WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical process safety

  1. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document

  2. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  3. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  4. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  5. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  6. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  7. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  8. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  9. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  10. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  11. Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Roy E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a 'within-the-fence' view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm

  12. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  13. Simulation codes of chemical separation process of spent fuel reprocessing. Tool for process development and safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Toshihide; Sato, Makoto; Matsumura, Masakazu; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the succeeding development and utilization of Extraction System Simulation Code for Advanced Reprocessing (ESSCAR). From the viewpoint of development, more tests with spent fuel and calculations should be performed with better understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena in a separation process. From the viewpoint of process safety research on fuel cycle facilities, it is important to know the process behavior of a key substance; being highly reactive but existing only trace amount. (author)

  14. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  15. Revolutionizing safety and security in the chemical and process industry: applying the CHESS concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a new concept, summarized as ‘CHESS’, should be used in the chemical industry to further substantially advance safety (where we use the term in a broad sense, that is, safety and physical security, amongst others). The different domains that need to be focused upon, and where

  16. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  17. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  18. Lessons learned from process incident databases and the process safety incident database (PSID) approach sponsored by the Center for Chemical Process Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepeda, Adrian L.

    2006-01-01

    Learning from the experiences of others has long been recognized as a valued and relatively painless process. In the world of process safety, this learning method is an essential tool since industry has neither the time and resources nor the willingness to experience an incident before taking corrective or preventative steps. This paper examines the need for and value of process safety incident databases that collect incidents of high learning value and structure them so that needed information can be easily and quickly extracted. It also explores how they might be used to prevent incidents by increasing awareness and by being a tool for conducting PHAs and incident investigations. The paper then discusses how the CCPS PSID meets those requirements, how PSID is structured and managed, and its attributes and features

  19. Study contribution to the new international philosophy of the radiological safety system on chemical processing of the natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.M. da.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the work is to adapt the radiological Safety System in the facilities concerned to the chemical treatment of the uranium concentrated (yellow-cake) until conversion in uranium hexafluoride in the pilot plant of IPEN-CNEN/SP, to the new international philosophy adopted by the International Commission Radiological on Protection ICPR publication 22(1973), 26(1977), 30(1978) and the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA publication 9(1982). The new philosophy changes fully the Radiological Protection concepts of preceding philosophy, changes, also, the concept of the work place and individual monitoring as well as the classification of the working areas. These new concepts are applied in each phase of the natural uranium treatment chemical process in conversion facility. (author)

  20. 78 FR 73756 - Process Safety Management and Prevention of Major Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... include certain molecular structures that have been identified as highly reactive, based on scientific... procedures for organizational changes,\\10\\ such as changes in management structure, budget cuts, or personnel...; employee training; prestartup safety reviews; evaluation of the mechanical integrity of critical equipment...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... B to this section); (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended inventory; (D) Safe upper and lower... with process chemistry information including runaway reaction and over pressure hazards if applicable... American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Petroleum Institute, American National Standards...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.64 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... simplified process flow diagram (see Appendix B to this section); (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended... requirement which must be supplemented with process chemistry information including runaway reaction and over... standards are published by such organizations as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American...

  3. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental se...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  4. Analysis and Study of Safety Problems in Chemical Process Design%化工工艺设计中的安全问题分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2016-01-01

    In the chemical industry,because of the special reaction conditions such as high temperature and high pressure, catalyst and so on,there will be a lot of gas and heat,often dangerous chemicals are added to the reaction,often leading to some safety accidents.Such safety accidents on the lives of people and the interests of chemical companies posed a great threat,so the chemical industry should begiven to the chemical process design in the safety of a high degree of attention to improve the quality of chemical process design,chemical technology as much as possible To avoid the emergence of security issues.The contents and characteristics of the chemical process design,the safety problems in the chemical process design and the countermeasures are discussed.%在化工生产中,因为高温高压、催化剂等特殊的反应条件,会产生大量的气体与热量,加上反应时经常使用危险化学品,常常引发一些安全事故。这类安全事故对人们的生命安全以及化工企业的利益造成了很大的威胁,因此化工企业应给予化工工艺设计中的安全问题高度的重视,提高化工工艺设计质量,在化学工艺中尽可能地避免安全问题的出现。就化工工艺设计的内容与特点、化工工艺设计中存在的安全问题以及解决对策进行了论述。

  5. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  6. Evaluation on Safety of Stainless Steels in Chemical Decontamination Process with Immersion Type of Reactor Coolant Pump for Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Ki Joon

    2011-01-01

    Due to commercialization of nuclear power, most countries have taken interest in decontamination process of nuclear power plant and tried to develop a optimum process. Because open literature of the decontamination process are rare, it is hard to obtain skills on decontamination of foreign country and it is necessarily to develop proper chemical decontamination process system in Korea. In this study, applicable possibility in chemical decontamination for reactor coolant pump (RCP) was investigated for the various stainless steels. The stainless steel (STS) 304 showed the best electrochemical properties for corrosion resistance and the lowest weight loss ratio in chemical decontamination process with immersion type than other materials. However, the pitting corrosion was generated in both STS 415 and STS 431 with the increasing numbers of cycle. The intergranular corrosion in STS 431 was sporadically observed. The sizes of their pitting corrosion also increased with increasing cycle numbers

  7. Chemical radwaste solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Some of these processes and their problems are briefly reviewed: early cement systems; urea-formaldehyde; Dow solidification process; low-viscosity chemical agents (POLYPAC); and water-extensible polyester. 9 refs

  8. Ultrasound in chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, S.; Farooq, R.; Malik, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultrasound to promote chemical reactions or sono chemistry is a field of chemistry which involves the process of acoustic cavitations i.e. the collapse of microscopic bubbles in liquid. There are two essential components for the application of sono chemistry, a liquid medium and a source of high-energy vibrations. The liquid medium is necessary because sono chemistry is driven by acoustic cavitations that can only occur in liquids. The source of the vibrational energy is the transducer. The chemical effects of ultrasound include the enhancement of reaction rates at ambient temperatures and striking advancements in stoichiometric and catalytic reactions In some cases, ultrasonic irradiation can increase reactivities by nearly million fold. The ultrasound has large number of applications not only in emending old chemical processes but also in developing new synthetic strategies. Ultrasound enhances all chemical and physical processes e.g., crystallization, vitamin synthesis, preparation of catalysts, dissolution of chemicals, organometallic reactions, electrochemical processes, etc. High-power ultrasonics is a new powerful technology that is not only safe and environmentally friendly in its application but is also efficient and economical. It can be applied to existing processes to eliminate the need for chemicals and/or heat application in a variety of industrial processes. (author)

  9. New set of Chemical Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    A new set of four Safety Rules was issued on 28 March 2011: Safety Regulation SR-C ver. 2, Chemical Agents (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C1, Prevention and Protection Measures (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C2, Explosive Atmospheres (en); General Safety Instruction GSI-C3, Monitoring of Exposure to Hazardous Chemical Agents in Workplace Atmospheres (en). These documents form part of the CERN Safety Rules and are issued in application of the “Staff Rules and Regulations” and of document SAPOCO 42. These documents set out the minimum requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their occupational safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are present in the workplace or used in any CERN activity. Simultaneously, the HSE Unit has published seven Safety Guidelines and six Safety Forms. These documents are available from the dedicated Web page “Chemical, Cryogenic and Biological Safety&...

  10. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  11. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  13. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  14. Using game theory to improve safety within chemical industrial parks

    CERN Document Server

    Reniers, Genserik

    2013-01-01

    Though the game-theoretic approach has been vastly studied and utilized in relation to economics of industrial organizations, it has hardly been used to tackle safety management in multi-plant chemical industrial settings. Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks presents an in-depth discussion of game-theoretic modelling which may be applied to improve cross-company prevention and -safety management in a chemical industrial park.   By systematically analyzing game-theoretic models and approaches in relation to managing safety in chemical industrial parks, Using Game Theory for Improving Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks explores the ways game theory can predict the outcome of complex strategic investment decision making processes involving several adjacent chemical plants. A number of game-theoretic decision models are discussed to provide strategic tools for decision-making situations.   Offering clear and straightforward explanations of methodologies, Using Game Theor...

  15. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  16. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  17. Behavior based safety process - a pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Malaikar, N.L.; Belokar, S.G.; Arora, Yashpal

    2009-01-01

    Materials handling, processing and storage of hazardous chemicals has grown exponentially. The chemical industries has reacted to the situation by introducing numerous safety systems such as IS18001, 'HAZOP', safety audits, risk assessment, training etc, which has reduced hazards and improved safety performance, but has not totally eliminated exposure to the hazards. These safety systems aim to bring change in attitude of the persons which is difficult to change or control. However, behaviour of plant personnel can be controlled or improved upon, which should be our aim. (author)

  18. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard

  19. Relationship of safety culture and process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T. Michael; Mannan, M. Sam

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These 'guidelines' are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations

  20. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process safety information. 68.65... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by...

  1. Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Park, Lydia K; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-06-07

    Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. This article provides an overview of process intensification, including definitions, principles, tools, and possible applications, with the objective to contribute to the future development and potential applications of modular chemical process intensification in industrial and manufacturing sectors. Drivers and barriers contributing to the advancement of process intensification technologies are discussed.

  2. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  3. chemical safety in laboratories of african universities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    Universities in Africa are in need of chemical safety and security facilities, ... In March 2009, fifty one 4th year undergraduate students (graduating class) of .... manufacturing industries, and many of them are concerned primarily ... advancement of chemistry world wide to do their best both to push the African chemistry.

  4. Implementing process safety management in gas processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodman, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard entitled Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Explosives and Blasting Agents was finalized February 24, 1992. The purpose of the standard is to prevent or minimize consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, flammable, or explosive chemicals. OSHA believes that its rule will accomplish this goal by requiring a comprehensive management program that integrates technologies, procedures, and management practices. Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies are significantly impacted by this major standard, the requirements of which are extensive and complex. The purpose of this paper is to review the requirements of the standard and to discuss the elements to consider in developing and implementing a viable long term Process Safety Management Program

  5. Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted.

  6. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  7. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D Loizou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, nonmedical world of mobile (wireless devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential seismic shift from the current healthcare model to a wellness paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practise which operates in a human data poor to a human data rich environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  8. Chemical safety management in WIP, Kalpakkam - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Biplab; Ravi, K.V.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Waste Management necessitates several chemicals for its process. Many of them are substantially hazardous to health, if exposed. Our department takes utmost care in transport, storing and handling of chemicals. We must put maximum efforts to prevent spillage or leak of chemicals and prevent any exposure to employees, but once it occurs, safety of the employees depend on our quick and appropriate response. Therefore, periodical review of the chemical risk needs to be done to ensure that the steps taken by the plant are in place. Purpose of this paper is to assess the overall chemical management system of this plant to ensure the prevention of any untoward incident arising from chemicals. (author)

  9. Outline of the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Katsuhiko

    1978-01-01

    Concerning the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF), a high level radioactive material research facility, to be installed in Tokai Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the detailed design and the governmental safety inspection were finished. The construction has been already started, and it will be completed in 1980. Under the national policy of establishing a nuclear fuel cycle, PNC is now carrying out the development of its downstream technology. The objects of the Chemical Processing Facility are the researches of the treatment techniques of high level radioactive liquid wastes from fuel reprocessing and of the reprocessing of fast reactor fuel. The following matters are described: purpose of the CPF, i.e. fast reactor fuel reprocessing and high-level liquid waste treatment; construction of the CPF, i.e. buildings, cells and an exhaust stack; test systems, i.e. fuel reprocessing and liquid waste vitrification; and facility safety. (Mori, K.)

  10. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security By the authority vested in me as President by the... at reducing the safety risks and security risks associated with hazardous chemicals. However... to further improve chemical facility safety and security in coordination with owners and operators...

  11. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  12. Safety cases and siting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, Daniel; Ewing, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Central to any process for building a deep-mined geologic repository for high-activity radioactive waste is the development of a safety case. To date, such cases, in various forms have been elaborated for a variety of concepts for geologic disposal, including in salt, clay, argillite, crystalline rock (granite and gneiss) and volcanic tuff formations. In addition to the technical effort required to develop a safety case, increasingly nations have come to believe that it is also critical to obtain the consent of the region or community where the facility might be located. The purpose of this paper is to explore issues associated with just one aspect of consent-based siting: How can such a process be designed so that willingness to accept a site for a repository continues to be meaningful even as new technical knowledge and insights emerge during site characterisation? In short, what is the meaning of 'informed consent' in the context of repository development? (authors)

  13. Safety Culture: Lessons Learned from the US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigation of the 2005 BP Texas City Refinery disaster as well as the Baker Panel Report have set the stage for the consideration of human and organizational factors and safety culture as contributing causes of major accidents in the oil and gas industry. The investigation of the BP Texas City tragedy in many ways started a shift in the way the oil and chemical industry sectors looked at process safety and the importance of human and organizational factors in improving safety. Since the BP Texas City incident the CSB has investigated several incidents, including the 2010 Macondo disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, where organizational factors and safety culture, once again, were contributing causes of the incidents. In the Texas City incident the CSB found that “while most attention was focused on the injury rate, the overall safety culture and process safety management (PSM) program had serious deficiencies.” The CSB concluded that “safety campaigns, goals, and rewards focused on improving personal safety metrics and worker behaviors rather than on process safety and management safety systems.” The Baker panel, established as a result of a CSB recommendation, did a more extensive review of BPs safety culture. The Baker panel found that ‘while BP has aspirational goals of “no accidents, no harm to people” BP has not provided effective leadership in making certain it’s management and US refining workforce understand what is expected of them regarding process safety performance.’ This may have been in part due to a misinterpretation of positive trends in personal injury rates as an indicator of effective process safety. The panel also found that “at some of its US refineries BP has not established a positive, trusting and open environment with effective lines of communication between management and the workforce, including employee representatives.” In 2010 when the CSB began to

  14. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  15. Designing continuous safety improvement within chemical industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    This article provides support in organizing and implementing novel concepts for enhancing safety on a cluster level of chemical plants. The paper elaborates the requirements for integrating Safety Management Systems of chemical plants situated within a so-called chemical cluster. Recommendations of

  16. Safety, health and environmental committee (JKSHE): Establishing chemical hazard management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Noriah Mod Ali; Sangau, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the laboratories in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are using chemicals in their research activities. However, it is known that using of chemicals without proper knowledge especially on the material characteristics as well as safe handling procedure may cause great harm to the workers. Therefore, Safety, Health and Environmental Committee (JKSHE) sees the need to establish a good chemical hazard management to ensure that a safe and healthy workplace and environment is provided. One of the elements in chemical hazard management is to carry out Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment (CHRA). The assessment was done so that decision can be made on suitable control measures upon use of such chemicals, such as induction and training courses to be given to the workers and health surveillance activities that may be needed to protect the workers. For this, JKSHE has recommended to conduct CHRA for one of the laboratories at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) namely Film Dosimeter Processing Room (dark room) as the initial effort towards a better chemical hazard management. This paper presents the case study where CHRA was conducted to identify the chemical hazards at the selected laboratory, the adequacy of existing control measures and finally the recommendation for more effective control measures. (author)

  17. The chemical safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    While animal feeding studies and other biological testing methods have contributed greatly to the establishment of the toxicological safety of irradiated foods, probably no other single factor has lent itself so conclusively to this end as the availability of an unprecedented volume of analytical chemistry data on radiolytic products generated in a variety of foods and their raw materials and ingredients, collected at laboratories worldwide over decades. Such direct analytical chemical evidence, backed up by a general knowledge of radiation chemistry of bio-organic materials has allowed regulatory scientists and other competent, qualified and objective interested parties to discern with a high degree of confidence what takes place chemically at the sub-molecular level, and in the parts-per-trillion range, as a result of food irradiation. Ironically, this has also opened the way for nonqualified, subjectively negatively biased individuals to, for example, grossly misrepresent such compounds as benzene and formaldehyde in this context in an alarmist fashion to anyone predisposed to listen

  18. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, P.W.; Curtis, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  19. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  20. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  2. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms

  3. Safety (management and technology). Safety of chemical materials; Anzen (manejimento to tekunoroji). Kagaku busshitsu no anzensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T. [Hosei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-08-05

    In chemical materials there exist hazardous materials causing health damages, environmental pollution, fires and explosions. The hazard analysis has been noted as a means for preventing accidents due to chemical materials. This means leads to an effective method of recognizing hazard, evaluating the risk, and lowering the degree of hazard to an allowable level. This paper describes a hazard analysis of autoreactive materials, out of chemical materials causing fires and explosions, which may react by theirselves and cause accidents. In particular, an example is introduced in which this hazard analysis method is adapted to an experimental production of the next generation gas generating agent for automobile collision safety air-bags. In this manufacturing process, in kneading and granulating processes where lots of materials are handled, materials are used in a moistened state, thus countermeasures for preventing occurrence of combustion and explosion being taken. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Chemical Companies to Explore in the Production Process Safety Management Issues%化工企业在生产过程中的安全管理问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴飞

    2016-01-01

    在社会经济快速发展的背景下,企业的规模和数量不断扩增,生产和管理已经成为企业的重要工作。化工企业作为现代化社会发展中的重要部分,在其实际生产和发展的过程中,需要充分认识到安全生产管理的重要性,严格执行以人为本的生产理念,加强生产过程的安全管理,从而实现自身的可持续发展。对化工企业在生产过程中的安全管理问题进行分析,并提出有效对策,以便相关人士借鉴和参考。%In the context of rapid economic development,enterprise size and the number continues to amplify,production and management has become an important work of the enterprise.Chemical companies as a modern social development,an important part in the process of its actual production and development,the need to fully recognize the importance of safety in production management, strict implementation of people-oriented concept of the production,strengthen the safety management of the production process in order to achieve their own sustainable development.On the chemical safety management problems in the production process were analyzed and tentatively few effective measures to stakeholders as reference.

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  6. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  7. Interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainablity Toxicity Forecaster Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have been using advances in computational toxicology to address lack of data on the thousands of chemicals. EPA released chemical data on 1,800 chemicals. The 1,800 chemicals were screened in more than 800 rapid, automated tests (called high-throughput screening assays) to determine potential human health effects. The data is available through the interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainability Dashboards (iCSS dashboard) and the complete data sets are also available for download.

  8. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  10. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-04-11

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH.

  11. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: Benefits and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH

  12. Stochastic processes in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shuler, K E

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  13. Safety applications of computer based systems for the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, Sandro; Picciolo, Giovanni; Taylor, Robert

    1997-11-01

    Computer based systems, generally referred to as Programmable Electronic Systems (PESs) are being increasingly used in the process industry, also to perform safety functions. The process industry as they intend in this document includes, but is not limited to, chemicals, oil and gas production, oil refining and power generation. Starting in the early 1970's the wide application possibilities and the related development problems of such systems were recognized. Since then, many guidelines and standards have been developed to direct and regulate the application of computers to perform safety functions (EWICS-TC7, IEC, ISA). Lessons learnt in the last twenty years can be summarised as follows: safety is a cultural issue; safety is a management issue; safety is an engineering issue. In particular, safety systems can only be properly addressed in the overall system context. No single method can be considered sufficient to achieve the safety features required in many safety applications. Good safety engineering approach has to address not only hardware and software problems in isolation but also their interfaces and man-machine interface problems. Finally, the economic and industrial aspects of the safety applications and development of PESs in process plants are evidenced throughout all the Report. Scope of the Report is to contribute to the development of an adequate awareness of these problems and to illustrate technical solutions applied or being developed

  14. Safety guides development process in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Perello, M.

    1979-01-01

    Safety guides have become a major factor in the licensing process of nuclear power plants and related nuclear facilities of the fuel cycle. As far as the experience corroborates better and better engineering methodologies and procedures, the results of these are settled down in form of standards, guides, and similar issues. This paper presents the actual Spanish experience in nuclear standards and safety guides development. The process to develop a standard or safety guide is shown. Up to date list of issued and on development nuclear safety guides is included and comments on the future role of nuclear standards in the licensing process are made. (author)

  15. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-07

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  16. Safety analyses for reprocessing and waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Presentation of an incident analysis of process steps of the RP, simplified considerations concerning safety, and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP. A release tree method is developed and tested. An incident analysis of process steps, the evaluation of the SRL-study and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP are performed in particular. (DG) [de

  17. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somerville, R.B.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  18. 78 FR 69433 - Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... from stakeholders on issues pertaining to Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security (Executive... regulations, guidance, and policies; and identifying best practices in chemical facility safety and security...

  19. Conceptual Chemical Process Design for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines the sustainable design of chemical processes, with a focus on conceptual design, hierarchical and short-cut methods, and analyses of process sustainability for alternatives. The chapter describes a methodology for incorporating process sustainability analyse...

  20. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  1. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  2. CATALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES: PARTICULAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    secondary/high schools and universities, the inhibition of the chemical reactions is frequently ... As a result, the lesson catalysis is frequently included in chemistry education curricula at ... Misinterpretations in teaching and perception of catalysis ... profile is shown as a dependence of energy on reaction progress, without ...

  3. Criticality safety of solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1987-01-01

    The article presents some comments on criticality safety of solvent extraction processes. When used as an extracting medium, tributyl phosphate extracts nitric acid and water, in addition to nitrates of U and Pu, into the organic phase. The amount of these chemical species extracted into the organic phase is dependent on and restricted by the concentrations of tributyl phosphate and other components. For criticality control, measures are taken to decrease the concentration of tributyl phosphate in the organic phase, in addition to control of the U and Pu concentrations in the feed water phase. It should be remembered that complexes of tributyl phosphate with nitrates of such metals as Pu(IV), Pu(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) do not dissolve uniformly in the organic phase. In criticality calculation for solution-handling systems, U and Pu are generally assumed to have a valence of 6 and 4, respectively. In the reprocessing extraction process, however, U and Pu can have a valence of 4, and 3 and 6, respectively. The organic phase and aqueous phase contact in a counter-current flow. U and Pu will be accumulated if they are not brought out of the extraction system by this flow. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  5. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  6. Safety monitoring in process and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, V. Jr.; Sebo, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Safety Functions provide a method of ensuring the safe operation of any large-scale processing plant. Successful implementation of safety functions requires continuous monitoring of safety function values and trends. Because the volume of information handled by a plant operator occassionally can become overwhelming, attention may be diverted from the primary concern of maintaining plant safety. With this in mind EG and G, Idaho developed various methods and techniques for use in a computerized Safety Function Monitoring System and tested the application of these techniques using a simulated nuclear power plant, the Loss-of-Fluid Test Facility (LOFT) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper presents the methods used in the development of a Safety Function Monitoring System

  7. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M; Heijden, C.A. van der [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1992-07-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high.

  8. Chemical safety of food and drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.; Heijden, C.A. van der

    1992-01-01

    Food and drinking water are major sources of human exposure to a large number of chemicals added intentionally for technological reasons or present unintentionally due to contamination. On the other hand, there is a public demand for an essentially risk-free supply of food and drinking water. The concern over the presence of chemicals in the human diet received further emphasis through the development of toxicological and analytical methodology with increased sensitivity over the years. In order to minimize the potential health hazards to the consumers, standards have been established which indicate levels of consumption that are - according to scientific evidence - considered safe and which, consequently, permit control measures to be taken. In this context, public perception of a particular risk, may not always be in line with what might be considered a 'real' risk. Thus, while in the public opinion risk associated with smoking or over-nutrition might be accepted or underestimated, certain food chemical related risks may not be accepted and are sometimes perceived as alarmingly high

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site

  10. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  11. Chemical process control using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Chun; Kim, Raeh Yeon; Kim, Yang Su; Oh, Min; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Jung, Yeon Su

    2001-07-01

    This book is about chemical process control, which includes the basis of process control with conception, function, composition of system and summary, change of laplace and linearization, modeling of chemical process, transfer function and block diagram, the first dynamic property of process, the second dynamic property of process, the dynamic property of combined process, control structure of feedback on component of control system, the dynamic property of feedback control loop, stability of closed loop control structure, expression of process, modification and composition of controller, analysis of vibration response and adjustment controller using vibration response.

