WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical polishing

  1. Tribology analysis of chemical-mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runnels, S.R.; Eyman, L.M. (Sematech, Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-06-01

    To better understand the variation of material removal rate on a wafer during chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), knowledge of the stress distribution on the wafer surface is required. The difference in wafer-surface stress distributions could be considerable depending on whether or not the wafer hydroplanes during polishing. This study analyzes the fluid film between the wafer and pad and demonstrates that hydroplaning is possible for standard CMP processes. The importance of wafer curvature, slurry viscosity, and rotation speed on the thickness of the fluid film is also demonstrated.

  2. Contribution of ultrasonic traveling wave to chemical-mechanical polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; He, Qing; Zheng, Mian; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The ultrasonic vibrators are introduced into the chemical-mechanical polishing devices, and in this polishing system, the ultrasonic vibrators generate ultrasonic traveling wave and keep coaxial with the polished silicon wafer rotating at given speed so as to compare the texture of the polished silicon wafers. And the experiments on the chemical-mechanical polishing with assisted ultrasonic vibration are accomplished in order to investigate the effect of the ultrasonic vibration on the chemical-mechanical polishing. Via comparing the roughness average of the two silicon wafers polished with assisted ultrasonic vibration and without assisted vibration, it is found that the morphology of the silicon wafer polished with assisted vibration is superior to that without assisted vibration, that is, this series of experiments indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is beneficial to the chemical-mechanical polishing. Aiming at understanding the contribution of the ultrasonic vibration to chemical-mechanical polishing in detail, the model of the chemical-mechanical polishing with the assisted ultrasonic vibration is built up, which establishes the relationship of the removal rate and the polishing variables such as the rotary speed of silicon wafers, the amplitude and the frequency of vibrators, the particle density of polishing slurry and the characteristics of polishing pad etc. This model not only could be used to explain the experimental results but also to illuminate the roles played by the polishing variables.

  3. Chemical mechanical polishing of freestanding GaN substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜怀跃; 修向前; 刘战辉; 张荣; 华雪梅; 谢自力; 韩平; 施毅; 郑有炓

    2009-01-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used to produce smooth and scratch-free surfaces for GaN. In the aqueous solution of KOH, GaN is subjected to etching. At the same time, all surface irregularities, including etch pyramids, roughness after mechanical polishing and so on will be removed by a polishing pad. The experiments had been performed under the condition of different abrasive particle sizes of the polishing pad. Also the polishing results for different polishing times are analyzed, and chemical mechanical polishing resulted in an average root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of 0.565 nm, as measured by atomic force microscopy.

  4. Outgassing Properties of Chemically Polished Titanium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Hiroki; Kimoto, Gou; Fujii, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Matsuura, Mitsuru; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    We developed a chemical polishing (CP) for titanium materials applicable to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and extremely high vacuum (XHV) systems. The surface roughness, Ra, of the chemically polished titanium is obtained to be 25 nm by the atomic force microscopy measurement. This value is smaller than those of the base metal (BM) and the buff-polished (BP) samples. The thickness of the surface oxide layer of CP sample is estimated to be 7 nm by the cross section of transmission electron micrograph. Amount of desorption gas of CP sample obtained by the thermal desorption measurement is smaller than those of BM and BP sample, and is the same as that of the mechanochemically polished (MCP) sample. The outgassing rate of CP sample after baking at 150°C×20 h is obtained to be 7×10-13 Pa•m•s-1. This value is lower than that of standard vacuum materials by two orders of magnitude after the ordinary baking.

  5. Copper chemical mechanical polishing using a slurry-free technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.H.; Hof, A.J.; Kranenburg, van H.; Woerlee, P.H.; Weimar, F.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of thin copper films using fixed-abrasive pads is presented. The composition of the polishing solution is optimized by investigating the impact of both the oxidizer concentration and the pH of the solution on the polishing characteristics of copper.

  6. Cation Effect on Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-Yong; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of cations in solutions containing benzotriazole (BTA) and H2O2 on copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). On the base of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and material removal rate (MRR) results, it is found that ammonia shows the highest MRR as well as good surface after CMP, while KOH demon-strates the worst performance. These results reveal a mechanism that sma//molecules with lone-pairs rather than molecules with steric effect and common inorganic cations are better for copper CMP process, which is indirectly confirmed by open circuit potential (OCP).

