, which provide realization of master program in hydrobioresources safety, and on their tight connection with scientific researches, which aim at safety, reproduction and rational use of hydrobioresources, the importance of  aquatic organisms in the system of  water quality bioidentification, using international and european standarts, also on processes of water quality control and waters’ bioreproduction. Key words: discipline, educational process, waters, bioresources, pollution, biological productivity processes, water quality, fish productivity

  17. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities of chemical engineers. Therefore, the main question of this thesis is: how can a trained chemical engineer develop a conceptual design of a chemical process or a chemical product in such a way that ...

  18. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  19. United States Department Of Energy Office Of Environmental Management Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  20. The AMES Laboratory chemical disposal site removal action: Source removal, processing, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory has historically supported the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and its predecessor agencies by providing research into the purification and manufacturing of high purity uranium, thorium, and yttrium metals. Much of this work was accomplished in the late 1950s and early 1960s prior to the legislation of strict rules and regulations covering the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes. As a result, approximately 800 cubic meters of low-level radioactive wastes, chemical wastes, and contaminated debris were disposed in nine near surface cells located in a 0.75 hectare plot of land owned by Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Under a national contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), OHM Remediation Services Corp (OHM) was tasked with providing turnkey environmental services to remove, process, package, transport, and coordinate the disposal of the waste materials and contaminated environmental media

  1. Statistical process control: separating signal from noise in emergency department operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laura; Barrueto, Fermin

    2015-05-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a visually appealing and statistically rigorous methodology very suitable to the analysis of emergency department (ED) operations. We demonstrate that the control chart is the primary tool of SPC; it is constructed by plotting data measuring the key quality indicators of operational processes in rationally ordered subgroups such as units of time. Control limits are calculated using formulas reflecting the variation in the data points from one another and from the mean. SPC allows managers to determine whether operational processes are controlled and predictable. We review why the moving range chart is most appropriate for use in the complex ED milieu, how to apply SPC to ED operations, and how to determine when performance improvement is needed. SPC is an excellent tool for operational analysis and quality improvement for these reasons: 1) control charts make large data sets intuitively coherent by integrating statistical and visual descriptions; 2) SPC provides analysis of process stability and capability rather than simple comparison with a benchmark; 3) SPC allows distinction between special cause variation (signal), indicating an unstable process requiring action, and common cause variation (noise), reflecting a stable process; and 4) SPC keeps the focus of quality improvement on process rather than individual performance. Because data have no meaning apart from their context, and every process generates information that can be used to improve it, we contend that SPC should be seriously considered for driving quality improvement in emergency medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Berry, J.B.; Coyle, G.J.; Lurk, P.W.; Wolf, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species is defined as mixed waste. Significant technology development has been conducted for separate treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste, but technology development addressing mixed-waste treatment has been limited. Management of mixed waste requires treatment which must meet the standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous constituents while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. Technology has not been developed, demonstrated, or tested to produce a low-risk final waste form specifically for mixed waste. Throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex, mixed waste is a problem because definitive treatment standards have not been established and few disposal facilities are available. Treatment capability and capacity are also limited. Site-specific solutions to the management of mixed waste have been initiated; however, site-specific programs result in duplication of technology development between various sites. Significant progress is being made in developing technology for mixed waste under the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The status of the technical initiatives in chemical/physical treatment, destruction/stabilization technology, off-gas treatment, and final waste form production/assessment is described in this paper

  3. Process Equipment Failure Mode Analysis in a Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nasl Seraji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Prevention of potential accidents and safety promotion in chemical processes requires systematic safety management in them. The main objective of this study was analysis of important process equipment components failure modes and effects in H2S and CO2  isolation from extracted natural gas process.   Methods   This study was done in sweetening unit of an Iranian gas refinery. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA used for identification of process equipments failures.   Results   Totally 30 failures identified and evaluated using FMEA. P-1 blower's blade breaking and sour gas pressure control valve bearing tight moving had maximum risk Priority number (RPN, P-1 body corrosion and increasing plug lower side angle of reach DEAlevel control valve  in tower - 1 were minimum calculated RPN.   Conclusion   By providing a reliable documentation system for equipment failures and  incidents recording, maintaining of basic information for later safety assessments would be  possible. Also, the probability of failures and effects could be minimized by conducting preventive maintenance.

  4. Intelligent process control of fiber chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John Gregory

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a widely used process for the application of thin films. In this case, CVD is being used to apply a thin film interface coating to single crystal monofilament sapphire (Alsb2Osb3) fibers for use in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC's). The hot-wall reactor operates at near atmospheric pressure which is maintained using a venturi pump system. Inert gas seals obviate the need for a sealed system. A liquid precursor delivery system has been implemented to provide precise stoichiometry control. Neural networks have been implemented to create real-time process description models trained using data generated based on a Navier-Stokes finite difference model of the process. Automation of the process to include full computer control and data logging capability is also presented. In situ sensors including a quadrupole mass spectrometer, thermocouples, laser scanner, and Raman spectrometer have been implemented to determine the gas phase reactants and coating quality. A fuzzy logic controller has been developed to regulate either the gas phase or the in situ temperature of the reactor using oxygen flow rate as an actuator. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of various samples are shown. A hierarchical control structure upon which the control structure is based is also presented.

  5. Development and demonstration of treatment technologies for the processing of US Department of Energy Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Berry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Mixed waste is defined as ''waste contaminated with chemically hazardous and radioactive species.'' The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was established in response to the need for a unified, DOE complexwide solution to issues of mixed waste treatment that meets regulatory requirements. MWIP is developing treatment technologies that reduce risk, minimize life-cycle cost, and improve process performance as compared to existing technologies. Treatment for waste streams for which no current technology exists, and suitable waste forms for disposal, will be provided to improve operations of the DOE Office of Waste Management. MWIP is composed of six technical areas within a mixed-waste treatment system: (1) systems analysis, (2) materials handling, (3) chemical/physical separation, (4) waste destruction and stabilization, (5) off-gas treatment, and (6) final waste form stabilization. The status of the technical initiatives and the current research, development, and demonstration in each of these areas are described in this paper

  6. The Characterization of Cognitive Processes Involved in Chemical Kinetics Using a Blended Processing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Kinsey; Rodriguez, Jon-Marc G.; Moon, Alena; Towns, Marcy H.

    2018-01-01

    Chemical kinetics is a highly quantitative content area that involves the use of multiple mathematical representations to model processes and is a context that is under-investigated in the literature. This qualitative study explored undergraduate student integration of chemistry and mathematics during problem solving in the context of chemical…

  7. The application of nursing process method in training nurses working in the department of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Daihui; Wang Hongjuan; Yang Yajuan; Ye Rui; Qu Juan; Li Xinying; Xu Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the training procedure,typical training method and the clinical effect of nursing process method which was used to cultivate nurses working in the interventional ward. Methods: According to the evaluation index, the authors made a detail assessment of each nurse and found out individually the problems which needed to be perfected, then, the practicable measures were made for each individual nurse, after the training course the clinical results were evaluated. Results: After the nurses on different technical levels were cultivated with nursing process method, the comprehensive quality of each nurse was improved in different degree, and the general nursing quality of entire Department was also markedly improved. Conclusion: By using the nursing process method the cultivating period can be effectively shortened, the possible waste of time, manpower, material and energy cause by the blind training plan can be avoided. (authors)

  8. Features of radiation chemical processes in ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchenko, S.S.; Mal'tseva, A.P.; Iskakov, L.I.; Karpov, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of statistical copolymers of ethylene with styrene to determine their structure and properties and radio-chemical transformations. The styrene content of the copolymers ranged from 1 to 85 mole%. The investigation covered non-irradiated copolymers and those irradiated with doses of 1-1000Mrad at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. It is shown that styrene units present in the CES inhibited all radio-chemical processes compared with PE irradiated under similar conditions. It is suggested that the radiation resistance of CES with styrene contents up to 10 mole % increases in the course of irradiation as a result of the formation of structures with a high degree of conjugation which are more capable of scattering absorbed energy than in the case of phenyl rings by themselves. The most promising of the CES examined is the one with a styrene content of 5 mole %. The mechanical properties of this copolymer are similar to those of PE, and its radiation resistance rises under service conditions in the presence of ionizing radiation

  9. Chemical mode control in nuclear power plant decommissioning during operation of technologies in individual radioactive waste processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.; Dugovic, L.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage treatment of nuclear power plant decommissioning is performed by system of sewage concentration in evaporator with formation of condensed rest, it means radioactive waste concentrate and breeding steam. During sewage treatment plant operation department of chemical mode performs chemical and radiochemical analysis of sewage set for treatment, chemical and radiochemical analysis of breeding steam condensate which is after final cleaning on ionization filter and fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment; chemical and radiochemical analysis of heating steam condensate which is also after fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment. Condensed radioactive concentrate is stored in stainless tanks and later converted into easy transportable and chemically stable matrix from the long term storage point of view in republic storage Mochovce. The article also refer to bituminous plant, vitrification plant, swimming pool decontamination plant of long term storage and operation of waste processing plant Bohunice

  10. Chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, L.; Becker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation is described. For the hydrolysis of tributylphosphate TBP->HDBP->H 2 MBP->H 3 PO 4 values are given for the individual constants in a temperature range from 23 to 90 0 C. Radiolytic yields were measured for HDBP as 80 mg/Wh, for H 2 MBP as 2 mg/Wh, and for H 3 PO 4 as 5 mg/Wh. Experimental results on the degradation products of the diluent are summarized and their influence on the process is discussed. Long chain acid phosphates and acid TBP oligomeres were identified as responsible for the retention of fission products. Techniques such as polarography, infrared spectrometry and electrolytic conductometry are applied to estimate concentrations of degradation products down to 10 -5 mol/l. (orig.) [de

  11. Chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation in the Purex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, L; Becker, R

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation is described. For the hydrolysis of tributylphosphate TBP->HDBP->H/sub 2/MBP->H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ values are given for the individual constants in a temperature range from 23 to 90/sup 0/C. Radiolytic yields were measured for HDBP as 80 mg/Wh, for H/sub 2/MBP as 2 mg/Wh, and for H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ as 5 mg/Wh. Experimental results on the degradation products of the diluent are summarized and their influence on the process is discussed. Long chain acid phosphates and acid TBP oligomeres were identified as responsible for the retention of fission products. Techniques such as polarography, infrared spectrometry and electrolytic conductometry are applied to estimate concentrations of degradation products down to 10/sup -5/ mol/l.

  12. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  13. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering

  14. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  15. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  16. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  17. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS/ PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns

  18. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHAUS, P.S.

    2006-07-21

    At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

  19. [Acute complicated and uncomplicated pyelonephritis in the emergency department: process-of-care indicators and outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Vicente, Miriam; Lecaroz Agara, Mª Concepción; Barrios Andrés, José Luis; Canut Blasco, Andrés

    2017-02-01

    To assess process-of-care indicators and outcomes in acute pyelonephritis (APN) in a general hospital emergency department, and compare them between uncomplicaed and complicated APN. Retrospective study of consecutive patients discharged with a diagnosis of APN. We studied health processof- care indicators (percentage admitted, avoidable hospitalization, appropriate initial antibiotic therapy, urine and blood cultures) and outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], discharge from the emergency department, revisits, mortality, yields of microbiological tests ordered). A total of 529 cases (59% of them complicated) were included. Patients with uncomplicated APN were significantly younger on average (mean, 39 years) than patients with complicated APN (56 years). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen identified, although the percentage of E coli infection was lower in patients with complicated APN (78%) than in patients with uncomplicated APN (95%). The rates of admission and orders for urine and blood cultures were significantly higher and hospital LOS was longer in the group with complicated APN. Moreover, these patients had even longer stays if the initial antibiotic therapy was inappropriate. Significantly more patients with uncomplicated APN were discharged from the emergency department. Sixty-one percent of patients with uncomplicated APN were admitted; 9% of these cases were considered avoidable hospitalizations. Complicated APN is diagnosed more often in older patients, and E coli infection causes a smaller proportion of these cases. Hospital LOS is longer in complicated APN and more urine and blood cultures are ordered. Patients with uncomplicated APN are more often discharged from the emergency department, although the number of avoidable hospitalizations seems high based on the rate found in this study.

  20. Chemical catalysis in biodiesel production (I): enzymatic catalysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachmarian, I.; Dobroyan, M.; Veira, J.; Vieitez, I.; Mottini, M.; Segura, N.; Grompone, M.

    2009-01-01

    There are some well known advantages related with the substitution of chemical catalysis by enzymatic catalysis processes.Some commercial immobilized lipases are useful for the catalysis of bio diesel reaction, which permits the achievement of high conversions and the recovery of high purity products, like a high quality glycerine. The main disadvantage of this alternative method is related with the last inactivation of the enzyme (by both the effect of the alcohol and the absorption of glycerol on catalyst surface), which added to the high cost of the catalyst, produces an unfavourable economical balance of the entire process. In the work the efficiency of two commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme TL IM y Novozyme 435 NNovozymes-Dinamarca) in the catalysis of the continuous transesterification of sunflower oil with different alcohols was studied. The intersolubility of the different mixturesinvolving reactans (S oil/alkyl esters/alcohol) and products (P mixtures with a higher content of 1% of glycerol,while for ethanol homogeneous mixtures were obtained at 12% of glycerol (44.44 12).Using and ethanolic substrate at the proportion S=19:75:6 and Lipozyme TL IM, it was possible to achieve a 98% of convertion to the corresponding biodiesel.When Novozymes 435 catalyzed the process it was possible to increase the oil concentration in the substrateaccording to proportion S=35:30:35, and a 78% conversion was obtained. The productivity shown by the firt enzyme was 70mg biodiesel g enzime-1, hora-1 while with the second one the productivity increased to 230. Results suggested that the convenient adjustement of substrate composition with the addition of biodiesel to reactants offers an efficient method for maximizing the enzyme productivity, hence improving the profitability of the enzymatic catalyzed process. (author)

  1. ROLE OF HYDROBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS, DEVELOPMENT OF FISHING INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE IN THE UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko N.Y.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article summarized the information concerning the basic objectives and lines of action of hydrobiology department in training the specialists in major Water Bioresources and Aquaculture. The value of the complex of disciplines, which disclose processes of studying the water quality, condition of aquatic ecosystems, biological and fish productivity of different water types, is shown. The main focus is on the structure and content of educational disciplines, which provide realization of master program in hydrobioresources safety, and on their tight connection with scientific researches, which aim at safety, reproduction and rational use of hydrobioresources, the importance of aquatic organisms in the system of water quality bioidentification, using international and european standarts, also on processes of water quality control and waters’ bioreproduction.

  2. Data processing equipment of a Nuclear Medicine Department in 1980 - Introductory Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Liehn, J.C.; Valeyre, J.

    1979-01-01

    A brief history enables the place taken by computers in nuclear medicine to be situated. Three stages are involved: at first, the quantitative functional studies developed (radioisotopic uptake curves) then the morphological studies with the research into increasingly efficient pictures systems and the introduction of data processing to improve the quality of the pictures and, finally, the digital analysis of the pictures leading to the build-up of regional physiological studies. The part played by computer systems in a Nuclear Medicine Department is summarized. The main advantages are emphasized and present possibilities are indicated. The components which make it possible to design a future acquisition and data processing system that may be used not only for routine practice examinations but also for axial scanning studies by emission are presented. The application of hyper-specialized systems using microprocessors is also under consideration [fr

  3. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  4. Systematic methods for synthesis and design of sustainable chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Chemical and biochemical process design consists of designing the process that can sustainably manufacture an identified chemical product through a chemical or biochemical route. The chemical product tree is potentially very large; starting from a set of basic raw materials (such as petroleum...... for process intensification, sustainable process design, identification of optimal biorefinery models as well as integrated process-control design, and chemical product design. The lecture will present the main concepts, the decomposition based solution approach, the developed methods and tools together...

  5. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S

    2008-08-12

    The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) Roadmap, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management Engineering & Technology Roadmap (Roadmap), defines the Department's intent to reduce the technical risk and uncertainty in its cleanup programs. The unique nature of many of the remaining facilities will require a strong and responsive engineering and technology program to improve worker and public safety, and reduce costs and environmental impacts while completing the cleanup program. The technical risks and uncertainties associated with cleanup program were identified through: (1) project risk assessments, (2) programmatic external technical reviews and technology readiness assessments, and (3) direct site input. In order to address these needs, the technical risks and uncertainties were compiled and divided into the program areas of: Waste Processing, Groundwater and Soil Remediation, and Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D). Strategic initiatives were then developed within each program area to address the technical risks and uncertainties in that program area. These strategic initiatives were subsequently incorporated into the Roadmap, where they form the strategic framework of the EM Engineering & Technology Program. The EM-21 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstrations that will lead to a reduction of technical uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The current MYPP summarizes the strategic initiatives and the scope of the activities within each initiative that are proposed for the next five years (FY2008-2012) to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. As a result of the importance of reducing technical risk and uncertainty in the EM Waste

  6. Three-dimensional chemical structure of the INEL aquifer system near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, M.; Estes, M.; Fromm, J.; Welhan, J.; Barrash, W.