  12. Architecture-Led Safety Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Contents Acknowledgments iv Abstract v 1 Introduction 1 2 Architecture -Led Processes and ALSA 2 3 ALSA Practices 5 3.1 Example System 8 4 Identify... Architecture Models 13 5 Identify Operational Hazards and Hazard Contributors 15 5.1 System Partitioning 15 5.2 Operational Context as a Control

  13. Plasma-chemical processes and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro B, J.

    1987-01-01

    The direct applications of plasma technology on chemistry and metallurgy are presented. The physical fundaments of chemically active non-equilibrium plasma, the reaction kinetics, and the physical chemical transformations occuring in the electrical discharges, which are applied in the industry, are analysed. Some plasma chemical systems and processes related to the energy of hydrogen, with the chemical technology and with the metallurgy are described. Emphasis is given to the optimization of the energy effectiveness of these processes to obtain reducers and artificial energetic carriers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  15. Safety rewetting process by imersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, V.Q.

    1981-09-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the slow transient phenomena encountered during emergency core cooling rewetting of pressurized water reactors was done. To perform this study a low pressure and low heat flux water loop was used, with two basic tests sections, one tubular and another annular. After being heated by the Joule effect, the test section was quenched at a constant flow rate by bottom flooding of water at room temperature. The effects of wall temperature and fluid flow rate in tjhe performance of the rewetting process were investigated. Our results were in good agreement with those obtained by other laboratories. (Author) [pt

  16. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  17. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  18. OSHA safety requirements for hazardous chemicals in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohms, J

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements set forth by the Hazard Communication Standard, which has been in effect for the healthcare industry since 1987. Administrators who have not taken concrete steps to address employee health and safety issues relating to hazardous chemicals are encouraged to do so to avoid the potential of large fines for cited violations. While some states administer their own occupational safety and health programs, they must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements.

  19. Improving Chemical Plant Safety Training Using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Nasios, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    The chemical engineering industry often requires people to work in hazardous environments and to operate complicated equipment which often limits the type of training that be carried out on site. The daily job of chemical plant operators is becoming more demanding due to the increasing plant complexity together with increasing requirements on plant safety, production capacity, product quality and cost effectiveness. The importance of designing systems and environments that are as safe as poss...

  20. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-07-22

    This report for June 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  1. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, November 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-12-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for November 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee-relations, and waste management.

  2. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, March 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-04-21

    This report for March 1961, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  3. Chemical Processing Division monthly report, January 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.E.

    1966-02-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for January 1966, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  4. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Krsko periodic safety review project prioritization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.; Lambright, J.

    2004-01-01

    Definition of a Krsko Periodic Safety Review (PSR) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after last ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that Krsko NPP remains safety when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. This objective encompasses the three main criteria or goals: confirmation that the plant is as safe as originally intended, determination if there are any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and comparison the plant against modern safety standards and to identify where improvements would be beneficial at justifiable cost. Krsko PSR project is structured in the three phases: Phase 1: Preparation of Detailed 10-years PSR Program, Phase 2: Performing of 10-years PSR Program and preparing of associated documents (2001-2003), and Phase 3: Implementation of the prioritized compensatory measures and modifications (development of associated EEAR, DMP, etc.) after agreement with the SNSA on the design, procedures and time-scales (2004-2008). This paper presents the NEK PSR results of work performed under Phase 2 focused on the ranking of safety issues and prioritization of corrective measures needed for establishing an efficient action plan. Safety issues were identified in Phase 2 during the following review processes: Periodic Safety Review (PSR) task; Krsko NPP Regulatory Compliance Program (RCP) review; Westinghouse Owner Group (WOG) catalog items screening/review; SNSA recommendations (including IAEA RAMP mission suggestions/recommendations).(author)

  6. Quantitative safety goals for the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; O'Donnell, L.F.

    1981-01-01

    The paper offers a brief summary of the current regulatory background in the USA, emphasizing nuclear, related to the establishment of quantitative safety goals as a way to respond to the key issue of 'how safe is safe enough'. General Atomic has taken a leading role in advocating the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the regulatory process. This has led to understanding of the importance of quantitative safety goals. The approach developed by GA is discussed in the paper. It is centred around definition of quantitative safety regions. The regions were termed: design basis, safety margin or design capability and safety research. The design basis region is bounded by the frequency of 10 -4 /reactor-year and consequences of no identifiable public injury. 10 -4 /reactor-year is associated with the total projected lifetime of a commercial US nuclear power programme. Events which have a 50% chance of happening are included in the design basis region. In the safety margin region, which extends below the design basis region, protection is provided against some events whose probability of not happening during the expected course of the US nuclear power programme is within the range of 50 to 90%. Setting the lower mean frequency to this region of 10 -5 /reactor-year is equivalent to offering 90% assurance that an accident of given severity will not happen. Rare events with a mean frequency below 10 -5 can be predicted to occur. However, accidents predicted to have a probability of less than 10 -6 are 99% certain not to happen at all, and are thus not anticipated to affect public health and safety. The area between 10 -5 and 10 -6 defines the frequency portion of the safety research region. Safety goals associated with individual risk to a maximum-exposed member of public, general societal risk and property risk are proposed in the paper

  7. Optimization of frying process in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglia, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of frying are fairly simple. Hot oil serves as a heat exchange medium in which heat is transferred to the food being fried. As a result, the heat converts water within the food to steam and melts the fat within the food. The steam and fat then migrate from the interior of the food through the exterior and into the oil. Conversely, some of the frying oil is absorbed into the food being fried. The chemistry occurring in the frying oil and in the food being fried includes a myriad of thermal and oxidative reactions involving lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and minor food constituents. Decomposition products by autoxidation above 100°C, polimerization without oxigen between 200-300°C and thermal oxidation at 200°C, can be produced in frying oil and their amounts are related to different chemical and physical parameters such as temperature, heating time, type of oil used and food being fried, oil turnover rate, management of the oil and finally type of equipment used. Different studies have remarked as the toxicity of these by-products, is due to their chemistry and concentration. Since the prime requirement in food quality is the safety of the products, attainable through preventive analysis of the risks and total control through all frying processes, in this work the critical points of particular importance are identify and showed: Oil composition, and in particular its antioxidant capacity. Proper fryer design. Food/oil ratio. Good manufactured practice. Beside the quality screening has to be direct towards the chemical quality evaluation by easy and rapid analysis of oil (colour, polar compounds, free fatty acids and antioxidant capacity and food fried (panel test and/or consumer test. Conclusion, to maintain high quality in the frying medium, choose efficient equipment, select a fat with desirable flavour and good antioxidant capacity, eliminate crackling as soon and often as possible, choose better components with minimal but

  8. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  9. Microbial safety of minimally processed foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, John S; Sapers, Gerald M; Juneja, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    ...-course meals. All are expected to be portioned and minimally processed to balance the naturalness of unaltered foods with a concern for safety. Yet the responsibility for proper food preparation and handling remains with the naïve modern consumer, who may be less adept in food preparations than his or her less sophisticated ancestors. As a result,...

  10. Safety Assurance Process for FRMS : EJcase Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Barton, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 6: Safety Assurance Process for FRMS - eJcase Implementation The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  11. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  12. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-21

    The May, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.(MB)

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, September 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-10-22

    The September, 1957 monthly report for the Chemical Processing Department of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation includes information regarding research and engineering efforts with respect to the Purex and Redox process technology. Also discussed is the production operation, finished product operation, power and general maintenance, financial operation, engineering and research operations, and employee operation.

  15. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  16. Security risk assessment and protection in the chemical and process industry

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Genserik; van Lerberghe, Paul; van Gulijk, Coen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a security risk assessment and protection methodology that was developed for use in the chemical- and process industry in Belgium. The approach of the method follows a risk-based approach that follows desing principles for chemical safety. That approach is beneficial for workers in the chemical industry because they recognize the steps in this model from familiar safety models .The model combines the rings-of-protection approach with generic security practices including...

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  18. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  19. Safety management system in a Swiss chemical company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vouillamoz, R.

    1996-01-01

    Through the implementation of the fine chemical strategy, i.e. the manufacture of products with a higher value, the Lonza AG was confronted with a drastic increase of complexity in safety and disposal. In this connection, a concept of risk reduction was developed and carried out. This concept is based on 3 different steps: - prevention, - reduction, - provision. The details of these steps are explained here and illustrated with concrete examples. (author) 5 figs., tabs

  20. Environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    A new era of university-industry-government partnership is required to address the intertwined problems of industrial economic competitiveness and environmental quality. Chemicals that go up the stacks and down the drains are simultaneously a serious detriment to the environment, a waste of natural resources, and a threat to industrial profitability. Recently, the NSF Divisions of Chemistry and chemical and Thermal Systems have joined with the Council for Chemical research in a new grant program to reduce pollution at the source by underwriting research aimed at environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing. Part of a broader NSF initiative on environmental science research, this new program serves as a model for university-industry-government joint action and technology transfer. Other features of this program and related activities will be described in this paper

  1. Management and organizational indicators of process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hemel, S.B.; Connelly, E.M.; Haas, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study is part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission research element on organizational factors in plant safety under the Human Factors research program. This paper reports that the study investigated the chemical industry, to find leading management or organizational tools which could be useful for the NRC. After collecting information form a variety of information sources, the authors concentrated our study on two types of indicators currently in use: the first is audit- or review-based, and concentrates on programmatic factors; the second, based on frequent behavioral observations, concentrates on the management of individual worker behaviors. The authors analyzed data on the relationships between the leading indictors and direct indictors such as accident and injury rates in three case studies, to determine whether sufficient evidence of validity and utility exists to justify consideration of these indicators as public safety indicators. This paper states that on the basis of statistical associations and other evidence, the authors concluded that the two indicator types have promise for use as plant safety performance indicators, and that further development and testing of the candidate indicators should be performed

  2. MRI of chemical reactions and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Melanie M

    2017-08-01

    As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can spatially resolve a wealth of molecular information available from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), it is able to non-invasively visualise the composition, properties and reactions of a broad range of spatially-heterogeneous molecular systems. Hence, MRI is increasingly finding applications in the study of chemical reactions and processes in a diverse range of environments and technologies. This article will explain the basic principles of MRI and how it can be used to visualise chemical composition and molecular properties, providing an overview of the variety of information available. Examples are drawn from the disciplines of chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental science, physics, electrochemistry and materials science. The review introduces a range of techniques used to produce image contrast, along with the chemical and molecular insight accessible through them. Methods for mapping the distribution of chemical species, using chemical shift imaging or spatially-resolved spectroscopy, are reviewed, as well as methods for visualising physical state, temperature, current density, flow velocities and molecular diffusion. Strategies for imaging materials with low signal intensity, such as those containing gases or low sensitivity nuclei, using compressed sensing, para-hydrogen or polarisation transfer, are discussed. Systems are presented which encapsulate the diversity of chemical and physical parameters observable by MRI, including one- and two-phase flow in porous media, chemical pattern formation, phase transformations and hydrodynamic (fingering) instabilities. Lastly, the emerging area of electrochemical MRI is discussed, with studies presented on the visualisation of electrochemical deposition and dissolution processes during corrosion and the operation of batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The 'PROCESO' index: a new methodology for the evaluation of operational safety in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marono, M.; Pena, J.A.; Santamaria, J.

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledgement of industrial installations as complex systems in the early 1980s outstands as a milestone in the path to operational safety. Process plants are social-technical complex systems of a dynamic nature, whose properties depend not only on their components, but also on the inter-relations among them. A comprehensive assessment of operational safety requires a systemic approach, i.e. an integrated framework that includes all the relevant factors influencing safety. Risk analysis methodologies and safety management systems head the list of methods that point in this direction, but they normally require important plant resources. As a consequence, their use is frequently restricted to especially dangerous processes often driven by compliance with legal requirements. In this work a new safety index for the chemical industry, termed the 'Proceso' Index (standing for the Spanish terms for PROCedure for the Evaluation of Operational Safety), has been developed. PROCESO is based on the principles of systems theory, has a tree-like structure and considers 25 areas to guide the review of plant safety. The method uses indicators whose respective weight values have been obtained via an expert judgement technique. This paper describes the steps followed to develop this new Operational Safety Index, explains its structure and illustrates its application to process plants

  4. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  5. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.

    1965-11-12

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  6. Life cycle sustainability assessment of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Di; Lv, Liping; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an integrated vector-based three-dimensional (3D) methodology for the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of chemical process alternatives is proposed. In the methodology, a 3D criteria assessment system is first established by using the life cycle assessment, the life cycl...

  7. Chemical aspects of nuclear fuel fabrication processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, A; Ellis, J F; Watson, R H

    1986-04-01

    Processes used by British Nuclear Fuels plc for the conversion of uranium ore concentrates to uranium metal and uranium hexafluoride, are reviewed. Means of converting the latter compound, after enrichment, to sintered UO/sub 2/ fuel bodies are also described. An overview is given of the associated chemical engineering technology.

  8. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  9. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon

    2016-01-01

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  10. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  11. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  12. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk ŞAKAR; Yusuf ZORBA

    2017-01-01

    The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. ...

  13. Rock fracture processes in chemically reactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rock fracture is traditionally viewed as a brittle process involving damage nucleation and growth in a zone ahead of a larger fracture, resulting in fracture propagation once a threshold loading stress is exceeded. It is now increasingly recognized that coupled chemical-mechanical processes influence fracture growth in wide range of subsurface conditions that include igneous, metamorphic, and geothermal systems, and diagenetically reactive sedimentary systems with possible applications to hydrocarbon extraction and CO2 sequestration. Fracture processes aided or driven by chemical change can affect the onset of fracture, fracture shape and branching characteristics, and fracture network geometry, thus influencing mechanical strength and flow properties of rock systems. We are investigating two fundamental modes of chemical-mechanical interactions associated with fracture growth: 1. Fracture propagation may be aided by chemical dissolution or hydration reactions at the fracture tip allowing fracture propagation under subcritical stress loading conditions. We are evaluating effects of environmental conditions on critical (fracture toughness KIc) and subcritical (subcritical index) fracture properties using double torsion fracture mechanics tests on shale and sandstone. Depending on rock composition, the presence of reactive aqueous fluids can increase or decrease KIc and/or subcritical index. 2. Fracture may be concurrent with distributed dissolution-precipitation reactions in the hostrock beyond the immediate vicinity of the fracture tip. Reconstructing the fracture opening history recorded in crack-seal fracture cement of deeply buried sandstone we find that fracture length growth and fracture opening can be decoupled, with a phase of initial length growth followed by a phase of dominant fracture opening. This suggests that mechanical crack-tip failure processes, possibly aided by chemical crack-tip weakening, and distributed solution-precipitation creep in the

  14. Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Glan Devadhas G; Dr.Pushpakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system) tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based ...

  15. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, J.; Bush, J.; Andras, P.; Garratt, J.; Pigott, G.; Kennedy, A.; Pless-Mulloli, T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal guidance

  16. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (iv) Potential accident sequences caused by process deviations or other events internal to the... have experience in nuclear criticality safety, radiation safety, fire safety, and chemical process... this safety program; namely, process safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management...

  17. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, John C. [Tourgee and Associates Inc., 11459 Cronhill Drive, Suite A, Owings Mills, MD 21117 (United States)]. E-mail: jbirkmire@taiengineering.com; Lay, James R. [5644 High Tor Hill, Columbia, MD 21045 (United States)]. E-mail: jim.lay21045@gmail.com; McMahon, Mona C. [General Physics Corporation, 6095 Marshalee Drive, Suite 300, Elkridge, MD 21075 (United States)]. E-mail: mmcmahon@gpworldwide.com

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  18. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkmire, John C.; Lay, James R.; McMahon, Mona C.

    2007-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally

  19. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  20. [Non-animal toxicology in the safety testing of chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Tuula; Tähti, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop predictive test methods better than animal experiments for assessing the safety of chemical substances to man. According to today's vision this is achieved by using human cell based tissue and organ models. In the new testing strategy the toxic effects are assessed by the changes in the critical parameters of the cellular biochemical routes (AOP, adverse toxic outcome pathway-principle) in the target tissues. In vitro-tests are rapid and effective, and with them automation can be applied. The change in the testing paradigm is supported by all stakeholders: scientists, regulators and people concerned on animal welfare.

  1. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals.

  2. Process Equipment Failure Mode Analysis in a Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nasl Seraji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Prevention of potential accidents and safety promotion in chemical processes requires systematic safety management in them. The main objective of this study was analysis of important process equipment components failure modes and effects in H2S and CO2  isolation from extracted natural gas process.   Methods   This study was done in sweetening unit of an Iranian gas refinery. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA used for identification of process equipments failures.   Results   Totally 30 failures identified and evaluated using FMEA. P-1 blower's blade breaking and sour gas pressure control valve bearing tight moving had maximum risk Priority number (RPN, P-1 body corrosion and increasing plug lower side angle of reach DEAlevel control valve  in tower - 1 were minimum calculated RPN.   Conclusion   By providing a reliable documentation system for equipment failures and  incidents recording, maintaining of basic information for later safety assessments would be  possible. Also, the probability of failures and effects could be minimized by conducting preventive maintenance.

  3. Reflow process stabilization by chemical characteristics and process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Joon; Kim, Il-Hyung; Jeon, Jae-Ha; Gil, Myung-Goon; Kim, Bong-Ho

    2002-07-01

    With the shrunken device rule below 130nm, the patterning of smaller contact hole with enough process margin is required for mass production. Therefore, shrinking technology using thermal reflow process has been applied for smaller contact hole formation. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of chemical characteristics such as molecular weight, blocking ratio of resin, cross-linker amount and solvent type with its composition to reflow process of resist and found the optimized chemical composition for reflow process applicable condition. And several process conditions like resist coating thickness and multi-step thermal reflow method have been also evaluated to stabilize the pattern profile and improve CD uniformity after reflow process. From the experiment results, it was confirmed that the effect of crosslinker in resist to reflow properties such as reflow temperature and reflow rate were very critical and it controlled the pattern profile during reflow processing. And also, it showed stable CD uniformity and improved resist properties for top loss, film shrinkage and etch selectivity. The application of lower coating thickness of resist induced symmetric pattern profile even at edge with wider process margin. The introduction of two-step baking method for reflow process showed uniform CD value, also. It is believed that the application of resist containing crosslinker and optimized process conditions for smaller contact hole patterning is necessary for the mass production with a design rule below 130nm.

  4. [Formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances present in chlorinated drinking water and wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Sukeo

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews the formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances (NICS) present in chlorine-treated water containing organic contaminants. Undesirable compounds, i.e., NICS, may be formed under certain conditions when chlorine reacts with organic matter. The rate and extent of chlorine consumption with organics are strongly dependent on their chemical structures, particularly whether double bonds or sulfur and nitrogen atoms occur in the molecules. Organothiophosphorus pesticides (P=S type) are easily oxidized to their phosphorus compounds (P=O type) in chlorinated water containing HOCl as little as 0.5 mg/l, resulting in an increase in cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. Chlorination of phenols in water also produces a series of highly chlorinated compounds, including chlorophenols, chloroquinones, chlorinated carboxylic acids, and polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs). In some of these chloroquinones, 2,6-dichloroalkylsemiquinones exhibit a strong mutagenic response as do positive controls used in the Ames test. 2-phenoxyphenols in these PCPPs are particularly interesting, as they are present in the chlorine-treated phenol solution and they are also precursors (predioxins) of the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to undergo chemical changes due to hypochlorite reactions to give chloro-substituted PAHs, oxygenated (quinones) and hydroxylated (phenols) compounds, but they exhibit a lower mutagenic response. In addition, field work was performed in river water and drinking water to obtain information on chemical distribution and their safety, and the results are compared with those obtained in the model chlorination experiments.

  5. Taking into account chemical safety for French basic nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabard, Laurence; Conte, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Among nuclear installations, some fuel cycle facilities present a high level of chemical hazards. In France, the TSN law of the 13 June 2006 requires taking into account all the risks generated by a basic nuclear installation (BNI). But, as most of the implementing regulatory texts are under development at this time, part of the previous regulation settled down in the 1990's is still applying: the order of the 31 December 1999 concerning technical regulation in order to prevent and to limit hazards generated by nuclear facilities; the decree of the 4 May 1995 and the order of the 26 November 1999 that deal with BNI discharges. Moreover, some parts of BNI or of nuclear sites can be submitted to the general regulation concerning chemical hazards, which is part of the environment code. As a result, even if the TSN law and its implementing decree Nr 2007-1557 of the 2 November 2007 settle clearly that safety of BNI is not only radiological, but must take into account chemical hazards, the latter aspects are still under development. Moreover the application of the existing regulation, even if complex, has helped to assess chemical risks inside BNI and nuclear sites. (authors)

  6. A ''master key'' to chemical separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, Ch.; Hill, C.

    2002-01-01

    One of the keys to sorting nuclear waste is extracting minor actinides - the most troublesome long-lived elements - from the flow of waste by separating them from lanthanides, which have very similar chemical properties to actinides, for possible transmutation into shorter-lived elements. Thanks to a European initiative coordinated by CEA, this key is now available: its name is Sanex. There now remains to develop tough, straightforward industrial processes to integrate it into a new nuclear waste management approach by 2005. Sanex joins the Diamex process, used for the combined separation of lanthanides and minor actinides from fission products. A third process, Sesame, designed to separate americium, completes the list of available separation processes. (authors)

  7. Chemical processes in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Research into the radiation chemical effects of neutron capture therapy are described. In the use of neutron capture therapy for the treatment of brain tumours, compounds containing an activatable nuclide are selectively concentrated within tumour tissue and irradiated with neutrons. Target compounds for use in therapy must accumulate selectively in high concentrations in the tumour and must be non toxic to the patient. The most suitable of these are the boron hydrides. Radiation dosages, resulting from neutron capture in normal tissue constituents are tabulated. As part of the program to study the radiation-induced chemical processes undergone by boron target compounds, the radiolytic degredation of boron hydride and phenyl boric acid system was investigated. No direct dependence between the yield of the transient radiolytic species and the concentration of the B-compound was observed. (author)

  8. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  9. Status of the safety certification process of the TRANSRAPID system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomerius, J [TUEV Rheinland, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Software, Elektronik, Bahntechnik

    1996-12-31

    Since 20 years TUeV Rheinland is involved in safety certification of maglev technology of the TRANSRAPID type. The process applied is called PASC (Programm Accompanying Safety Certification). The paper reports on safety assessment of relevant subsystems and components (TR07, OCS, guideway components) as well as safety certification in the final program. (HW)

  10. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......, that the same principles that apply to a binary non-reactive compound system are valid also for a binary-element or a multi-element system. Therefore, it is advantageous to employ the element based method for multicomponent reaction-separation systems. It is shown that the same design-control principles...