  7. Cation Effect on Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Yong; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhi-Tang; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-02-01

    We examine the effect of cations in solutions containing benzotriazole (BTA) and H2O2 on copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). On the base of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and material removal rate (MRR) results, it is found that ammonia shows the highest MRR as well as good surface after CMP, while KOH demonstrates the worst performance. These results reveal a mechanism that small molecules with lone-pairs rather than molecules with steric effect and common inorganic cations are better for copper CMP process, which is indirectly confirmed by open circuit potential (OCP).

  8. Defect centers in chemical-mechanical polished MOS oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Warren, W.L.; Hetherington, D.L.; Timon, R.P.; Resnick, P.J.; Winokur, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    Defect centers generated in vacuum-ultraviolet irradiated chemical-mechanical polished oxides have been characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance and C-V analysis. Both oxide trap E{sub {gamma}} and interface trap P{sub b0} centers were detected in unpolished and polished oxides. In addition, another interface defect center known as the P{sub b1} center was only identified in the polished oxides, suggesting that the polishing process altered the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  9. Effect of chemical polishing in titanium materials for low outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, K.; Kurisu, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Nomura, T.; Murashige, N.

    2008-03-01

    A chemical polishing using a nitric acid solution was found to be the most suitable for the titanium materials. 1.8 nm of small surface roughness was observed in a microscopic range in 1 μm square, and 7 nm of a thin oxide layer was shown to exist for the chemically polished titanium. The surface processing for the titanium was developed combining the chemical polishing and the precision cleaning. The chemically polished pure titanium of JIS grade 2 showed extremely low outgassing rate below 10-12 Pams-1 after baking process, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for standard vacuum materials under the same baking condition. Outgassing rates of the titanium is about 1/5 of that for a stainless steel without baking process.

  10. Effect of chemical polishing in titanium materials for low outgassing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, K; Kurisu, H; Yamamoto, S [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Nomura, T; Murashige, N [CT division San-ai Plant Industries, Ltd, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821 (Japan)], E-mail: kishizawa@san-ai-oil.co.jp

    2008-03-01

    A chemical polishing using a nitric acid solution was found to be the most suitable for the titanium materials. 1.8 nm of small surface roughness was observed in a microscopic range in 1 {mu}m square, and 7 nm of a thin oxide layer was shown to exist for the chemically polished titanium. The surface processing for the titanium was developed combining the chemical polishing and the precision cleaning. The chemically polished pure titanium of JIS grade 2 showed extremely low outgassing rate below 10{sup -12} Pams{sup -1} after baking process, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than that for standard vacuum materials under the same baking condition. Outgassing rates of the titanium is about 1/5 of that for a stainless steel without baking process.

  11. Effect of Chemicals on Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Glass Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-Yong; ZHANG Kai-Liang; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ We investigate the effect of chemicals on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of glass substrates. Ceria slurry in an ultra-low concentration of 0.25wt.% is used and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three typical molecules, i.e. acetic acid, citric acid and sodium acrylic polymer, are adopted to investigate the effect on CMP performance in terms of material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality. The addition of sodium acrylic polymer shows the highest MRR as well as the best surface by atomic force microscopy after CMP, vhile the addition of citric acid shows the worst performance. These results reveal a mechanism that a long-chain molecule without any branches rather than small molecules and common molecules with ramose abundant-electron groups is better for the dispersion of the slurry and thus better for the CMP process.

  12. Chemical mechanical polishing of tantalum and tantalum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjam, Sathish Babu S. V.

    There is a continuing need in the semiconductor industry to clear residual copper (Cu) and planarize the tantalum (Ta)/tantalum nitride (TaN) barrier/etch stop layer with a higher removal rate using the technique of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). Obtaining high removal rates for Ta/TaN is very challenging as the films are very hard, and hence it is difficult to achieve high Ta/TaN removal rates by just relying on an increase in the mechanical forces (operating pressure) alone during CMP. Ta/TaN is an inert metal, therefore, obtaining high Ta/TaN removal rates by using chemical additives is also challenging. Not only Ta/TaN needs to be removed at a higher rate in the second step of polishing, but also remaining Cu should be cleared. It is important to search for novel chemicals that can form a thin film on the Ta/TaN surface which can be easily abraded by the polishing pad with very less pressure. In this work, oxalic and tartaric acids have been investigated as the complexing agents in slurries for Ta/TaN CMP. Oxalic and tartaric acids appear to be reactive with Ta in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A dispersion of the Oxalic acid (OA)/Tartaric Acid (TA) - peroxide mixtures with silica (fumed/colloidal) can be used to achieve Ta removal rates that are ˜ 90 nm/min at pH between 3 to 6 by applying a down force of 6.3 psi, where as at a lower down force of 2 psi, a removal rate of ˜ 40 nm/min has been achieved at pH = 3. It was shown earlier that a high Cu removal rate can be obtained using OA-peroxide based slurries with/without the addition of abrasives at pH = 3 [1]. So, in the first step, Cu could be removed at high rates at pH = 3 and by changing the pH to 5 or 6, Ta/TaN can be removed as mentioned above. Hence these slurries could be used as "single dispersion slurries " that could be used for both the first and second steps of Cu CMP. During the second step (barrier layer polish), Cu removal rates are low but not low enough to minimize dishing with