    1994-01-01

    Sampling and analysis from the Snake River Plain aquifer using a stainless-steel and teflon constructed straddle-packer system has established detailed vertical profiles of aquifer chemistry from three wells near a major source of low-level waste injection at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Multiple intervals, varying from 4.6 to 6.1 m in length, were sampled between the water table (140.5 mbls - meters below land surface), and approximately 200 mbls to obtain a wide spectrum of metals, anions, radiological and organic components analyses. Measurements were also made at the well sites of important transient parameters (T, Eh, Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , DO and SC). The principal purpose of this ongoing work is to improve our understanding of the third (i.e. vertical) dimension of aquifer chemistry at the INEL as a basis for critically evaluating site-wide monitoring procedures, and, ultimately, for improving fate and transport models for aquifer contaminants within basalt-hosted aquifers. Chemical and radiological data indicates that substantial systematic vertical and lateral variations occur in the aquifer hydrochemistry - in particular for conservative radiological nuclide concentrations. Radiological data define a three-layered zonation. Ground water within upper and lower zones contain up to 10 times higher concentrations of H-3 and I-129 than in the middle zone. Sr-90 activity is decoupled from H-3 and I-129-relatively high activity was detected within the upper zone nearest the ICPP, but activities elsewhere are very low. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T.; Hamada, K.; Osada, K. [Showa Denko K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1967-06-15

    Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, {sup 32}P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using {sup 85}Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of

  8. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  9. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  10. Intelligent Processing Equipment Research and Development Programs of the Department of Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The intelligence processing equipment (IPE) research and development (R&D) programs of the Department of Commerce are carried out within the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This institute has had work in support of industrial productivity as part of its mission since its founding in 1901. With the advent of factory automation these efforts have increasingly turned to R&D in IPE. The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) of NIST devotes a major fraction of its efforts to this end while other elements within the organization, notably the Material Science and Engineering Laboratory, have smaller but significant programs. An inventory of all such programs at NIST and a representative selection of projects that at least demonstrate the scope of the efforts are presented.

  11. Realization of process improvement at a diagnostic radiology department with aid of simulation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hong-Choon; Toh, Hong-Guan; Giap Cheong, Eddy Seng

    2011-11-01

    Using the classical process improvement framework of Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA), the diagnostic radiology department of a tertiary hospital identified several patient cycle time reduction strategies. Experimentation of these strategies (which included procurement of new machines, hiring of new staff, redesign of queue system, etc.) through pilot scale implementation was impractical because it might incur substantial expenditure or be operationally disruptive. With this in mind, simulation modeling was used to test these strategies via performance of "what if" analyses. Using the output generated by the simulation model, the team was able to identify a cost-free cycle time reduction strategy, which subsequently led to a reduction of patient cycle time and achievement of a management-defined performance target. As healthcare professionals work continually to improve healthcare operational efficiency in response to rising healthcare costs and patient expectation, simulation modeling offers an effective scientific framework that can complement established process improvement framework like PDSA to realize healthcare process enhancement. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  12. US Department of Energy mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area technical baseline development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.; Gombert, D.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Mixed wastes include both mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste. The goal of the MWFA is to develop mixed waste treatment systems to the point of implementation by the Environmental Management (EM) customer. To accomplish this goal, the MWFA is utilizing a three step process. First, the treatment system technology deficiencies were identified and categorized. Second, these identified needs were prioritized. This resulted in a list of technical deficiencies that will be used to develop a technical baseline. The third step, the Technical Baseline Development Process, is currently ongoing. When finalized, the technical baseline will integrate the requirements associated with the identified needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. Completion of this three-step process will result in a comprehensive technology development program that addresses customer identified and prioritized needs. The MWFA technical baseline will be a cost-effective, technically-defensible tool for addressing and resolving DOE's mixed waste problems

  13. Development of balanced key performance indicators for emergency departments strategic dashboards following analytic hierarchical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons.

  14. Decreasing troponin turnaround time in the emergency department using the central laboratory: A process improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelstler, Arlene M; Rowland, Ralph; Theoret, Jennifer; Takla, Robert B; Szpunar, Susan; Patel, Shraddha P; Lowry, Andrew M; Pena, Margarita E

    2015-03-01

    To implement collaborative process improvement measures to reduce emergency department (ED) troponin turnaround time (TAT) to less than 60min using central laboratory. This was an observational, retrospective data study. A multidisciplinary team from the ED and laboratory identified opportunities and developed a new workflow model. Process changes were implemented in ED patient triage, staffing, lab collection and processing. Data collected included TAT of door-to-order, order-to-collect, collect-to-received, received-to-result, door-to-result, ED length of stay, and hemolysis rate before (January-August, 2011) and after (September 2011-June 2013) process improvement. After process improvement and implementation of the new workflow model, decreased median TAT (in min) was seen in door-to-order (54 [IQR43] vs. 11 [IQR20]), order-to-collect (15 [IQR 23] vs. 10 [IQR12]), collect-to-received (6 [IQR8] vs. 5 [IQR5]), received-to-result (30 [IQR12] vs. 24 [IQR11]), and overall door-to-result (117 [IQR60] vs. 60 [IQR40]). A troponin TAT of <60min was realized beginning in May 2012 (59 [IQR39]). Hemolysis rates decreased (14.63±0.74 vs. 3.36±1.99, p<0.0001), as did ED length of stay (5.87±2.73h vs. 5.15±2.34h, p<0.0001). Conclusion Troponin TAT of <60min using a central laboratory was achieved with collaboration between the ED and the laboratory; additional findings include a decreased ED length of stay. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  16. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  17. ARTIST process. A novel chemical process for treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi

    2001-10-01

    A new chemical process, ARTIST process, is proposed for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The main concept of the ARTIST process is to recover and stock all actinides (Ans) as two groups, uranium (U) and a mixture of transuranics (TRU), to preserve their resource value and to dispose solely fission products (FPs). The process is composed of two main steps, an U exclusive isolation and a total recovery of TRU; which copes with the nuclear non-proliferation measures, and additionally of Pu separation process and soft N-donor process if requested, and optionally of processes for separation of long-lived FPs. These An products: U-product and TRU-product, are to be solidified by calcination and allowed to the interim stockpile for future utilization. These separations are achieved by use of amidic extractants in accord with the CHON principle. The technical feasibility of the ARTIST process was explained by the performance of both the branched alkyl monoamides in extracting U and suppressing the extraction of tetravalent Ans due to the steric effect and the diglycolic amide (TODGA) in thorough extraction of all TRU by tridentate fashion. When these TRU are requested to put into reactors, LWR or FBR, for power generation or the Accelerator - Driven System (ADS) for transmutation, Pu (Np) or Am-Cm (Np) are to be extracted from the TRU-product. (author)

  18. Statistical process control support during Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) has been developed to ensure that the wasteforms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will satisfy the regulatory and processing criteria that will be imposed. The PCCS provides rigorous, statistically-defensible management of a noisy, multivariate system subject to multiple constraints. The system has been successfully tested and has been used to control the production of the first two melter feed batches during DWPF Chemical Runs. These operations will demonstrate the viability of the DWPF process. This paper provides a brief discussion of the technical foundation for the statistical process control algorithms incorporated into PCCS, and describes the results obtained and lessons learned from DWPF Cold Chemical Run operations. The DWPF will immobilize approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the Site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive sludge and precipitate streams and less radioactive water soluble salts. (In a separate facility, soluble salts are disposed of as low-level waste in a mixture of cement slag, and flyash.) In DWPF, the precipitate steam (Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous or PHA) is blended with the insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository

  19. Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitric- Glycolic Flowsheet Chemical Process Cell Chemistry: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-06

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from 2011 to 2016. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlation models to predict these values from measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge or simulant composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Previous work on these correlations was documented in a technical report covering data from 2011-2015. This current report supersedes this previous report. Further refinement of the models as additional data are collected is recommended.

  20. In vitro Perturbations of Targets in Cancer Hallmark Processes Predict Rodent Chemical Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes ...

  1. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  2. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  3. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    that is typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization with constraints) problem is solved by the so-called reverse approach by decomposing it into four sequential hierarchical sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection......This thesis describes the development and application of a new systematic modelbased methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) of chemical processes. The new methodology is simple to apply, easy to visualize and efficient to solve. Here, the IPDC problem...... are ordered according to the defined performance criteria (objective function). The final selected design is then verified through rigorous simulation. In the pre-analysis sub-problem, the concepts of attainable region and driving force are used to locate the optimal process-controller design solution...

  4. Pyrochemical treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-level waste calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, T.A.; DelDebbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Sharpsten, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1951 to recover uranium, krypton-85, and isolated fission products for interim treatment and immobilization. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then, since 1963, calcined to form a dry granular solid. The resulting high-level waste (HLW) calcine is stored in seismically hardened stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. A research and development program has been established to determine the feasibility of treating ICPP HLW calcine using pyrochemical technology.This technology is described

  5. The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site removal action: Source removal, processing, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory has historically supported the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and its predecessor agencies by providing research into the purification and manufacturing of high purity uranium, thorium, and yttrium metals. Much of this work was accomplished in the late 1950s and early 1960s prior to the legislation of strict rules and regulations covering the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes. As a result, approximately 800 cubic meters of low-level radioactive wastes, mixed wastes, and contaminated debris were disposed in nine near surface cells located in a 0.75 hectare plot of land owned by Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Under a national contract with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), OHM Remediation Services Corp. (OHM) was tasked with providing turnkey environmental services to remove, process, package, transport, and coordinate the disposal of the waste materials and contaminated environmental media

  6. Risk management and the vulnerability assessment process of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, J.D.; Johnson, O.B.; Callahan, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Risk management is an essential element in influencing how the United States Department of Energy's safeguards and security mission is executed. Risk management exists as a function of a target's attractiveness, along with the potential consequences associated with the unauthorized use of that target. The goal of risk management encompasses the fielding and operating of appropriate, cost-effective protection systems generating sufficient deterrence to protect sensitive programs and facilities. Risk mitigation and risk prevention are accomplished through the vulnerability assessment process. The implementation and continued validation of measures to prevent or mitigate risk to acceptable levels constitute the fundamental approach of the Department's risk management program. Due to the incomplete knowledge inherent in any threat definition, it is impossible to precisely tailor a protective system to defend against all threats. The challenge presented to safeguards and security program managers lies in developing systems sufficiently effective to defend against an array of threats slightly greater than can be hypothetically postulated (the design basis threat amended for local conditions). These systems are then balanced against technological, resource, and fiscal constraints. A key element in the risk assessment process is analyzing the security systems against the Design Basis Threat (DBT). The DBT is used to define the level and capability of the threat against the DOE facilities and their assets. In particular it defines motivation, numbers of adversaries, capabilities, and their objectives. Site Safeguards and Security Plans (SSSPs) provide the basis and justification for safeguards and security program development, budget, and staffing requirements. The SSSP process examines, describes, and documents safeguards and security programs, site-wide and by facility; establishes safeguards and security program improvement priorities; describes site and

  7. New trajectory-driven aerosol and chemical process model Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM has been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61° 51' N, 24° 17' E over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December–January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4], availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT are assumed to produce low volatile species and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink. This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration during transport from clean areas. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed

  8. Impact of traditional processing methods on some physico chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... 1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of ... need to educate traditional processors on good manufacturing practices, .... Table 3. Physical Contaminants in Fermented Cassava flour (“Kpor Umilin”) Samples.

  9. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment with .... differences in most of the visible bands among all samples. Figure 1: SDS-PAGE analysis of protein patterns in wheat gluten and glutenin, with and without ozone.

  10. Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR: Expectation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, 5-6 (2013), s. 214-215 ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laboratory investigation * large-scale applications * novel instrumentation and technology . Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Paperless and paper-based processes in the modern radiotherapy department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, M. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)], E-mail: mark.middleton@roq.net.au; Bradford, C. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Frantzis, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Ambler, A. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Sisson, T. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Montgomerie, D. [Harley St. Cancer Centre, London (United Kingdom); Martin, J. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, 280 North Street, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the implications on workflow and efficiency in a paperless environment versus a traditional paper-based environment. This paper summarises the comparison of specific workflow practices conducted in a paperless and paper-based approach, comparing time taken, potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach. Methods and materials: A time study was undertaken on three specific workflow areas for 5 patients with breast and prostate cancer respectively, and comparison made between paperless and paper-based methodology. The workflow areas analysed were electronic treatment record (ETR) versus treatment sheet preparation, digital history check process versus paper-based and digital image and trend analysis versus paper-based. The cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach was then analysed. Additionally a staff questionnaire was undertaken, assessing Information Technology (IT) skills of staff and comfort levels pertaining to a paperless environment. Results: There was on average a 50% reduction in workload when comparing an ETR versus a paper-based treatment sheet, a 50% reduction in workload by utilising a paperless history check process and a 70% reduction in workload with a paperless image and trend analysis process. There was also significant cost savings by introducing a paperless workflow. The survey showed a higher level of comfort with information technology in the paperless environment, and less frustration with aspects of working in the paper-based centre. Conclusion: The digital radiotherapy department offers highly significant improvements in efficiency. These potentially translate into major financial savings and increased job satisfaction.

  12. Paperless and paper-based processes in the modern radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, M.; Bradford, C.; Frantzis, J.; Ambler, A.; Sisson, T.; Montgomerie, D.; Martin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the implications on workflow and efficiency in a paperless environment versus a traditional paper-based environment. This paper summarises the comparison of specific workflow practices conducted in a paperless and paper-based approach, comparing time taken, potential advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and the cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach. Methods and materials: A time study was undertaken on three specific workflow areas for 5 patients with breast and prostate cancer respectively, and comparison made between paperless and paper-based methodology. The workflow areas analysed were electronic treatment record (ETR) versus treatment sheet preparation, digital history check process versus paper-based and digital image and trend analysis versus paper-based. The cost-effectiveness of a paperless approach was then analysed. Additionally a staff questionnaire was undertaken, assessing Information Technology (IT) skills of staff and comfort levels pertaining to a paperless environment. Results: There was on average a 50% reduction in workload when comparing an ETR versus a paper-based treatment sheet, a 50% reduction in workload by utilising a paperless history check process and a 70% reduction in workload with a paperless image and trend analysis process. There was also significant cost savings by introducing a paperless workflow. The survey showed a higher level of comfort with information technology in the paperless environment, and less frustration with aspects of working in the paper-based centre. Conclusion: The digital radiotherapy department offers highly significant improvements in efficiency. These potentially translate into major financial savings and increased job satisfaction.