  11. Metallurgical engineering and inspection practices in the chemical process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The process industries, in particular the petroleum refining industry, adopted materials engineering and inspection (ME and I) practices years ago and regularly updated them because they were faced with the handling and refining of flammable, toxic, and corrosive feed stocks. These industries have a number of nonproprietary techniques and procedures, some of which may be applicable in the nuclear power generation field. Some specific inspection and engineering techniques used by the process industries within the framework of the guidelines for inspections and worthy of detailed description include the following: (1) sentry drilling or safety drilling of piping subject to relatively uniform corrosion, such as feedwater heater piping, steam piping, and extraction steam piping; (2) on-stream radiography for thickness measurement and detection of unusual conditions - damaged equipment such as valve blockage; (3) critical analysis of the chemical and refining processes for the relative probability of corrosion; (4) communication of valuable experience within the industry; (5) on-stream ultrasonic thickness testing; and (6) on-stream and off-stream crack and flaw detection. The author, trained in the petroleum refining industry but versed in electric utilities, pulp and paper, chemical process, marine, mining, water handling, waste treatment, and geothermal processes, discusses individual practices of these various industries in the paper

  12. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  13. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2006-09-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  14. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-09-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  15. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study

  16. Thermodynamics principles characterizing physical and chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Honig, Jurgen M

    1999-01-01

    This book provides a concise overview of thermodynamics, and is written in a manner which makes the difficult subject matter understandable. Thermodynamics is systematic in its presentation and covers many subjects that are generally not dealt with in competing books such as: Carathéodory''s approach to the Second Law, the general theory of phase transitions, the origin of phase diagrams, the treatment of matter subjected to a variety of external fields, and the subject of irreversible thermodynamics.The book provides a first-principles, postulational, self-contained description of physical and chemical processes. Designed both as a textbook and as a monograph, the book stresses the fundamental principles, the logical development of the subject matter, and the applications in a variety of disciplines. This revised edition is based on teaching experience in the classroom, and incorporates many exercises in varying degrees of sophistication. The stress laid on a didactic, logical presentation, and on the relat...

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF A SAFETY PROGRAM FOR THE WORK ACCIDENTS’ CONTROL. A CASE STUDY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cesar de Faria Nogueira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study related to the implementation of a Work Safety Program in a chemical industry, based on the Process Safety Program, PSP, of a huge energy company. The research was applied, exploratory, qualitative and with and data collection method through documentary and bibliographical research. There will be presented the main practices adopted in order to make the Safety Program a reality inside a chemical industry, its results and contributions for its better development. This paper proposes the implementation of a Safety Program must be preceded by a diagnosis of occupational safety and health management system and with constant critical analysis in order to make the necessary adjustments.

  18. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...). Manufacturers of basic organic chemical products (except aromatic petrochemicals, industrial gases, synthetic... Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... EPA. The Interagency Testing Committee (ITC), established under section 4(e) of the Toxic Substances...

  19. Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal.

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Ángel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Ther...

  20. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  1. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? - An analysis of possible synergies

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which existing provisions that have been put into existence to advance safety objectives due to synergy effects could be expected advance security objectives as well.The paper provides a conceptual definition of...

  2. Applications of Process Synthesis: Moving from Conventional Chemical Processes towards Biorefinery Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Chen, Bingzhen; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about diminishing petroleum reserves, enhanced worldwide demand for fuels and fluctuations in the global oil market, together with climate change and national security have promoted many initiatives for exploring alternative, non-petroleum based processes. Among these initiatives......, biorefinery processes for converting biomass-derived carbohydrates into transportation fuels and chemicals are now gaining more and more attention from both academia and industry. Process synthesis, which has played a vital role for the development, design and operation of (petro) chemical processes, can...

  3. Safety-engineering concepts for process control in the chemical industry and in power plants. VDE Regional Association of Frankfurt/Main, VDI Regional Association of Frankfurt/Main-Darmstadt, Study Group meeting from March 9-30, 1987. Sicherheitskonzepte der Prozessleittechnik in verfahrenstechnischen Anlagen und in Kraftwerken. VDE-Bezirksverein Frankfurt am Main, VDI-Bezirksverein Frankfurt a. M. -Darmstadt Arbeitsgemeinschaft vom 9. 3. bis 30. 3. 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, H J [ed.

    1987-01-01

    Process instrumentation and control is a task relying to a very large extent on on-line process control systems for continuous monitoring and control. Stored-program control systems are one of the smaller systems available for process measuring and control, and are currently used for enhancing the safety of chemical plants and power plants, particularly nuclear power plants. The contributions in this book deal with basic safety engineering concepts and with methods for early detection of faults or critical states of a plant or system. (DG).

  4. Chemical Safety Research Advances in Support of Lautenberg Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are developing new ways to identify which chemicals to prioritize for further testing, to provide better access to information about chemicals, and to understand what potential risks chemicals may pose to humans and the environment.

  5. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  6. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given

  7. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Scyoc, Karl [Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.) Inc., DNV Energy Solutions, 16340 Park Ten Place, Suite 100, Houston, TX 77084 (United States)], E-mail: karl.van.scyoc@dnv.com

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  8. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Chemical decontamination process and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryota; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a process and a device for chemical decontamination, which can suppress corrosion of low corrosion resistant materials, keep decontamination properties substantially as same as before and further, reduce the volume of secondary wastes. In a step of reductively melting oxide membranes on an objective material to be decontaminated, a mixture of oxalic acid and a salt thereof is used as a reducing agent, and the reductive melting is conducted while suppressing hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous liquid system. In order to enhance the reducibility of the oxalic acid ions, it is desirable to add a cyclic hetero compound thereto. The device of the present invention comprises, a decontamination loop including a member to be decontaminated, a heater and a pH meter, a medical injection pump for injecting a reducing agent to the decontamination loop, a metal ion recovering loop including an ion exchange resin tower, a reducing agent decomposing loop including an electrolytic vessel and/or a UV ray irradiation cell, a circulation pump for circulating the decontamination liquid to each of the loops and a plurality of opening/closing valves for switching the loop in which the decontamination liquid is circulated. (T.M.)

  10. The practice of safety culture construction in radiation processing enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangshan; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Liu Wei; Hao Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Security is an integral part of the process of business operations. The radiation processing enterprises due to their own particularity, more need to focus on the operation of the safety factors, the construction of corporate safety culture is of great significance in guiding carry out the work of the Radiation Protection. Radiation processing enterprises should proceed from their own characteristics, the common attitude of security systems and security construction, and constantly improved to ensure the personal safety of radiation workers in the area of safety performance. (authors)

  11. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? An analysis of possible synergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which exist...

  12. Speleothems as Examples of Chemical Equilibrium Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James R.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical formation of speleothems such as stalactites and stalagmites is poorly understood by introductory geology instructors and misrepresented in most textbooks. Although evaporation may be a controlling factor in some caves, it is necessary to consider chemical precipitation as more important in controlling the diagenesis of calcium…

  13. Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: impact on process quality and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Kathleen L; Stock, Gregory N; Gowen, Charles R

    2014-10-01

    Successful amelioration of medical errors represents a significant problem in the health care industry. There is a need for greater understanding of the factors that lead to improved process quality and patient safety outcomes in hospitals. We present a research model that shows how transformational leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiatives are related to objective quality and patient safety outcome measures. The proposed framework is tested using structural equation modeling, based on data collected for 204 hospitals, and supplemented with objective outcome data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The results provide empirical evidence that a safety climate, which is connected to the chief executive officer's transformational leadership style, is related to CQI initiatives, which are linked to improved process quality. A unique finding of this study is that, although CQI initiatives are positively associated with improved process quality, they are also associated with higher hospital-acquired condition rates, a measure of patient safety. Likewise, safety climate is directly related to improved patient safety outcomes. The notion that patient safety climate and CQI initiatives are not interchangeable or universally beneficial is an important contribution to the literature. The results confirm the importance of using CQI to effectively enhance process quality in hospitals, and patient safety climate to improve patient safety outcomes. The overall pattern of findings suggests that simultaneous implementation of CQI initiatives and patient safety climate produces greater combined benefits.

  14. Electronics and data processing for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Industrial installations, and in particular installations involving risk, are more and more monitored and controlled by computerized systems. The use of such systems raises questions about their contribution to the installation safety and about the qualities required in these systems to avoid additional risk. The February 1995 Electronics Days were organized by the CEA-LETI Department of Electronics and Nuclear Instrumentation to try to answer these questions. Four sessions were organized on the following topics: computerized systems and functioning safety, components and architectures, softwares and norms, and tools and methods. Only the communications dealing with the safety of computerized systems and components involved in nuclear applications have been retained (17 over 36). (J.S.)

  15. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  16. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  17. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  18. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2010-11-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  19. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  20. Interface management: Effective communication to improve process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brian; Berger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Failure to successfully communicate maintenance activities, abnormal conditions, emergency response procedures, process hazards, and hundreds of other items of critical information can lead to disaster, regardless of the thoroughness of the process safety management system. Therefore, a well-functioning process safety program depends on maintaining successful communication interfaces between each involved employee or stakeholder and the many other employees or stakeholders that person must interact with. The authors discuss a process to identify the critical 'Interfaces' between the many participants in a process safety management system, and then to establish a protocol for each critical interface

  1. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landy, F.J.; Jacobs, R.R.; Mathieu, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  2. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment

  3. Are classical process safety concepts relevant to nanotechnology applications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyotte, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is yes - with adaptation to the specific hazards and challenges found in the field of nanotechnology. The validity of this affirmative response is demonstrated by relating key process safety concepts to various aspects of the nanotechnology industry in which these concepts are either already practised or could be further applied. This is accomplished by drawing on the current author's experience in process safety practice and education as well as a review of the relevant literature on the safety of nanomaterials and their production. The process safety concepts selected for analysis include: (i) risk management, (ii) inherently safer design, (iii) human error and human factors, (iv) safety management systems, and (v) safety culture.

  4. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  5. A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities

  6. Safety assessment in development and operation of modular continuous-flow processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockmann, N.; Thenée, P.; Fleischer-Trebes, C.; Laudadio, G.; Noël, T.

    2017-01-01

    Improved safety is one of the main drivers for microreactor application in chemical process development and small-scale production. Typical examples of hazardous chemistry are presented indicating potential risks also in miniaturized equipment. Energy balance and kinetic parameters describe the heat

  7. Interactive Chemical Safety for Sustainablity Toxicity Forecaster Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA researchers have been using advances in computational toxicology to address lack of data on the thousands of chemicals. EPA released chemical data on 1,800...

  8. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  9. [Prospects in getting accordance between chemical analytic control means and medical technical requirements to safety system concerning chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembovskiĭ, V R; Mogilenkova, L A; Savel'eva, E I

    2005-01-01

    The major unit monitoring chemical weapons destruction objects is a system of chemical analyticcontrol over the technologic process procedures and possibility of environment and workplace pollution withtoxicchemicals and their destruction products. At the same time, physical and chemical control means meet sanitary and hygienic requirements incompletely. To provide efficient control, internationally recognized approaches should be adapted to features of Russian system monitoring pollution of chemical weapons destruction objects with toxic chemicals.

  10. Chemical aspects of radiation damage processes: radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of primary species and radiation chemical yields are discussed. In a section on chemical scavenging of primary species the author considers scavenging kinetics and competition reactions and gives a brief outline of some experimental methods. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions is discussed as an example for polar solvents. Cyclohexane is used as an example for non-polar solvents. The importance of excited states and energy transfer is considered. Reactions in the solid state are discussed and results on linear energy transfer and average ion pair formation for various kinds of radiation are surveyed. (B.R.H.)

  11. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b)

  12. Study on 'Safety qualification of process computers used in safety systems of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.; Hoermann, E.

    1991-01-01

    The study aims at developing safety standards for hardware and software of computer systems which are increasingly used also for important safety systems in nuclear power plants. The survey of the present state-of-the-art of safety requirements and specifications for safety-relevant systems and, additionally, for process computer systems has been compiled from national and foreign rules. In the Federal Republic of Germany the KTA safety guides and the BMI/BMU safety criteria have to be observed. For the design of future computer-aided systems in nuclear power plants it will be necessary to apply the guidelines in [DIN-880] and [DKE-714] together with [DIN-192]. With the aid of a risk graph the various functions of a system, or of a subsystem, can be evaluated with regard to their significance for safety engineering. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Incorporation of Safety into Design Process : A Systems Engineering Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process. This integration enriches the exploration experience for designers and adds extra values and competitor advantages for customers. The paper introduces the safety cube for combining common blocks for design, hazard

  14. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Safety Integration Plan process. 1106.4 Section 1106.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS...

  15. Stereodynamics: From elementary processes to macroscopic chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Che, Dock-Chil [Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Chuen [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma (Italy); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This paper aims at discussing new facets on stereodynamical behaviors in chemical reactions, i.e. the effects of molecular orientation and alignment on reactive processes. Further topics on macroscopic processes involving deviations from Arrhenius behavior in the temperature dependence of chemical reactions and chirality effects in collisions are also discussed.

  16. Uncertainty in safety : new techniques for the assessment and optimisation of safety in process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouvroye, J.L.; Nieuwenhuizen, J.K.; Brombacher, A.C.; Stavrianidis, P.; Spiker, R.Th.E.; Pyatt, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    At this moment there is no standardised method for the assessment for safety in the process industry. Many companies and institutes use qualitative techniques for safety analysis while other companies and institutes use quantitative techniques. The authors of this paper will compare different

  17. Fissile materials principles of criticality safety in handling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Swedish Standard consists of the English version of the International Standard ISO 1709-1975-Nuclear energy. Fissile materials. Principles of criticality safety in handling and processing. (author)

  18. Use of nanotechnology in food processing, packaging and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of nanotechnology in food processing, packaging and safety – review. ... application of nanotechnology in food packaging and food contact materials, ... developing active antimicrobial and antifungal surfaces, and sensing as well as ...

  19. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  20. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y.; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A. van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • A workflow for an exposure driven chemical safety assessment to avoid animal testing. • Hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling and biokinetic considerations. • A tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing.

  1. A survey of process control computers at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is charged with the safe processing of spent nuclear fuel elements for the United States Department of Energy. The ICPP was originally constructed in the late 1950s and used state-of-the-art technology for process control at that time. The state of process control instrumentation at the ICPP has steadily improved to keep pace with emerging technology. Today, the ICPP is a college of emerging computer technology in process control with some systems as simple as standalone measurement computers while others are state-of-the-art distributed control systems controlling the operations in an entire facility within the plant. The ICPP has made maximal use of process computer technology aimed at increasing surety, safety, and efficiency of the process operations. Many benefits have been derived from the use of the computers for minimal costs, including decreased misoperations in the facility, and more benefits are expected in the future

  2. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  3. PNRA Process for Utilizing Experience Feedback for Enhancing Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the elements essential for any organization to become a learning organization is to learn from its own and others experience. The importance of utilizing experience feedback for enhancing operational safety is highlighted in nuclear industry again and again and this has resulted in establishment of several national and international forums. In addition, IAEA action plan on nuclear safety issued after Fukushima accident further highlighted the importance of experience sharing among nuclear community to enhance global nuclear safety regime. PNRA utilizes operating experience feedback gathered through different sources in order to improve its regulatory processes. During the review of licensing submissions, special emphasis is given to utilize the lessons learnt from experience feedback relating to nuclear industry within and outside the country. This emphasis has gradually resulted in various safety improvements in the facilities and processes. Accordingly, PNRA has developed a systematic process of evaluation of international operating experience feedback with the aim to create safety conscious approach. This process includes collecting information from different international forums such as IAEA, regulatory bodies of other countries and useful feedback of past accidents followed by its screening, evaluation and suggesting recommendations both for PNRA and its licensees. As a result of this process, several improvements concerning regulatory inspection plans of PNRA as well as in regulatory decision making and operational practices of licensees have been highlighted. This paper will present PNRA approach for utilizing experience feedback in its regulatory processes for enhancing / improving nuclear safety. (author)

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  5. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation

  6. Assessing food safety concepts on the dairy farm: the case of chemical hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety

  7. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk ŞAKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. Firstly, the variables that are the subject of the problem and that constitute the graphical structure of the Bayes Networks are identified. Then, expert opinion was sought as the statistical data on accident reports were not recorded properly while identifying the conditional probability of the relationships between the variables. Linguistic variables whose fuzzy membership functions were identified were used in detecting the probabilities. The findings of the sensitivity test revealed that the major reasons that could lead to fire and explosion during the tank cleaning process are ignition sources, reaction and safety culture.

  8. Lessons Learned from Process Safety Management: A Practical Guide to Defence in Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langerman, N., E-mail: neal@chemical-safety.com [Advanced Chemical Safety, Inc., San Diego (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Beginning with the experiences of Alfred Nobel, the chemical enterprise has learned from failures and implemented layers of protection to prevent unwanted incidents. Nobel developed dynamite as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin, a process we would today call “inherently safer technology”. In recent years, the USA has issued regulations requiring formal “risk management plans” to identify and mitigate production risks. The USA set up the “Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board” as an independent investigator of serious chemical enterprise incidents with a mission to issue recommendations aimed at preventing repeated incidents based on lessons learned. Following a particularly violent explosion in Texas in 1989, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the “Process Safety Management” (PSM) rule. PSM is a singular guide to defence in depth for preventing large-scale production incidents. The formalism is equally applicable to the chemical enterprise and the nuclear installation enterprise. This presentation will discuss the key elements of PSM and offer suggestions on using PSM as a guide to developing multiple layers of protection. The methods of PSM are applicable to Nuclear Generating Stations, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants and fissile material storage and handling. Examples from both the chemical and nuclear enterprises will be used to illustrate key points. (author)

  9. INVENSYS PROCESS SYSTEMSNUCLEAR POWER PLANTCONTROL AND SAFETY SOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govan, J.; Dragoev, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Invensys has the headquarters in London and operates in more than 60 countries. Our standard nuclear certified 1E production products have been installed in many NPPs, including Kozloduy. The implementation and services, associated within your nuclear power industry, can realise benefits from Invensys on Safety, Reliability, and growth in local implementation schemes using our financial secure portfolio. The company also services a variety of industries including hydrocarbons, chemicals, oil and gas, nuclear power and utilities, rail, telecommunications, paper, food and beverage, dairy, pharmaceuticals and personal care - to perform with greater efficiency, safety and cost effectiveness. This insures he non-obsolesce of the products and long lasting support. (author)

  10. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    . In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...

  11. Microbial production of bulk chemicals: development of anaerobic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Lamot, I.; Oost, van der J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    nnovative fermentation processes are necessary for the cost-effective production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources. Current microbial processes are either anaerobic processes, with high yield and productivity, or less-efficient aerobic processes. Oxygen utilization plays an important role

  12. Development of chemical process for synthesis of polyunsaturated esters

    OpenAIRE

    Vera LÃcia Viana do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to develop refining processes, chemical alcoholysis followed by separation of fatty acids using the complexation with urea technique for the synthesis of poly-unsaturated esters from waste of fish oils. The special crude fish oil was purchased from Company Campestre - SÃo Paulo. Initially this oil has undergone a process of physical and chemical refining. From the refined oil, an alcoholysis process was carried out to obtain the mixture of free fatty acids. From the hydrolyzed...

  13. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  14. Workshop on Indian Chemical Industry: perspectives on safety, cleaner production and environment production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A Workshop on "Indian Chemical Industry: Perspectives on Safety, Cleaner Production and Environmental Protection" was held on 3, 4 and 5 January 1996, in Bombay, India. The main objective of the workshop, which was organised jointly by the Government of India, UNIDO/UNDP and the Indian Chemical

  15. Safety assessment as basis for the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Danchiv, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the safety assessment for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development using ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) safety assessment methodology. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety assessment is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper is based on development of the ASAM (Application of the Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Disposal Facilities) Decision Support Subgroup of the Common Aspects Working Group. The implications of decision making for the application of the ISAM methodology on post-closure safety assessment are analysed. Some important elements of the decision-making process with impact on key components of the ISAM process are described. Following the development of Decision Support Subgroup of the ASAM Common Aspects Working Group the proposed change of ISAM methodology is analysed. This approach puts all activities in a decision context where the first iteration of the safety assessment is based on the existing state of knowledge and the initial engineering design. Confidence in the process is accomplished through the direct inclusion of all decision makers and stakeholders in the formulation of decisions, the definition of the state of knowledge, and decision making activities. The decision process is developed in context of undertaking assessments with little site-specific information, this situation is specifically for new planned repository. Limited site-specific information can result in a high degree of uncertainty, therefore it is important first of all to identify the sources of uncertainty arising from the limited nature of the site-specific information and then to apply appropriate approaches to manage the uncertainties and to determine whether the uncertainties are important to the overall safety of the disposal facility

  16. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  17. Microwave plasma emerging technologies for chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente, Javier F.; Kiss, Anton A.; Radoiu, Marilena T.; Stefanidis, Georgios D.

    2017-01-01

    Microwave plasma (MWP) technology is currently being used in application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition and waste remediation. Specific advantages of the technology include the enablement of a high energy density source and a highly reactive medium,

  18. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  19. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  20. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  1. Cultural safety as an ethic of care: a praxiological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, Rose; Connor, Margaret J

    2011-10-01

    New writings broadening the construct of cultural safety, a construct initiated in Aotearoa New Zealand, are beginning to appear in the literature. Therefore, it is considered timely to integrate these writings and advance the construct into a new theoretical model. The new model reconfigures the constructs of cultural safety and cultural competence as an ethic of care informed by a postmodern perspective. Central to the new model are three interwoven, co-occurring components: an ethic of care, which unfolds within a praxiological process shaped by the context. Context is expanded through identifying the three concepts of relationality, generic competence, and collectivity, which are integral to each client-nurse encounter. The competence associated with cultural safety as an ethic of care is always in the process of development. Clients and nurses engage in a dialogue to establish the level of cultural safety achieved at given points in a care trajectory.

  2. Safety analysis of tritium processing system based on PHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Safety analysis on primary confinement of tritium processing system for TBM was carried out with Preliminary Hazard Analysis. Firstly, the basic PHA process was given. Then the function and safe measures with multiple confinements about tritium system were described and analyzed briefly, dividing the two kinds of boundaries of tritium transferring through, that are multiple confinement systems division and fluid loops division. Analysis on tritium releasing is the key of PHA. Besides, PHA table about tritium releasing was put forward, the causes and harmful results being analyzed, and the safety measures were put forward also. On the basis of PHA, several kinds of typical accidents were supposed to be further analyzed. And 8 factors influencing the tritium safety were analyzed, laying the foundation of evaluating quantitatively the safety grade of various nuclear facilities. (authors)

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  4. Enhancing Safety of Artificially Ventilated Patients Using Ambient Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Christian; Gerka, Alexander; Lüpkes, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer; Hein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for enhancing the safety of artificially ventilated patients using ambient process analysis. We propose to use an analysis system consisting of low-cost ambient sensors such as power sensor, RGB-D sensor, passage detector, and matrix infrared temperature sensor to reduce risks for artificially ventilated patients in both home and clinical environments. We describe the system concept and our implementation and show how the system can contribute to patient safety.

  5. 75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... chemical substances, EPA is aware that some companies believe their competitors are sufficiently knowledgeable that if EPA were to disclose the chemical identity, the competitors would be capable of... a chemical identity of a chemical substance inspires a competitor to ascertain a process for...

  6. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the processes that take place at the beginning of each duty of dispatcher at uncontrolled aerodromes.Thanks to modeling and analysis of these processes, there is a possible to find critical ones and implement precise targeted safety measures.