  13. Modeling Chemical Mechanical Polishing with Couple Stress Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝辉; 雒建斌; 温诗铸

    2004-01-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a manufacturing process used to achieve high levels of global and local planarity.Currently, the slurries used in CMP usually contain nanoscale particles to accelerate the removal ratio and to optimize the planarity, whose rheological properties can no longer be accurately modeled with Newtonian fluids.The Reynolds equation, including the couple stress effects, was derived in this paper.The equation describes the mechanism to solve the CMP lubrication equation with the couple stress effects.The effects on load and moments resulting from the various parameters, such as pivot height, roll angle, and pitch angle, were subsequently simulated.The results show that the couple stress can provide higher load and angular moments.This study sheds some lights into the mechanism of the CMP process.

  14. Surface texture and some properties of acrylic resins submitted to chemical polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, K O; Mello, J A N; Rached, R N; Del Bel Cury, A A

    2003-01-01

    The effects of chemical polishing on dental acrylic resin properties are not well clarified. This study evaluated the effect of chemical and mechanical polishing on the residual monomer release (RM), Knoop hardness (KH), transverse strength (TS) and surface texture (ST) of a heat- and self-cured acrylic resin. Four groups were formed: GI-self-cured resin/mechanical polishing; GII-self-cured resin/chemical polishing; GIII-heat-cured resin/mechanical polishing; GIV-heat-cured resin/chemical polishing. Following the polishing procedures, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The KH and RM measurements were taken after 1, 2, 8 and 32 days of storage, and TS after 2, 8 and 32 days. Surface texture was observed under SEM evaluation. Results were compared statistically at a confidence level of 95%. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) regardless of the acrylic resin and the period of analysis, chemical polishing increased RM levels, reduced KH, and did not affect TS significantly; (2) water storage increased the surface hardness of GII and GIV; (3) GII and GIV showed a smooth and wavy surface under SEM evaluation.

  15. Material removal model for non-contact chemical mechanical polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianQun; ZHANG ChaoHui

    2008-01-01

    Material removal mechanism under non-contact condition between the pad and the wafer in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process is investigated. Based on the assumption that almost all effective material removals take place due to the active abrasives which cut material through the plowing effects. A novel model is developed to predict the material removal rate (MRR) under non-contact condition between the pad and the wafer in CMP. Validated by the experimental data, the model is proved to be able to predict the change of MRR under non-contact condition. Numerical simulation of the model shows: the relative velocity u between the pad and the wafer and fluid viscosity η are the most important factors which impact MRR under non-contact condition; load changes of wafer also affects the MRR, but the effect is not as obvious as the relative velocity and fluid viscosity;when the radius of abrasive is not less than 50nm, the impact of MRR alone with the changes in the size of the abrasive can be ignored.

  16. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Ruthenium, Cobalt, and Black Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peethala, Brown Cornelius

    Ta/TaN bilayer serves as the diffusion barrier as well as the adhesion promoter between Cu and the dielectric in 32 nm technology devices. A key concern of future technology devices (sustain the diffusion barrier performance without forming voids and meeting the requirements of low resistivity. These are very challenging requirements for the Ta/TaN bilayer at a thickness of 50 nm/min) Ru removal rates (RRs) are required and as a stop layer in magnetic recording head fabrication where low (Diamond (BD) is a SiCOH type material with a dielectric constant of ˜2.9 and here, polishing of BD was investigated in order to understand the polishing behavior of SiCOH-based materials using the barrier slurries. The slurries that were developed for polishing Co and Ru in this work and Ta/TaN (earlier) were investigated for polishing the Black Diamond (BD) films. Here, it was found that ionic salts play a major role in enhancing the BD RRs to ˜65 nm/min compared to no removal rates in the absence of additives. A removal mechanism in the presence of ionic salts is proposed.