  13. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research

  14. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  15. Geochemistry, processes and environmental impact caused by the mining and auriferous ore process in the Marmato District (Caldas Department, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Rincon, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Colombia is the third gold producer in Latin America, Mining and processing of gold ore bodies are backward and it is well known that produce great deal of effects on the environment. This study puts emphasis on heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi) released from mining, processing and tailings of gold-sulfide ore bodies from the Marmato Area, and the main objective is research about the geochemical behavior of such heavy metals (sources, dispersion, accumulation, chemical speciation, deposition and accumulation rates) taking surface waters, sediments and suspended particulate matter as geochemical sampling media. In order to asses the fate of these heavy metals, was planned a sampling programmed (summer and winter seasons) of surface waters. Sediments and suspended particulate matter, in streams (Aguas Claras. CascabeI, Pantanos. Marmato, Arquia, Chirapoto), two mine drainages and two processing effluents from the Marmato gold District (vein type), and in the Cauca River (Marmato Area). Analytical work in surface waters was carried out in the field, (physical-chemical parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, sulfides and flow) and in specialized analytical laboratories of Colombia (cyanides, COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand, TOC - Total Organic Carbon, TS - Total Solids. DS - Dissolved solids, NH 3 , chlorides. Dissolved heavy metals - Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi). In sediments and suspended particulate matter is carrying out a gross geochemical speciation (non-detrital or geochemically reactive fraction and residual or inactive fraction) by leaching with HCl 0.5N and total contents analysis (acidic digestion -HF/ Perchloric acid) in specialized Laboratories of Colombia and Canada. Preliminary results of summer season sampling, showed that surface waters flowing from the Marmato Area are not appropriated neither as domestic supply, agriculture irrigation, aquatic life or industrial use (Cyanides (0.13 -3.8 mg/L), TS (9422-39952 mg

  16. Prediction of Emergency Department Hospital Admission Based on Natural Language Processing and Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Kim, Joyce; Patzer, Rachel E; Pitts, Stephen R; Patzer, Aaron; Schrager, Justin D

    2017-10-26

    To describe and compare logistic regression and neural network modeling strategies to predict hospital admission or transfer following initial presentation to Emergency Department (ED) triage with and without the addition of natural language processing elements. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), a cross-sectional probability sample of United States EDs from 2012 and 2013 survey years, we developed several predictive models with the outcome being admission to the hospital or transfer vs. discharge home. We included patient characteristics immediately available after the patient has presented to the ED and undergone a triage process. We used this information to construct logistic regression (LR) and multilayer neural network models (MLNN) which included natural language processing (NLP) and principal component analysis from the patient's reason for visit. Ten-fold cross validation was used to test the predictive capacity of each model and receiver operating curves (AUC) were then calculated for each model. Of the 47,200 ED visits from 642 hospitals, 6,335 (13.42%) resulted in hospital admission (or transfer). A total of 48 principal components were extracted by NLP from the reason for visit fields, which explained 75% of the overall variance for hospitalization. In the model including only structured variables, the AUC was 0.824 (95% CI 0.818-0.830) for logistic regression and 0.823 (95% CI 0.817-0.829) for MLNN. Models including only free-text information generated AUC of 0.742 (95% CI 0.731- 0.753) for logistic regression and 0.753 (95% CI 0.742-0.764) for MLNN. When both structured variables and free text variables were included, the AUC reached 0.846 (95% CI 0.839-0.853) for logistic regression and 0.844 (95% CI 0.836-0.852) for MLNN. The predictive accuracy of hospital admission or transfer for patients who presented to ED triage overall was good, and was improved with the inclusion of free text data from a patient

  17. Accident simulation in a chemical process facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy requires Westinghouse Savannah River Company to safely operate the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of the safety analysis program, simulation of a proposed frame waste recovery (FWR) system is needed to determine the possible accident consequences that may affect public safety. This paper details the simulation process for the proposed frame waste recovery process and describes the analytical tools used in order to make estimates of accident consequences. Since the process in question has been operated, historical data and statistics about its operation are available. Software tools have been developed to allow analysis of the frame waste recovery system, including the generation of system specific dose conversion factors for a number of unique situations. Accident scenarios involving spilled liquid material are analyzed and account for the specific floor geometry of the facility. Confinement and filtration systems are considered. Analysis of source terms is a limiting factor which affects the entire evaluation process. In the past, facility source terms were generally constant with occasional variations from established patterns. As new site missions unfold, significant variations in source terms can be expected. The impact of these variations on the safety analysis is discussed

  18. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  19. Flow-Injection Responses of Diffusion Processes and Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    tool of automated analytical chemistry. The need for an even lower consumption of chemicals and for computer analysis has motivated a study of the FIA peak itself, that is, a theoretical model was developed, that provides detailed knowledge of the FIA profile. It was shown that the flow in a FIA...... manifold may be characterised by a diffusion coefficient that depends on flow rate, denoted as the kinematic diffusion coefficient. The description was applied to systems involving species of chromium, both in the case of simple diffusion and in the case of chemical reactions. It is suggested that it may...... be used in the resolution of FIA profiles to obtain information about the content of interference’s, in the study of chemical reaction kinetics and to measure absolute concentrations within the FIA-detector cell....

  20. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF ampersand WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal

  1. Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova-Alonso, F.; Elorza-Rodriguez, E.; Uribe-Salas, A.; Perez-Garibay, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  2. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  3. 75 FR 36306 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... have large industrial uses. Regulated chemical mixtures are not items having common household uses... and others from exposure to the toxic chemicals left behind. Executive Order 12988 This regulation... 1117-AA66 Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process...

  4. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-01-01

    Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

  5. Preparing South Carolina Emergency Departments for Mass Casualties with an Emphasis on the Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    needs. Volunteers are provided tort liability coverage through the state health department. However, the state health department is unable to...list of state and federal laws prescribing different liability protections, most of which are immunity from liability for negligence protections

  6. Thermodynamic and chemical engineering problems arising with hybride processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaenger, K.

    1981-01-01

    Marginal parameters and definitions are set up for the NaK-NaKH cyclic process, the vapour-phase electrolysis on the basis of carbonates, high-temperature electrolysis using borax, the HCl/NaLiNO 3 cyclic process and the methane/methanol cyclic process. Such parameters and definitions are to create uniform conditions for the process design. (DG) [de

  7. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  8. Treatment Tank Corrosion Studies For The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  9. Implementation of an Emergency Department Sepsis Bundle and System Redesign: A Process Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Tamara; Gatien, Mathieu; Calder, Lisa; Yadav, Krishan; Tam, Ryan; Ong, Melody; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian

    2017-03-01

    In 2008-2009, the Canadian Institute for Health Information reported over 30,000 cases of sepsis hospitalizations in Canada, an increase of almost 4,000 from 2005. Mortality rates from severe sepsis and septic shock continue to remain greater than 30% in Canada and are significantly higher than other critical conditions treated in the emergency department (ED). Our group formed a multidisciplinary sepsis committee, conducted an ED process of care analysis, and developed a quality improvement protocol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of this sepsis management bundle on patient mortality. This before and after study was conducted in two large Canadian tertiary care EDs and included adult patients with suspected severe infection that met at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. We studied the implementation of a sepsis bundle including triage flagging, RN medical directive, education campaign, and a modified sepsis protocol. The primary outcomes were 30-day all-cause mortality and sepsis protocol use. We included a total of 167 and 185 patients in the pre- and post-intervention analysis, respectively. Compared to the pre-intervention group, mortality was significantly lower in the post-intervention group (30.7% versus 17.3%; absolute difference, 13.4%; 95% CI 9.8-17.0; p=0.006). There was also a higher rate of sepsis protocol use in the post-intervention group (20.3% versus 80.5%, absolute difference 60.2%; 95% CI 55.1-65.3; pimproved early identification and protocolized medical care, was associated with improved time to achieve key therapeutic interventions and a reduction in 30-day mortality. Similar low-cost initiatives could be implemented in other EDs to potentially improve outcomes for this high-risk group of patients.

  10. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy....

  11. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  12. Nonlinear processes in laser heating of chemically active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F V; Kirichenko, N A; Luk' yanchuk, B S

    1984-08-01

    After it had been discovered and in due measure physically comprehended that numerous nontrivial phenomena observed during laser heating of chemically active media are caused primarily by self-stress of laser radiation due to the chemical intertial nonlinearity of the medium, an approach was found for solving problems of laser thermochemistry that is most adequate from the mathematical (and physical) standpoint: the approach of the theory of nonlinear oscillations in point systems and distributed systems. This approach has provided a uniform viewpoint for examination of a variety of phenomena of spatiotemporal self-organization of chemically active media under the effect of laser radiation, qualitative, and in some cases quantitative description of such phenomena as the onset of thermochemical instability, self-oscillations, various spatial structures and the like. Evidently it can be rightly considered that at this juncture a definite stage has been completed in the development of laser thermochemistry marked by the creation of an ideology, method and overall approach to interpretation of the most diverse phenomena under conditions of actual physical experiments. References to the numerous studies that make up the content of this stage of development of laser thermochemistry are to be found in survey papers. 48 references, 10 figures.

  13. Evaluation of the Montana Department of Transportation's research project solicitation, prioritization, and selection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) contracted the Bureau of Business and Economic Research at the University of Montana Missoula to conduct research to determine how other states solicit, prioritize, and select research problem statem...

  14. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO x , CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed

  15. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  16. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  17. Materials control and accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, G.E.; Britschgi, J.J.; Spraktes, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The ICPP high enriched uranium recovery process has historically been operated as a single Material Balance Area (MBA), with input and output measurement capabilities. Safeguards initiated changes in the last five years have resulted in significant materials control and accountability improvements. Those changes include semi-automation of process accountability measurement, data collection and recording; definition of Sub-MBAs; standard plant cleanouts; and, bimonthly inventory estimates. Process monitoring capabilities are also being installed to provide independent operational procedural compliance verification, process anomaly detection, and enhanced materials traceability. Development of a sensitivity analysis approach to defining process measurement requirements is in progress

  18. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  19. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... framework can manage the complexity associated with product-process problems very efficiently. Three specific computer-aided tools (ICAS, Sustain-Pro and VPPDLab) have been presented and their applications to product-process design, highlighted....

  20. Coarse grain model for coupled thermo-mechano-chemical processes and its application to pressure-induced endothermic chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antillon, Edwin; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We extend a thermally accurate model for coarse grain dynamics (Strachan and Holian 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 014301) to enable the description of stress-induced chemical reactions in the degrees of freedom internal to the mesoparticles. Similar to the breathing sphere model, we introduce an additional variable that describes the internal state of the particles and whose dynamics is governed both by an internal potential energy function and by interparticle forces. The equations of motion of these new variables are derived from a Hamiltonian and the model exhibits two desired features: total energy conservation and Galilean invariance. We use a simple model material with pairwise interactions between particles and study pressure-induced chemical reactions induced by hydrostatic and uniaxial compression. These examples demonstrate the ability of the model to capture non-trivial processes including the interplay between mechanical, thermal and chemical processes of interest in many applications. (paper)

  1. A perspective on the states` role in the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management budget process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.P.; Hinman, P. [Carter, Brock & Hinman, Boise, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Responding in 1994 to proposed budget reductions and predicted funding shortfalls, the Office of Environmental Management at the Department of Energy began working closely with its regulators and stakeholders to prioritize activities. In a series of national and site specific meetings held with representatives of states, the Environmental Protection Agency, Indian tribes and the public, the Department of Energy brought regulators and other stakeholders into its budget development process in a {open_quotes}bottoms up{close_quotes} approach to the prioritization of activities at each of its sites. This paper presents an overview of this process which began last year and will highlight its unique cooperative nature. This paper will assess ways of institutionalizing this process. It also identifies issues to be addressed in resolving matters related to future budgets. Areas of concern to the Department of Energy`s host states and their regulators will be identified as they relate to waste management, cleanup and facility transition activities.

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tara E.; Newell, J. David; Woodham, Wesley H.

    2016-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  3. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  4. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the concentration of the residue in the processed food when ready to eat is not greater than the... processed food when ready to eat is higher than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity... authorized by the regulations in this part. Food that is itself ready to eat, and which contains a higher...

  5. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the concentration of the residue in the processed food when ready to eat is not greater than the... processed food when ready to eat is higher than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity... authorized by the regulations in this part. Food that is itself ready to eat, and which contains a higher...

  6. Sustainable Chemical Process Development through an Integrated Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Anantpinijwatna, Amata

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the application of a general integrated framework based on systematic model-based methods and computer-aided tools with the objective to achieve more sustainable process designs and to improve the process understanding. The developed framework can be appli...... studies involve multiphase reaction systems for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients....

  7. Rapid Neutron Capture Process in Supernovae and Chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ≻ 70 and all of the actinides in the solar system are believed to have been produced in the r-process. ... mass type II supernovae being the r-process sites. In the usual picture the r- .... critically on the ambient neutron flux. λn > λβ(τn < τβ). (1).

  8. Chemical Changes in Proteins Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutson, T. R.; Orcutt, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses effects of thermal processing on proteins, focusing on (1) the Maillard reaction; (2) heat denaturation of proteins; (3) aggregation, precipitation, gelation, and degradation; and (4) other thermally induced protein reactions. Also discusses effects of thermal processing on muscle foods, egg proteins, fruits and vegetables, and cereal…

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m 3 ) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF

  10. [The department of interdisciplinary emergency medicine: organization, structure and process optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Michael; Pietsch, Christian; Gries, André

    2009-06-01

    The essential tasks of a department of interdisciplinary emergency medicine are the initial triage and assessment of vital function as well as the subsequent organization und initiation of emergency treatment. A previously defined set of diagnostic and therapeutic measures is carried out before the patient is allocated to an in-hospital clinical service and is admitted to a ward. Moreover, diagnosis and treatment for outpatients are performed. "Time" is a critical factor to be considered for all organizational and structural aspects of a department of interdisciplinary emergency medicine.

  11. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  12. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials and energy. The implemented control strategy combines a biologically-inspired method with optimal control concepts for finding more sustainable operating trajectories. The sustainability assessment of process operating points is carried out by using the U.S. EPA’s Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator (GREENSCOPE tool that provides scores for the selected indicators in the economic, material efficiency, environmental and energy areas. The indicator scores describe process performance on a sustainability measurement scale, effectively determining which operating point is more sustainable if there are more than several steady states for one specific product manufacturing. Through comparisons between a representative benchmark and the optimal steady states obtained through the implementation of the proposed controller, a systematic decision can be made in terms of whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous fermentation process for fuel production, whose material and energy time variation models are characterized by multiple steady states and oscillatory conditions.

  13. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy. The implemented control strategy combines a biologically inspired method with optimal control concepts for finding more sustainable operating trajectories. The sustainability assessment of process operating points is carried out by using the U.S. E.P.A.’s Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for the ENvironmental Sustainability of Chemistries with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator (GREENSCOPE) tool that provides scores for the selected indicators in the economic, material efficiency, environmental and energy areas. The indicator scores describe process performance on a sustainability measurement scale, effectively determining which operating point is more sustainable if there are more than several steady states for one specific product manufacturing. Through comparisons between a representative benchmark and the optimal steady-states obtained through implementation of the proposed controller, a systematic decision can be made in terms of whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous fermentation process for fuel production, whose materi

  14. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  15. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible, An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP total surface area. The radiological materials storage facilities aggregate areas are areas of concern usually requiring safety analyses, According to Department of Energy guidance, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. No individual facility in this analysis has a crash potential large enough to be credible. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility, but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas, The highest probability of concern in the study was for aircraft to crash into the aggregate area for radiological materials storage facilities at the ICPP during Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) test flights

  16. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal

  17. Conception and syllabus on radiochemistry and radioecology principles for general student groups of a university chemical department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of basic principles of selecting materials for general courses on diverse subjects in chemical science is discussed. Relying on certain general rules and proceeding from specificity of radiochemistry, the author suggests a variant of syllabus including radiochemical and radioecological blocks intented for 48 academic hours. In methodical respect emphasis is made on theoretical material presentation in close combination with various nuclear methods used in chemical studies. 6 refs., 1 fig

  18. Isotope separation by chemical exchange process: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.

    1987-02-01

    The feasibility of a chemical exchange method for the separation of the isotopes of europium was demonstrated in the system EuCl 2 -EuCl 3 . The single stage separation factor, α, in this system is 1.001 or 1.0005 per mass unit. This value of α is comparable to the separation factors reported for the U 4+ - U 6 and U 3+ - Y 4+ systems. The separation of the ionic species was done by precipitation of the Eu 2+ ions or by extraction of the Eu 3+ ions with HDEHP. Conceptual schemes were developed for a countercurrent reflux cascades consisting of solvent extraction contractors. A regenerative electrocel, combining simultaneous europium reduction, europium oxidation with energy generation, and europium stripping from the organic phase is described. 32 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Nonlinear model predictive control for chemical looping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao; Lou, Xinsheng

    2017-08-22

    A control system for optimizing a chemical looping ("CL") plant includes a reduced order mathematical model ("ROM") that is designed by eliminating mathematical terms that have minimal effect on the outcome. A non-linear optimizer provides various inputs to the ROM and monitors the outputs to determine the optimum inputs that are then provided to the CL plant. An estimator estimates the values of various internal state variables of the CL plant. The system has one structure adapted to control a CL plant that only provides pressure measurements in the CL loops A and B, a second structure adapted to a CL plant that provides pressure measurements and solid levels in both loops A, and B, and a third structure adapted to control a CL plant that provides full information on internal state variables. A final structure provides a neural network NMPC controller to control operation of loops A and B.

  20. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  1. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pelar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM indicates the chrome layer is uneven, but only on the scale of a fraction of a micron. The evidence of porosity is ambiguous. Elemental mapping using SEM electron microprobe that confirmed the process led to the formation of a chrome metal layer, with no evidence of alloy formation. Additionally, it was found that thickness of the final Cr layer correlated with the thickness of the precursor layer that was applied prior to the heating step. Potentially, this technique could replace electrolytic processing, a process that generates carcinogenic hexavalent chrome, but further study and development is needed.