  7. Quantification of microbial quality and safety in minimally processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    To find a good equilibrium between quality and margin of safety of minimally processed foods, often various hurdles are used. Quantification of the kinetics should be used to approach an optimum processing and to select the main aspects. Due to many factors of which the exact quantitative effect is

  8. The current status of exposure-driven approaches for chemical safety assessment: A cross-sector perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Fiona; Aggarwal, Manoj; Bachler, Gerald; Broadmeadow, Alan; Gellatly, Nichola; Moore, Emma; Robinson, Sally; Rooseboom, Martijn; Stevens, Alexander; Terry, Claire; Burden, Natalie

    2017-08-15

    For the purposes of chemical safety assessment, the value of using non-animal (in silico and in vitro) approaches and generating mechanistic information on toxic effects is being increasingly recognised. For sectors where in vivo toxicity tests continue to be a regulatory requirement, there has been a parallel focus on how to refine studies (i.e. reduce suffering and improve animal welfare) and increase the value that in vivo data adds to the safety assessment process, as well as where to reduce animal numbers where possible. A key element necessary to ensure the transition towards successfully utilising both non-animal and refined safety testing is the better understanding of chemical exposure. This includes approaches such as measuring chemical concentrations within cell-based assays and during in vivo studies, understanding how predicted human exposures relate to levels tested, and using existing information on human exposures to aid in toxicity study design. Such approaches promise to increase the human relevance of safety assessment, and shift the focus from hazard-driven to risk-driven strategies similar to those used in the pharmaceutical sectors. Human exposure-based safety assessment offers scientific and 3Rs benefits across all sectors marketing chemical or medicinal products. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) convened an expert working group of scientists across the agrochemical, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries plus a contract research organisation (CRO) to discuss the current status of the utilisation of exposure-driven approaches, and the challenges and potential next steps for wider uptake and acceptance. This paper summarises these discussions, highlights the challenges - particularly those identified by industry - and proposes initial steps for moving the field forward. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of chemical reactions in metallurgical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaci, M. Efe; Lichtenegger, Thomas; Schneiderbauer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Iron-ore reduction has attracted much interest in the last three decades since it can be considered as a core process in steel industry. The iron-ore is reduced to iron with the use of blast furnace and fluidized bed technologies. To investigate the harsh conditions inside fluidized bed reactors, computational tools can be utilized. One such tool is the CFD-DEM method, in which the gas phase reactions and governing equations are calculated in the Eulerian (CFD) side, whereas the particle reac...

  10. Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology

  11. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F. K.; Johnson, W. E.; MacCready, W. K.; Warren, J. H.; Schroeder, O. C.; Groswith, C. T.; Mobley, W. N.; LaFollette, T. G.; Grim, K. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Richards, R. B.; Roberts, D. S.

    1957-08-22

    This report, for July 1957 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following; Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  12. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for December 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-01-21

    This report for December 1958, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-03-21

    This report from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation, purex operation, redox operation, finished products operation, power and general maintenance operation, financial operation, facilities engineering operation, research and engineering operation, and employee relations operation.

  14. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  15. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for February 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1959-03-20

    This report for February 1959, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance: Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; and employee relations.

  16. Verification and validation process for the safety software in KNICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee-Choon; Lee, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jang-Yeol

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Verification and Validation (V and V ) process for safety software of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS), and Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) that are being developed in Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) projects. Specifically, it presents DRPS V and V experience according to the software development life cycle. The main activities of DRPS V and V process are preparation of software planning documentation, verification of Software Requirement Specification (SRS), Software Design Specification (SDS) and codes, and testing of the integrated software and the integrated system. In addition, they include software safety analysis and software configuration management. SRS V and V of DRPS are technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, preparing integrated system test plan, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. Also, SDS V and V of RPS are technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, preparing integrated software test plan, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. The code V and V of DRPS are traceability analysis, source code inspection, test case and test procedure generation, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. Testing is the major V and V activity of software integration and system integration phase. Software safety analysis at SRS phase uses Hazard Operability (HAZOP) method, at SDS phase it uses HAZOP and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and at implementation phase it uses FTA. Finally, software configuration management is performed using Nu-SCM (Nuclear Software Configuration Management) tool developed by KNICS project. Through these activities, we believe we can achieve the functionality, performance, reliability and safety that are V

  17. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-11-22

    Record highs were set for Pu output in separations plants and for amount of U processed in Purex. UO{sub 3} production and shipments exceeded schedules. Fabrication of 200 and 250 Model assemblies is reported. Unfabricated Pu production was 8.5% short. Nitric acid recovery in Purex and Redox is reported. Prototype anion exchange system for Pu was tested in Purex. Hinged agitator arms with shear pin feature was installed in UO{sub 3} plant H calciner. Operation of continuous type Task I, II facility improved. DBBP is considered for Recuplex. Methods for Pu in product solutions agreed to within 0. 10%. Purex recycle dock shelter is complete. Other projects are reported.

  18. Chemical kinetics, stochastic processes, and irreversible thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Santillán, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    This book brings theories in nonlinear dynamics, stochastic processes, irreversible thermodynamics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry together in an introductory but formal and comprehensive manner.  Coupled with examples, the theories are developed stepwise, starting with the simplest concepts and building upon them into a more general framework.  Furthermore, each new mathematical derivation is immediately applied to one or more biological systems.  The last chapters focus on applying mathematical and physical techniques to study systems such as: gene regulatory networks and ion channels. The target audience of this book are mainly final year undergraduate and graduate students with a solid mathematical background (physicists, mathematicians, and engineers), as well as with basic notions of biochemistry and cellular biology.  This book can also be useful to students with a biological background who are interested in mathematical modeling, and have a working knowledge of calculus, differential equatio...

  19. Safety assessment for the IS process in a hydrogen production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2005-08-01

    A substitute energy development have been required due to the dry up of the fossil fuel and an environmental problem. Consequently, among substitute energy to be discussed, producing hydrogen from water which does not release carbon is a very promising technology. Also, Iodine-Sulfur(IS) thermochemical water decomposition is one of the promising process which is used to produce hydrogen efficiently using the high temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) as an energy source that is possible to supply heat over 1000 .deg. C. In this study, to make a safety assessment of the hydrogen production using the IS process, an initiating events analysis and an accident scenario modeling considering the relief system were carried out. A method for initiating event identification used the Master Logic Diagram(MLD) that is logical and deductive. As a result, 9 initiating events that cause a leakage of the chemical material were identified. 6 accident scenario based on the initiating event are identified and quantified to the event trees. The frequency of the chemical material leakage produced by IS process is estimated relatively high to the value of 1.22x10 -4 /y. Therefore, it requires more effort on safety of the hydrogen production which can be considered as a part of the nuclear system and safety management research to increase social acceptability. Moreover, these methods will be helpful to the safety assessment of the hydrogen production system of the IS process in general

  20. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...

  1. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2005-12-01

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  2. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  3. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Chemical process synthesis-design involve the identification of the processing route to reach a desired product from a specified set of raw materials, design of the operations involved in the processing route, the calculations of utility requirements, the calculations of waste and emission...... to the surrounding and many more. Different methods (knowledge-based [1], mathematical programming [2], hybrid, etc.) have been proposed and are also currently employed to solve these synthesis-design problems. D’ Anterroches [3] proposed a group contribution based approach to solve the synthesis-design problem...... of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join...

  4. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  5. Test process for the safety-critical embedded software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju; Lee, Jangsoo

    2004-01-01

    Digitalization of nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system requires high reliability of not only hardware but also software. Verification and Validation (V and V) process is recommended for software reliability. But a more quantitative method is necessary such as software testing. Most of software in the nuclear I and C system is safety-critical embedded software. Safety-critical embedded software is specified, verified and developed according to V and V process. Hence two types of software testing techniques are necessary for the developed code. First, code-based software testing is required to examine the developed code. Second, after code-based software testing, software testing affected by hardware is required to reveal the interaction fault that may cause unexpected results. We call the testing of hardware's influence on software, an interaction testing. In case of safety-critical embedded software, it is also important to consider the interaction between hardware and software. Even if no faults are detected when testing either hardware or software alone, combining these components may lead to unexpected results due to the interaction. In this paper, we propose a software test process that embraces test levels, test techniques, required test tasks and documents for safety-critical embedded software. We apply the proposed test process to safety-critical embedded software as a case study, and show the effectiveness of it. (author)

  6. Textual and chemical information processing: different domains but similar algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extent to which algorithms developed for the processing of textual databases are also applicable to the processing of chemical structure databases, and vice versa. Applications discussed include: an algorithm for distribution sorting that has been applied to the design of screening systems for rapid chemical substructure searching; the use of measures of inter-molecular structural similarity for the analysis of hypertext graphs; a genetic algorithm for calculating term weights for relevance feedback searching for determining whether a molecule is likely to exhibit biological activity; and the use of data fusion to combine the results of different chemical similarity searches.

  7. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla S.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of wor...

  8. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  9. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site

  10. Implementation of safety goals in NRC's regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    In May 1983 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement on Safety Goals For Nuclear Power Plant Operation. The Commission at the same time judged that a two-year evaluation period was necessary to judge the effectiveness of the goals and design objectives, and directed the staff to develop information and understanding as to how to further define and use the design objectives and the cost-benefit guidelines. In carrying out the Commission's mandate, the staff framed three major questions to be addressed during the safety goal evaluation period. These three questions are: 1) to what extent is it practical to use safety goals in the regulatory process. 2) Should the quantitative design objectives be modified or supplemented. If so, how. 3) How should the safety goals be implemented at the end of the evaluation period. The staff's conclusions are discussed

  11. Regulation of chemical safety at fuel cycle facilities by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    When the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1975, its regulations were based on radiation dose limits. Chemical hazards rarely influenced NRC regulations. After the Three Mile Island reactor accident in 1979, the NRC staff was directed to address emergency planning at non-reactor facilities. Several fuel cycle facilities were ordered to submit emergency plans consistent with reactor emergency plans because no other guidance was available. NRC published a notice that it was writing regulations to codify the requirements in the Orders and upgrade the emergency plans to address all hazards, including chemical hazards. The legal authority of NRC to regulate chemical safety was questioned. In 1986, an overfilled uranium hexafluoride cylinder ruptured and killed a worker. The NRC staff was directed to address emergency planning for hazardous chemicals in its regulations. The final rule included a requirement for fuel cycle facilities to certify compliance with legislation requiring local authorities to establish emergency plans for hazardous chemicals. As with emergency planning, NRC's authority to regulate chemical safety during routine operations was limited. NRC established memoranda of understanding (MOUs) with other regulatory agencies to encourage exchange of information between the agencies regarding occupational hazards. In 2000, NRC published new, performance-based, regulations for fuel cycle facilities. The new regulations required an integrated safety analysis (ISA) which used quantitative standards to assess chemical exposures. Some unique chemical exposure cases were addressed while implementing the new regulations. In addition, some gaps remain in the regulation of hazardous chemicals at fuel cycle facilities. The status of ongoing efforts to improve regulation of chemical safety at fuel cycle facilities is discussed. (authors)

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  13. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  14. A software engineering process for safety-critical software application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Heon; Kim, Hang Bae; Chang, Hoon Seon; Jeon, Jong Sun

    1995-01-01

    Application of computer software to safety-critical systems in on the increase. To be successful, the software must be designed and constructed to meet the functional and performance requirements of the system. For safety reason, the software must be demonstrated not only to meet these requirements, but also to operate safely as a component within the system. For longer-term cost consideration, the software must be designed and structured to ease future maintenance and modifications. This paper presents a software engineering process for the production of safety-critical software for a nuclear power plant. The presentation is expository in nature of a viable high quality safety-critical software development. It is based on the ideas of a rational design process and on the experience of the adaptation of such process in the production of the safety-critical software for the shutdown system number two of Wolsung 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power generation plants. This process is significantly different from a conventional process in terms of rigorous software development phases and software design techniques, The process covers documentation, design, verification and testing using mathematically precise notations and highly reviewable tabular format to specify software requirements and software requirements and software requirements and code against software design using static analysis. The software engineering process described in this paper applies the principle of information-hiding decomposition in software design using a modular design technique so that when a change is required or an error is detected, the affected scope can be readily and confidently located. it also facilitates a sense of high degree of confidence in the 'correctness' of the software production, and provides a relatively simple and straightforward code implementation effort. 1 figs., 10 refs. (Author)

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of bioaerosols - Implications for nucleation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariya, P. A.; Sun, J.; Eltouny, N. A.; Hudson, E. D.; Hayes, C. T.; Kos, G.

    The importance of organic compounds in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, and as cloud condensation and ice-forming nuclei, has been recognized for several decades. Organic compounds comprise a significant fraction of the suspended matter mass, leading to local (e.g. toxicity, health hazards) and global (e.g. climate change) impacts. The state of knowledge of the physical chemistry of organic aerosols has increased during the last few decades. However, due to their complex chemistry and the multifaceted processes in which they are involved, the importance of organic aerosols, particularly bioaerosols, in driving physical and chemical atmospheric processes is still very uncertain and poorly understood. Factors such as solubility, surface tension, chemical impurities, volatility, morphology, contact angle, deliquescence, wettability, and the oxidation process are pivotal in the understanding of the activation processes of cloud droplets, and their chemical structures, solubilities and even the molecular configuration of the microbial outer membrane, all impact ice and cloud nucleation processes in the atmosphere. The aim of this review paper is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols with a focus on those properties important in nucleation processes. We herein discuss the potential importance (or lack thereof) of physical and chemical properties of bioaerosols and illustrate how the knowledge of these properties can be employed to study nucleation processes using a modeling exercise. We also outline a list of major uncertainties due to a lack of understanding of the processes involved or lack of available data. We will also discuss key issues of atmospheric significance deserving future physical chemistry research in the fields of bioaerosol characterization and microphysics, as well as bioaerosol modeling. These fundamental questions are to be addressed prior to any definite conclusions on the

  16. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  17. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  18. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  19. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N. [Ukrainian State Scientific Technical Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  20. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  1. Chemical Safety Alert: Safe Storage and Handling of Swimming Pool Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of pool water treatment and maintenance chemicals (e.g., chlorine), and the protective measures pool owners should take to prevent fires, toxic vapor releases, and injuries. Triggered by improper wetting, mixing, or self-reactivity over time.

  2. DHS Office of Health Affairs Chemical Defense Program Analyzes Subway Safety Against Chemical Terrorist Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM In an article for the journal Domestic Preparedness, Joselito Ignacio examines how to protect subway riders from chemical attacks. Ignacio graduated from the Center for Homeland Defense and Security in...

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  4. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  5. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  6. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  7. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  9. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  10. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  11. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  12. Best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries with examples from the industry sector and specifically from Nova Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will summarize best practices in incident investigation in the chemical process industries and will provide examples from both the industry sector and specifically from NOVA Chemicals. As a sponsor of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, NOVA Chemicals participates in a number of working groups to help develop best practices and tools for the chemical process and associated industries in order to advance chemical process safety. A recent project was to develop an update on guidelines for investigating chemical process incidents. A successful incident investigation management system must ensure that all incidents and near misses are reported, that root causes are identified, that recommendations from incident investigations identify appropriate preventive measures, and that these recommendations are resolved in a timely manner. The key elements of an effective management system for incident investigation will be described. Accepted definitions of such terms as near miss, incident, and root cause will be reviewed. An explanation of the types of incident classification systems in use, along with expected levels of follow-up, will be provided. There are several incident investigation methodologies in use today by members of the CCPS; most of these methodologies incorporate the use of several tools. These tools include: timelines, sequence diagrams, causal factor identification, brainstorming, checklists, pre-defined trees, and team-defined logic trees. Developing appropriate recommendations and then ensuring their resolution is the key to prevention of similar events from recurring, along with the sharing of lessons learned from incidents. There are several sources of information on previous incidents and lessons learned available to companies. In addition, many companies in the chemical process industries use their own internal databases to track recommendations from

  13. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers.

  14. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  15. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland); Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications

  16. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications. Many of the

  17. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Use of safety analysis results to support process operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, I.; Heino, P.

    1990-01-01

    Safety and risk analysis carried out during the design phase of a process plant produces useful knowledge about the behavior and the disturbances of the system. This knowledge, however, often remains to the designer though it would be of benefit to the operators and supervisors of the process plant, too. In Technical Research Centre of Finland a project has been started to plan and construct a prototype of an information system to make use of the analysis knowledge during the operation phase. The project belongs to a Nordic KRM project (Knowledge Based Risk Management System). The information system is planned to base on safety and risk analysis carried out during the design phase and completed with operational experience. The safety analysis includes knowledge about potential disturbances, their causes and consequences in the form of Hazard and Operability Study, faut trees and/or event trees. During the operation disturbances can however, occur, which are not included in the safety analysis, or the causes or consequences of which have been incompletely identified. Thus the information system must also have an interface for the documentation of the operational knowledge missing from the analysis results. The main tasks off the system when supporting the management of a disturbance are to identify it (or the most important of the coexistent ones) from the stored knowledge and to present it in a proper form (for example as a deviation graph). The information system may also be used to transfer knowledge from one shift to another and to train process personnel

  19. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  20. Chemical-cleaning process evaluation: Westinghouse steam generators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, W.F.; Gockley, G.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Secondary Side Chemical Cleaning Program, under develpment since 1978, has resulted in a generic process for the removal of accumulated corrosion products and tube deposits in the tube support plate crevices. The SGOG/EPRI Project S150-3 was established to obtain an evaluation of the generic process in regard to its applicability to Westinghouse steam generators. The results of the evaluation form the basis for recommendations for transferring the generic process to a plant specific application and identify chemical cleaning corrosion guidelines for the materials in Westinghouse Steam Generators. The results of the evaluation, recommendations for plant-specific applications and corrosion guidelines for chemical cleaning are presented in this report

  1. Report: EPA Should Assess Needs and Implement Management Controls to Ensure Effective Incorporation of Chemical Safety Research Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0294, June 23, 2017. With management controls that ensure the collaborative development of research products and prioritize chemical safety research needs, the EPA would be better able to conduct faster chemical risk assessments.

  2. Criticality safety for deactivation of the Rover dry headend process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Rover dry headend process combusted Rover graphite fuels in preparation for dissolution and solvent extraction for the recovery of 235 U. At the end of the Rover processing campaign, significant quantities of 235 U were left in the dry system. The Rover Dry Headend Process Deactivation Project goal is to remove the remaining uranium bearing material (UBM) from the dry system and then decontaminate the cells. Criticality safety issues associated with the Rover Deactivation Project have been influenced by project design refinement and schedule acceleration initiatives. The uranium ash composition used for calculations must envelope a wide range of material compositions, and yet result in cost effective final packaging and storage. Innovative thinking must be used to provide a timely safety authorization basis while the project design continues to be refined

  3. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. Influence of chemical processing on the imaging properties of microlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljevic, Darko; Muric, Branka; Pantelic, Dejan; Panic, Bratimir

    2009-01-01

    Microlenses are produced by irradiation of a layer of tot'hema and eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) by using a laser beam (Nd:YAG 2nd harmonic; 532 nm). All the microlenses obtained are concave with a parabolic profile. After the production, the microlenses are chemically processed with various concentrations of alum. The following imaging properties of microlenses were calculated and analyzed: the root mean square (rms) wavefront aberration, the geometric encircled energy and the spot diagram. The microlenses with higher concentrations of alum in solution had a greater effective focal length and better image quality. The microlenses chemically processed with 10% alum solution had near-diffraction-limited performance.

  5. The Safety "Use Case": Co-Developing Chemical Information Management and Laboratory Safety Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Ralph B.; McEwen, Leah R.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the American Chemical Society's "Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs" identifies six skill sets that undergraduate chemistry programs should instill in their students. In our roles as support staff for chemistry departments at two different institutions (one a Primarily Undergraduate…

  6. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  7. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    We describe and illustrate a workflow for chemical safety assessment that completely avoids animal testing. The workflow, which was developed within the SEURAT-1 initiative, is designed to be applicable to cosmetic ingredients as well as to other types of chemicals, e.g. active ingredients in plant protection products, biocides or pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to develop a workflow to assess chemical safety without relying on any animal testing, but instead constructing a hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling, biokinetic considerations and then by targeted non-animal testing. For illustrative purposes, we consider a hypothetical new ingredient x as a new component in a body lotion formulation. The workflow is divided into tiers in which points of departure are established through in vitro testing and in silico prediction, as the basis for estimating a safe external dose in a repeated use scenario. The workflow includes a series of possible exit (decision) points, with increasing levels of confidence, based on the sequential application of the Threshold of Toxicological (TTC) approach, read-across, followed by an "ab initio" assessment, in which chemical safety is determined entirely by new in vitro testing and in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by means of mathematical modelling. We believe that this workflow could be applied as a tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing, where necessary, and to gain confidence in safety decision making without the need for animal testing.

  8. Materials Safety Data Sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchen, E.E.; Porter, W.E.

    1979-09-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets contained in this volume are the basis for the Toxic Chemical Control Program developed by the Industrial Hygiene Department, Health Division, ORNL. The three volumes are the update and expansion of ORNL/TM-5721 and ORNL/TM-5722 Material Safety Data Sheets: The Basis for Control of Toxic Chemicals, Volume I and Volume II. As such, they are a valuable adjunct to the data cards issued with specific chemicals. The chemicals are identified by name, stores catalog number where appropriate, and sequence numbers from the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1977 Edition, if available. The data sheets were developed and compiled to aid in apprising the employees of hazards peculiar to the handling and/or use of specific toxic chemicals. Space limitation necessitate the use of descriptive medical terms and toxicological abbreviations. A glossary and an abbreviation list were developed to define some of those sometimes unfamiliar terms and abbreviations. The page numbers are keyed to the catalog number in the chemical stores at ORNL.

  9. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  10. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-01-01

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided.

  11. A sequential-move game for enhancing safety and security cooperation within chemical clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Yulia; Reniers, Genserik

    2011-02-15

    The present paper provides a game theoretic analysis of strategic cooperation on safety and security among chemical companies within a chemical industrial cluster. We suggest a two-stage sequential move game between adjacent chemical plants and the so-called Multi-Plant Council (MPC). The MPC is considered in the game as a leader player who makes the first move, and the individual chemical companies are the followers. The MPC's objective is to achieve full cooperation among players through establishing a subsidy system at minimum expense. The rest of the players rationally react to the subsidies proposed by the MPC and play Nash equilibrium. We show that such a case of conflict between safety and security, and social cooperation, belongs to the 'coordination with assurance' class of games, and we explore the role of cluster governance (fulfilled by the MPC) in achieving a full cooperative outcome in domino effects prevention negotiations. The paper proposes an algorithm that can be used by the MPC to develop the subsidy system. Furthermore, a stepwise plan to improve cross-company safety and security management in a chemical industrial cluster is suggested and an illustrative example is provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.A.; McKernan, S.A.; Vigil, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker

  13. Hierarchical optimal control of large-scale nonlinear chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Sadati, Nasser

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for optimal control of large-scale chemical processes. In this approach, the chemical process is decomposed into smaller sub-systems at the first level, and a coordinator at the second level, for which a two-level hierarchical control strategy is designed. For this purpose, each sub-system in the first level can be solved separately, by using any conventional optimization algorithm. In the second level, the solutions obtained from the first level are coordinated using a new gradient-type strategy, which is updated by the error of the coordination vector. The proposed algorithm is used to solve the optimal control problem of a complex nonlinear chemical stirred tank reactor (CSTR), where its solution is also compared with the ones obtained using the centralized approach. The simulation results show the efficiency and the capability of the proposed hierarchical approach, in finding the optimal solution, over the centralized method.