  17. Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Seiichi; Sakuma, Noriyuki; Homma, Yoshio; Ohashi, Naofumi

    2000-11-01

    Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical corrosion more effectively than adding it to the slurry. On the other hand, galvanic corrosion occurs at the interface between Cu and the barrier metal, and it can be prevented by selecting appropriate barrier metals. Because the difference between the electrochemical potentials of Cu and the barrier metal is small in the slurry, refractory metals such as Ta, TaN, and TiN were found to be appropriate barrier metals. On the other hand, W, WN, and Ti have large potential differences, so galvanic corrosion was clearly observed when Cu/W damascene interconnects were fabricated.

  18. Chemical mechanical polishing of transparent conductive layers using spherical cationic polymer microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shoji, E-mail: nagaoka@kmt-iri.go.jp [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Ryu, Naoya [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Akio [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shirosaki, Tomohiro [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Horikawa, Maki [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Sakurai, Hideo; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    Spherical cationic polymer microbeads were used to chemically mechanically polish transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers without the need for inorganic abrasives. Poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) was used as the polymer matrix. Surface cationization of the spherical PMA microbeads was achieved by aminolysis using 1,2-diaminoethane. The amino group content of the microbeads was controlled using the aminolysis reaction time. The surface roughness of the TCO polished using the cationic polymer microbeads was similar to that of TCO polished with an inorganic abrasive. The microbead-polished TCO layer was slightly thinner than the unpolished TCO layer. The sheet resistance of the TCO layer polished using the microbeads was lower than that polished using the inorganic abrasive. The TCO polishing ability of the microbeads was dependent on their cationic properties and softness. - Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) layer was planarized using cationic polymer microbeads. • Cationic polymer microbeads planarized, while retaining ITO layer thickness • Cationic polymer microbeads did not degrade the sheet resistance of ITO. • Cationic polymer microbeads could planarize the ITO surface without damaging.

  19. Models of nanoparticles movement, collision, and friction in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Filip, E-mail: filip@meca.omtr.pub.ro [Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Department of Machine Elements and Tribology (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    Nanoparticles have been widely used in polishing slurry such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. The movement of nanoparticles in polishing slurry and the interaction between nanoparticles and solid surface are very important to obtain an atomic smooth surface in CMP process. Polishing slurry contains abrasive nanoparticles (with the size range of about 10-100 nm) and chemical reagents. Abrasive nanoparticles and hydrodynamic pressure are considered to cause the polishing effect. Nanoparticles behavior in the slurry with power-law viscosity shows great effect on the wafer surface in polishing process. CMP is now a standard process of integrated circuit manufacturing at nanoscale. Various models can dynamically predict the evolution of surface topography for any time point during CMP. To research, using a combination of individual nanoscale friction measurements for CMP of SiO{sub 2}, in an analytical model, to sum these effects, and the results scale CMP experiments, can guide the research and validate the model. CMP endpoint measurements, such as those from motor current traces, enable verification of model predictions, relating to friction and wear in CMP and surface topography evolution for different types of CMP processes and patterned chips. In this article, we explore models of the microscopic frictional force based on the surface topography and present both experimental and theoretical studies on the movement of nanoparticles in polishing slurry and collision between nanoparticles, as well as between the particles and solid surfaces in time of process CMP. Experimental results have proved that the nanoparticle size and slurry properties have great effects on the polishing results. The effects of the nanoparticle size and the slurry film thickness are also discussed.

  20. Evaluation of hardness and color stability in the soft lining materials after thermocycling and chemical polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Shore A hardness and color stability of two soft lining materials after thermocycling and when chemical polishing was used or omitted. Two acrylic-based soft lining materials were tested: Coe-Soft and Soft Confort, 14 specimens were made for each material. They were distributed in four groups according to the treatment performed. The specimens were thermocycled (1000 cycles) and half of the group submitted to chemical polishing (methyl methacrylate). Shore A hardness was determined and color stability was calculated by means of Commission International de l'Eclairage Lab uniform color scale using a spectrophotometer, the measurements were made immediately after deflasked, chemical polishing and thermocycling. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests were performed at p Confort (10.60) showed significantly higher values than Coe-Soft (4.57). Coe-Soft (26.42) showed higher Shore A hardness values than Soft Confort (19.42). Chemical polishing did not influence in the color stability of both materials; however, influenced in the hardness values of Coe-Soft.