  2. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelar, Christopher; Greenaway, Karima; Zea, Hugo; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Luhrs, Claudia C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-05

    This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM indicates the chrome layer is uneven, but only on the scale of a fraction of a micron. The evidence of porosity is ambiguous. Elemental mapping using SEM electron microprobe that confirmed the process led to the formation of a chrome metal layer, with no evidence of alloy formation. Additionally, it was found that thickness of the final Cr layer correlated with the thickness of the precursor layer that was applied prior to the heating step. Potentially, this technique could replace electrolytic processing, a process that generates carcinogenic hexavalent chrome, but further study and development is needed.

  3. COMPUTER GRAPHICS IN ENGINEERING GRAPHICS DEPARTMENT OF MOSCOW AVIATION INSTITUTE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila P. Bobrik; Leonid V. Markin

    2013-01-01

    Current state of technical universities students’ engineering grounding and “Engineering graphics” course place in MAI are analyzed in this paper. Also bachelor degree problems and experience of creation of issuing specialty based on «Engineering graphics» department are considered. 

  4. COMPUTER GRAPHICS IN ENGINEERING GRAPHICS DEPARTMENT OF MOSCOW AVIATION INSTITUTE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila P. Bobrik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current state of technical universities students’ engineering grounding and “Engineering graphics” course place in MAI are analyzed in this paper. Also bachelor degree problems and experience of creation of issuing specialty based on «Engineering graphics» department are considered. 

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  6. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  7. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  8. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  9. Novel Chemical Process for Producing Chrome Coated Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Pelar, Christopher; Greenaway, Karima; Zea, Hugo; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11010078 This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 ◦C for 10 min in a tube fu...

  10. Impact and Process Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the impacts and processes of the former Wind Powering America(WPA) initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). WPA has an underlying goal of dramatically increasing the use of wind energy in the U.S.

  11. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  12. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, David A.; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J. William

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors:*Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. *Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  13. Integrating the NEPA 216 process with large-scale privatization projects under the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of replacing the existing Hanford Site 200 Are steam system through a privatization effort. Such an action would be subject to requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Section 216 of the Doe NEPA Implementation Procedures (216 Process) provides a specific mechanism for integrating the DOE procurement process with NEPA compliance requirements

  14. Thermo-Chemical Modelling Strategies for the Pultrusion Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, three dimensional (3D) numerical modeling strategies of a thermosetting pultrusion process are investigated considering both transient and steady state approaches. For the transient solution, an unconditionally stable alternating direction implicit Douglas-Gunn (ADI-DG) sche...

  15. Physico-chemical, functional and processing attributes of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... commercial processing and marketing chain is generally inevitable and ... was measured by a digital caliper (0 to 150 mm, China) with an accuracy of .... Spectrophotometer (GBC-932 Australlia), whereas Na and .... era ls (m g. /1. 0. 0 g. ) Figure 4. Correlation between ash (%) and total minerals (mg/100 g).

  16. Development of chemical conversion process of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a conversion technology of long-lived radionuclides so that it can be a suitable form as a fuel or target in the nuclear transmutation system. During the first stage of the project (Apr 1997∼Mar 2001), the fundamental studies were performed with a focus on non-radioactive experiments as well as theoretical analyses in such areas as follows : fluorination of metals or metal oxides, electrorefining and electrowinning of actinides and lanthanides, pyro hydrolysis and regeneration of used molten salt. Since the chemical form of transuranium fuel in the transmutation system was assumed to be a molten fluoride, the electrolysis experiments of molten fluoride were conducted to study on the recovery of unused transuranium from the LiF-BeF 2 salt that was chosen as a basic salt medium. Fluorination of metals or metal oxides were also tested in this work by applying the method of three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) reaction. In the electrowinning experiments, the depositions of uranium, zirconium and niobium on the cathode were tested and analyzed. The electrorefining of lanthanides was studied with the salt media of FLINAK and FLICA and their behaviors were compared. In addition, the regeneration of used salts was examined by applying the method of electrolysis of molten salt, where alkali and alkali earth metals were found to be removed into the liquid lead cathode

  17. Ozone from fireworks: Chemical processes or measurement interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zhengning; Wang, Jiaping; Xie, Yuning; Qi, Ximeng; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Ding, Aijun

    2018-08-15

    Fireworks have been identified as one ozone source by photolyzing NO 2 or O 2 and are believed to potentially be important for the nighttime ozone during firework events. In this study, we conducted both lab and field experiments to test two types of fireworks with low and high energy with the goal to distinguish whether the visible ozone signal during firework displays is real. The results suggest that previous understanding of the ozone formation mechanism during fireworks is misunderstood. Ultraviolet ray (UV)-based ozone monitors are interfered by aerosols and some specific VOCs. High-energy fireworks emit high concentrations of particular matters and low VOCs that the artificial ozone can be easily removed by an aerosol filter. Low-energy fireworks emit large amounts of VOCs mostly from the combustion of the cardboard from fireworks that largely interferes with the ozone monitor. Benzene and phenol might be major contributors to the artificial ozone signal. We further checked the nighttime ozone concentration in Jinan and Beijing, China, during Chinese New Year, a period with intense fireworks. A signal of 3-8ppbv ozone was detected and positively correlated to NO and SO 2 , suggesting a considerable influence of these chemicals in interfering with ambient ozone monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Security risk assessment and protection in the chemical and process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Genserik; van Lerberghe, Paul; van Gulijk, Coen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a security risk assessment and protection methodology that was developed for use in the chemical- and process industry in Belgium. The approach of the method follows a risk-based approach that follows desing principles for chemical safety. That approach is beneficial for workers in the chemical industry because they recognize the steps in this model from familiar safety models .The model combines the rings-of-protection approach with generic security practices including...

  19. Leaching properties and chemical compositions of calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Paige, B.E.; Rhodes, D.W.; Wilding, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    No significant chemical differences were determined between retrieved and fresh calcine based on chemical and spectrochemical analyses. Little can be derived from the amounts of the radioisotopes present in the retrieved calcine samples other than the ratios of strontium-90 to cesium-137 are typical of aged fission product. The variations in concentrations of radionuclides within the composite samples of each bin also reflect the differences in compositions of waste solutions calcined. In general the leaching characteristics of both calcines by distilled water are similar. In both materials the radionuclides of cesium and strontium were selectively leached at significant rates, although cesium leached much more completely from the alumina calcine than from the zirconia calcine. Cesium and strontium are probably contained in both calcines as nitrate salts and also as fluoride salts in zirconia calcine, all of which are at least slightly soluble in water. Radionuclides of cerium, ruthenium, and plutonium in both calcines were highly resistant to leaching and leached at rates similar to or less than those of the matrix elements. These elements exist as polyvalent metal ions in the waste solutions before calcination and they probably form insoluble oxides and fluorides in the calcine. The relatively slow leaching of nitrate ion from zirconia calcine and radiocesium from both calcines suggests that the calcine matrix in some manner prevents complete or immediate contact of the soluble ions with water. Whether radiostrontium forms slightly fluoride salts or forms nitrate salts which are protected in the same manner as radiocesium is unknown. Nevertheless, selective leaching of cesium and strontim is retarded in some manner by the calcine matrix

  20. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... application. The chemical product tree is potentially very large and a wide range of options exist for selecting the product to make, the raw material to use as well as the processing route to employ. It is shown that systematic computer-aided methods and tools integrated within a model-data based design...

  1. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang

    2008-10-30

    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.

  2. Chemical gas sensors and the characterization, monitoring and sensor technology needs of the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development within the Dept. of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility of providing new technologies to aid the environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) activities of the DOE. There is a perception that application and judicious development of chemical sensor technologies could result in large cost savings and reduced risk to the health and safety of ER/WM personnel. A number of potential gas sensor applications which exist within DOE ER/WM operations are described. The capabilities of several chemical sensor technologies and their potential to meet the needs of ER/WM applications in the present or near term future are discussed

  3. Sustainable chemical processing and energy-carbon dioxide management: review of challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Vooradi, Ramsagar; Bertran, Maria-Ona

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the available energy sources for consumption, their effects in terms of CO2-emission and its management, and sustainable chemical processing where energy-consumption, CO2-emission, as well as economics and environmental impacts are considered. Not all available...... energy sources are being utilized efficiently, while, the energy source causing the largest emission of CO2 is being used in the largest amount. The CO2 management is therefore looking at "curing" the problem rather than "preventing" it. Examples highlighting the synthesis, design and analysis...... of sustainable chemical processing in the utilization of biomass-based energy-chemicals production, carbon-capture and utilization with zero or negative CO2-emission to produce value added chemicals as well as retrofit design of energy intensive chemical processes with significant reduction of energy consumption...

  4. Effects of chemical sensitizers on gamma radiation processing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of gamma radiation processing in cross-linking natural rubber latex (NRL) for production of dipped goods has been studied. NRL produced in Ghana was irradiated to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy, respectively, in a Gamma Chamber of dose rate 0.65 kGy/h. Irradiation of the NRL was also carried out in the ...

  5. Chemical modification of straw by alkaline treatment. [Trolmen process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    In straw from 9 Swedish cereal cultivars of barley, oats, wheat, and rye, low molecular weight carbohydrates constituted only 0.3-1.4% of the straw with sucrose, glucose, fructose, and the sugar alcohols arabinitol and mannitol as main constituents. Hemicellulose (18-24%), cellulose (27-37%) and Klason-lignin (19-24%) were the main constituents. The ash (3-12%) and silica (0.5-3%) values showed rather high variations. After the Trolmen process, a wet closed NaOH treatment method, there was a slight enrichment of carbohydrates and ash and a decrease of Klason-lignin in the treated straw. About 1% of phenolic acids, mainly alpha ..beta.. -dihydro-p-coumatic, trans-p-coumaric, alpha ..beta.. -dihydroferulic and trans-ferulic acids, were quantified in the black liquid from the Trolmen process. These acids were probably ester-linked to the hemicellulose in the native straw and released during alkali treatment.HOAc, probably from Ac groups in xylan, and some of the silica were also released during the process. Although the amount of dissolved lignin was small, linkages between lignin and hemicellulosic polymers, perhaps also to cellulose, may be broken during the treatment. Linkages of these types may block the carbohydrates from enzymic action and reduce the digestibility. The higher digestibility of alkali-treated straw is probably due both to breaking of such linkages and to swelling of the polysaccharides rather than removal of any large amounts of undigestible components as lignin and silica.

  6. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  7. Evaluating exposures to complex mixtures of chemicals during a new production process in the plastics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, B. van; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  8. Evaluating Exposures to Complex Mixtures of Chemicals During a New Production Process in the Plastics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Burstyn, I.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Posthumus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor emission of chemicals at a factory where plastics products were fabricated by a new robotic (impregnated tape winding) production process. Stationary and personal air measurements were taken to determine which chemicals were released and at what concentrations.

  9. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities

  10. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  11. Chemical processing of liquid lithium fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, J.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Yonco, R.M.; Hines, J.B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A 50-gallon-capacity lithium loop constructed mostly from 304L stainless steel has been operated for over 6000 hours at temperatures in the range from 360 to 480 0 C. This facility, the Lithium Processing Test Loop (LPTL), is being used to develop processing and monitoring technology for liquid lithium fusion reactor blankets. Results of tests of a molten-salt extraction method for removing impurities from liquid lithium have yielded remarkably good distribution coefficients for several of the more common nonmetallic elements found in lithium systems. In particular, the equilibrium volumetric distribution coefficients, D/sub v/ (concentration per unit volume of impurity in salt/concentration per unit volume of impurity in lithium), for hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen and carbon are approx. 3, approx. 4, > 10, approx. 2, respectively. Other studies conducted with a smaller loop system, the Lithium Mini-Test Loop (LMTL), have shown that zirconium getter-trapping can be effectively used to remove selected impurities from flowing lithium

  12. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Farzaneh [Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  13. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  14. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design, Assess, and Retrofit Chemical Processes for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. I...

  15. Study on the chemical treatment processes of the uranium pyrochlore of Araxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, H.F.; Fernandes, M.D.

    Several processes are presented for the chemical treatment, in laboratory scale, of the uranium pyrochlore concentrates found in Araxa (Minas Gerais, Brazil), aiming to the extraction of uranium, thorium and rare earths, besides the recovery of niobium pentoxide [pt

  16. High-energy chemical processes: Laser irradiation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Liu, A.D.; Loffredo, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of the high-energy photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solution have furthered our fundamental understanding of the way in which radiation interacts with matter. A new comprehensive mechanism that unifies many of the seemingly contradictory observations in radiation and photochemistry has been proposed on basis of evidence gathered using specialized techniques such as transient optical spectroscopy and transient dc conductivity. The PAH molecules were activated by two-photon ionization, and behavior of the transient ions were monitored as a function of photon energy. It was found that a greater percentage of ions retain sufficient energy to decompose when higher energy light was used. When these cations decompose they leave a trail of products that establish a ''high-energy'' decomposition pathway that involves proton transfer from the ion, a mechanism hitherto not considered in photoionization processes

  17. Effects of coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes on nuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-03-01

    Coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes can be classified in two categories. One category consists of the ''Onsager'' type of processes driven by gradients of thermodynamic state variables. These processes occur simultaneously with the direct transport processes. In particular, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration may be prominent in semipermeable materials such as clays. The other category consists of processes affected indirectly by magnitudes of thermodynamic state variables. An important example of this category is the effect of temperature on rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibria. Coupled processes in both categories may affect transport of radionuclides. Although computational models of limited extent have been constructed, there exists no model that accounts for the full set of THC-coupled processes. In the category of Onsager coupled processes, further model development and testing is severely constrained by a deficient data base of phenomenological coefficients. In the second category, the lack of a general description of effects of heterogeneous chemical reactions on permeability of porous media inhibits progress in quantitative modeling of hydrochemically coupled transport processes. Until fundamental data necessary for further model development have been acquired, validation efforts will be limited necessarily to testing of incomplete models of nuclide transport under closely controlled experimental conditions. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  18. What is the Process Approvals for Survey Research in the Department of Defense (DoD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    persons as individuals / representatives of agencies that elicit attitudes, opinions, behavior , and related demographic, social, and economic data to...processes are reported to be confusing. The survey approval process between services is inconsistent and time consuming . Barriers, real or perceived...The working group formed as part of the Behavioral Health Research Interest Group

  19. The importance of understanding process holdup. A Department of Energy (DOE) view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.A.; Hawkins, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Residual material in processing equipment is today and will in the future continue to be one of the major problems in controlling and accounting for nuclear material. Existing facilities were designed for product quantity, quality, and safety; not for minimization and quantification of residual material in process. With the development of measurement systems, and with enhanced material control and accounting practices and procedures, inventory differences have been emphasized. The improvement in processing input and output measurements has highlighted the problems of quantifying residual process material. The primary purpose for quantifying material held up in process is to determine the inventory difference and its related uncertainties or statistical variances. This qualification and its associated problems must be addressed if we are to prevent, deter, and detect theft and/or diversion of nuclear materials

  20. SWOT analysis: The analytical method in the process of planning and its application in the development of orthopaedic hospital department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Zorica

    2010-01-01

    the Institute, impossibility to increase the Department capacities, inadequate nutrition, low opportunities for expert training of the personnel, outdated equipment, and presence of informal payments. Conclusion. SWOT analysis is a frequently used managerial instrument, which enables the systematic approach in decision making process.