  14. Quality Assessment of Film Processing Chemicals in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the qualities of the four different processing chemicals (solutions). With EP 21 films (Ektaspeed plus film, Kodak Co., USA), nine unexposed and nine exposed films of a step wedge were processed utilizing automatic film processor (XR 24, Durr Co., Germany) for 5 days. During 5 days, the total number of processed films including out-patient's intraoral films were about 400-500 for each brand. Base plus fog density, film density, contrast of processed films were measured with densitometer (model 07-443 digital densitometer, Victoreen Co., USA). These measurements were analyzed for comparison. The results were as follows,1. For the base plus fog density, there was significant difference among the four chemicals (p<0.05). The sequence of the base plus fog densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Agfa and Konica. 2. For the film density, all chemicals showed useful range of photographic densities (0.25-2.5). The sequence of the film densities was in ascending order by Kodak, X-dol 90, Konica and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of film density between X-dol and Kodak (p<0.05). 3. The sequence of the contrasts was in ascending order by Konica, X-dol 90, Kodak and Agfa. But there was no statistically significant difference of contrast between X-dol and Konica (p<0.05). These results indicated that the four processing chemicals had the clinically useful film density and contrast, but only Kodak processing chemical had useful base plus fog density.

  15. A 'Toolbox' Equivalent Process for Safety Analysis Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Eng, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software) identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls that prevent or mitigate potential accidents. The development and maintenance of a collection, or 'toolbox', of multiple-site use, standard solution, Software Quality Assurance (SQA)-compliant safety software is one of the major improvements identified in the associated DOE Implementation Plan (IP). The DOE safety analysis toolbox will contain a set of appropriately quality-assured, configuration-controlled, safety analysis codes, recognized for DOE-broad, safety basis applications. Currently, six widely applied safety analysis computer codes have been designated for toolbox consideration. While the toolbox concept considerably reduces SQA burdens among DOE users of these codes, many users of unique, single-purpose, or single-site software may still have sufficient technical justification to continue use of their computer code of choice, but are thwarted by the multiple-site condition on toolbox candidate software. The process discussed here provides a roadmap for an equivalency argument, i.e., establishing satisfactory SQA credentials for single-site software that can be deemed ''toolbox-equivalent''. The process is based on the model established to meet IP Commitment 4.2.1.2: Establish SQA criteria for the safety analysis ''toolbox'' codes. Implementing criteria that establish the set of prescriptive SQA requirements are based on implementation plan/procedures from the Savannah River Site, also incorporating aspects of those from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (SNL component) and the Yucca Mountain Project. The major requirements are met with evidence of a software quality assurance plan, software requirements and design documentation, user's instructions, test report, a

  16. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Engineering. In order to incorporate reactor design into process design in a meaningful way, the teachers of the respective courses need to collaborate (Standard 9 – Enhancement of Faculty CDIO skills). The students also see that different components of the chemical engineering curriculum relate......All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... of the CDIO standards – especially standard 3 – Integrated Curriculum - means that the course projects must draw on competences provided in other subjects which the students are taking in parallel with Process Design – specifically Process Control and Reaction Engineering. In each semester of the B...

  17. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources...... to be employed for validation and fine-tuning of the solutions from the model-based framework, thereby, removing the need for trial and error experimental steps. Also, questions related to economic feasibility, operability and sustainability, among others, can be considered in the early stages of design. However...

  18. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  19. Management by process based systems and safety focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydnert, Bo; Groenlund, Bjoern

    2005-12-01

    An initiative from The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate led to this study carried out in the late autumn of 2005. The objective was to understand in more detail how an increasing use of process management affects organisations, on the one hand regarding risks and security, on the other hand regarding management by objectives and other management and operative effects. The main method was interviewing representatives of companies and independent experts. More than 20 interviews were carried out. In addition a literature study was made. All participating companies are using Management Systems based on processes. However, the methods chosen, and the results achieved, vary extensively. Thus, there are surprisingly few examples of complete and effective management by processes. Yet there is no doubt that management by processes is effective and efficient. Overall goals are reached, business results are achieved in more reliable ways and customers are more satisfied. The weaknesses found can be translated into a few comprehensive recommendations. A clear, structured and acknowledged model should be used and the processes should be described unambiguously. The changed management roles should be described and obeyed extremely legibly. New types of process objectives need to be formulated. In addition one fact needs to be observed and effectively fended off. Changes are often met by mental opposition on management level, as well as among co-workers. This fact needs attention and leadership. Safety development is closely related to the design and operation of a business management system and its continual improvement. A deep understanding of what constitutes an efficient and effective management system affects the understanding of safety. safety culture and abilities to achieve safety goals. Concerning risk, the opinions were unambiguous. Management by processes as such does not result in any further risks. On the contrary. Processes give a clear view of production and

  20. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  1. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...

  2. Application of the chemical properties of ruthenium to decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, A.; Berger, D.

    1965-01-01

    The chemical properties of ruthenium in the form of an aqueous solution of the nitrate and of organic tributylphosphate solution are reviewed. From this data, some known examples are given: they demonstrate the processes of separation or of elimination of ruthenium from radioactive waste. (authors) [fr

  3. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  4. Physico-chemical, functional and processing attributes of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was generated from six commercial potato varieties and studied for their physical, chemical, functional and processing attributes. Lady Rosetta followed by Hermes was the most appreciable varieties concerning their physical attributes. A positive correlation (R = 0.765) existed between tuber firmness and specific ...

  5. MIMO Self-Tuning Control of Chemical Process Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, L.; Jørgensen, S. B.; Goldschmidt, L.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of selecting a feasible model structure for a MIMO self-tuning controller (MIMOSC) is addressed. The dependency of the necessary structure complexity in relation to the specific process operating point is investigated. Experimental results from a fixed-bed chemical reactor are used...

  6. Near miss reporting in the chemical process industry: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The research programme described in this paper focuses on the human component of system failure in general, and more specifically on the design and implementation of information systems for registration and analysis of so called near misses (or: near accidents) in the chemical process industry. Its

  7. Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate

  8. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F., E-mail: francois.dulieu@obspm.fr [LERMA, Université de Cergy Pontoise et Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112 du CNRS. 5, mail Gay Lussac, 95031 Cergy Pontoise (France)

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  9. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-01-01

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation

  10. Numerical Validation of Chemical Compositional Model for Wettability Alteration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen; Baishemirov, Zharasbek; Bau, Domenico

    2017-12-01

    Chemical compositional simulation of enhanced oil recovery and surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation processes is a complex task that involves solving dozens of equations for all grid blocks representing a reservoir. In the present work, we perform a numerical validation of the newly developed mathematical formulation which satisfies the conservation laws of mass and energy and allows applying a sequential solution approach to solve the governing equations separately and implicitly. Through its application to the numerical experiment using a wettability alteration model and comparisons with existing chemical compositional model's numerical results, the new model has proven to be practical, reliable and stable.

  11. DYNSIR; A dynamic simulator for the chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Byeon, Kee Hoh; Park, Jeong Hwa; Park, Seong Won

    1990-03-01

    A program code for dynamic simulation of arbitrary chemical process, called DYNSIR, is developed. The code can simulate rather arbitrary arrangements of individual chemical processing units whose models are described by ordinary differential equations. The code structure to handle input/output, memory and data management, numerical interactive or predetermined changes in parameter values during the simulation. Individual model is easy to maintain since the modular approach is used. The integration routine is highly effective because of the development of algorithm for modular integration method using the cubic spline. DYNSIR's data structures are not the index but the pointer structure. This pointer structure allows the dynamic memory allocation for the memory management. The dynamic memory allocation methods is to minimize the amount of memories and to overcome the limitation of the number of variables to be used. Finally, it includes various functions, such as the input preprocessor, the effective error processing, and plotting and reporting routines. (author)

  12. Laser isotope separation - a new class of chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, K.B.; Mannik, L.; O'Neill, J.A.; Mader, D.L.; Nickerson, S.B.; Robins, J.R.; Bartoszek, F.E.; Gratton, D.

    1983-01-01

    Lasers may soon find several applications in chemical processing. The applications that have attracted the most research funding to date involve isotope separation for the nuclear industry. These isotopes have an unusually high value (≥$1000/kg) compared to bulk chemicals (∼$1/kg) and are generally required in very large quantities. In a laser isotope separation process, light is used to convert a separation that is very difficult or even impossible by conventional chemical engineering techniques to one that is readily handled by conventional separation technology. For some isotopes this can result in substantial capital and energy savings. A uranium enrichment process developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the closest to commercialization of the large scale laser isotope separation processes. Of particular interest to the Canadian nuclear industry are the laser separation of deuterium, tritium, zirconium-90 and carbon-14. In this paper, the basic principles behind laser isotope separation are reviewed and brief dscriptions of the more developed processes are given

  13. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  14. Sustainability assessment of novel chemical processes at early stage: application to biobased processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.D.; Meesters, K.; Uil, H. den; Jong, E. de; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical conversions have been a cornerstone of industrial revolution and societal progress. Continuing this progress in a resource constrained world poses a critical challenge which demands the development of innovative chemical processes to meet our energy and material needs in a sustainable way.

  15. Supercritical Fluids Processing of Biomass to Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Norman K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-09-28

    The main objective of this project is to develop and/or enhance cost-effective methodologies for converting biomass into a wide variety of chemicals, fuels, and products using supercritical fluids. Supercritical fluids will be used both to perform reactions of biomass to chemicals and products as well as to perform extractions/separations of bio-based chemicals from non-homogeneous mixtures. This work supports the Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Platform Goals. Supercritical fluids are a thermochemical approach to processing biomass that, while aligned with the Biomass Program’s interests in gasification and pyrolysis, offer the potential for more precise and controllable reactions. Indeed, the literature with respect to the use of water as a supercritical fluid frequently refers to “supercritical water gasification” or “supercritical water pyrolysis.”

  16. Study on microwave assisted process in chemical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Ali; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Ramlan Abd Aziz

    2001-01-01

    The microwave assisted process is a revolutionary method of extraction that reduces the extraction time to as little as a few seconds, with up to a ten-fold decrease in the use of solvents. The target material is immersed in solvent that is transparent to microwaves, so only the target material is heated, and because of the microwaves tend to heat the inside of the material quickly, the target chemical are expelled in a few seconds. benefits from this process include significant reductions in the amount of energy required and substantial reductions in the cost and dispose of hazardous solvents. A thorough review has been displayed on: using the microwave in extraction, applications of microwave in industry, process flow diagram, mechanism of the process and comparison between microwave process and other extraction techniques (soxhlet, steam distillation and supercritical fluid). This review attempts to summarize the studies about microwave assisted process as a very promising technique. (Author)

  17. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  18. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cette, W [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-09-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author).

  19. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cette, W.

    1997-01-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author)

  20. Implementation of the chemicals regulation REACH : Exploring the impact on occupational health and safety management among Swedish downstream users

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Linda; Antonsson, Ann-Beth

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have examined how the European chemicals regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) has influenced occupational risk management of chemicals at Swedish downstream user companies. The data were collected through interviews with occupational health and safety professionals, safety representatives and authority employees. The results show that most of the informants had scarce knowledge about REACH and that REACH implementation...

  1. Efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in treatment of active acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Talib, Hassanain; Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Hameed, Ayad; Murugaiah, Chandrika

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is an extremely common condition affecting the pilosebaceous unit of the skin and characterized by presence of comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, cysts, which might result in permanent scars. Acne vulgaris commonly involve adolescents and young age groups. Active acne vulgaris is usually associated with several complications like hyper or hypopigmentation, scar formation and skin disfigurement. Previous studies have targeted the efficiency and safety of local and systemic agents in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. Superficial chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure which might cause some potentially undesirable adverse events. This study was conducted to review the efficacy and safety of superficial chemical peeling in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. It is a structured review of an earlier seven articles meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The clinical assessments were based on pretreatment and post-treatment comparisons and the role of superficial chemical peeling in reduction of papules, pustules and comedones in active acne vulgaris. This study showed that almost all patients tolerated well the chemical peeling procedures despite a mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema have been reported; also the incidence of major adverse events was very low and easily manageable. In conclusion, chemical peeling with glycolic acid is a well-tolerated and safe treatment modality in active acne vulgaris while salicylic acid peels is a more convenient for treatment of darker skin patients and it showed significant and earlier improvement than glycolic acid.

  2. Assessment of chemical processes for the post-accident decontamination of reactor-coolant systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.; Divine, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Previously used chemical decontamination processes and potentially useful new decontamination processes were examined for the usefulness following a reactor accident. Both generic fuel damage accidents and the accident at TMI-2 were considered. A total of fourteen processes were evaluated. Process evaluation included data in the following categories: technical description of the process, recorded past usage, effectiveness, process limitation, safety consideration, and waste management. These data were evaluated, and cost considerations were presented along with a description of the applicability of the process to TMI-2 and development and demonstration needs. Specific recommendations regarding a primary-system decontamination development program to support TMI-2 recovery were also presented

  3. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... is missing, the atom connectivity based model is employed to predict the missing group interaction. In this way, a wide application range of the property modeling tool is ensured. Based on the property models, targeted computer-aided techniques have been developed for design and analysis of organic chemicals......, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property...

  4. Economic model predictive control theory, formulations and chemical process applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Matthew; Christofides, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes. In addition to being...

  5. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  6. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  7. Implications of safety requirements for the treatment of THMC processes in geological disposal systems for radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bernier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mission of nuclear safety authorities in national radioactive waste disposal programmes is to ensure that people and the environment are protected against the hazards of ionising radiations emitted by the waste. It implies the establishment of safety requirements and the oversight of the activities of the waste management organisation in charge of implementing the programme. In Belgium, the safety requirements for geological disposal rest on the following principles: defence-in-depth, demonstrability and the radiation protection principles elaborated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP. Applying these principles requires notably an appropriate identification and characterisation of the processes upon which the safety functions fulfilled by the disposal system rely and of the processes that may affect the system performance. Therefore, research and development (R&D on safety-relevant thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC issues is important to build confidence in the safety assessment. This paper points out the key THMC processes that might influence radionuclide transport in a disposal system and its surrounding environment, considering the dynamic nature of these processes. Their nature and significance are expected to change according to prevailing internal and external conditions, which evolve from the repository construction phase to the whole heating–cooling cycle of decaying waste after closure. As these processes have a potential impact on safety, it is essential to identify and to understand them properly when developing a disposal concept to ensure compliance with relevant safety requirements. In particular, the investigation of THMC processes is needed to manage uncertainties. This includes the identification and characterisation of uncertainties as well as for the understanding of their safety-relevance. R&D may also be necessary to reduce uncertainties of which the magnitude does not allow

  8. Radio-Frequency Applications for Food Processing and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Tang, Juming; Wang, Yifen; Koral, Tony L

    2018-03-25

    Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages over conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research. The application of mathematical modeling as a useful tool in RF food processing is also reviewed in detail. At the end of the review, we summarize the active research groups in the RF food thermal-processing field, and address the current problems that still need to be overcome.

  9. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  10. Vibration and Stability of 3000-hp, Titanium Chemical Process Blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Gutzwiller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This 74-in-diameter blower had an overhung rotor design of titanium construction, operating at 50 pounds per square inch gauge in a critical chemical plant process. The shaft was supported by oil-film bearings and was directdriven by a 3000-hp electric motor through a metal disk type of coupling. The operating speed was 1780 rpm. The blower shaft and motor shaft motion was monitored by Bently Nevada proximity probes and a Model 3100 monitoring system.

  11. Contribution to the study of the new international philosophy of the radiological safety in the natural uranium chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this work is to adapt the Radiological Safety System in the facilities concerned to the chemical treatment of the uranium concentrated (yellow-cake) until conversion in uranium hexafluoride in the pilot plant of IPEN-CNEN/SP, to the new international philosophy adopted by ICRP and IAEA. The new philosophy changes fully the Radiological Protection concepts of preceding philosophy, changes, also, the concept of the workplace and individual monitoring as well as the classification of the working areas. In this paper we show the monitoring program, in each phase of the natural uranium treatment chemical process in conversion facility for external irradiation, surface contamination and air contamination. The results were analysed according with the new philosophy and used to reclassify the workplace. It was introduced the condition work concept taking account the time spent by the worker in that workplace. (author)

  12. Chemical and mechanical decontamination processes to minimize secondary waste decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, M.; Ichikawa, N.; Yaita, Y.; Kanasaki, T.; Sakai, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the decommissioning of commercial nuclear reactors in Japan, prior to the dismantling of the nuclear power plants, there are plans to use chemical techniques to decontaminate reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), internal parts, primary loop recirculation systems (PLRs), reactor water clean up systems (RWCUs), etc., so as to minimize radiation sources in the materials to be disposed of. After dismantling the nuclear power plants, chemical and mechanical decontamination techniques will then be used to reduce the amounts of radioactive metallic waste. Toshiba Corporation has developed pre-dismantling and post-dismantling decontamination systems. In order to minimize the amounts of secondary waste, the T-OZON process was chosen for decontamination prior to the dismantling of nuclear power plants. Dismantling a nuclear power plant results in large amounts of metallic waste requiring decontamination; for example, about 20,000 tons of such waste is expected to result from the dismantling of a 110 MWe Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Various decontamination methods have been used on metallic wastes in preparation for disposal in consideration of the complexity of the shapes of the parts and the type of material. The materials in such nuclear power plants are primarily stainless steel and carbon steel. For stainless steel parts having simple shapes, such as plates and pipes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surface of the parts by bipolar electrolysis (electrolyte: H 2 SO 4 ). For stainless steel parts having complicated shapes, such as valves and pumps, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surfaces by redox chemical decontamination treatments (chemical agent: Ce(IV)). For carbon steel parts having simple shapes, decontamination by blasting with zirconia grit is effective in removing major sources of radioactivity at the surface, whereas for carbon steel parts having complicated shapes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from

  13. Accident simulation in a chemical process facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy requires Westinghouse Savannah River Company to safely operate the chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of the safety analysis program, simulation of a proposed frame waste recovery (FWR) system is needed to determine the possible accident consequences that may affect public safety. This paper details the simulation process for the proposed frame waste recovery process and describes the analytical tools used in order to make estimates of accident consequences. Since the process in question has been operated, historical data and statistics about its operation are available. Software tools have been developed to allow analysis of the frame waste recovery system, including the generation of system specific dose conversion factors for a number of unique situations. Accident scenarios involving spilled liquid material are analyzed and account for the specific floor geometry of the facility. Confinement and filtration systems are considered. Analysis of source terms is a limiting factor which affects the entire evaluation process. In the past, facility source terms were generally constant with occasional variations from established patterns. As new site missions unfold, significant variations in source terms can be expected. The impact of these variations on the safety analysis is discussed

  14. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  15. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  16. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  17. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  18. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  19. The Eco Logic gas-phase chemical reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallett, D.J.; Campbell, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1986, Eco Logic has conducted research with the aim of developing a new technology for destroying aqueous organic wastes, such as contaminated harbor sediments, landfill soil and leachates, and lagoon sludges. The goal was a commercially-viable chemical process that could deal with these watery wastes and also process stored wastes. The process described in this paper was developed with a view to avoiding the expense and technical drawbacks of incinerators, while still providing high destruction efficiencies and waste volume capabilities. A lab-scale process unit was constructed in 1988 and tested extensively. Based on the results of these tests, it was decided to construct a mobile pilot-scale unit that could be used for further testing and ultimately for small commercial waste processing operations. It was taken through a preliminary round of tests at Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, where the waste processed was coal-tar-contaminated harbor sediment. In 1992, the same unit was taken through a second round of tests in Bay City, Michigan. In this test program, the pilot-scale unit processed PCBs in aqueous, organic and soil matrices. This paper describes the process reactions and the pilot-scale process unit, and presents the results of pilot-scale testing thus far

  20. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  1. Application of repetitive pulsed power technology to chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.J.; Hamil, R.

    1995-01-01

    The numerous sites of soil and water contaminated with organic chemicals present an urgent environmental concern that continues to grow. Electron and x-ray irradiation have been shown to be effective methods to destroy a wide spectrum of organic chemicals, nitrates, nitrites, and cyanide in water by breaking molecules to non-toxic products or entirely mineralizing the by-products to gas, water, and salts. Sandia National Laboratories is developing Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) technology capable of producing high average power, broad area electron or x-ray beams. The 300 kW RHEPP-II facility accelerates electrons to 2.5 MeV at 25 kA over 1,000 cm 2 in 60 ns pulses at repetition rates of over 100 Hz. Linking this modular treatment capability with the rapid optical-sensing diagnostics and neutral network characterization software algorithms will provide a Smart Waste Treatment (SWaT) system. Such a system would also be applicable for chemical manufacture and processing of industrial waste for reuse or disposal. This talk describes both the HREPP treatment capability and sensing technologies. Measurements of the propagated RHEPP-II beam and dose profiles are presented. Sensors and rapid detection software are discussed with application toward chemical treatment

  2. Radiation processing of minimally processed fruits and vegetables to ensure microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Saroj, S.D.; Shashidhar, R.; Dhokane, V.S.; Hajare, S.N.; Nagar, V.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are in demand as they offer ready rich source of nutrients and convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe due to contamination with harmful pathogens. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze microbiological quality of minimally processed fruits, vegetables and sprouts and to optimize radiation dose necessary to ensure safety of these commodities. Microbiological quality of these products was found to be poor. Decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in these minimally processed foods (MPF) were in the range of 164 to 588 Gy. Radiation processing with 2 kGy dose of gamma radiation resulted in 5 log reduction of S. Typhimurium and 4 log reduction of L. monocytogenes. The treatment did not significantly affect nutritional, organoleptic and textural properties. These results suggest that radiation processing can ensure safety of these products. (author)

  3. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  4. Valuation of the safety concept of the combined nuclear/chemical complex for hydrogen production with HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Nishihara, T.

    2004-06-01

    The high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) in Oarai, Japan, will be worldwide the first plant to demonstrate the production of hydrogen by applying the steam reforming process and using nuclear process heat as primary energy. Particular safety aspects for such a combined nuclear/chemical complex have to be investigated to further detail. One of these special aspects is the fire and explosion hazard associated with the presence of flammable gases including a large LNG storage tank in close vicinity to the reactor building. A special focus is laid upon the conceivable development of a detonation pressure wave and its damaging effect on the reactor building. A literature study has shown that methane is a comparatively slow reacting gas and that a methane vapor cloud in the open atmosphere or partially obstructed areas is highly unlikely to result in a detonation if inadvertently released and ignited. Various theoretical assessments and experimental studies, which have been conducted in the past and which are of significance for the HTTR-steam reforming system, include the spreading and combustion behavior of cryogenic liquids and flammable gas mixtures providing the basis of a comprehensive safety analysis of the combined nuclear/chemical facility. (orig.)

  5. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  6. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  7. Catechol-Based Hydrogel for Chemical Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyoung Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Catechols offer diverse properties and are used in biology to perform various functions that range from adhesion (e.g., mussel proteins to neurotransmission (e.g., dopamine, and mimicking the capabilities of biological catechols have yielded important new materials (e.g., polydopamine. It is well known that catechols are also redox-active and we have observed that biomimetic catechol-modified chitosan films are redox-active and possess interesting molecular electronic properties. In particular, these films can accept, store and donate electrons, and thus offer redox-capacitor capabilities. We are enlisting these capabilities to bridge communication between biology and electronics. Specifically, we are investigating an interactive redox-probing approach to access redox-based chemical information and convert this information into an electrical modality that facilitates analysis by methods from signal processing. In this review, we describe the broad vision and then cite recent examples in which the catechol–chitosan redox-capacitor can assist in accessing and understanding chemical information. Further, this redox-capacitor can be coupled with synthetic biology to enhance the power of chemical information processing. Potentially, the progress with this biomimetic catechol–chitosan film may even help in understanding how biology uses the redox properties of catechols for redox signaling.