  1. Damascene Array Structure of Phase Change Memory Fabricated with Chemical Mechanical Polishing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi-Bin; SONG Zhi-Tang; ZHANG Kai-Liang; WANG Liang-Yong; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy

    2006-01-01

    @@ A damascene structure of phase change memory (PCM) is fabricated successfully with the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) method, and the CMP of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and Ti films is investigated. The polished surface of wafer is analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The measurements show that the damascene device structure of phase change memory is achieved by the CMP process.After the top electrode is deposited, dc sweeping test on PCM reveals that the phase change can be observed.The threshold current of array cells varies between 0.90mA and 1.15mA.

  2. Combined Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration and Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Monocrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Defu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic elliptical vibration assisted chemical mechanical polishing(UEV-CMP is employed to achieve high material removal rate and high surface quality in the finishing of hard and brittle materials such as monocrystalline silicon, which combines the functions of conventional CMP and ultrasonic machining. In theultrasonic elliptical vibration aided chemical mechanical polishingexperimental setup developed by ourselves, the workpiece attached at the end of horn can vibrate simultaneously in both horizontal and vertical directions. Polishing experiments are carried out involving monocrystalline silicon to confirm the performance of the proposed UEV-CMP. The experimental results reveal that the ultrasonic elliptical vibration can increase significantly the material removal rate and reduce dramatically the surface roughness of monocrystalline silicon. It is found that the removal rate of monocrystalline silicon polished by UEV-CMP is increased by approximately 110% relative to that of conventional CMP because a passive layer on the monocrystalline silicon surface, formed by the chemical action of the polishing slurry, will be removed not only by the mechanical action of CMP but also by ultrasonic vibration action. It indicates that the high efficiency and high quality CMP of monocrystalline silicon can be performed with the proposed UEV-CMP technique.

  3. Tribochemical interaction between nanoparticles and surfaces of selective layer during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Filip, E-mail: filip@meca.omtr.pub.ro [Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Department of Machine Elements and Tribology (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Nanoparticles have been widely used in polish slurries such as those in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. For understanding the mechanisms of CMP, an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize polished surfaces of selective layers, after a set of polishing experiments. To optimize the CMP polishing process, one needs to get information on the interaction between the nano-abrasive slurry nanoparticles and the surface of selective layer being polished. The slurry used in CMP process of the solid surfaces is slurry with large nanoparticle size colloidal silica sol nano-abrasives. Silica sol nano-abrasives with large nanoparticle are prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particles colloidal size, and Zeta potential in this paper. The movement of nanoparticles in liquid and the interaction between nanoparticles and solid surfaces coating with selective layer are very important to obtain an atomic alloy smooth surface in the CMP process. We investigate the nanoparticle adhesion and removal processes during CMP and post-CMP cleaning. The mechanical interaction between nanoparticles and the wafer surface was studied using a microcontact wear model. This model considers the nanoparticle effects between the polishing interfaces during load balancing. Experimental results on polishing and cleaning are compared with numerical analysis. This paper suggests that during post-CMP cleaning, a combined effort in chemical and mechanical interaction (tribochemical interactions) would be effective in removal of small nanoparticles during cleaning. For large nanoparticles, more mechanical forces would be more effective. CMP results show that the removal rate has been improved to 367 nm/min and root mean square (RMS) of roughness has been reduced from 4.4 to 0.80 nm. Also, the results show that the silica sol nano-abrasives about 100 nm are of higher stability (Zeta potential is −65 mV) and narrow distribution of nanoparticle

  4. Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2016-08-01

    Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN were deeply investigated in this paper. Working as an ideal homogeneous substrate material in LED industry, GaN ought to be equipped with a smooth and flat surface. Taking the strong chemical stability of GaN into account, photocatalytic oxidation technology was adopted in GaN CMP process to realize efficient removal. It was found that, because of the improved reaction rate of photocatalytic oxidation, GaN material removal rate (MRR) increases by a certain extent with catalyst concentration increasing. Cross single line analysis on the surface after polishing by Phase Shift MicroXAM-3D was carried out to prove the better removal effect with higher catalyst concentration. Ultraviolet intensity field in H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system was established and simulated, revealing the variation trend of ultraviolet intensity around the outlet of the slurry. It could be concluded that, owing to the higher planarization efficiency and lower energy damage, the UV lamp of 125 W is the most appropriate lamp in this system. Based on the analysis, defects removal model of this work was proposed to describe the effects of higher catalyst concentration and higher power of UV lamp.