  1. [SWOT analysis: the analytical method in the process of planning and its application in the development of orthopaedic hospital department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Zorica; Vukasinović, Zoran; Bjegović-Mikanović, Vesna; Jovanović, Vesna; Janicić, Radmila

    2010-01-01

    SWOT analysis is a managerial tool used to evaluate internal and external environment through strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The aim was to demonstrate the application of the SWOT analysis on the example of the Department for Paediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology at the Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery "Banjica" in Belgrade. Qualitative research was conducted during December 2008 at the Department for Paediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology of the Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery "Banjica" by applying the focus group technique. Participants were members of the medical staff and patients. In the first phase of the focus group brainstorming was applied to collect the factors of internal and external environment, and to identify strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, respectively. In the second phase the nominal group technique was applied in order to reduce the list of factors. The factors were assessed according to their influence on the Department. Factors ranked by the three point Likert scale from 3 (highest impact) to 1 (lowest impact). The most important strengths of the Department are competent and skilled staff, high quality of services, average hospital bed utilization, the Department providing the educational basis of the School of Medicine, satisfied patients, pleasant setting, and additional working hours. The weaknesses are: poor spatial organization, personnel unmotivated to refresh knowledge, lack of specifically trained personnel, inadequate sanitary facilities, and uncovered services by the Insurance Fund, long average hospital stay, and low economic status of patients. The opportunities are: legislative regulations, formed paediatric traumatology service at the City level, good regional position of the Institute, and extension of referral areas. The threats are: absent Department autonomy in the personnel policy of the Institute, competitions within the Institute, impossibility to increase the Department

  2. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  3. A reengineering success story: process improvement in emergency department x-ray cycle time, leading to breakthrough performance in the ED ambulatory care (Fast Track) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J A; Treiber, P M; Kosnik, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the journey of a multidisciplinary reengineering team, which worked to reduce a critical, high-leverage process in an emergency department setting. The process selected was emergency department radiology services. This process was selected on a rational basis. The team knew tht 60 percent of our emergency department patients were truly ambulatory, and that most could be seen in a "fast track" process as part of our emergency department's core mission. However, we knew from customer satisfaction data, that patients would like to be "in and out" of emergency department Fast Track in less than an hour. Over half of our Fast Track patients require x-rays. For most, this was their sole reason for seeking emergency care. Our state, at the start of the project, included an average x-ray cycle time of over 60 minutes. The associated Fast-Track cycle time was over 90 minutes median. It was clear to the emergency department leadership, as well as to members of the Fast-Track management team, that a cycle time of 30 minutes or less for x-ray service was needed as a necessary condition to an hour or less Fast Track cycle time. It was also felt that a more rapid x-ray cycle time would allow for more rapid turn over of ED rooms, leading to a virtual greater capacity to the ED. It was hoped that this would lead to a reduction in the time from arrival to treatment by the emergency physician for all patients.

  4. Spin-locking vs. chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of non-equivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolites with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: i) On-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar, and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer. iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate exchange regime, MTRasym becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care. PMID:21500270

  5. Spin-locking versus chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of nonequivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolite phantoms with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: (i) on-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate-exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. (ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer (J Magn Reson 2002;154:157-160). (iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. (iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate-exchange regime, MTR(asym) becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Analysis of combat casualties admitted to the emergency department during the negotiation of the comprehensive Colombian process of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Carlos A; Manzano Nunez, Ramiro; Parra, Michael W; Herrera, Juan Pablo; Naranjo, Maria Paula; Escobar, Sara Sofia; Badiel, Marisol; Morales, Monica; Cevallos, Cecibel; Bayona, Juan G; Sanchez, Alvaro Ignacio; Puyana, Juan Carlos; García, Alberto F

    2017-12-30

    Our objective was to describe the variations in casualties admitted to the emergency department during the period of the negotiation of the comprehensive peace agreement in Colombia between 2011 and 2016. A retrospective study of all hostile military casualties managed at a regional Level I trauma center from January 2011 to December 2016. Patients were subsequently divided into two groups: those seen before the declaration of the process of peace truce (November 2012) and those after (negotiation period). Variables were compared with respect to periods. A total of 448 hostile casualties were registered. There was a gradual decline in the number of admissions to the emergency department during the negotiation period. The number of soldiers suffering blast and rifle injuries also decreased over this period. In 2012 there were nearly 150 hostile casualties' admissions to the ER. This number decreased to 84, 63, 32 and 6 in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively. Both, the proportion of patients with an ISS ≥9 and admitted to the intensive care unit were significantly higher in the period before peace negotiation. From August to December/2016 no admissions of war casualties were registered. We describe a series of soldiers wounded in combat that were admitted to the emergency department before and during the negotiation of the Colombian process of peace. Overall, we found a trend toward a decrease in the number of casualties admitted to the emergency department possibly in part, as a result of the period of peace negotiation.

  7. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  8. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  9. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  10. Improving the Emergency Department's Processes of Coding and Billing at Brooke Army Medical Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehning, Peter

    2003-01-01

    .... Beginning in October 2002, outpatient itemized billing was mandated for use in the AMEDD. This system shifted the process of billing for outpatient services from an allinclusive rate to one based on the actual care provided...

  11. Analysis of Design-Build Processes, Best Practices, and Applications to the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    NAVFAC design-build processes published in trade journals, books , magazines, internet articles, and DoD policy. In their book , Contract Management...literature review concentrates on recent articles published in books , trade magazines, and on the internet to determine design-build processes and...Keith Molenaar ) Design-build projects under the State of California’s Public Contract Code (Legaltips.org, 2006) requires the owner, for example the

  12. Effect of channel aspect ratio on chemical recuperation process in advanced aeroengines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Silong; Cui, Naigang; Xiong, Yuefei; Feng, Yu; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The working process of an advanced aeroengine such as scramjet with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel cooling is a chemical recuperative cycle. The design of cooling channel in terms of engine real working conditions is very important for the chemical recuperation process. To study the effects of channel aspect ratio (AR) on chemical recuperation process of advanced aeroengines, three dimensional model of pyrolysis coolant flow inside asymmetrical rectangular cooling channels with fins is introduced and validated through experiments. Cases when AR varies from 1 to 8 are carried out. In the pyrolysis zone of the cooling channel, decreasing the channel aspect ratio can reduce the temperature difference and non-uniformity of fuel conversion in the channel cross section, and it can also increase the final conversion and corresponding chemical heat absorption. A small channel aspect ratio is beneficial for the chemical recuperation process and can guarantee the engine cooling performance in the pyrolysis zone of the cooling channel. - Highlights: • Large non-uniformity of conversion is bad for the chemical recuperation. • Small channel aspect ratio is beneficial for improving the chemical recuperation effectiveness. • Small channel aspect ratio is also beneficial for reducing the engine wall temperature.

  13. Simulation codes of chemical separation process of spent fuel reprocessing. Tool for process development and safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Toshihide; Sato, Makoto; Matsumura, Masakazu; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the succeeding development and utilization of Extraction System Simulation Code for Advanced Reprocessing (ESSCAR). From the viewpoint of development, more tests with spent fuel and calculations should be performed with better understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena in a separation process. From the viewpoint of process safety research on fuel cycle facilities, it is important to know the process behavior of a key substance; being highly reactive but existing only trace amount. (author)

  14. In-can melting demonstration of wastes from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; Chick, L.A.; Hollis, H.H.; Mellinger, G.B.; Nelson, T.A.; Petkus, L.L.

    1980-07-01

    The immobilization of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) zirconia calcine using Idaho glass composition (ICPP-127) was evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in two engineering-scale in-can melter tests. The glass was initially characterized in the laboratory to verify processing parameters. Glass was then produced in a pilot-scale melter and then in a full-scale melter to evaluate the processing and the resultant product. Potential corrosion problems were identified with the glass and some processing problems were encountered, but neither is insurmountable. The product is a durable leach-resistant glass. The glass appears to be nonhomogeneous, but chemically it is quite uniform

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Benjamin T; Oehlert, Mary E; Krieshok, Thomas S; Lichtenberg, James W

    2018-04-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in conditions reflective of current clinical practice within the Veterans Health Administration. Method This study involved a retrospective review of 2030 charts. A total of 750 veterans from 10 U.S. states who received cognitive processing therapy or prolonged exposure in individual psychotherapy were included in the study (participants in cognitive processing therapy, N = 376; participants in prolonged exposure, N = 374). The main dependent variable was self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as measured by total scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The study used multilevel modeling to evaluate the absolute and relative effectiveness of both treatments and determine the relationship between patient-level variables and total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores during treatment. Results Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were equally effective at reducing total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores. Veterans who completed therapy reported significantly larger reductions in the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist than patients who did not complete therapy. There were no significant differences in the improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with respect to age and three racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were shown to be effective in conditions highly reflective of clinical practice and with a highly diverse sample of veterans. Challenges related to dropout from trauma focused therapy should continue to be researched.

  16. Material compatibility and corrosion control of the KWU chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of salt impurities within the deposits on the tube sheet and in the tube to tube-support-plate crevices can induce a variety of corrosion mechanisms on steam generator tubes. One of the most effective ways of counteracting corrosion mechanisms and thus of improving steam generator performance is to clean the steam generators and keep them in a clean condition. As shown by field results chemical cleaning is a way of removing hazardous deposits from steam generators. All available chemical cleaning processes use inhibitors to control the corrosion except the KWU chemical cleaning process. In this article the corrosion control technique of KWU Chemical Cleaning Process without using conventional inhibitors will be explained and the state of the field experience with respect to material compatibility will be presented. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  17. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  18. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemen's high temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C.; Odar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The secondary sides of all four steam generators at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Stations were cleaned during the 1995 annual outage run-down using the Siemens high temperature chemical cleaning process. Traditionally all secondary side chemical cleaning exercises in CANDU as well as the other nuclear power stations in North America have been conducted using a process developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Siemens high temperature process was applied for the first time in North America at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLGS). The paper discusses experiences related to the pre and post award chemical cleaning activities, chemical cleaning application, post cleaning inspection results and waste handling activities. (author)

  19. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision

  20. Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Steven B.; Miller, David J.; Yang, Yu; Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

  1. The Impact of a Health IT Changeover on Medical Imaging Department Work Processes and Turnaround Times: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, A; Prgomet, M; Lymer, S; Hordern, A; Ridley, L; Westbrook, J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of introducing a new Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and Radiology Information System (RIS) on: (i) Medical Imaging work processes; and (ii) turnaround times (TATs) for x-ray and CT scan orders initiated in the Emergency Department (ED). We employed a mixed method study design comprising: (i) semi-structured interviews with Medical Imaging Department staff; and (ii) retrospectively extracted ED data before (March/April 2010) and after (March/April 2011 and 2012) the introduction of a new PACS/RIS. TATs were calculated as: processing TAT (median time from image ordering to examination) and reporting TAT (median time from examination to final report). Reporting TAT for x-rays decreased significantly after introduction of the new PACS/RIS; from a median of 76 hours to 38 hours per order (pMedical Imaging staff reported that the changeover to the new PACS/RIS led to gains in efficiency, particularly regarding the accessibility of images and patient-related information. Nevertheless, assimilation of the new PACS/RIS with existing Departmental work processes was considered inadequate and in some instances unsafe. Issues highlighted related to the synchronization of work tasks (e.g., porter arrangements) and the material set up of the work place (e.g., the number and location of computers). The introduction of new health IT can be a "double-edged sword" providing improved efficiency but at the same time introducing potential hazards affecting the effectiveness of the Medical Imaging Department.

  2. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  3. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  4. Staff survey of organizational structure and process for a Public Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J J

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 227 North York Public Health Department (NYPHD) staff provided their perspective on the organizational structure. They perceived that (a) the departmental and divisional organizational structures are effective for program delivery, (b) the Central Resources structure and divisional and departmental reporting structures are moderately effective for program delivery, (c) the decentralized office structure is an advantage for service delivery but less so for administration and intra-division and inter-division communication, (d) the mandatory program structure involves low to moderate interdisciplinary teamwork and moderately impacts service delivery, (e) intra-division and management-staff communication are fair but inter-division and office communication are between poor and fair, (f) education, research, and service are moderately integrated, and (g) the divisional and departmental work atmospheres are a little positive. Management perceived greater participation in program planning, more frequent communication with other divisions, a number of education and research opportunities from various divisions/units, and more management recognition than front line staff did.

  5. 15 CFR 301.5 - Processing of applications by the Department of Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the information contained in the prior submission, shall not be considered in making the decision on... his discretion, may take into account factual information contained in untimely comments. (6... discretion at any stage of processing to insert into the record and consider in making his decision any...

  6. Advanced hybrid process with solvent extraction and pyro-chemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fuse, Kouki; Saso, Michitaka; Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Arie, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Toshiba has been proposing a new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR. The new fuel cycle concept has better economical process of the LWR spent fuel reprocessing than the present Purex Process and the proliferation resistance for FBR cycle of plutonium with minor actinides after 2040. Toshiba has been developing a new Advanced Hybrid Process with Solvent Extraction and Pyrochemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR. The Advanced Hybrid Process combines the solvent extraction process of the LWR spent fuel in nitric acid with the recovery of high pure uranium for LWR fuel and the pyro-chemical process in molten salts of impure plutonium recovery with minor actinides for metallic FBR fuel, which is the FBR spent fuel recycle system after FBR age based on the electrorefining process in molten salts since 1988. The new Advanced Hybrid Process enables the decrease of the high-level waste and the secondary waste from the spent fuel reprocessing plants. The R and D costs in the new Advanced Hybrid Process might be reduced because of the mutual Pyro-chemical process in molten salts. This paper describes the new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR and the feasibility of the new Advanced Hybrid Process by fundamental experiments. (author)

  7. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Roman Martinez, Alicia; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options, which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. In principle, an enormous number of process options can be generated but where and how the process should be in...

  8. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  9. Micromanufacturing Of Hard To Machine Materials By Physical And Chemical Ablation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.; Edelmann, J.; Gross, S.; Meichsner, G.; Wolf, N.; Schneider, J.; Zeidler, H.; Hackert, M.

    2011-01-01

    Miniaturization leads to high requirements to the applied manufacturing processes especially in respect to the used hard to machine materials and the aims of structure size and geometrical accuracy. Traditional manufacturing processes reach their limits here. One alternative for these provide thermal and chemical ablation processes. These processes are applied for the production of different microstructures in different materials like hardened steel, carbides and ceramics especially for medical engineering and tribological applications.

  10. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  11. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of this... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  13. United States Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing & Processing Predoctoral Fellowships. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrochenkov, M.

    2003-03-31

    The objective of the program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design.

  14. A comparative evaluation of the process of developing and implementing an emergency department HIV testing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiser Sheri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HIV testing guidelines recommend screening for HIV infection in all healthcare settings, including the emergency department (ED. In urban areas with a high background prevalence of HIV, the ED has become an increasingly important site for identifying HIV infection. However, this public health policy has been operationalized using different models. We sought to describe the development and implementation of HIV testing programs in three EDs, assess factors shaping the adoption and evolution of specific program elements, and identify barriers and facilitators to testing. Methods We performed a qualitative evaluation using in-depth interviews with fifteen 'key informants' involved in the development and implementation of HIV testing in three urban EDs serving sizable racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Testing program HIV prevalence ranged from 0.4% to 3.0%. Results Three testing models were identified, reflecting differences in the use of existing ED staff to offer and perform the test and disclose results. Factors influencing the adoption of a particular model included: whether program developers were ED providers, HIV providers, or both; whether programs took a targeted or non-targeted approach to patient selection; and the extent to which linkage to care was viewed as the responsibility of the ED. A common barrier was discomfort among ED providers about disclosing a positive HIV test result. Common facilitators were a commitment to underserved populations, the perception that testing was an opportunity to re-engage previously HIV-infected patients in care, and the support and resources offered by the medical setting for HIV-infected patients. Conclusions ED HIV testing is occurring under a range of models that emerge from local realities and are tailored to institutional strengths to optimize implementation and overcome provider

  15. Improving the Timeliness of Equal Employment Opportunity Complaint Processing in Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    1964 (Title VII) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act amendment to Title VII, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimi- nation in Employment Act of...Act of 1964 (Title VII) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act amendment to Title VII, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimination in...EEO programs uti - lize training on the EEO complaint process and framing of claims and that they use more-structured investigation requests

  16. Tailoring the Acquisition Process in the U.S. Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the associate directors, Paul DeLuca and Marc Robbins , for their insightful com- ments on this research. xvii Abbreviations ADM Acquisition Decision...by the SASSA program. Of these six, one was judged as a neutral contribution while five were judged as helpful in achiev- ing the program goals. No...tailored processes were judged as nega- tive contributions to meeting the rapid space acquisitions goals. (Johnson, 2010, p. 4) Also in regard to SE

  17. Streamlined Archaeo-Geophysical Data Processing and Integration for Department of Defense Field Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    and contains 100 subsurface pit features (commonly used in prehistory for storage, cooking, processing, and ulti- mately, trash discard), each less...its archaeological character and history or prehistory , arouse the curiosity of a wide range of CRM professionals, including those who have not...storage and other purposes throughout much of prehistory , and which probably represent the single most common type of feature throughout much of the

  18. Protecting Contract Workers: Case Study of the US Department of Energy’s Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael; Mohr, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Increased reliance on subcontractors in all economic sectors is a serious occupational health and safety challenge. Short-term cost savings are offset by long-term liability. Hiring subcontractors brings specialized knowledge but also young, inexperienced, inadequately trained workers onto industrial and hazardous waste sites, which leads to increased rates of accidents and injuries. Reliable data on subcontractor occupational health and safety programs and performance are sparse. The US Department of Energy has an excellent safety culture on paper, but procurement practices and contract language deliver a mixed message—including some safety disincentives. Its biphasic safety outcome data are consistent with underreporting by some subcontractors and underachievement by others. These observations are relevant to the private and public sectors. Occupational health and safety should be viewed as an asset, not merely a cost. PMID:17666686

  19. A comparison of two different processing chemicals for mammography: Repercussion on dose to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendra-Portero, F.; Ristori-Bogajo, E.; Buch-Tome, P.; Martinez-Morillo, M.; Nava-Baro, E.