  8. Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, R.J.; Lane, S.

    1992-02-01

    This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management's (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report

  9. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  10. Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, C.J.; Frazer, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor

  11. Field experience with KWU SG chemical cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odar, S.

    1989-01-01

    The ingress of corrosion products into PWR steam generators (SG's) their deposition and the subsequent concentration of salt impurities can induce a variety of mechanisms for corrosion attack on SG tubing. Already, some plants have had to replace their steam generators due to severe corrosion damage and others are seriously considering the same costly action in the near future. One of the most effective ways to counteract corrosion mechanisms and thus to reduce the likelihood of SG replacement becoming necessary is to clean the SG's and to keep them clean. For many years, the industry has been involved in developing different types of cleaning techniques. Among these, chemical cleaning has been shown to be especially effective. In this article, the KWU chemical cleaning process, for which there is considerable application experience, is described. The results of field applications will be presented together with material compatibility data and information on cleaning effectiveness. (author)

  12. Microbial processes need to be addressed in a competent safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten; Hallbeck, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    Biological life processes should be separated from chemical inorganic processes. This is because most life processes are running along biochemical process pathways that are very different from those of inorganic chemical processes. Many chemical processes are restricted by various reaction barriers, e.g. the reduction process of sulphate to sulphide. They are, therefore, very slow or not possible at all under conditions typical for repositories for interim storage and long-term storage of radioactive wastes. Biological processes, consequently, include many reactions that do not occur in sterile, lifeless chemical systems. This is because life has the ability to over-run activation energy barriers and other energetic circumstances that block spontaneous chemical reactions. Life is possible from -20 deg. C up to around 113 deg. C, where all life processes stop. Life is also possible within a large pH range, from pH 1 up to at least pH 12.5. Finally, many processes overlap biology and chemistry such as sulphide and ferrous iron oxidation, which occur both as chemical and biological processes. Life processes in radioactive waste interim and long-term repositories will almost exclusively be under the control of micro-organisms. Microbial processes comprise red-ox reactions with decomposition and the production of organic molecules with different electron donors, energy sources and electron acceptors. Organic carbon in wastes, buffer materials and reduced inorganic molecules such as H2 from anaerobic corrosion processes and methane from geological sources are possible electron donors and energy sources for microbial processes. During the microbial oxidation of these energy sources, micro-organisms preferentially reduce electron acceptors in a particular order. First O 2 , and thereafter nitrate, manganese(IV), ferric iron, sulphate, sulphur and carbon dioxide are reduced. Simultaneously, fermentative processes lower pH and supply the metabolising micro-organisms with

  13. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  14. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  15. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Xu

    Full Text Available This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  17. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  18. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  19. Safety Philosophy in Process Heat Plants Coupled to High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    With the future availability of fossil fuel resources in doubt, high temperature nuclear reactors have the potential to be an important technology in the near term. Due to a high coolant outlet temperature, high temperature reactors (HTR) can be used to drive chemical plants that directly utilize process heat. Additionally, the high temperature improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy utilization. Many applications of high temperature reactors exist as a thermal driving vector for endothermic chemical process plants. Hydrogen generation using the General Atomics (GA) sulfur iodine (SI) cycle is one promising application of high temperature nuclear heat. The main chemical reactions in the SI cycle are: 1. I 2 +SO 2 + 2H 2 O → 2HI + H 2 SO 4 (Bunsen reaction) 2. H 2 SO 4 → H 2 O + SO 2 + 1/2O 2 (Sulfuric acid decomposition) 3. 2HI → H 2 + I 2 (Hydrogen Iodide decomposition). With the exception of hydrogen and oxygen, all relevant reactants are recycled within the process. However, there are many unresolved safety and operational issues related to implementation of such a coupled plant

  20. Exploiting data from safety investigations and processes to assess performance of safety management aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative way to use records from safety investigations as a means to support the evaluation of safety management (SM) aspects. Datasets from safety investigation reports and progress records of an aviation organization were analyzed with the scope of assessing safety

  1. Subfemtosecond directional control of chemical processes in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaser, Ali S.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.

    2017-02-01

    Laser pulses with a waveform-controlled electric field and broken inversion symmetry establish the opportunity to achieve directional control of molecular processes on a subfemtosecond timescale. Several techniques could be used to break the inversion symmetry of an electric field. The most common ones include combining a fundamental laser frequency with its second harmonic or with higher -frequency pulses (or pulse trains) as well as using few-cycle pulses with known carrier-envelope phase (CEP). In the case of CEP, control over chemical transformations, typically occurring on a timescale of many femtoseconds, is driven by much faster sub-cycle processes of subfemtosecond to few-femtosecond duration. This is possible because electrons are much lighter than nuclei and fast electron motion is coupled to the much slower nuclear motion. The control originates from populating coherent superpositions of different electronic or vibrational states with relative phases that are dependent on the CEP or phase offset between components of a two-color pulse. In this paper, we review the recent progress made in the directional control over chemical processes, driven by intense few-cycle laser pulses a of waveform-tailored electric field, in different molecules.

  2. Chemical elements dynamic in the fermentation process of ethanol producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Bacchi, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides useful information about the dynamics of chemical elements analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and, found in the various segments of the fermentation process of producing ethanol from sugar cane. For this, a mass balance of Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, and Th, terrigenous elements, as well as Br, K, Rb, and Zn, sugar cane plant elements, has been demonstrated for the fermentation vats in industrial conditions of ethanol production. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Electronic dissipation processes during chemical reactions on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Stella, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Every day in our life is larded with a huge number of chemical reactions on surfaces. Some reactions occur immediately, for others an activation energy has to be supplied. Thus it happens that though a reaction should thermodynamically run off, it is kinetically hindered. Meaning the partners react only to the thermodynamically more stable product state within a mentionable time if the activation energy of the reaction is supplied. With the help of catalysts the activation energy of a reaction can be lowered. Such catalytic processes on surfaces are widely used in industry. A

  4. An integrated biotechnology platform for developing sustainable chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Nelson R; Burgard, Anthony P; Burk, Mark J; Crater, Jason S; Osterhout, Robin E; Pharkya, Priti; Steer, Brian A; Sun, Jun; Trawick, John D; Van Dien, Stephen J; Yang, Tae Hoon; Yim, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Genomatica has established an integrated computational/experimental metabolic engineering platform to design, create, and optimize novel high performance organisms and bioprocesses. Here we present our platform and its use to develop E. coli strains for production of the industrial chemical 1,4-butanediol (BDO) from sugars. A series of examples are given to demonstrate how a rational approach to strain engineering, including carefully designed diagnostic experiments, provided critical insights about pathway bottlenecks, byproducts, expression balancing, and commercial robustness, leading to a superior BDO production strain and process.

  5. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S P; Waitz, I A [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R C; Brown, R C; Anderson, M R [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W N [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  6. Chemical processes in the turbine and exhaust nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, S.P.; Waitz, I.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aero-Environmental Lab.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dawes, W.N. [University Engineering Dept., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Whittle Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The objective is to establish an understanding of primary pollutant, trace species, and aerosol chemical evolution as engine exhaust travels through the nonuniform, unsteady flow fields of the turbine and exhaust nozzle. An understanding of such processes is necessary to provide accurate inputs for plume-wake modeling efforts and is therefore a critical element in an assessment of the atmospheric effects of both current and future aircraft. To perform these studies, a numerical tool was developed combining the calculation of chemical kinetics and one-, two-, or three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) Reynolds-averaged flow equations. Using a chemistry model that includes HO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, SO{sub x}, and CO{sub x} reactions, several 1-D parametric analyses were conducted for the entire turbine and exhaust nozzle flow path of a typical advanced subsonic engine to understand the effects of various flow and chemistry uncertainties on a baseline 1-D result. These calculations were also used to determine parametric criteria for judging 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D modeling requirements as well as to provide information about chemical speciation at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 9 refs.

  7. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  8. Margins of safety provided by COSHH Essentials and the ILO Chemical Control Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Nicas, Mark

    2006-03-01

    COSHH Essentials, developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, and the Chemical Control Toolkit (Toolkit) proposed by the International Labor Organization, are 'control banding' approaches to workplace risk management intended for use by proprietors of small and medium-sized businesses. Both systems group chemical substances into hazard bands based on toxicological endpoint and potency. COSSH Essentials uses the European Union's Risk-phrases (R-phrases), whereas the Toolkit uses R-phrases and the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. Each hazard band is associated with a range of airborne concentrations, termed exposure bands, which are to be attained by the implementation of recommended control technologies. Here we analyze the margin of safety afforded by the systems and, for each hazard band, define the minimal margin as the ratio of the minimum airborne concentration that produced the toxicological endpoint of interest in experimental animals to the maximum concentration in workplace air permitted by the exposure band. We found that the minimal margins were always occupational exposure limits, we argue that the minimal margins are better indicators of health protection. Further, given the small margins observed, we feel it is important that revisions of these systems provide the exposure bands to users, so as to permit evaluation of control technology capture efficiency.

  9. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  10. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Kilpinen, P [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  11. Combined Noncyclic Scheduling and Advanced Control for Continuous Chemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Petersen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel formulation for combined scheduling and control of multi-product, continuous chemical processes is introduced in which nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC and noncyclic continuous-time scheduling are efficiently combined. A decomposition into nonlinear programming (NLP dynamic optimization problems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP problems, without iterative alternation, allows for computationally light solution. An iterative method is introduced to determine the number of production slots for a noncyclic schedule during a prediction horizon. A filter method is introduced to reduce the number of MILP problems required. The formulation’s closed-loop performance with both process disturbances and updated market conditions is demonstrated through multiple scenarios on a benchmark continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR application with fluctuations in market demand and price for multiple products. Economic performance surpasses cyclic scheduling in all scenarios presented. Computational performance is sufficiently light to enable online operation in a dual-loop feedback structure.

  12. DYNSYL: a general-purpose dynamic simulator for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, G.K.; Rozsa, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is conducting a safeguards program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Material Control Project of this program is to evaluate material control and accounting (MCA) methods in plants that handle special nuclear material (SNM). To this end we designed and implemented the dynamic chemical plant simulation program DYNSYL. This program can be used to generate process data or to provide estimates of process performance; it simulates both steady-state and dynamic behavior. The MCA methods that may have to be evaluated range from sophisticated on-line material trackers such as Kalman filter estimators, to relatively simple material balance procedures. This report describes the overall structure of DYNSYL and includes some example problems. The code is still in the experimental stage and revision is continuing

  13. Chemical process for improved oil recovery from Bakken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Hongxin; Lu, Zayne [ChemEOR Inc (United States); Tang, Youngchun [Power Environmental Energy Research Institute (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the new chemically-improved oil recovery process (IOR) process for Bakken formation reservoirs. A custom surfactant agent can be used in standard hydraulic fracturing treatments in the Bakken to increase oil recovery. The rock formation consists of three members: the lower shale, middle dolostone and the upper shale. The dolostone was deposited as a coastal carbonate during shallower water and the shales were deposited in a relatively deep marine condition. With the widespread advent of horizontal well drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatments, production from the Bakken has become very active. The experimental results exhibited that specialized surfactant formulations will interact with this mixed oil-wet low permeability middle member to produce more oil. It was also observed that oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition was fast and significant. The best surfactant found in this study is compatible with a common fracture fluid system.

  14. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate’s application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein.

  15. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Nanocellulose: Structure and Chemical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. V.; Hamid, S. B. A.; Zain, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex biopolymer that is primary composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The presence of cellulose in biomass is able to depolymerise into nanodimension biomaterial, with exceptional mechanical properties for biocomposites, pharmaceutical carriers, and electronic substrate's application. However, the entangled biomass ultrastructure consists of inherent properties, such as strong lignin layers, low cellulose accessibility to chemicals, and high cellulose crystallinity, which inhibit the digestibility of the biomass for cellulose extraction. This situation offers both challenges and promises for the biomass biorefinery development to utilize the cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass. Thus, multistep biorefinery processes are necessary to ensure the deconstruction of noncellulosic content in lignocellulosic biomass, while maintaining cellulose product for further hydrolysis into nanocellulose material. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure basis for biomass recalcitrance, reengineering process of lignocellulosic biomass into nanocellulose via chemical, and novel catalytic approaches. Furthermore, review on catalyst design to overcome key barriers regarding the natural resistance of biomass will be presented herein. PMID:25247208

  16. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM. An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.

  17. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities of chemical engineers. Therefore, the main question of this thesis is: how can a trained chemical engineer develop a conceptual design of a chemical process or a chemical product in such a way that ...

  18. Laser cutting: industrial relevance, process optimization, and laser safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Goede, Martin; von Busse, Alexander; Thuerk, Oliver

    1998-09-01

    the angle between the normal of the cutting front and the laser beam axis. Beneath process optimization and control further work is focused on the characterization of particulate and gaseous laser generated air contaminants and adequate safety precautions like exhaust and filter systems.

  19. Rework and workarounds in nurse medication administration process: implications for work processes and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Savage, Grant T; Wakefield, Douglas S; Wakefield, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Health care organizations have redesigned existing and implemented new work processes intended to improve patient safety. As a consequence of these process changes, there are now intentionally designed "blocks" or barriers that limit how specific work actions, such as ordering and administering medication, are to be carried out. Health care professionals encountering these designed barriers can choose to either follow the new process, engage in workarounds to get past the block, or potentially repeat work (rework). Unfortunately, these workarounds and rework may lead to other safety concerns. The aim of this study was to examine rework and workarounds in hospital medication administration processes. Observations and semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nurses from four hospital intensive care units focusing on the medication administration process. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed the observation and interview data to develop themes regarding rework and workarounds. From this analysis, we developed an integrated process map of the medication administration process depicting blocks. A total of 12 blocks were reported by the participants. Based on the analysis, we categorized them as related to information exchange, information entry, and internal supply chain issues. Whereas information exchange and entry blocks tended to lead to rework, internal supply chain issues were more likely to lead to workarounds. A decentralized pharmacist on the unit may reduce work flow blocks (and, thus, workarounds and rework). Work process redesign may further address the problems of workarounds and rework.

  20. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  1. 化工企业危化品安全管理解析%Analysis on Safety Management of Hazardous Chemicals in Chemical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy in our country,chemical enterprises in our country are developing rapidly.The dangerous chemicals produced by chemical enterprises have certain function under specific environment.The chemical enterprise must make good safety management measures,To develop clear safety rules and sound rules and regulations to enhance the safety awareness of chemical workers,the use of hazardous chemicals and the use of good norms,enhance the safety of chemical enterprises,hazardous chemicals,and effectively prevent the occurrence of accidents,On the current chemical enterprises in China's chemical safety supervision and management of the existing problems,and in accordance with existing problems to develop a clear safety management measures to enhance the safety of chemical companies.%随着我国经济的不断发展,我国化工企业也在飞速的发展,在化工企业生产的危险化学品在特定的环境下有着特定的作用,化工企业一定要制定良好的安全管理措施,制定明确的安全准则和健全的规章制度,提升工作人员的安全意识,对危险化学品的使用范围和使用过程进行良好的规范,提升化工企业危险化学品的安全性,有效防止安全事故的发生。对现今我国化工企业危险化学品安全管理监督存在的问题进分析,并根据存在的问题制定明确的安全管理措施,以提升化工企业的安全性。

  2. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Making the business case for process safety using value-at-risk concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jayming S.; Ford, David M.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2004-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on chemical process safety over the last two decades has led to the development and application of powerful risk assessment tools. Hazard analysis and risk evaluation techniques have developed to the point where quantitatively meaningful risks can be calculated for processes and plants. However, the results are typically presented in semi-quantitative 'ranked list' or 'categorical matrix' formats, which are certainly useful but not optimal for making business decisions. A relatively new technique for performing valuation under uncertainty, value at risk (VaR), has been developed in the financial world. VaR is a method of evaluating the probability of a gain or loss by a complex venture, by examining the stochastic behavior of its components. We believe that combining quantitative risk assessment techniques with VaR concepts will bridge the gap between engineers and scientists who determine process risk and business leaders and policy makers who evaluate, manage, or regulate risk. We present a few basic examples of the application of VaR to hazard analysis in the chemical process industry

  4. Intelligent process control of fiber chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John Gregory

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a widely used process for the application of thin films. In this case, CVD is being used to apply a thin film interface coating to single crystal monofilament sapphire (Alsb2Osb3) fibers for use in Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC's). The hot-wall reactor operates at near atmospheric pressure which is maintained using a venturi pump system. Inert gas seals obviate the need for a sealed system. A liquid precursor delivery system has been implemented to provide precise stoichiometry control. Neural networks have been implemented to create real-time process description models trained using data generated based on a Navier-Stokes finite difference model of the process. Automation of the process to include full computer control and data logging capability is also presented. In situ sensors including a quadrupole mass spectrometer, thermocouples, laser scanner, and Raman spectrometer have been implemented to determine the gas phase reactants and coating quality. A fuzzy logic controller has been developed to regulate either the gas phase or the in situ temperature of the reactor using oxygen flow rate as an actuator. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of various samples are shown. A hierarchical control structure upon which the control structure is based is also presented.

  5. Safety evaluation and regulation of chemicals. 2. Impact of regulations - improvement of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homburger, F [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This volume assesses the impact of new scientific knowledge on the testing and regulation of chemicals, including food additives, drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, and other commercial substances. Apart from describing the newest tests, regulations, and risk assessment strategies, chapters reflect changes forced by both the growing need for cost containment and the mounting pressure to find alternatives to animal testing. Based on an international congress, the book also brings the advantage of diversity in the background and nationality of the authors, thus allowing a view of central problems according to the different interests of academics, industry scientists, government scientists, and regulators. The book opens with coverage of national and international regulations designed to prevent and control damage to human health and the environment. Topics range from basic problems of policy design and enforcement to the specific requirements for chemical regulation in developing countries. The next chapters cover new tests, systems, and assays used in in vivo safety testing. Readers will find a critical assessment of tests used to determine teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity and chemical lethality. Other topics include factors operating in the public perception of chemical hazards, guidelines for decision making in the management and regulation of risks, and future trends in the methodology of safety evaluation. The volume concludes with an overview of in vitro methods for testing hepatotoxicity. Several short-term in vitro test models and limited in vivo bioassays are presented and evaluated in terms of their capacity to substitute for long-term animal studies. Expert and thorough in its coverage, the book offers a wealth of technical and practical information for toxicologists, pharmacologists, industrial policy makers, and government regulators. (orig.). With 67 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. AIMS: The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. METHODS: The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, freckles, post-inflammatory scars/pigmentation, actinic keratoses, plane facial warts, etc. were included in the study. Eight weekly peeling sessions were carried out in each patient. Tolerance to the procedure and any undesirable effects noted during these sessions were recorded. RESULTS: Almost all the patients tolerated the procedure well. Mild discomfort, burning, irritation and erythema were quite common but the incidence of major side-effects was very low and these too, were easily manageable. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side-effects between facial dermatoses (melasma, acne and other pigmentary disorders. CONCLUSION: Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is a well tolerated and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses.

  7. Radiation processing of leafy vegetables to ensure their microbial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khade, H.D.; Jain, M.P.; Satyendra, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables which are consumed in raw form such as spinach, coriander and mint were found to be heavily burdened with microbial load including presumptive coliform, an indicator of pathogenic contaminations. Total aerobic plate counts in fresh spinach, coriander and mint samples collected from different location of Mumbai and nearby cities were found to be in the order of ∼ 10 7 to ∼ 10 8 CFU/g. In these samples yeast and mould count was in the order of ∼10 5 CFU/g and presumptive coliform in the order of ∼ 10 4 to ∼10 5 CFU/g. As per USFDA coliform load in the food commodity should be nil. The finding thus indicates that these fresh vegetables are not safe for raw consumption. Hence there is utmost need of process which can ensure the safety by reducing their microbial load below permissible level (<10 4 CFU/gm) and coliform load to nil without affecting the appearance and quality of such produce. In this study gamma radiation was used for hygienization of leafy vegetables. The sample were first cleaned in potable water followed by sodium hypochlorite wash (200 ppm for 20 min), air dried, packed in styrofoam based tray, wrapped with cling film and radiation processed at 1 to 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 and 10℃ . Post irradiation microbiological analysis of radiation processed samples was carried out at in 2 kGy irradiated samples total plate count was below ∼10 3 CFU/g and presumptive coliform count was below detectable level. Yeast and mould count in these samples also reduced to below ∼ 10 3 CFU/g. Based on the study the following combination treatment can be given to raw leafy vegetables, washing with potable water (5 min) → sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm 20 min) wash → Air drying → Packaging in styrofoam based tray and wrapping with cling film → Irradiation at 2 kGy → storage at 4℃ . Besides ensuring safety the treatment also resulted in increased shelf life extension of the commodities up to 20 days. (author)

  8. The Characterization of Cognitive Processes Involved in Chemical Kinetics Using a Blended Processing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Kinsey; Rodriguez, Jon-Marc G.; Moon, Alena; Towns, Marcy H.