  5. Defect-free surface of quartz glass polished in elastic mode by chemical impact reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文强; 关朝亮; 李圣怡

    2014-01-01

    Removal of brittle materials in the brittle or ductile mode inevitably causes damaged or strained surface layers containing cracks, scratches or dislocations. Within elastic deformation, the arrangement of each atom can be recovered back to its original position without any defects introduced. Based on surface hydroxylation and chemisorption theory, material removal mechanism of quartz glass in the elastic mode is analyzed to obtain defect-free surface. Elastic contact condition between nanoparticle and quartz glass surface is confirmed from the Hertz contact theory model. Atoms on the quartz glass surface are removed by chemical bond generated by impact reaction in the elastic mode, so no defects are generated without mechanical process. Experiment was conducted on a numerically controlled system for nanoparticle jet polishing, and one flat quartz glass was polished in the elastic mode. Results show that scratches on the sample surface are completely removed away with no mechanical defects introduced, and micro-roughness (Ra) is decreased from 1.23 nm to 0.47 nm. Functional group Ce—O—Si on ceria nanoparticles after polishing was detected directly and indirectly by FTIR, XRD and XPS spectra analysis from which the chemical impact reaction is validated.

  6. Inducing Changes in Surface Topography of Copper Thin Films: Implications for Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. L.; Mitchell, E. J. R.; Koeck, D. C.; Galloway, H. C.

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated the effects of pH and corrosion inhibitors on the surface of Cu films when exposed and polished in H_2O2 based slurries. Acetic Acid was used to buffer H_2O2 into the acidic range necessary to keep the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA) in solution. Surface characteristics were examined using atomic force microscopy and profilometry. Some conditions cause dramatic changes in the surface topography of the Cu films. The original small "grains" that give the film a uniform roughness, disappear and leave large crystalline appearing structures with terrace widths of up to 600 Åand heights of 200-1000 ÅWe believe these changes have strong implications for Chemical Mechanical Polishing processes used to manufacture integrated circuits and will discuss how these changes in surface topography may be occurring.

  7. TWO STEPS CHEMICAL-MECHANICAL POLISHING OF RIGID DISK SUBSTRATE TO GET ATOM-SCALE PLANARIZATION SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Hong; LUO Jianbin; LU Xinchun

    2006-01-01

    In order to get atomic smooth rigid disk substrate surface, ultra-fined alumina slurry and nanometer silica slurry are prepared, and two steps chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) of rigid disk substrate in the two slurries are studied. The results show that, during the first step CMP in the alumina slurry, a high material removal rate is reached, and the average roughness (Ra) and the average waviness (Wa) of the polished surfaces can be decreased from previous 1.4 nm and 1.6 nm to about 0.6 nm and 0.7 nm, respectively. By using the nanometer silica slurry and optimized polishing process parameters in the second step CMP, the Ra and the Wa of the polished surfaces can be further reduced to 0.038 nm and 0.06 nm, respectively. Atom force microscopy (AFM) analysis shows that the final polished surfaces are ultra-smooth without micro-defects.

  8. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Glass Substrate with α-Alumina-g-Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid Composite Abrasive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Hong; BU Naijing; ZHANG Zefang; CHEN Ruling

    2010-01-01

    Abrasive is the one of key influencing factors during chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) process. Currently, α-Alumina (α-Al2O3) particle, as a kind of abrasive, has been widely used in CMP slurries, but their high hardness and poor dispersion stability often lead to more surface defects. After being polished with composite particles, the surface defects of work pieces decrease obviously. So the composite particles as abrasives in slurry have been paid more attention. In order to reduce defect caused by pure α-Al2O3 abrasive, α-alumina-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid (α-Al2O3-g-PSS) composite abrasive was prepared by surface graft polymerization. The composition, structure and morphology of the product were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy(TOF-SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. The results show that polystyrene sulfonic acid grafts onto α-Al2O3, and has well dispersibility. Then, the chemical mechanical polishing performances of the composite abrasive on glass substrate were investigated with a SPEEDFAM-16B-4M CMP machine. Atomic force microscopy(AFM) images indicate that the average roughness of the polished glass substrate surface can be decreased from 0.835 nm for pure α-Al2O3 abrasive to 0.583 nm for prepared α-Al2O3-g-PSS core-shell abrasive. The research provides a new and effect way to improve the surface qualities during CMP.