    2001-01-01

    The main technical objective of screen-film mammography is to reach the best image quality with the lowest dose to the breast. Sensitometric gradient and speed are factors related to both subjects respectively. For a given choice of film, these factors are affected by processing variables. For this reason, manufacturers have developed different types of films that are recommended for particular processing conditions. The purpose of this work is to compare the variations of both sensitometric characteristics of mammographic screen and film systems induced by two different manufactured chemicals: RPX-Omat EX/LO (Kodak) and G139/G334 (Agfa). A comparison of thirteen mammographic films by means of light sensitometry was performed at different processing conditions: 90s/Kodak, 120s/Kodak, 180s/Kodak, 90s/Agfa, 120s/Agfa and 180s/Agfa. Secondly, 99 combinations of screens and films were evaluated by X-ray sensitometry at 120s/Kodak and 120s/Agfa processing. At light sensitometry, variations in processing time led to different modifications in film speed, depending on the chemicals used. At X-Ray sensitometry, Agfa chemicals induced higher values of sensitivity for almost all combinations, while Kodak chemicals gave higher gradient/speed quotient. The results show that dose to patients in mammography and image contrast are highly dependent on the chemicals selected at medium cycle (120s) processing. (author)

  20. Chemical Processing effects on the radiation doses measured by Film Dosimeter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, F.

    2009-01-01

    Halide film dosimetry is a quantitative method of measurement of the radiation doses. The fog density and chemical processing of the dosimeter film affect the radiation dose measurement accuracy. This work presents the effect of the developer solution concentration on the response of the dosimetric film which different fog densities. Thus, three batches of film, dosimeters with following fog density 0.312 ± 1.31 %, 0.71 ± 0.59% and 0.77 ± 0.81 %, were irradiated to 137 Cs standard source to dose value of 1mSv. The halide films have been chemical processed at different concentrations of the developer solution: 20 %; 14.29 %; 11.11%; all other physics-chemical conditions in baths of development have been kept constants. Concentration of 20% is considered to be chemical processed standard conditions of the films. In case of the films exposed to 1 mSv dose, optical density recorded on the low fog films processed at 20% developer solution is rather closed of high fog film optical densities processed at 11.11% developer solution concentration. Also, the chemical processing effect on the image contrast was taken into consideration

  1. Harnessing the Department of Energy’s High-Performance Computing Expertise to Strengthen the U.S. Chemical Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A.; Dupuis, Michel; Garrett, Bruce C.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Plata, Charity; Tarr, Matthew A.; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Golab, Joseph T.

    2012-01-17

    High-performance computing (HPC) is one area where the DOE has developed extensive expertise and capability. However, this expertise currently is not properly shared with or used by the private sector to speed product development, enable industry to move rapidly into new areas, and improve product quality. Such use would lead to substantial competitive advantages in global markets and yield important economic returns for the United States. To stimulate the dissemination of DOE's HPC expertise, the Council for Chemical Research (CCR) and the DOE jointly held a workshop on this topic. Four important energy topic areas were chosen as the focus of the meeting: Biomass/Bioenergy, Catalytic Materials, Energy Storage, and Photovoltaics. Academic, industrial, and government experts in these topic areas participated in the workshop to identify industry needs, evaluate the current state of expertise, offer proposed actions and strategies, and forecast the expected benefits of implementing those strategies.

  2. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  3. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1989-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  4. FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM DESCRIBING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES AT CONCRETE CORROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Fedosov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of new scientific research focused on modeling of physical and chemical processes occurring in the cement concrete at their exploitation. The basic types of concrete corrosion are described. The problem of mass transfer processes in a flat reinforced concrete wall at concrete corrosion of the first and the second types has been mathematically formulated.

  5. Process for carrying out a chemical reaction with ionic liquid and carbon dioxide under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Shariati, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Gutkowski, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for carrying out a chemical reaction in an ionic liquid as solvent and CO2 as cosolvent, in which process reactants are reacted in a homogeneous phase at selected pressure and temperature to generate a reaction product at least containing an end-product of the

  6. Purification process of natural graphite as anode for Li-ion batteries: chemical versus thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Song, X.; Guerfi, A.; Rioux, R.; Kinoshita, K.

    The intercalation of Li ions in natural graphite that was purified by chemical and thermal processes was investigated. A new chemical process was developed that involved a mixed aqueous solution containing 30% H 2SO 4 and 30% NH xF y heated to 90 °C. The results of this process are compared to those obtained by heating the natural graphite from 1500 to 2400 °C in an inert environment (thermal process). The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of the purified natural graphite obtained by the chemical process is 91 and 84% after the thermal process at 2400 °C. Grinding the natural graphite before or after purification had no significant effect on electrochemical performance at low currents. However, grinding to a very small particle size before purification permitted optimization of the size distribution of the particles, which gives rise to a more homogenous electrode. The impurities in the graphite play a role as microabrasion agents during grinding which enhances its hardness and improves its mechanical properties. Grinding also modifies the particle morphology from a 2- to a 3-D structure (similar in shape to a potato). This potato-shaped natural graphite shows high reversible capacity at high current densities (about 90% at 1 C rate). Our analysis suggests that thermal processing is considerably more expensive than the chemical process to obtain purified natural graphite.

  7. Surface preparation process of a uranium titanium alloy, in particular for chemical nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henri, A.; Lefevre, D.; Massicot, P.

    1987-01-01

    In this process the uranium alloy surface is attacked with a solution of lithium chloride and hydrochloric acid. Dissolved uranium can be recovered from the solution by an ion exchange resin. Treated alloy can be nickel plated by a chemical process [fr

  8. Model Reduction in Chemical Engineering : Case studies applied to process analysis, design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorneanu, B.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, models have become widely used for supporting a broad range of chemical engineering activities, such as product and process design and development, process monitoring and control, real time optimization of plant operation or supply chain management. Although tremendous

  9. Application showcases for a small scale membrane contactor for fine chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelands, C.P.M.; Ngene, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from batch to continuous processing in fine-chemicals industries offers many advantages; among these are a high volumetric productivity, improved control over reaction conditions resulting in a higher yield and selectivity, a small footprint and a safer process due to a smaller

  10. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  11. Impact of Salt Waste Processing Facility Streams on the Nitric-Glycolic Flowsheet in the Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-08

    An evaluation of the previous Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) testing was performed to determine whether the planned concurrent operation, or “coupled” operations, of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) has been adequately covered. Tests with the nitricglycolic acid flowsheet, which were both coupled and uncoupled with salt waste streams, included several tests that required extended boiling times. This report provides the evaluation of previous testing and the testing recommendation requested by Savannah River Remediation. The focus of the evaluation was impact on flammability in CPC vessels (i.e., hydrogen generation rate, SWPF solvent components, antifoam degradation products) and processing impacts (i.e., acid window, melter feed target, rheological properties, antifoam requirements, and chemical composition).

  12. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value

  13. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  14. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Román-Martinez, Alicia; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. PI creates an enormous number of process options. In order to manage the complexity of options in which a feasib...

  15. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg -1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg -1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  18. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  19. An endothermic chemical process facility coupled to a high temperature reactor. Part I: Proposed accident scenarios within the chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Seker, Volkan; Revankar, Shripad T.; Downar, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper identifies possible transient and accident scenarios in a coupled PBMR and thermochemical sulfur cycle based hydrogen plant. ► Key accidents scenarios were investigated through qualitative reasoning. ► The accidents were found to constitute loss of heat sink event for the nuclear reactor. - Abstract: Hydrogen generation using a high temperature nuclear reactor as a thermal driving vector is a promising future option for energy carrier production. In this scheme, the heat from the nuclear reactor drives an endothermic water-splitting plant, via coupling, through an intermediate heat exchanger. Quantitative study of the possible operational or accident events within the coupled plant is largely absent from the literature. In this paper, seven unique case studies are proposed based on a thorough review of possible events. The case studies are: (1) feed flow failure from one section of the chemical plant to another with an accompanying parametric study of the temperature in an individual reaction chamber, (2) product flow failure (recycle) within the chemical plant, (3) rupture or explosion within the chemical plant, (4) nuclear reactor helium inlet overcooling due to a process holding tank failure, (5) helium inlet overcooling as an anticipated transient without emergency nuclear reactor shutdown, (6) total failure of the chemical plant, (7) control rod insertion in the nuclear reactor. The qualitative parameters of each case study are outlined as well as the basis in literature. A previously published modeling scheme is described and adapted for application as a simulation platform for these transient events. The results of the quantitative case studies are described within part II of this paper.

  20. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hassani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI) standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. "Management and empowerment of human resources'' (weight = 0.465) and "requirements and facilities" (weight = 0.139) were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316), MD (weight = 0.259), AT (weight = 0.14), TS (weight = 0.108), MO (weight = 0.095), and LH (0.082) achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country's hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of qualitative and quantitative criteria involved and thereby take a decisive step towards

  1. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hassani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI) standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. “Management and empowerment of human resources’’ (weight = 0.465) and “requirements and facilities” (weight = 0.139) were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316), MD (weight = 0.259), AT (weight = 0.14), TS (weight = 0.108), MO (weight = 0.095), and LH (0.082) achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country’s hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of qualitative and quantitative criteria involved and thereby take a decisive step

  2. Reengineering of the business process in the Serbian post's department for express parcel service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dragan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the model that solves the problem of exceeding time limit in the system of express parcel shipping in the Post of Serbia is described. The existing principle of the organization of the area serving is explained, as well as the problem of exceeding time limit that appears and leads to the delay of the service to the user. Two approaches for problem solving are suggested. The reengineering of the existing business processes is carried out to some extent through these two approaches, and will be presented by BPMN notation. The first approach is based on the use of the fuzzy set theory, i.e. fuzzy logical systems, while the other one is based on the use of algorithm 'zoning-routing'.

  3. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  4. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Frank; White, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO 2 . On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass adaptations

  5. Integrated Electrochemical Processes for CO2 Capture and Conversion to Commodity Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, T. Alan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jamison, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Siemens Corporations (SCR) are developing new chemical synthesis processes for commodity chemicals from CO2. The process is assessed as a novel chemical sequestration technology that utilizes CO2 from dilute gas streams generated at industrial carbon emitters as a raw material to produce useful commodity chemicals. Work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) commenced on October 1st, 2010, and finished on September 30th, 2013. During this period, we have investigated and accomplished five objectives that mainly focused on converting CO2 into high-value chemicals: 1) Electrochemical assessment of catalytic transformation of CO2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates; 2) Investigation of organocatalytic routes to convert CO2 and epoxide to cyclic carbonates; 3) Investigation of CO2 Capture and conversion using simple olefins under continuous flow; 4) Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins using sodium bicarbonates in a green pathway; 5) Life cycle analyses of integrated chemical sequestration process. In this final report, we will describe the detailed study performed during the three year period and findings and conclusions drawn from our research.

  6. Development of a Survey to Assess Local Health Department Organizational Processes and Infrastructure for Supporting Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ting; Stamatakis, Katherine A; McVay, Allese B

    Local health departments (LHDs) have an important function in controlling the growing epidemic of obesity in the United States. Data are needed to gain insight into the existence of routine functions and structures of LHDs that support and sustain obesity prevention efforts. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the reliability of measures to assess foundational LHD organizational processes and functions specific to obesity prevention. Survey measures were developed using a stratified, random sample of US LHDs to assess supportive organizational processes and infrastructure for obesity prevention representing different domains. Data were analyzed using weighted κ and intraclass correlation coefficient for assessing test-retest reliability. Most items and summary indices in the majority of survey domains had moderate/substantial or almost perfect reliability. The overall findings support this survey instrument to be a reliable measurement tool for a large number of processes and functions that comprise obesity prevention-related capacity in LHDs.

  7. Possibilities of application of process modelling when developing a proposal of the business process management system for a university department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global environment requires every sustained effort to outmatch both competition and innovation. Top organizations of all types – governments, non-profit organizations, companies, institutions and universities try to solve the following difficult questions: How to improve standard of customer service and raise the productivity without concurrent growth of expense accounts. How to control risks and observe the rules without losses of entrepreneurial ( competition benefits? How to stimulate all the employees to participate in innovation, development of new products and services, finding new markets and more efficient satisfaction of customers?The paper deals with possibilities of procedural simulation both for the improvement and innovation of present processes, and for the formation of completely new trends of the Institute of Lifelong Education of Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno. An important condition for the design of procedural simulation is expert activity provided by highly professional experts or consultants in the field of education as well as in business matters.

  8. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Photocatalyst Nanoparticles on PVDF Membranes for Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Filpo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical binding of photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, onto porous polymer membranes requires a series of chemical reactions and long purification processes, which often result in small amounts of trapped nanoparticles with reduced photocatalytic activity. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique was investigated in order to allow the nucleation and growth of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF porous membranes for application in advanced oxidation processes. The thickness of obtained surface coatings by sputtered nanoparticles was found to depend on process conditions. The photocatalytic efficiency of sputtered membranes was tested against both a model drug and a model organic pollutant in a small continuous flow reactor.

  9. Application of nonliner reduction techniques in chemical process modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhaimin, Z; Aziz, N.; Abd Shukor, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Model reduction techniques have been used widely in engineering fields for electrical, mechanical as well as chemical engineering. The basic idea of reduction technique is to replace the original system by an approximating system with much smaller state-space dimension. A reduced order model is more beneficial to process and industrial field in terms of control purposes. This paper is to provide a review on application of nonlinear reduction techniques in chemical processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique reviewed are also highlighted

  10. Welcome to Processes—A New Open Access Journal on Chemical and Biological Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Henson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the result of remarkable technological progress, this past decade has witnessed considerable advances in our ability to manipulate natural and engineered systems, particularly at the molecular level. These advancements offer the potential to revolutionize our world through the development of novel soft and hard materials and the construction of new cellular platforms for chemical and pharmaceutical synthesis. For these technologies to truly impact society, the development of process technology that will enable effective large-scale production is essential. Improved processes are also needed for more established technologies in chemical and biochemical manufacturing, as these industries face ever increasing competitive pressure that mandates continuous improvement. [...

  11. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  12. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, T; Kutzner, C; Hauptmann, P; Kropp, M; Lang, W; Brokmann, G; Steinke, A; Kienle, A

    2010-01-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected

  13. Executive Selection in Government Agencies: An Analysis of the Department of the Navy and Immigration and Naturalization Services Senior Executive Service Selection Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Mark

    2001-01-01

    .... The Senior Executive Service (SES) selection process for the Department of the Navy (DON) is analyzed and compared to the SES selection process used by the Immigration and Naturalization Service...

  14. Numerical simulation study on rolling-chemical milling process of aluminum-lithium alloy skin panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. B.; Sun, Z. G.; Sun, X. F.; Li, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Single curvature parts such as aircraft fuselage skin panels are usually manufactured by rolling-chemical milling process, which is usually faced with the problem of geometric accuracy caused by springback. In most cases, the methods of manual adjustment and multiple roll bending are used to control or eliminate the springback. However, these methods can cause the increase of product cost and cycle, and lead to material performance degradation. Therefore, it is of significance to precisely control the springback of rolling-chemical milling process. In this paper, using the method of experiment and numerical simulation on rolling-chemical milling process, the simulation model for rolling-chemical milling process of 2060-T8 aluminum-lithium alloy skin was established and testified by the comparison between numerical simulation and experiment results for the validity. Then, based on the numerical simulation model, the relative technological parameters which influence on the curvature of the skin panel were analyzed. Finally, the prediction of springback and the compensation can be realized by controlling the process parameters.