    2018-01-01

    Chemical kinetics is a highly quantitative content area that involves the use of multiple mathematical representations to model processes and is a context that is under-investigated in the literature. This qualitative study explored undergraduate student integration of chemistry and mathematics during problem solving in the context of chemical…

  9. Irradiation: An effective mode of processing food for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Markedly improved measures of hygiene, including those attaining generally accepted GMP, are effective in reducing the contamination rate markedly, without completely eliminating the pathogens concerned though. Attempts to identify contaminated consignments by sampling examination were demonstrated to be unsuccessful, even when linked to certification by producing countries. The only practicable solution of this serious health problem has to rely on terminal processing for safety, as introduced in the twenties in the dairy industry and somewhat later in the manufacture of egg products. Gamma irradiation (radicidation) at a level of <= 4 kGy was found to be most effective for a more than adequate degree of elimination of pathogens as judged by Risk Analysis. Radicidation for this purpose did not entail immediate flora changes or even shifts in the microbial community structure secondary to slight temperature abuse, that presented any health risk. Neither were organisms isolated that could not be identified with types customarily encountered in fresh or processed food. Consequently, health authorities and the food industry alike henceforth have means available to protect consumers against the perennial food-transmitted enteric infectious diseases by the application of low amounts of ionizing energy. They should not postpone these or similar measures of intervention unnecessarily because otherwise they risk being blamed by history for being reprehensibly over-anxious

  10. Management by process based systems and safety focus; Verksamhetsstyrning med process-baserade ledningssystem och saekerhetsfokus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydnert, Bo; Groenlund, Bjoern [SIS Forum AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    An initiative from The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate led to this study carried out in the late autumn of 2005. The objective was to understand in more detail how an increasing use of process management affects organisations, on the one hand regarding risks and security, on the other hand regarding management by objectives and other management and operative effects. The main method was interviewing representatives of companies and independent experts. More than 20 interviews were carried out. In addition a literature study was made. All participating companies are using Management Systems based on processes. However, the methods chosen, and the results achieved, vary extensively. Thus, there are surprisingly few examples of complete and effective management by processes. Yet there is no doubt that management by processes is effective and efficient. Overall goals are reached, business results are achieved in more reliable ways and customers are more satisfied. The weaknesses found can be translated into a few comprehensive recommendations. A clear, structured and acknowledged model should be used and the processes should be described unambiguously. The changed management roles should be described and obeyed extremely legibly. New types of process objectives need to be formulated. In addition one fact needs to be observed and effectively fended off. Changes are often met by mental opposition on management level, as well as among co-workers. This fact needs attention and leadership. Safety development is closely related to the design and operation of a business management system and its continual improvement. A deep understanding of what constitutes an efficient and effective management system affects the understanding of safety. safety culture and abilities to achieve safety goals. Concerning risk, the opinions were unambiguous. Management by processes as such does not result in any further risks. On the contrary. Processes give a clear view of production and

  11. Preliminary analyses on hydrogen diffusion through small break of thermo-chemical IS process hydrogen plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somolova, Marketa; Terada, Atsuhiko; Takegami, Hiroaki; Iwatsuki, Jin

    2008-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a conceptual design study of nuclear hydrogen demonstration plant, that is, a thermal-chemical IS process hydrogen plant coupled with the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR-IS), which will be planed to produce a large amount of hydrogen up to 1000m 3 /h. As part of the conceptual design work of the HTTR-IS system, preliminary analyses on small break of a hydrogen pipeline in the IS process hydrogen plant was carried out as a first step of the safety analyses. This report presents analytical results of hydrogen diffusion behaviors predicted with a CFD code, in which a diffusion model focused on the turbulent Schmidt number was incorporated. By modifying diffusion model, especially a constant accompanying the turbulent Schmidt number in the diffusion term, analytical results was made agreed well with the experimental results. (author)

  12. Chemical engineering challenges in driving thermochemical hydrogen processes with the tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.; Werner, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor is described and compared with Tokamaks, both from a basic physics viewpoint and from the suitability of the respective reactor for synfuel production. Differences and similarities between the TMR as an electricity producer or a synfuel producer are also cited. The Thermochemical cycle chosen to link with the fusion energy source is the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle, which is a purely thermal-driven process with no electrochemical steps. There are real chemical engineering challenges of getting this high quality heat into the large thermochemical plant in an efficient manner. We illustrate with some of our approaches to providing process heat via liquid sodium to drive a 1050 K, highly-endothermic, catalytic and fluidized-bed SO 3 Decomposition Reactor. The technical, economic, and safety tradeoffs that arise are discussed

  13. EFFICIENT QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JUMP PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic framework for efficient quantitative risk assessment from the simplest general risk, combining three parameters (contamination, exposure, and dose response) in a Kataoka safety-first model and a Poisson probability representing the uncertainty effect or jump processes associated with food safety. Analysis indicates that incorporating jump processes in food safety risk assessment provides more efficient cost/risk tradeoffs. Nevertheless, increased margin of safety...

  14. A study on the chemical cleaning process and its qualification test by eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Mahn [UMI Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Steam Generator (SG) tube, as a barrier isolating the primary coolant system from the secondary side of nuclear power plants (NPP), must maintain the structural integrity for the public safety and their efficient power generation. So, SG tubes are subject to the periodic examination and the repairs if needed so that any defective tubes are not in service. Recently, corrosion related degradations were detected in the tubes of the domestic OPR-1000 NPP, as a form of axially oriented outer diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC). According to the studies on the factors causing the heat fouling as well as developing corrosion cracking, densely scaled deposits on the secondary side of the SG tubes are mainly known to be problematic causing the adverse impacts against the soundness of the SG tubes. Therefore, the processes of various cleaning methods efficiently to dissolve and remove the deposits have been applied as well as it is imperative to maintain the structural integrity of the tubes after exposing to the cleaning agent. So qualification test (QT) should be carried out to assess the perfection of the chemical cleaning and QT is to apply the processes and to do ECT. In this paper, the chemical cleaning processes to dissolve and remove the scaled deposits are introduced and results of ECT on the artificial crack specimens to determine the effectiveness of those processes are represented.

  15. Features of radiation chemical processes in ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchenko, S.S.; Mal'tseva, A.P.; Iskakov, L.I.; Karpov, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of statistical copolymers of ethylene with styrene to determine their structure and properties and radio-chemical transformations. The styrene content of the copolymers ranged from 1 to 85 mole%. The investigation covered non-irradiated copolymers and those irradiated with doses of 1-1000Mrad at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. It is shown that styrene units present in the CES inhibited all radio-chemical processes compared with PE irradiated under similar conditions. It is suggested that the radiation resistance of CES with styrene contents up to 10 mole % increases in the course of irradiation as a result of the formation of structures with a high degree of conjugation which are more capable of scattering absorbed energy than in the case of phenyl rings by themselves. The most promising of the CES examined is the one with a styrene content of 5 mole %. The mechanical properties of this copolymer are similar to those of PE, and its radiation resistance rises under service conditions in the presence of ionizing radiation

  16. Investigation of discharged aerosol nanoparticles during chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis for developing safety measures in the nano research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Еvgeny; Karunakaran, Gopalu; Godymchuk, Anna; Vera, Levina; Yudin, Andrey Grigorjevich; Gusev, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the demands for the nanoparticles are increasing due to their tremendous applications in various fields. As a consequence, the discharge of nanoparticles into the atmosphere and environment is also increasing, posing a health threat and environmental damage in terms of pollution. Thus, an extensive research is essential to evaluate the discharge of these nanoparticles into the environment. Keeping this in mind, the present investigation aimed to analyze the discharge of aerosol nanoparticles that are synthesized in the laboratory via chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods. The results indicated that the chemical precipitation method discharges a higher concentration of nanoparticles in the work site when compared to the spray pyrolysis method. The aerosol concentration also varied with the different steps involved during the synthesis of nanoparticles. The average particle's concentration in air for chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods was around 1,037,476 and 883,421particles/cm 3 . In addition, the average total discharge of nanoparticles in the entire laboratory was also examined. A significant variation in the concentration of nanoparticles was noticed, during the processing of materials and the concentration of particles (14-723nm) exceeding the daily allowed concentration to about 70-170 times was observed over a period of 6 months. Thus, the results of the present study will be very useful in developing safety measures and would help in organizing the rules for people working in nanotechnology laboratories to minimize the hazardous effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, L.; Becker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation is described. For the hydrolysis of tributylphosphate TBP->HDBP->H 2 MBP->H 3 PO 4 values are given for the individual constants in a temperature range from 23 to 90 0 C. Radiolytic yields were measured for HDBP as 80 mg/Wh, for H 2 MBP as 2 mg/Wh, and for H 3 PO 4 as 5 mg/Wh. Experimental results on the degradation products of the diluent are summarized and their influence on the process is discussed. Long chain acid phosphates and acid TBP oligomeres were identified as responsible for the retention of fission products. Techniques such as polarography, infrared spectrometry and electrolytic conductometry are applied to estimate concentrations of degradation products down to 10 -5 mol/l. (orig.) [de

  18. Chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation in the Purex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, L; Becker, R

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation is described. For the hydrolysis of tributylphosphate TBP->HDBP->H/sub 2/MBP->H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ values are given for the individual constants in a temperature range from 23 to 90/sup 0/C. Radiolytic yields were measured for HDBP as 80 mg/Wh, for H/sub 2/MBP as 2 mg/Wh, and for H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ as 5 mg/Wh. Experimental results on the degradation products of the diluent are summarized and their influence on the process is discussed. Long chain acid phosphates and acid TBP oligomeres were identified as responsible for the retention of fission products. Techniques such as polarography, infrared spectrometry and electrolytic conductometry are applied to estimate concentrations of degradation products down to 10/sup -5/ mol/l.

  19. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  20. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering

  1. Chemical Reactions in the Processing of Mosi2 + Carbon Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Maloy, Stuart A.; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-pressing of MoSi2 powders with carbon at high temperatures reduces the siliceous grain boundary phase in the resultant compact. The chemical reactions in this process were examined using the Knudsen cell technique. A 2.3 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder and a 0.59 wt pct oxygen MoSi2 powder, both with additions of 2 wt pct carbon, were examined. The reduction of the siliceous grain boundary phase was examined at 1350 K and the resultant P(SiO)/P(CO) ratios interpreted in terms of the SiO(g) and CO(g) isobars on the Si-C-O predominance diagram. The MoSi2 + carbon mixtures were then heated at the hot-pressing temperature of 2100 K. Large weight losses were observed and could be correlated with the formation of a low-melting eutectic and the formation and vaporization of SiC.

  2. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  3. The safety and efficacy of contact lens wear in the industrial and chemical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyhurst, Keith; McNett, Ryan; Bennett, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The use and safety of contact lenses in the industrial and chemical workplace has often been questioned since the 1960s because of many unconfirmed reports of ocular injury resulting from contact lens wear. Because of these urban legends, contact lens wear has been banned or wearers have been required to wear additional personal protective equipment (PPE) not required of non-contact lens wearers. Literature review via Medline and Google search. Research has shown that contact lenses typically provide protective benefits that decrease the severity of ocular injury and improve worker performance. While contact lens wear contraindications do exist, in most cases, and with proper precautions, contact lens wear is still possible. Industrial and chemical companies need to establish written contact lens use policies based on current studies that have shown the safety of workplace contact lens wear when combined with the same PPE required of non-contact lens wearers. Practitioners need to discuss, with their contact lens patients, the additional responsibilities required to maintain proper lens hygiene and proper PPE in the workplace.

  4. Radiation and Heterogeneous processes and hydrogen safety of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agayev, T.N.; Eyubov, K.T.; Aliyev, S.M.; Faradjzade, I.A.; Imanova, G.T.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the development of the quantitative and probabilistic analysis of safety of atomic power stations, interest in major accidents which can lead to overheating and fusion of an active zone has increased now. One of the major processes from the point of view of assessment of accident consequences with damage of an active zone is process of hydrogen formation. In the real work sources of hydrogen formation at various stages of accident with loss of the coolant of water-to-water power reactors are considered. The role of different processes of hydrogen formation depends on temperature, an amount of water and steam in an active zone and some other parameters. In this regard we have tried to formulate approach to creation of mathematical model of dynamics of hydrogen formation at accident in which the factors mentioned above would be considered. At the first stage of accident which lasted several tens of seconds depressurization of the first contour and loss of pressure took place. Water of the first contour under normal conditions of operation contained radiolytic hydrogen which concentration significantly exceeded its solubility with an atmospheric pressure. Therefore the dissolved hydrogen was emitted in a gas phase at a rupture of the pipeline. The second stage of accident is characterized by water vaporization from the first contour. During this period the amount of water in an active zone is constant and also water temperature in an active zone is constant. At last, at the third stage of accident there is water vaporization from an active zone also a warming up of the heat allocating assembly and constructional materials of an active zone.

  5. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  7. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawroski, S.; Vogel, R. C.; Levenson, Milton; Munnecke, V. H.

    1963-07-01

    Work reported includes: Chemical-Metallurgical Processing; Fuel Cycle Applications of Volatility and Fluidization Techniques; Calorimetry; Reactor Safety; Energy Conversion; and Determination of Nuclear Constants.

  8. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  9. Chemical catalysis in biodiesel production (I): enzymatic catalysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachmarian, I.; Dobroyan, M.; Veira, J.; Vieitez, I.; Mottini, M.; Segura, N.; Grompone, M.

    2009-01-01

    There are some well known advantages related with the substitution of chemical catalysis by enzymatic catalysis processes.Some commercial immobilized lipases are useful for the catalysis of bio diesel reaction, which permits the achievement of high conversions and the recovery of high purity products, like a high quality glycerine. The main disadvantage of this alternative method is related with the last inactivation of the enzyme (by both the effect of the alcohol and the absorption of glycerol on catalyst surface), which added to the high cost of the catalyst, produces an unfavourable economical balance of the entire process. In the work the efficiency of two commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme TL IM y Novozyme 435 NNovozymes-Dinamarca) in the catalysis of the continuous transesterification of sunflower oil with different alcohols was studied. The intersolubility of the different mixturesinvolving reactans (S oil/alkyl esters/alcohol) and products (P mixtures with a higher content of 1% of glycerol,while for ethanol homogeneous mixtures were obtained at 12% of glycerol (44.44 12).Using and ethanolic substrate at the proportion S=19:75:6 and Lipozyme TL IM, it was possible to achieve a 98% of convertion to the corresponding biodiesel.When Novozymes 435 catalyzed the process it was possible to increase the oil concentration in the substrateaccording to proportion S=35:30:35, and a 78% conversion was obtained. The productivity shown by the firt enzyme was 70mg biodiesel g enzime-1, hora-1 while with the second one the productivity increased to 230. Results suggested that the convenient adjustement of substrate composition with the addition of biodiesel to reactants offers an efficient method for maximizing the enzyme productivity, hence improving the profitability of the enzymatic catalyzed process. (author)

  10. Safety review and approval process for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.; Howe, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has undergone an extensive safety and enviromental analysis involving Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ebasco/Grumman Industrial Subcontractor Team, and other organizations. This analysis, which is continuing during the TFTR operational phase, has been facilitated by the preparation, review and approval of several documents, including an Environmental Statement (Draft and Final), a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), Operations Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Safety Requirements (SRs), and various Operating and Maintenance Manuals. Through TFTR Safety Group participation in formal system design evaluations, change control boards, and reviews of project procurement and installation documentation, the TFTR Management Configuration Control System assures that all aspects of the project, including proposed design, installation and operational changes, receive prompt and thorough safety analyses. These efforts will continue as the TFTR Program moves into the neutral beam and D-T operational phases. The safety review and approval experience that has been acquired on the TFTR Project should serve as a foundation for similar efforts on future fusion devices

  11. The importance of the reliability study for the safety operation of chemical plants. Application in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Maria; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Preda, Irina Aida; Stefanescu, Ioan

    1999-01-01

    Heavy water production in Romania is based on H 2 O-H 2 S isotopic exchange process followed by vacuum isotopic distillation. The heavy water plant are complex chemical systems, characterized by an ensemble of static and dynamic equipment, AMC components, enclosures. Such equipment must have a high degree of reliability, a maximum safety in technological operation and a high availability index. Safety, reliable and economical operation heavy water plants need to maintain the systems and the components at adequate levels of reliability. The paper is a synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative assessment reliability studies for heavy water plants. The operation analysis on subsystems, each subsystems being a well-defined unit, is required by the plant complexity. For each component the reliability indicators were estimated by parametric and non-parametric methods based on the plant operation data. Also, the reliability qualitative and quantitative assessment was done using the fault tree technique. For the dual temperature isotopic exchange plants the results indicate an increase of the MTBF after the first years of operation, illustrating both the operation experience increasing and maintenance improvement. Also a high degree of availability was illustrated by the reliability studies of the vacuum distillation plant. The establishment of the reliability characteristics for heavy water plant represents an important step, a guide for highlighting the elements and process liable to failure being at the same time a planning modality to correlate the control times with the maintenance operations. This is the way to minimise maintenance, control and costs. The main purpose of the reliability study was the safety increase of the plant operation and the support for decision making. (authors)

  12. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP's) AND QUICK SCREENS: ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS AND EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process

  13. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in a more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. The present article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents 4 recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA, adopting a stepwise process to employing predictive toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern, leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting transdisciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:915-925. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Systematic methods for synthesis and design of sustainable chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Chemical and biochemical process design consists of designing the process that can sustainably manufacture an identified chemical product through a chemical or biochemical route. The chemical product tree is potentially very large; starting from a set of basic raw materials (such as petroleum...... for process intensification, sustainable process design, identification of optimal biorefinery models as well as integrated process-control design, and chemical product design. The lecture will present the main concepts, the decomposition based solution approach, the developed methods and tools together...

  15. Nuclear reactor safety: on the history of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    This manuscript is derived from a long report which examines the history of the evolution of light water reactor safety. The central portion of the document provides a historical view of the development of siting policy and the major safety issues which interacted strongly with siting policy. A very incomplete selection of the very many important issues and developments in light water reactor safety is also included. Coverage of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has deliberately been abbreviated to include only a few selected aspects

  16. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  17. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible, An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP total surface area. The radiological materials storage facilities aggregate areas are areas of concern usually requiring safety analyses, According to Department of Energy guidance, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. No individual facility in this analysis has a crash potential large enough to be credible. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility, but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas, The highest probability of concern in the study was for aircraft to crash into the aggregate area for radiological materials storage facilities at the ICPP during Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) test flights

  18. [Innovation in healthcare processes and patient safety using clinical simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, E; Maestre, J M; Díaz-Mendi, A R; Ansorena, L; Del Moral, I

    2016-01-01

    Many excellent ideas are never implemented or generalised by healthcare organisations. There are two related paradigms: thinking that individuals primarily change through accumulating knowledge, and believing that the dissemination of that knowledge within the organisation is the key element to facilitate change. As an alternative, a description and evaluation of a simulation-based inter-professional team training program conducted in a Regional Health Service to promote and facilitate change is presented. The Department of Continuing Education completed the needs assessment using the proposals presented by clinical units and management. Skills and behaviors that could be learned using simulation were selected, and all personnel from the units participating were included. Experiential learning principles based on clinical simulation and debriefing, were used for the instructional design. The Kirkpatrick model was used to evaluate the program. Objectives included: a) decision-making and teamwork skills training in high prevalence diseases with a high rate of preventable complications; b) care processes reorganisation to improve efficiency, while maintaining patient safety; and, c) implementation of new complex techniques with a long learning curve, and high preventable complications rate. Thirty clinical units organised 39 training programs in the 3 public hospitals, and primary care of the Regional Health Service during 2013-2014. Over 1,559 healthcare professionals participated, including nursing assistants, nurses and physicians. Simulation in healthcare to train inter-professional teams can promote and facilitate change in patient care, and organisational re-engineering. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional chemical structure of the INEL aquifer system near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, M.; Estes, M.; Fromm, J.; Welhan, J.; Barrash, W.

    1994-01-01

    Sampling and analysis from the Snake River Plain aquifer using a stainless-steel and teflon constructed straddle-packer system has established detailed vertical profiles of aquifer chemistry from three wells near a major source of low-level waste injection at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Multiple intervals, varying from 4.6 to 6.1 m in length, were sampled between the water table (140.5 mbls - meters below land surface), and approximately 200 mbls to obtain a wide spectrum of metals, anions, radiological and organic components analyses. Measurements were also made at the well sites of important transient parameters (T, Eh, Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , DO and SC). The principal purpose of this ongoing work is to improve our understanding of the third (i.e. vertical) dimension of aquifer chemistry at the INEL as a basis for critically evaluating site-wide monitoring procedures, and, ultimately, for improving fate and transport models for aquifer contaminants within basalt-hosted aquifers. Chemical and radiological data indicates that substantial systematic vertical and lateral variations occur in the aquifer hydrochemistry - in particular for conservative radiological nuclide concentrations. Radiological data define a three-layered zonation. Ground water within upper and lower zones contain up to 10 times higher concentrations of H-3 and I-129 than in the middle zone. Sr-90 activity is decoupled from H-3 and I-129-relatively high activity was detected within the upper zone nearest the ICPP, but activities elsewhere are very low. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Auditable safety analysis: High Radiation Level Chemical Development Facility (Buildings 4507 and 4556), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    The High-Radiation-Level Chemical Development Facility includes Buildings 4507 and 4556. Building 4507, located immediately to the west of Building 4500N and to the south of Building 4505, is a doubly contained three-level structure constructed in 1957. The most recent use of the facility was for recovery of multi-gram quantities of 244 Cm during the early 1970s and for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel studies in the late 1970s. It has remained in safe standby since 1980. Building 4556 is a below-grade filter pit located to the southwest of Building 4507 and was constructed in 1972. Ventilation from the cells in Building 4507 is passed through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in this building prior to being exhausted to the Building 3039 stack system. This building remains in operation to support ventilation requirements for Building 4507. This Auditable Safety Analysis (ASA) was developed in accordance with the requirements in Energy Systems Program Description FS-103PD, Safety Documentation, Revision 1. This ASA identifies and screens all hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556. The only hazard not screened out and requiring further analysis following the initial screening process is radioactive material in the form of surface contamination. The results of this ASA indicate that the hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556 do not pose a significant threat to workers, the public, or the environment

  1. ESTIMATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE SAFETY BY THE “CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND” INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the indices of industrial waste safety including distillers grains is chemical oxygen demand (COD, and its value (53591÷64184 mg O/dm3 shows that it can be considered as unsustainable waste. This high value of COD is conditioned by the absence of toxins in distillers grains, and by concentration of biologically active substances after which isolation the distillers grains index lowers by 74%. This allows considering the distillers grains as environmentally safe. The results received evidence the necessity for consideration of COD index only as an index of oxidized substances, but not the criteria of waste pollution.

  2. A feasibility study for Arizona's roadway safety management process using the Highway Safety Manual and SafetyAnalyst : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    To enable implementation of the American Association of State Highway Transportation (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual using : SaftetyAnalyst (an AASHTOWare software product), the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) studied the data assessment :...

  3. Process Analysis in Chemical Plant by Means of Radioactive Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T.; Hamada, K.; Osada, K. [Showa Denko K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1967-06-15

    Following the movement of solids and fluids is important in chemical processes to determine mixing efficiency and residence time. Since it is necessary to follow many complex substances such as raw materials, intermediates and reactants in plant investigations, it is often necessary to ascertain whether the behaviour of the radioisotope tracer and the substance to be traced are identical. The most difficult problem is to determine the best method of labelling, a factor which is a substantial key to the success of an experiment. Usually, there are three labelling techniques: radioisotope labelling, pre-.activation of the material and post-activation of the material. This paper deals with practical examples of the double-tracer technique, a combination of conventional radioisotope labelling and post-activation methods by means of activation analysis. In process analysis by means of tracers, a practical measurement method should also be devised and developed for each experiment. Phosphorus-32 and gold (non-radioactive) were used to measure retention time in a carbon-black plant. The radioisotope was pumped into a feed-stock pipe positioned before the reactor and samples were taken from each process of the plant, including the bag filter, mixer and product tank. After sampling from each step of the process, {sup 32}P in a semi-infinite powder sample was measured in situ by beta counting, and the gold was measured by gamma counting after activating the sample in a reactor. The experiment showed that both tracers had the same residence time, which was shorter than expected. Useful data were also obtained from the dispersion pattern of the material flow for future operation controls, including the time required to change from one grade of product to another. Practical tracer techniques to measure mixing characteristics in high-speed gas flows using {sup 85}Kr have been developed. A study of the measurement method was conducted by calculating the differential values of

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  5. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  6. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  7. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, A; Hartl, S; Sinner, F

    2013-01-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R and D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R and D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  8. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  9. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  10. Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

  11. Lessons Learned from a Five-year Evaluation of the Belgian Safety Culture Oversight Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Belgian Regulatory Body has implemented a Safety Culture oversight process since 2010. In a nutshell, this process is based on field observations provided by inspectors or safety analysts during any contact with a licencee (inspections, meetings, phone calls, etc). These observations are recorded within an observation (excel) sheet—aiming at describing factual and contextual issues — and are linked to IAEA Safety Culture attributes. It should be stressed that the purpose of the process is not to give a comprehensive view of a licencee safety culture but to address findings that require attention or action on the part of a licencee. In other words, gathering safety culture observations aims at identifying cultural, organizational or behavioural issues in order to feed a regulatory response to potential problems. Safety Culture Observations (SCO) are then fully integrated in routine inspection activities and must be seen as an input of the overall oversight process. As a result, the assessment of the SCO is inserted within the yearly safety evaluation report performed by Bel V and transmitted to the licencee. However, observing safety culture is not a natural approach for engineers. Guidance, training and coaching must be provided in order to open up safety dimensions to be captured. In other words, a SCO process requires a continuous support in order to promote a holistic and systemic view of safety.