  9. Surface characteristics of ruthenium in periodate-based slurry during chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Jiang, Liang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The Ru surface chemical and mechanical property varies with KIO{sub 4} slurry pH. • In alkaline slurry, the corrosion proceeds uniformly like a direct dissolution. • In neutral and acidic slurries, Ru exhibits passivation behavior. • MRR is highest in neutral slurry due to inhomogeneous RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} passivation. • Weak alkaline slurry is preferred to get good MRR and avoid toxic RuO{sub 4} formation. - Abstract: When the feature size of integrated circuit continues to shrink below 14 nm, ruthenium (Ru) has become one of the most promising candidates for the application of novel barrier layer. To reveal the material removal mechanism of Ru during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), surface characteristics of Ru in KIO{sub 4}-based slurry were investigated. The corrosion behavior of ruthenium was measured by the surface chemistry and morphology analysis. Then the mechanical properties of the passivated/corroded surface were evaluated by AES and tribocorrosion experiments. CMP experiments were carried out to make clear the effects of surface property during polishing. It was found that the Ru surface chemistry and mechanical properties vary obviously as a function of slurry pH. In neutral slurries, the Ru surface is covered with RuO{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O/RuO{sub 3} inhomogeneous passivation films, with the highest material removal rate obtained during the CMP process. It could be concluded that the material removal mechanism largely depends on the slurry pH values. In near neutral slurries, Ru is passivated with thick and heterogeneous oxides film, which proves the easiest to be mechanically removed during polishing. The weak alkaline slurry is preferred in order to achieve desirable polishing rate as well as avoid the formation of toxic RuO{sub 4}.

  10. Investigation of slurry systems in metal and dielectric chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu

    The properties of slurries play a significant role in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of metal and dielectric films in semiconductor device manufacturing. This study investigates the effects of the size, shape, and hardness of uniform abrasive particles of simple and composite natures on the polishing of copper, tantalum, and thermal oxide films in the presence of different chemical reagents. It was shown that the total surface area of the solids in the slurry controlled the material removal rate by pure silica for both Cu and Ta, while the surface quality of the polished films was better when using higher silica contents. Ceria particles are the choice abrasives in polishing of oxide surfaces. Since it is difficult to prepare in quantities uniform ceria particles of various shapes, the latter were prepared by using monodispersed cubic and ellipsoidal hematite (Fe2O3) particles and spherical silica, and coating them with nanosized ceria. The polishing data were then obtained using slurries of all these particles and the results were compared with slurries containing only nanosized ceria. At the same pH and the same solid content, the removal rates of these slurries followed the contact area model. Furthermore, slurries containing mixtures of particles performed more efficiently than those of individual particles. Interactions of abrasive particles with surface films to be polished are also very important in CMP. In this study, the packed column technique was employed to investigate the physical and chemical reactions at the particle/film interfaces under conditions that simulate CMP processes. Well-defined dispersions of uniform particles, including spherical silica, calcined alumina, and silica cores coated with nanosized ceria particles were used to evaluate particle adhesion on copper and glass beads. It was shown that pH and the slurry flow rate had significant effects on particle deposition and detachment. The attachment results of silica particles on

  11. Role of crystal orientation on chemical mechanical polishing of single crystal copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aibin; He, Dayong; Luo, Wencheng; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    The material removal mechanism of single crystal copper in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has not been intensively investigated. And the role of crystal orientation in CMP of single crystal cooper is not quite clear yet. Quasi-continuum method was adopted in this paper to simulate the process of nano-particles grinding on single crystal copper in CMP process. Three different crystal orientations, i.e. x[100]y[001], x[001]y[110] and x[-211]y[111], were chosen for analysis. The atom displacement diagrams, stress distribution diagrams and load-displacement curves were obtained. After analyzing the deformation mechanism, residual stress of the work piece material and cutting force, results showed that, the crystal orientation of work piece has great influence on the deformation characteristics and surface quality of work piece during polishing. In the A(001)[100] orientation, the residual stress distribution after polishing is deeper, and the stress is larger than that in the B(110)[001] and C(111)[-211] orientations. And the average tangential cutting force in the A(001)[100] orientation is much larger than those in the other two crystal orientation. This research is helpful to revealing the material removal mechanism of CMP process.

  12. Effect of Nano-sized CeO2 Abrasives on Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Silicon Wafer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-sen; CHEN Yang

    2006-01-01

    The conception of the soft layer during chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) was proposed for the first time. The soft layer was a reaction layer formed on the silicon surface; it was softer than the silicon substrate and its thickness was about several nanometers. The existence of the soft layer could increase the material volume removed by one particle and increase the material removal rate during CMP. At the same time, the soft layer could decrease the cutting depth of the abrasive particle so as to realize ductile grinding, and it is useful to decrease the roughness of the polished surface and to improve the polishing quality.