  15. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  16. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration

  17. The remediation process: Approach and elements of the Department of Energy's environmental restoration program in a Superfund environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates a large industrial complex located at various production, processing, testing, and research and development installations across the country. During the 40+ years of operation, this complex generated and managed waste to then-current standards. However, some of these waste management practices have subsequently been proven to be inadequate for long-term environmental protection. The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established in 1989, when DOE's top priority changed from nuclear weapons production to environmental cleanup. The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within EM was tasked to ensure that risks to human health and the environment posed by DOE's past operations at its nuclear facilities and sites are eliminated or reduced to prescribed, safe levels. Since its creation, the ER Program has been one of the fastest growing programs in the Department, demonstrating the Secretary's commitment to the new clean-up priority. (The 1989 budget was $400 million, while the 1993 budget is $1.8 billion.) As new technologies are developed and new management strategies implemented, the program will continue to expand. This paper describes the environmental remediation process from its early assessment phase to the final compliance effort

  18. Safety of life activity and environmental friendliness in beet processing department of a beet-sugar factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of processing of a beet is characterized by a variety of dangerous and harmful production factors. To maintain the optimal values of microclimate in beet processing department carried out installation of systems of ventilation and heating. To implement the protection measures for impacts include the use of low-power equipment; the attenuation of the noise in the way of its propagation by means of sound insulation; maintenance equipment; install equipment on vibration isolation bases. Electrical safety in industrial environments by the appropriate design of electrical installations, technical means and means of protection, organizational and technical measures. For protection against static electricity use of protective grounding. The safe operation of lifting and handling equipment is provided by the audit of the reliability and strength of their structural elements, as well as ropes, lifting devices. To reduce the harmful impact of the use of the Department of toxic substances into the running, you must use individual protection equipment: special clothing, anti-dust respirators. Of technical means of protection used in the supply and exhaust ventilation, are also used cyclones. To protect surface and groundwater from effluent applied field of filtration, aeration tanks, biofilters. The amount of emissions into the atmosphere can reduce the reduction of steam consumption for technological needs. For dust removal in dusty offices with equipment install the cyclone. One of the measures to prevent the explosion is to install explosion protection. For fire in a sugar factory used fire boards, fire hoses, automatic water extinguishing systems, steam and gas fire. All facilities and process plant should be provided with primary fire extinguishing means. Place them in conspicuous places, readily accessible at any time. In addition, the company is required to lay special network of fire water. Thus, security and compliance with of

  19. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  20. Revealing chemical processes and kinetics of drug action within single living cells via plasmonic Raman probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Guan, Qi-Yuan; Meng, Gang; Chang, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Ji-Wu; Wang, Peng; Kang, Bin; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-05-23

    Better understanding the drug action within cells may extend our knowledge on drug action mechanisms and promote new drugs discovery. Herein, we studied the processes of drug induced chemical changes on proteins and nucleic acids in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells via time-resolved plasmonic-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PERS) in combination with principal component analysis (PCA). Using three popular chemotherapy drugs (fluorouracil, cisplatin and camptothecin) as models, chemical changes during drug action process were clearly discriminated. Reaction kinetics related to protein denaturation, conformational modification, DNA damage and their associated biomolecular events were calculated. Through rate constants and reaction delay times, the different action modes of these drugs could be distinguished. These results may provide vital insights into understanding the chemical reactions associated with drug-cell interactions.

  1. Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part I: Chemical processing in acidic bromine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouttemy, M.; Tran-Van, P. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Gerard, I., E-mail: gerard@chimie.uvsq.fr [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Hildebrandt, T.; Causier, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Pelouard, J.L.; Dagher, G. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Jehl, Z.; Naghavi, N. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Voorwinden, G.; Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Elektronik Research GmbH, Industriestr. 4, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Powalla, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Industriestr. 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Guillemoles, J.F. [Institut de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (IRDEP -UMR 7174 CNRS/EDF/Chimie-ParisTech), 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France); Lincot, D. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), route de Nozay 91460 Marcoussis (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (ILV-UMR 8180 CNRS/UVSQ), 45 av. des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2011-08-31

    CIGSe absorber was etched in HBr/Br{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O to prepare defined thicknesses of CIGSe between 2.7 and 0.5 {mu}m. We established a reproducible method of reducing the absorber thickness via chemical etching. We determine the dissolution kinetics rate of CIGSe using trace analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of Ga and Cu. The roughness of the etching surface decreases during the first 500 nm of the etching to a steady state value of the root-mean-square roughness near 50 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate an etching process occurring with a constant chemical composition of the treated surface acidic bromine solutions provide a controlled chemical thinning process resulting in an almost flat surface and a very low superficial Se{sup 0} enrichment.

  2. Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Caputo, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  3. Fault detection in nonlinear chemical processes based on kernel entropy component analysis and angular structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qingchao; Yan, Xuefeng; Lv, Zhaomin; Guo, Meijin [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2013-06-15

    Considering that kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) is a promising new method of nonlinear data transformation and dimensionality reduction, a KECA based method is proposed for nonlinear chemical process monitoring. In this method, an angle-based statistic is designed because KECA reveals structure related to the Renyi entropy of input space data set, and the transformed data sets are produced with a distinct angle-based structure. Based on the angle difference between normal status and current sample data, the current status can be monitored effectively. And, the confidence limit of the angle-based statistics is determined by kernel density estimation based on sample data of the normal status. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by case studies on both a numerical process and a simulated continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) process. The KECA based method can be an effective method for nonlinear chemical process monitoring.

  4. Fault detection in nonlinear chemical processes based on kernel entropy component analysis and angular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qingchao; Yan, Xuefeng; Lv, Zhaomin; Guo, Meijin

    2013-01-01

    Considering that kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) is a promising new method of nonlinear data transformation and dimensionality reduction, a KECA based method is proposed for nonlinear chemical process monitoring. In this method, an angle-based statistic is designed because KECA reveals structure related to the Renyi entropy of input space data set, and the transformed data sets are produced with a distinct angle-based structure. Based on the angle difference between normal status and current sample data, the current status can be monitored effectively. And, the confidence limit of the angle-based statistics is determined by kernel density estimation based on sample data of the normal status. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by case studies on both a numerical process and a simulated continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) process. The KECA based method can be an effective method for nonlinear chemical process monitoring

  5. Accident Management ampersand Risk-Based Compliance With 40 CFR 68 for Chemical Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Ashbaugh, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A risk-based logic model is suggested as an appropriate basis for better predicting accident progression and ensuing source terms to the environment from process upset conditions in complex chemical process facilities. Under emergency conditions, decision-makers may use the Accident Progression Event Tree approach to identify the best countermeasure for minimizing deleterious consequences to receptor groups before the atmospheric release has initiated. It is concluded that the chemical process industry may use this methodology as a supplemental information provider to better comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program rule. An illustration using a benzene-nitric acid potential interaction demonstrates the value of the logic process. The identification of worst-case releases and planning for emergency response are improved through these methods, at minimum. It also provides a systematic basis for prioritizing facility modifications to correct vulnerabilities

  6. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters were determined for 115 cod (Gadus morhua) samples stored under varying frozen storage conditions. Five different process parameters (period of frozen storage, frozen storage. temperature, place of catch, season for catching and state of rigor) were...... varied systematically at two levels. The data obtained were evaluated using the multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA models were used to identify which process parameters were actually most important for the quality of the frozen cod....... PLS models that were able to predict the physical, chemical and sensory quality parameters from the process parameters of the frozen raw material were generated. The prediction abilities of the PLS models were good enough to give reasonable results even when the process parameters were characterised...

  7. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  8. Mockup testing of remote systems for zirconium fuel dissolution process at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    A facility is being constructed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for storage and dissolution of spent zirconium reactor fuels. The dissolution is carried out in chemical type equipment contained in a large shielded cell. The design provides for remote operations and maintenance as required. Equipment predicted to fail within 5 years is designed for remote maintenance. Each system was fabricated for mockup testing using readily available materials. The mockups were tested, redesigned, and retested until satisfactory remote designs were achieved. Records were made of all the work. All design changes were then incorporated into the ongoing detailed design for the actual equipment. Several of these systems are discussed and they include valve replacement, pump replacement, waste solids handling, mechanism operations and others. The mockup program has saved time and money by eliminating many future problems. In addition, the mockup program will continue through construction, cold startup, and hot operations

  9. An Intelligent System for Modelling, Design and Analysis of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    ICAS, Integrated Computer Aided System, is a software that consists of a number of intelligent tools, which are very suitable, among others, for computer aided modelling, sustainable design of chemical and biochemical processes, and design-analysis of product-process monitoring systems. Each...... the computer aided modelling tool will illustrate how to generate a desired process model, how to analyze the model equations, how to extract data and identify the model and make it ready for various types of application. In sustainable process design, the example will highlight the issue of integration...

  10. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...

  11. Advanced Biocatalytic Processing of Heterogeneous Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to a Platform Chemical Intermediate (Lactic acid Ester)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sharon Shoemaker

    2004-09-03

    The development of commercial boi-based processes and products derived from agricultural waste biomass has the potential for significant impact on the economy and security of our nation. Adding value, rather than disposing of the waste of agriculture, can solve an environmental problem and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of fossil fuel for production of chemicals, materials and fuels.

  12. Fixation and utilization of CO2 by biological and/or chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromichi, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the carbon dioxide fixation and utilisation by biological and/or chemical processes. It presents research objectives and program contents for the effective fixation of carbon dioxide by micro-organism and its hydrogenation. (TEC). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  14. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  15. The constitutive distributed parameter model of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the literature of distributed parameter modelling of real processes is not considered the class of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The aim of paper is constitutive distributed parameter physicochemical model, constructed on kinetics and phenomenal analysis of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase. The mass, energy and momentum aspects of these multicomponent chemical reactions and adequate phenomena are utilized in balance operations, by conditions of: constitutive invariance for continuous media with space and time memories, reciprocity principle for isotropic and anisotropic nonhomogeneous media with space and time memories, application of definitions of following derivative and equation of continuity, to the construction of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations, in the following derivative forms for gas, fluid and solid phase. Couched in this way all physicochemical conditions of multicomponent chemical processes in gas, fluid and solid phase are new form of constitutive distributed parameter model for automatics and its systems of equations are new form of systems of partial differential constitutive state equations in sense of phenomenal distributed parameter control

  16. Self-catalytic growth of tin oxide nanowires by chemical vapor deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thabethe, BS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on the synthesis of tin oxide (SnO(sub2)) nanowires by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Commercially bought SnO nanopowders were vaporized at 1050°C for 30 minutes with argon gas continuously passing through the system...

  17. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

  18. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE THERMAL DESORPTION UNIT - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELI ECO Logic International, Inc.'s Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) is specifically designed for use with Eco Logic's Gas Phase Chemical Reduction Process. The technology uses an externally heated bath of molten tin in a hydrogen atmosphere to desorb hazardous organic compounds fro...

  19. Enrichment of {sup 15}N and {sup 10}B isotopes by chemical exchange process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D` Souza, A B; Sonwalkar, A S; Subrahmanyam, B V; Valladares, B A [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Many processes are available for separation of stable isotopes like distillation, chemical exchange, thermal diffusion, gaseous diffusion, centrifuge etc. Chemical exchange process is eminently suitable for separation of isotopes of light elements. Work done on separation and enrichment of two of the stable isotopes viz. {sup 15}N and {sup 10}B in Chemical Engineering Division is presented. {sup 15}N is widely used as a tracer in agricultural research and {sup 10}B is used in nuclear industry as control rod material, soluble reactor poison, neutron detector etc. The work on {sup 15}N isotope resulted in a pilot plant, which was the only source of this material in the country for many years and later it was translated into a production plant as M/s. RCF Ltd. The work done on the ion-exchange process for enrichment of {sup 10}B isotope which is basically a chemical exchange process, is now being updated into a pilot plant to produce enriched {sup 10}B to be used as soluble reactor poison. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Efficient process intensification of fine chemical production: a new classification tool for flow chemistry technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Graaff, M.P. de; Bassett, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industry needs to innovate to beat international competition and resolve environmental issues. Process intensification by flow chemistry is the most promising route for this change, as it can reduce raw material and energy consumption, waste production, lead

  1. Mechanisms governing the physico-chemical processes of transfer in NPP circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusakov, V.P.; Sedov, V.M.; Khitrov, Yu.A.; Rybalchenko, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    The paper deals with the theoretical physico-chemical processes of corrosion products and their radionuclide transport in NPS circuits by thermoelectromotive and electromotive forces of microgalvanic couples. The laboratory and rig test results as well as the NPP operating experience data confirm the developed theoretical concept validity

  2. XPERT DESIGN AND DIAGNOSTICS' (XDD) IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE (KMNO4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xpert Design and Diagnostic's (XDD)potassium permanganate in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the former MEC Building site located in Hudson, New Hampshire. At this site, both soil and ...

  3. Introduction to Stochastic Simulations for Chemical and Physical Processes: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    An introduction to digital stochastic simulations for modeling a variety of physical and chemical processes is presented. Despite the importance of stochastic simulations in chemistry, the prevalence of turn-key software solutions can impose a layer of abstraction between the user and the underlying approach obscuring the methodology being…

  4. Semi-annual report of the chemical process division of CDTN - July to December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Soares, M.L. de.

    1989-01-01

    The main activities developed by the Chemical Process Division of CDTN are described, including the reconversion of UF 6 to UO 2 , the separation and purification of rare earths and the solvent extraction with pulse column. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Enrichment of 15N and 10B isotopes by chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, A.B.; Sonwalkar, A.S.; Subrahmanyam, B.V.; Valladares, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many processes are available for separation of stable isotopes like distillation, chemical exchange, thermal diffusion, gaseous diffusion, centrifuge etc. Chemical exchange process is eminently suitable for separation of isotopes of light elements. Work done on separation and enrichment of two of the stable isotopes viz. 15 N and 10 B in Chemical Engineering Division is presented. 15 N is widely used as a tracer in agricultural research and 10 B is used in nuclear industry as control rod material, soluble reactor poison, neutron detector etc. The work on 15 N isotope resulted in a pilot plant, which was the only source of this material in the country for many years and later it was translated into a production plant as M/s. RCF Ltd. The work done on the ion-exchange process for enrichment of 10 B isotope which is basically a chemical exchange process, is now being updated into a pilot plant to produce enriched 10 B to be used as soluble reactor poison. (author)

  6. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H 2 S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol R sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. On improved understanding of plasma-chemical processes in complex low-temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpcke, Jürgen; Loffhagen, Detlef; von Wahl, Eric; Nave, Andy S. C.; Hamann, Stephan; van Helden, Jean-Piere H.; Lang, Norbert; Kersten, Holger

    2018-05-01

    Over the last years, chemical sensing using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with methods of mid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (MIR-LAS) in the molecular fingerprint region from 3 to 20 μm, which contains strong rotational-vibrational absorption bands of a large variety of gaseous species. This optical approach established powerful in situ diagnostic tools to study plasma-chemical processes of complex low-temperature plasmas. The methods of MIR-LAS enable to detect stable and transient molecular species in ground and excited states and to measure the concentrations and temperatures of reactive species in plasmas. Since kinetic processes are inherent to discharges ignited in molecular gases, high time resolution on sub-second timescales is frequently desired for fundamental studies as well as for process monitoring in applied research and industry. In addition to high sensitivity and good temporal resolution, the capacity for broad spectral coverage enabling multicomponent detection is further expanding the use of OES and MIR-LAS techniques. Based on selected examples, this paper reports on recent achievements in the understanding of complex low-temperature plasmas. Recently, a link with chemical modeling of the plasma has been provided, which is the ultimate objective for a better understanding of the chemical and reaction kinetic processes occurring in the plasma. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  8. Using Drawing Technology to Assess Students' Visualizations of Chemical Reaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Quintana, Chris; Krajcik, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how students used a drawing tool to visualize their ideas of chemical reaction processes. We interviewed 30 students using thinking-aloud and retrospective methods and provided them with a drawing tool. We identified four types of connections the students made as they used the tool: drawing on existing knowledge,…

  9. Design, manufacturing and commissioning of mobile unit for EDF (Dow Chemical process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangini, D.; Cordier, J.P.; PEC Engineering, Osny, France)

    1985-01-01

    To process their spent ion exchange resins and the liquid wastes, EDF has ordered from PEC a mobile unit using the DOW CHEMICAL binder. This paper presents the EDF's design requirements as well as the new French regulation for waste embedding. The mobile unit was started in January 1983 and commissioned successfully in January 1985 in the TRICASTIN EDF's power plant

  10. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazmeev, A Kh; Tazmeeva, R N

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed. (paper)

  11. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazmeev, A. Kh; Tazmeeva, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed.

  12. Relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes I. Heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow and chemical reactions; formal part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, G.A.; Groot, S.R. de; Mazur, P.