  12. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  13. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  14. USNRC licensing process as related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations establishes procedures and criteria for the issuance of licenses to receive title to, own, acquire, deliver, receive, possess, use, and initially transfer special nuclear material; and establishes and provides for the terms and conditions upon which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will issue such licenses. Section 70.22 of the regulations, ''Contents of Applications'', requires that applications for licenses contain proposed procedures to avoid accidental conditions of criticality. These procedures are elements of a nuclear criticality safety program for operations with fissionable materials at fuels and materials facilities (i.e., fuel cycle facilities other than nuclear reactors) in which there exists a potential for criticality accidents. To assist the applicant in providing specific information needed for a nuclear criticality safety program in a license application, the NRC has issued regulatory guides. The NRC requirements for nuclear criticality safety include organizational, administrative, and technical requirements. For purely technical matters on nuclear criticality safety these guides endorse national standards. Others provide guidance on the standard format and content of license applications, guidance on evaluating radiological consequences of criticality accidents, or guidance for dealing with other radiation safety issues. (author)

  15. ARTIST process. A novel chemical process for treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi

    2001-10-01

    A new chemical process, ARTIST process, is proposed for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The main concept of the ARTIST process is to recover and stock all actinides (Ans) as two groups, uranium (U) and a mixture of transuranics (TRU), to preserve their resource value and to dispose solely fission products (FPs). The process is composed of two main steps, an U exclusive isolation and a total recovery of TRU; which copes with the nuclear non-proliferation measures, and additionally of Pu separation process and soft N-donor process if requested, and optionally of processes for separation of long-lived FPs. These An products: U-product and TRU-product, are to be solidified by calcination and allowed to the interim stockpile for future utilization. These separations are achieved by use of amidic extractants in accord with the CHON principle. The technical feasibility of the ARTIST process was explained by the performance of both the branched alkyl monoamides in extracting U and suppressing the extraction of tetravalent Ans due to the steric effect and the diglycolic amide (TODGA) in thorough extraction of all TRU by tridentate fashion. When these TRU are requested to put into reactors, LWR or FBR, for power generation or the Accelerator - Driven System (ADS) for transmutation, Pu (Np) or Am-Cm (Np) are to be extracted from the TRU-product. (author)

  16. Statistical process control support during Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) has been developed to ensure that the wasteforms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will satisfy the regulatory and processing criteria that will be imposed. The PCCS provides rigorous, statistically-defensible management of a noisy, multivariate system subject to multiple constraints. The system has been successfully tested and has been used to control the production of the first two melter feed batches during DWPF Chemical Runs. These operations will demonstrate the viability of the DWPF process. This paper provides a brief discussion of the technical foundation for the statistical process control algorithms incorporated into PCCS, and describes the results obtained and lessons learned from DWPF Cold Chemical Run operations. The DWPF will immobilize approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the Site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive sludge and precipitate streams and less radioactive water soluble salts. (In a separate facility, soluble salts are disposed of as low-level waste in a mixture of cement slag, and flyash.) In DWPF, the precipitate steam (Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous or PHA) is blended with the insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitric- Glycolic Flowsheet Chemical Process Cell Chemistry: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-06

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from 2011 to 2016. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlation models to predict these values from measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge or simulant composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Previous work on these correlations was documented in a technical report covering data from 2011-2015. This current report supersedes this previous report. Further refinement of the models as additional data are collected is recommended.

  18. In vitro Perturbations of Targets in Cancer Hallmark Processes Predict Rodent Chemical Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of untested chemicals in the environment require efficient characterization of carcinogenic potential in humans. A proposed solution is rapid testing of chemicals using in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) assays for targets in pathways linked to disease processes ...

  19. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements

  1. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, Lars; Lilja, Christina

    2010-12-01

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  2. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, Lars; Lilja, Christina (eds.)

    2010-12-15

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  3. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  4. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  5. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  6. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    that is typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization with constraints) problem is solved by the so-called reverse approach by decomposing it into four sequential hierarchical sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection......This thesis describes the development and application of a new systematic modelbased methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) of chemical processes. The new methodology is simple to apply, easy to visualize and efficient to solve. Here, the IPDC problem...... are ordered according to the defined performance criteria (objective function). The final selected design is then verified through rigorous simulation. In the pre-analysis sub-problem, the concepts of attainable region and driving force are used to locate the optimal process-controller design solution...

  7. Preliminary safety analysis of a PBMR supplying process heat to a co-located ethylene production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Raluca O.; Cisneros, Anselmo T.; Koutchesfahani, Tawni; Hong, Rada; Peterson, Per F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the safety analysis and licensing approach for co-locating a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) to provide process heat to an ethylene production unit. The PBMR is an advanced nuclear reactor design that provides 400 MW of thermal energy. Ethylene production is an energy intensive process that utilizes large gas furnaces to provide the heat for the process. Coupling a PBMR with an ethylene production plant would open a new market for nuclear power, and would provide the chemical industry with a cleaner power source, helping to achieve the Clean Air Act standards, and eliminating the 0.5 ton of CO 2 emissions per ton of produced ethylene. Our analysis uses the Chevron Phillips chemical plant in Sweeney, TX as a prototypical site. The plant has four ethylene production trains, with a total power consumption of 2.4 GW, for an ethylene output of 3.7 million tons per year, 4% of the global ethylene production capacity. This paper proposes replacement of the gas furnaces by low-emission PBMR modules, and presents the safety concerns and risk mitigation and management options for this coupled system. Two coupling design options are proposed, and the necessary changes to the design basis events and severe accidents for the PBMR licensing application are discussed. A joint effort between the chemical and the nuclear entities to optimize the coupling design, establish preventive maintenance procedures, and develop emergency response plans for both of the units is recommended.

  8. Preliminary safety analysis of a PBMR supplying process heat to a co-located ethylene production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, Raluca O., E-mail: rscarlat@nuc.berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cisneros, Anselmo T. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Koutchesfahani, Tawni [University of California, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 201 Gilman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Rada; Peterson, Per F. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This paper considers the safety analysis and licensing approach for co-locating a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) to provide process heat to an ethylene production unit. The PBMR is an advanced nuclear reactor design that provides 400 MW of thermal energy. Ethylene production is an energy intensive process that utilizes large gas furnaces to provide the heat for the process. Coupling a PBMR with an ethylene production plant would open a new market for nuclear power, and would provide the chemical industry with a cleaner power source, helping to achieve the Clean Air Act standards, and eliminating the 0.5 ton of CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of produced ethylene. Our analysis uses the Chevron Phillips chemical plant in Sweeney, TX as a prototypical site. The plant has four ethylene production trains, with a total power consumption of 2.4 GW, for an ethylene output of 3.7 million tons per year, 4% of the global ethylene production capacity. This paper proposes replacement of the gas furnaces by low-emission PBMR modules, and presents the safety concerns and risk mitigation and management options for this coupled system. Two coupling design options are proposed, and the necessary changes to the design basis events and severe accidents for the PBMR licensing application are discussed. A joint effort between the chemical and the nuclear entities to optimize the coupling design, establish preventive maintenance procedures, and develop emergency response plans for both of the units is recommended.

  9. New trajectory-driven aerosol and chemical process model Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tunved

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Chemical and Aerosol Lagrangian Model (CALM has been developed and tested. The model incorporates all central aerosol dynamical processes, from nucleation, condensation, coagulation and deposition to cloud formation and in-cloud processing. The model is tested and evaluated against observations performed at the SMEAR II station located at Hyytiälä (61° 51' N, 24° 17' E over a time period of two years, 2000–2001. The model shows good agreement with measurements throughout most of the year, but fails in reproducing the aerosol properties during the winter season, resulting in poor agreement between model and measurements especially during December–January. Nevertheless, through the rest of the year both trends and magnitude of modal concentrations show good agreement with observation, as do the monthly average size distribution properties. The model is also shown to capture individual nucleation events to a certain degree. This indicates that nucleation largely is controlled by the availability of nucleating material (as prescribed by the [H2SO4], availability of condensing material (in this model 15% of primary reactions of monoterpenes (MT are assumed to produce low volatile species and the properties of the size distribution (more specifically, the condensation sink. This is further demonstrated by the fact that the model captures the annual trend in nuclei mode concentration. The model is also used, alongside sensitivity tests, to examine which processes dominate the aerosol size distribution physical properties. It is shown, in agreement with previous studies, that nucleation governs the number concentration during transport from clean areas. It is also shown that primary number emissions almost exclusively govern the CN concentration when air from Central Europe is advected north over Scandinavia. We also show that biogenic emissions have a large influence on the amount of potential CCN observed

  10. Compliance as process: Work safety in the Chinese construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    China is facing a key challenge of achieving compliance in many regulatory areas. Responding to such issue, this research reports on an exploratory empirical study of how the regulated construction businesses comply with work safety rules in China. Building on the existing literature, it develops a

  11. Management of health, safety and environment in process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Fiévez, C.; Gerbec, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of industrial HSE management in a number of EU member states is reviewed, with a focus on the integration of health, safety and environment in single management systems. The review provides insight into the standards and paradigms adopted by industry, and it identifies trends...

  12. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are

  13. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment with .... differences in most of the visible bands among all samples. Figure 1: SDS-PAGE analysis of protein patterns in wheat gluten and glutenin, with and without ozone.

  14. Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR: Expectation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, 5-6 (2013), s. 214-215 ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laboratory investigation * large-scale applications * novel instrumentation and technology . Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research

  16. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  17. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  18. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  19. The safety culture change process performed in Polish research reactor MARIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golab, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    The Safety Culture Change Process Performed in research reactor MARIA is described in this paper. The essential issues fulfilled in realization of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme are related to the attitude and behaviour of top management, co-operating groups, operational personnel, relations between the operating organization and the supervising and advising organizations. Realization of this programme is based on changing the employees understanding of safety, changing their attitudes and behaviours by means of adequate training, requalification process and performing the broad self-assessment programme. Also a high level Quality Assurance Programme helps in development of the Safety Culture. (author)

  20. The approach to risk analysis in three industries: nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The aerospace, nuclear power, and chemical processing industries are providing much of the incentive for the development and application of advanced risk analysis techniques to engineered systems. Risk analysis must answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? and What are the consequences? The result of such analyses is not only a quantitative answer to the question of 'What is the risk', but, more importantly, a framework for intelligent and visible risk management. Because of the societal importance of the subject industries and the amount of risk analysis activity involved in each, it is interesting to look for commonalities, differences, and, hopefully, a basis for some standardization. Each industry has its strengths: the solid experience base of the chemical industry, the extensive qualification and testing procedures of the space industry, and the integrative and quantitative risk and reliability methodologies developed for the nuclear power industry. In particular, most advances in data handling, systems interaction modeling, and uncertainty analysis have come from the probabilistic risk assessment work in the nuclear safety field. In the final analysis, all three industries would greatly benefit from a more deliberate technology exchange program in the rapidly evolving discipline of quantitative risk analysis. (author)

  1. Transition towards replacing animal tests in safety assessment of cosmetics and chemicals: a combined TIS-MLP framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, M.; Meer, P. van de; Moors, E.H.M.; Schellekens, H.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The urgency of the transition to replace animal tests in safety assessment of chemicals and cosmetics was triggered by societal resistance to animal testing (Rowan, 2007) and the scientific dispute concerning the value of animal testing (Olson et al., 2000). Since the 1980s the European Union (EU)

  2. 40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing officer chooses to use a formula based on production volume, the total production volume amount...) How must I conduct my testing? The chemical substances identified by Chemical Abstract Service...., Whittaker, C. and McDougal, J.N. Role of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee in Meeting the U.S...

  3. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  4. Food Safety Practices in the U.S. Meat Slaughter and Processing Industry: Changes from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K

    2017-08-01

    Meat slaughter establishments use a multipronged approach to ensure beef and pork products are safe for human consumption. To determine the approaches most commonly used, we conducted a national survey of federally inspected meat slaughter and processing establishments (376 completed surveys, 66% response rate) in 2015. We compared the results with a survey that was conducted in 2005, albeit of potentially different establishments, by using a similar questionnaire and similar data collection methods, thus allowing for an evaluation of trends in food safety practices over time. The use of some food safety practices has increased over the 10-yr time period, whereas others remained the same or decreased. For example, the use of chemical sanitizers or hot water for food contact surfaces and tools increased from 51 to 93%. As another example, microbiological testing of raw meat after fabrication, in addition to that required by regulation, increased from 50 to 72%. However, the use of organic acid rinse on carcasses in the slaughter area remained the same, at 66% of establishments. Written policies and procedures to control the use of hazardous chemicals decreased from 75 to 65% of establishments. The survey findings can be used to characterize food safety practices and technologies in the meat slaughter and processing industry and identify areas for improvement.

  5. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S.N.; Bawa, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with 60 Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F 0 value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities. - Highlights: → A combination processing involving gamma irradiation and retort processing. → Combination processing reduced microbial loads. → Minimum dose of 4.0 kGy together with retort processing at F 0 -2.0 is required to achieve commercial sterility.

  6. Effect of combination processing on the microbial, chemical and sensory quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable pulav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R., E-mail: kumardfrl@gmail.com [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India); George, Johnsy; Rajamanickam, R.; Nataraju, S.; Sabhapathy, S.N.; Bawa, A.S. [Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, Karnataka 570011 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Effect of irradiation in combination with retort processing on the shelf life and safety aspects of an ethnic Indian food product like vegetable pulav was investigated. Gamma irradiation of RTE vegetable pulav was carried out at different dosage rates with {sup 60}Co followed by retort processing. The combination processed samples were analysed for microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Microbiological analysis indicated that irradiation in combination with retort processing has significantly reduced the microbial loads whereas the chemical and sensory analysis proved that this combination processing is effective in retaining the properties even after storage for one year at ambient conditions. The results also indicated that a minimum irradiation dosage at 4.0 kGy along with retort processing at an F{sub 0} value of 2.0 is needed to achieve the desired shelf life with improved organoleptic qualities. - Highlights: > A combination processing involving gamma irradiation and retort processing. > Combination processing reduced microbial loads. > Minimum dose of 4.0 kGy together with retort processing at F{sub 0}-2.0 is required to achieve commercial sterility.

  7. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  8. Flow-Injection Responses of Diffusion Processes and Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    tool of automated analytical chemistry. The need for an even lower consumption of chemicals and for computer analysis has motivated a study of the FIA peak itself, that is, a theoretical model was developed, that provides detailed knowledge of the FIA profile. It was shown that the flow in a FIA...... manifold may be characterised by a diffusion coefficient that depends on flow rate, denoted as the kinematic diffusion coefficient. The description was applied to systems involving species of chromium, both in the case of simple diffusion and in the case of chemical reactions. It is suggested that it may...... be used in the resolution of FIA profiles to obtain information about the content of interference’s, in the study of chemical reaction kinetics and to measure absolute concentrations within the FIA-detector cell....

  9. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  10. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A., E-mail: emotta@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  11. Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova-Alonso, F.; Elorza-Rodriguez, E.; Uribe-Salas, A.; Perez-Garibay, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  12. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  13. 75 FR 36306 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... have large industrial uses. Regulated chemical mixtures are not items having common household uses... and others from exposure to the toxic chemicals left behind. Executive Order 12988 This regulation... 1117-AA66 Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process...

  14. Dynamic Processes of Conceptual Change: Analysis of Constructing Mental Models of Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju

    2002-01-01

    Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…

  15. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  16. Knowledge acquisition on hazards in chemical and process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The knowledge acquisition for probabilistic risk assessment and operational safety improvements are described. The procedure HazOp (Hazard and Operability Study) are used for hazard identification. The acquainted knowledge is condensed in the form of cause-consequence matrix which is very convenient for plant logic model start point definition. At the end, the possibility for HazOp performance support by use of Artificial Intelligence approach is considered. (author) [sl

  17. Thermodynamic and chemical engineering problems arising with hybride processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaenger, K.

    1981-01-01

    Marginal parameters and definitions are set up for the NaK-NaKH cyclic process, the vapour-phase electrolysis on the basis of carbonates, high-temperature electrolysis using borax, the HCl/NaLiNO 3 cyclic process and the methane/methanol cyclic process. Such parameters and definitions are to create uniform conditions for the process design. (DG) [de

  18. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  19. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  20. IAEA Issues Report on Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts has delivered its report on a mission it conducted from 21-31 January 2012 to review Japan's process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) officials delivered the IAEA Mission Report to Japanese officials yesterday and made it publicly available today. Following the 11 March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) announced the development of a revised safety assessment process for the nation's nuclear power reactors. At the request of the Government of Japan, the IAEA organized a team of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts and visited Japan to review NISA's approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 31 January. 'The mission report provides additional information regarding the team's recommendations and overall finding that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The IAEA safety review mission held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. In its report delivered today

  1. Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charak, I; Pedersen, D.R.; Forrester, R.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL's Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was the vehicle used to secure authorization to operate the facility and carry out the program, which is now under way. This work also provided some insights into safety-related issues of a commercial IFR fuel processing facility. These are also discussed

  2. Applicable safety-related design and operations considerations from the oil and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, R.J.; Deshotels, R.L.; Master, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Fluor Daniel has conducted several hazards and risk analyses on petroleum and chemical facilities. These analyses included qualitative hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies, preliminary hazards analyses, and qualitative fault-tree analysis as well as quantitative event-tree/fault-tree risk analysis. Several design-related problem areas were uncovered as a result of these analyses as well as deficiencies in operations and maintenance. Design deficiency areas include potential common-mode failures associated with redundant functions sharing a common distributed digital control (DDC) logic circuit board and failures in pressure relief systems. Many of the design weaknesses and potential operator errors discussed have a direct counterpart in nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power reactors. Counterparts that are discussed are common cause/common mode failures in control systems and failures in pressure relief systems. Overpressurization of piping and vessels resulting in rupture is discussed. Mitigating design features and operations procedures that have been implemented in the chemical process industry are described and their applicability to the nuclear industry is discussed

  3. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  4. Treatment Tank Corrosion Studies For The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  5. Buffer and backfill process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrik (comp.)

    2006-09-15

    This document compiles information on processes in the buffer and deposition tunnel backfill relevant for long-term safety of a KBS-repository. It supports the safety assessment SR-Can, which is a preparatory step for a safety assessment that will support the licence application for a final repository in Sweden. The purpose of the process reports is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment of the processes in the safety assessment. The documentation is not exhaustive from a scientific point of view, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. However, it must be sufficiently detailed to motivate, by arguments founded on scientific understanding, the treatment of each process in the safety assessment. The purpose is further to determine how to handle each process in the safety assessment at an appropriate degree of detail, and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling.

  6. Buffer and backfill process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrik

    2006-09-01

    This document compiles information on processes in the buffer and deposition tunnel backfill relevant for long-term safety of a KBS-repository. It supports the safety assessment SR-Can, which is a preparatory step for a safety assessment that will support the licence application for a final repository in Sweden. The purpose of the process reports is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment of the processes in the safety assessment. The documentation is not exhaustive from a scientific point of view, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. However, it must be sufficiently detailed to motivate, by arguments founded on scientific understanding, the treatment of each process in the safety assessment. The purpose is further to determine how to handle each process in the safety assessment at an appropriate degree of detail, and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling

  7. Radiological safety and environmental surveillance during the mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper highlights the occupational and environmental radiological safety aspects and surveillance activities associated with mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite, based on the experience gained over more than three decades of operations of the plants of Indian Rare Earths Ltd, at Chavara (Kerala), Manavalakurichi (Tamilnadu) and Udyogamandal (Kerala). The mining of beach sands, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite for the recovery of Th and U involve occupational radiation hazards and safety problems of varying magnitudes. This part of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves average per-capita occupational exposures ranging from 1.0 mSv to 8 mSv per year. The collective doses involved work out to 4.5 to 5.4 Person Sieverts per year and involve nearly 1000 radiation workers. Internal exposure contributes to nearly half of the exposure. Mechanization of the operations, process modifications, administrative controls and constant safety surveillance have over the years helped to reduce the exposures and to maintain them at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental releases resulting from the operations are well within the limits stipulated by competent authorities and exposures to public from the mining, mineral separation and monazite processing are not significant. (author)

  8. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept

  9. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Haas

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training.

  10. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing a public workshop to be held on the concept of ``Integrity Verification Process.'' The Integrity...

  11. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  12. Development of Chemical Process Design and Control for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution describes a novel process systems engineering framework that couples advanced control with sustainability evaluation and decision making for the optimization of process operations to minimize environmental impacts associated with products, materials, and energy....

  13. Preventing external domino accidents : A framework for enhancing cooperation in the Chemical Process Industry (CPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical research on major accident safety in the second largest chemical cluster worldwide, the Antwerp port area, supports the design of a meta-technical framework for optimizing external domino prevention. First, the majority of Seveso top tier companies have expressed a willingness to cooperate

  14. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  15. Nonlinear processes in laser heating of chemically active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, F V; Kirichenko, N A; Luk' yanchuk, B S

    1984-08-01

    After it had been discovered and in due measure physically comprehended that numerous nontrivial phenomena observed during laser heating of chemically active media are caused primarily by self-stress of laser radiation due to the chemical intertial nonlinearity of the medium, an approach was found for solving problems of laser thermochemistry that is most adequate from the mathematical (and physical) standpoint: the approach of the theory of nonlinear oscillations in point systems and distributed systems. This approach has provided a uniform viewpoint for examination of a variety of phenomena of spatiotemporal self-organization of chemically active media under the effect of laser radiation, qualitative, and in some cases quantitative description of such phenomena as the onset of thermochemical instability, self-oscillations, various spatial structures and the like. Evidently it can be rightly considered that at this juncture a definite stage has been completed in the development of laser thermochemistry marked by the creation of an ideology, method and overall approach to interpretation of the most diverse phenomena under conditions of actual physical experiments. References to the numerous studies that make up the content of this stage of development of laser thermochemistry are to be found in survey papers. 48 references, 10 figures.

  16. Usage of information safety requirements in improving tube bending process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshitz, I. I.; Kunakov, E.; Lontsikh, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    This article is devoted to an improvement of the technological process's analysis with the information security requirements implementation. The aim of this research is the competition increase analysis in aircraft industry enterprises due to the information technology implementation by the example of the tube bending technological process. The article analyzes tube bending kinds and current technique. In addition, a potential risks analysis in a tube bending technological process is carried out in terms of information security.

  17. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO x , CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed

  18. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  19. Materials control and accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, G.E.; Britschgi, J.J.; Spraktes, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The ICPP high enriched uranium recovery process has historically been operated as a single Material Balance Area (MBA), with input and output measurement capabilities. Safeguards initiated changes in the last five years have resulted in significant materials control and accountability improvements. Those changes include semi-automation of process accountability measurement, data collection and recording; definition of Sub-MBAs; standard plant cleanouts; and, bimonthly inventory estimates. Process monitoring capabilities are also being installed to provide independent operational procedural compliance verification, process anomaly detection, and enhanced materials traceability. Development of a sensitivity analysis approach to defining process measurement requirements is in progress

  20. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...