    1953-01-01

    The relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes is developed for an isotropic mixture in which heat conduction, diffusion, viscous flow, chemical reactions and their cross-phenomena may occur. The four-vectors, representing the relative flows of matter, are defined in such a way that, in

  13. Influences of in-fuel physical-chemical processes on serviceability of energy reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibilashvili, Yu K; Nekrasova, G A; Sukhanov, G I

    1989-01-01

    In-fuel physico-chemical processes and their effect on stress corrosion cracking of fuel element zirconium cladding are considered in the review. The mechanism of fission product release from the fuel is studied and the negative role of primarily iodine on the cladding corrosion process is demonstrated. Directions for improving the fuel element claddings and fuel to increase the fuel element serviceability are specified.

  14. Influences of in-fuel physical-chemical processes on serviceability of energy reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Nekrasova, G.A.; Sukhanov, G.I.

    1989-01-01

    In-fuel physico-chemical processes and their effect on stress corrosion cracking of fuel element zirconium cladding are considered in the review. The mechanism of fission product release from the fuel is studied and the negative role of primarily iodine on the cladding corrosion process is demonstrated. Directions for improving the fuel element claddings and fuel to increase the fuel element serviceability are specified

  15. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  16. Application of rapid read-out cleaning indicators for improved process control in hospital sterile services departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P G; Modi, T; McLeod, N; Bock, L J; Smith, C; Poolman, T M; Warburton, R; Meighan, P; Wells, P; Sutton, J M

    2013-05-01

    Heightened awareness of the importance of cleaning has led to an emphasis on automated systems for the decontamination of re-usable medical devices. The authors have previously described an enzymatic indicator system, based on thermostable adenylate kinases (tAK), for quantitative monitoring of automated cleaning processes within hospital sterile services departments (SSDs). To evaluate tAK indicators for routine process monitoring across a range of SSDs with different cleaning chemistries and different automated washer disinfectors (AWDs). tAK indicator devices and alternative industry test indicators were included in five independent cleaning cycles in each of eight different AWDs. Residual tAK post wash was determined by a coupled luciferase assay using a modified hygiene monitoring system. In all cases, with the exception of a single test, the alternative indicators showed that cleaning had been adequate. They were not able to discriminate between the performance of different processes. In contrast, the tAK indicators were able to resolve differences in the performance of processes across the different SSDs. Where the tAK indicators identified cleaning to the limits of detection of the assay, this demonstrated a log10 enzyme removal factor of >5.69. The results suggest that tAK indicators are suitable for providing improved process control for automated cleaning processes, being able to distinguish between wash performance in different hospital settings and between individual process runs. This technology is believed to be a useful addition to routine AWD performance qualification when used as a daily or weekly test. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detoxifying of high strength textile effluent through chemical and bio-oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Patkar, Guarav; Aswale, Pawan; Mahure, Manisha; Nandy, Tapas

    2014-04-01

    Small-scale textile industries (SSTIs) in India struggled for the economic and environmental race. A full-scale common treatment plant (CETP) working on the principle of destabilising negative charge colloidal particles and bio-oxidation of dissolved organic failed to comply with Inland Surface Waters (ISW) standards. Thus, presence of intense colour and organics with elevated temperature inhibited the process stability. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted on chemical and biological processes for its full-scale apps to detoxify a high strength textile process effluent. Colour, SS and COD removals from the optimised chemical process were 88%, 70% and 40%, respectively. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidised COD and BOD more than 84% and 90% at a loading rate 0.0108kgm(-3)d(-1) at 3h HRT. The combined chemical and bio-oxidation processes showed a great promise for detoxifying the toxic process effluent, and implemented in full-scale CETP. The post-assessment of the CETP resulted in detoxify the toxic effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coupled sulfur isotopic and chemical mass transfer modeling: Approach and application to dynamic hydrothermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A computational modeling code (EQPSreverse arrowS) has been developed to examine sulfur isotopic distribution pathways coupled with calculations of chemical mass transfer pathways. A post processor approach to EQ6 calculations was chosen so that a variety of isotopic pathways could be examined for each reaction pathway. Two types of major bounding conditions were implemented: (1) equilibrium isotopic exchange between sulfate and sulfide species or exchange only accompanying chemical reduction and oxidation events, and (2) existence or lack of isotopic exchange between solution species and precipitated minerals, parallel to the open and closed chemical system formulations of chemical mass transfer modeling codes. All of the chemical data necessary to explicitly calculate isotopic distribution pathways is generated by most mass transfer modeling codes and can be input to the EQPS code. Routines are built in to directly handle EQ6 tabular files. Chemical reaction models of seafloor hydrothermal vent processes and accompanying sulfur isotopic distribution pathways illustrate the capabilities of coupling EQPSreverse arrowS with EQ6 calculations, including the extent of differences that can exist due to the isotopic bounding condition assumptions described above. 11 refs., 2 figs

  19. A document processing pipeline for annotating chemical entities in scientific documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, David; Matos, Sérgio; Oliveira, José L

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of drugs and chemical entities in text is a very important task within the field of biomedical information extraction, given the rapid growth in the amount of published texts (scientific papers, patents, patient records) and the relevance of these and other related concepts. If done effectively, this could allow exploiting such textual resources to automatically extract or infer relevant information, such as drug profiles, relations and similarities between drugs, or associations between drugs and potential drug targets. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a document processing and information extraction pipeline for the identification of chemical entity mentions in text. We used the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER task data to train and evaluate a machine-learning based entity recognition system. Using a combination of two conditional random field models, a selected set of features, and a post-processing stage, we achieved F-measure results of 87.48% in the chemical entity mention recognition task and 87.75% in the chemical document indexing task. We present a machine learning-based solution for automatic recognition of chemical and drug names in scientific documents. The proposed approach applies a rich feature set, including linguistic, orthographic, morphological, dictionary matching and local context features. Post-processing modules are also integrated, performing parentheses correction, abbreviation resolution and filtering erroneous mentions using an exclusion list derived from the training data. The developed methods were implemented as a document annotation tool and web service, freely available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/becas-chemicals/.

  20. Incident Reporting to Improve Patient Safety: The Effects of Process Variance on Pediatric Patient Safety in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnell, Karen J; Shaw, Kathy N; Ruddy, Richard M; Mahajan, Prashant V; Lichenstein, Richard; Olsen, Cody S; Funai, Tomohiko; Blumberg, Stephen; Chamberlain, James M

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors threaten patient safety, especially in the pediatric emergency department (ED) where overcrowding, multiple handoffs, and workflow interruptions are common. Errors related to process variance involve situations that are not consistent with standard ED operations or routine patient care. We performed a planned subanalysis of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network incident reporting data classified as process variance events. Confidential deidentified incident reports (IRs) were collected and classified by 2 independent investigators. Events categorized as process variance were then subtyped for severity and contributing factors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study intention was to describe and measure reported medical errors related to process variance in 17 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network from 2007 to 2008. Between July 2007 and June 2008, 2906 eligible reports were reviewed. Process variance events were identified in 15.4% (447/2906). The majority were related to patient flow (35.4%), handoff communication (17.2%), and patient identification errors (15.9%). Most staff involved included nurses (47.9%) and physicians (28%); trainees were infrequently reported. The majority of events did not result in harm (65.7%); 17.9% (80/447) of cases were classified as unsafe conditions but did not reach the patient. Temporary harm requiring further treatment or hospitalization was reported in 5.6% (25/447). No events resulted in permanent harm, near death, or death. Contributing factors included human factors (92.1%), in particular handoff communication, interpersonal skills, and compliance with established procedures, and system-level errors (18.1%), including unclear or unavailable policies and inadequate staffing levels. Although process variance events accounted for approximately 1 in 6 reported safety events, very few led to patient harm. Because human and system-level factors contributed to

  1. Significance of fundamental processes of radiation chemistry in hot atom chemical processes: electron thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the current understanding of the course of electron thermalization. An outline is given of the physical picture without going into mathematical details. The analogy of electron thermalization with hot atom processes is taken as guiding principle in this paper. Content: secondary electrons (generation, track structure, yields); thermalization (mechanism, time, spatial distribution); behaviour of hot electrons. (Auth.)

  2. Influence of chemical sprinkle on the processes in activated tank of wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Búgel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with processes occurring in the activation tank during the snow-melt inflow of chemical component of roadsalt. Chemical composition of the suspension in the activation tank is changing following the metabolism of organisms and chemicalcomposition of the influent wastewater. Sludge and wastewater in nitrification tail of the activation tank has higher conductivity, highercontents of chloride, higher sludge index and other characteristics are changing during snow – melt. The amount of the inflow road saltis a determining factor of lyses of microorganism cells.

  3. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit

  4. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  5. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords

  6. Development of a Procedure to Apply Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms to CFD Simulations as Post Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker

    2003-01-01

    mechanism. It involves post-processing of data extracted from computational fluid dynamics simulations. Application of this approach successfully describes combustion chemistry in a standard swirl burner, the so-called Harwell furnace. Nevertheless, it needs validation against more complex combustion models......It is desired to make detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms applicable to the complex geometries of practical combustion devices simulated with computational fluid dynamics tools. This work presents a novel general approach to combining computational fluid dynamics and a detailed chemical kinetic...

  7. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  8. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acids of Glodok Fish by High Thermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purwaningsih

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glodok is an economically underrated fish with a high nutrient content. The research aims to study the changes on chemical composition, fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3 ratio in glodok muscle after processing with different methods of boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt (3%. The results showed that the treatment (boiling, steaming, and boiling with addition of salt gives a significant effect (α=0.05 in water content, ash, lipid content, nervonat acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA. The best processing method was steaming. The ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 in fresh glodok fish was 2,1:1, which is higher than WHO recommendation of 0,6:1,7.Keywords: chemical composition, fatty acid, glodok fish, processing

  9. Effect of UHT processing and storage conditions on physico-chemical characteristics of buffalo skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    The obtained results indicated that physico-chemical and nutritional changes in UHT processed buffalo skimmed milk were more pronounced at 45 deg. C than 25 deg. C and 10 deg. C. Duration of storage adversely affected the chemical and nutritional quality of processed milk. A slight decrease in pH, total ash and lactose contents, was observed, whereas acidity was increased on the mentioned storage conditions. Total nitrogen and casein nitrogen contents gradually decreased during storage, whereas non-casein nitrogen (NCN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased to a great extent in samples stored at higher temperatures. A significant increase in hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) values occurred in UHT processed buffalo skim milk at 25 deg. C and 45 deg. C after of 90 days storage. Storage at high temperature (45 deg. C) caused undesirable effects on sensory properties, general quality characteristics and acceptability of UHT buffalo skimmed milk. (author)

  10. The question of chemical processing of drilling muds when drilling wells at the Bulla Sea site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismaylov, A P; Avanesova, A M; Noven' kov, Yu P

    1979-01-01

    Based on the experience in the sinking of a number of deep wells in the Bulla Sea site, an integral chemical processing of drilling muds is recommended. The experience is shown of using inhibited gypsum systems in drilling in the deposits of the Akchagyl'sk stage and the PT to the roof of the V level instead of the previously used KSSB with viscosity reducers. From the roof of the V level because of the increased content of sandstone material the type of chemical processing is changed - instead of gypsum solutions, solutions are recommended, which are processed by KSSB in combination with oxyl with additives of bentonite clay because of their low content in the section.

  11. Quantification of chemical transport processes from the soil to surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kun; Huang, Chi-Hua; Wang, Guang-Qian; Fu, Xu-Dong; Parker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    There is a good conceptual understanding of the processes that govern chemical transport from the soil to surface runoff, but few studies have actually quantified these processes separately. Thus, we designed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify the chemical transport from soil to runoff water in the following individual processes: (i) convection with a vertical hydraulic gradient, (ii) convection via surface flow or the Bernoulli effect, (iii) diffusion, and (iv) soil loss. We applied different vertical hydraulic gradients by setting the flow cell to generate different seepage or drainage conditions. Our data confirmed the general form of the convection-diffusion equation. However, we now have additional quantitative data that describe the contribution of each individual chemical loading process in different surface runoff and soil hydrological conditions. The results of this study will be useful for enhancing our understanding of different geochemical processes in the surface soil mixing zone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  13. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Paasch, R.A.; Hall, T.M.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were performed to develop a chemical cleaning solvent and application process for demonstration cleaning of the Indian Point Unit 2 steam generators. The chemical cleaning solvent and application process were successfully pilot-tested by cleaning the secondary side of one of the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Although the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators do not have a tube denting problem, the pilot test provided for testing of the solvent and process using much of the same equipment and facilities that would be used for the Indian Point Unit 2 demonstration cleaning. The chemical solvent selected for the pilot test was an inhibited 3% citric acid-3% ascorbic acid solution. The application process, injection into the steam generator through the boiler blowdown system and agitation by nitrogen sparging, was tested in a nuclear environment and with corrosion products formed during years of steam generator operation at power. The test demonstrated that the magnetite corrosion products in simulated tube-to-tube support plate annuli can be removed by chemical cleaning; that corrosion resulting from the cleaning is not excessive; and that steam generator cleaning can be accomplished with acceptable levels of radiation exposure to personnel

  14. A Conceptual Model for Assessing Quality of Care for Patients Boarding in the Emergency Department: Structure-Process-Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan W.; Singer, Sara J.; Sun, Benjamin C.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Many believe that the “boarding” of emergency department (ED) patients awaiting inpatient beds compromises quality of care. To better study the quality of care of boarded patients, one should identify and understand the mechanisms accounting for any potential differences in care. This paper present a conceptual boarding “structure-process-outcome” model to help assess quality of care provided to boarded patients, and to aid in recognizing potential solutions to improve that quality, if it is deficient. The goal of the conceptual model is to create a practical framework on which a research and policy agenda can be based to measure and improve quality of care for boarded patients. PMID:21496148

  15. A Generic Life Cycle Assessment Tool for Chemical-biochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    As environmental impacts and resource depletion are serious concerns for the modern society, they also provide the motivation and need to design processes that are not only economically and operationally feasible, but also environmentally friendly. In this respect, life cycle assessment (LCA......) is a tool for quantifying potential environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the product or process. It can be used in conjunction with an economic tool to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and create improvement options in order to arrive at the best...

  16. Isotope effects in gas-phase chemical reactions and photodissociation processes: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The origins of isotope effects in equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical processes are reviewed. In non-equilibrium processes, attention is given to isotope effects in simple bimolecular reactions, symmetry-related reactions, and photodissociation processes. Recent examples of isotope effects in these areas are reviewed. Some indication of other scientific areas for which measurements and/or calculations of isotope effects are used is also given. Examples presented focus on neutral molecule chemistry and in many cases complement examples considered in greater detail in the other chapters of this volume

  17. A study of the potential of plasma processing in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estey, P.N.; Connolly, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    This work describes a systematic approach to determine the potential for plasma processing in the United States chemical industry. A model was developed that describes the physical inputs and outputs from a plasma based processing system. Based on these mass flows and the energy flows to the processor an economic assessment of the plasma processing system is made. This economic assessment which also includes the capital costs of the processor, can be used to determine if the plasma system is competitive with the conventional system

  18. The application of nuclear energy to the Canadian chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-03-01

    A study has been made to determine what role nuclear energy, either electrical or thermal, could play in the Canadian chemical process industry. The study was restricted to current-scale CANDU type power reactors. It is concluded that the scale of operation of the chemical industry is rarely large enough to use blocks of electrical power (e) of 500 MW or thermal power (t) of 1500 MW. Thus, with a few predictable exceptions, the role of nuclear energy in the Canadian chemical industry will be as a general thermal/electrical utility supplier, serving a variety of customers in a particular geographic area. This picture would change if nuclear steam generators of 20 to 50 MW(t) become available and are economically competitive. (author)

  19. Transformation processes influencing physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and trace elements in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Riise, G.; Oughton, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides and trace elements introduced to aquatic systems, knowledge on source terms, key factors and key processes influencing the speciation is essential. The mobility, bioavailability and subsequent transfer into food chains depend on the physico-chemical forms on radionuclides and trace metals. In addition, transformation processes and especially the interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) influences the distribution pattern. Furthermore, the prevailing climate conditions, e.g. episodic events and temperature are vital for fluxes and for the kinetics of the transformation processes. In the present work processes in catchments and processes associated with acidification, episodic events, climate conditions (temperature) and mixing zone phenomena influencing the speciation of radionuclides and trace metals are highlighted. These processes should be highly relevant for assessing far field consequences of radionuclides potentially released from disposal sites. (authors). 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfremmer, R.D.; Openshaw, F.L.

    1982-05-01

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design