  13. Chemical mechanical polishing of steel substrate using colloidal silica-based slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; He, Yongyong; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-03-01

    AISI 52100 steel has been widely used in the mechanical industry due to its excellent mechanical properties and high availability. In some cases, an ultra-smooth surface of AISI 52100 steel is needed and is even indispensable for the satisfactory performance of devices. In this paper, chemical mechanical polishing technique was employed to prepare the ultra-smooth surface of AISI 52100 steel. Colloidal silica was used as the abrasive. The effects of pH, complexing agent such as glycine, H2O2 and benzotriazole (BTA) on the polishing performance were studied. It is revealed that, with the increase of pH, the static etching rate (SER) and the material removal rate (MRR) are both gradually reduced, and the post-CMP surface roughness Ra decreases. This is attributed to the fact that compact and passive iron oxides, especially Fe(III) oxides, gradually form on the top surface. At pH 4.00, in the presence of glycine, and with the increase of the H2O2 concentration, the SER is further suppressed, and the surface roughness Ra gradually decreases; the MRR initially dramatically increases due to the fact that, with the addition of small amount of H2O2, the porous iron oxide layer with relatively low mechanical strength can be rapidly formed on the surface. Moreover, glycine intensifies the chemical dissolution by chelating iron ions, especially Fe(II) ions, and thereby the mechanical strength of the oxide layer further weakens. Then, after reaching the peak value, the MRR gradually decreases when the H2O2 concentration further increases since the compactness of the oxide layer gradually increases. With the increase of the BTA concentration, the MRR is gradually suppressed and the surface roughness Ra decreases due to the formation of Fe-BTA passivating film on the top surface. Finally, a two-step polishing process was developed. The polishing results show that, within 20 min, a rough surface of AISI 52100 steel with the Ra value of 188 nm can be polished into an ultra

  14. Study of Cu-Inhibitor State for Post-Chemical Mechanical Polishing Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Ken; Ito, Atsushi; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Hara, Makoto; Sakae, Rina; Kimura, Chiharu; Aoki, Hidemitsu

    2011-05-01

    In order to reduce corrosion on the Cu surface in post-chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) cleaning, controlling the state of inhibitor layers is indispensable. In this study, to investigate the behavior of inhibitor layers in the cleaning process, Cu-benzotriazole (BTA) layers on CuOX were analyzed by electrochemical measurements and surface analysis. Electrochemical measurements revealed that Cu(I)-BTA can prevent corrosion more efficiently than Cu(II)-BTA, and surface analysis revealed that the Cu(I)-BTA layer is thin, whereas the Cu(II)-BTA layer is bulky. The Cu(I)-BTA layer is effective in preventing corrosion of the Cu surface.

  15. Evaluation of Cu Ion Concentration Effects on Cu Etching Rate in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hideaki; Sugiura, Osamu; Matsumura, Yoshiyuki; Kinoshita, Masaharu

    2007-04-01

    The effects of Cu ion concentration of the different solutions on Cu etching rate were investigated. From the dipping experiment of Cu substrates in different solutions of malic acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), benzotriazole (BTA), and Cu ions, it was revealed that Cu etching rate is increased if the concentration of Cu(II) ions added in the solution is high. This is considered to be caused by the effect of Cu(II) ions on H2O2 molecules. In the solution of pH 7, the Cu etching rate increased markedly between 1.7× 10-4 and 3.4× 10-4 M Cu(II) ion concentrations. The maximum increase in the etching rate was from 990 to 2200 nm/min at a H2O2 concentration of 2 wt %. In the solution of pH 3, a marked change in the etching rate was not observed. Our results show that the concentration of Cu ions on the polishing pad in chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process is very important.

  16. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L. Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jasicka-Misiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54% and in the application of SPE (13.04%. In addition, lumichrome (1.85% was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+-catechine (39.7% and gallic acid (up to 30%, which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  17. Material removal mechanism of copper chemical mechanical polishing in a periodate-based slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; He, Yongyong; Lu, Xinchun

    2015-05-01

    The material removal mechanism of copper in a periodate-based slurry during barrier layer chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has not been intensively investigated. This paper presents a study of the copper surface film chemistry and mechanics in a periodate-based slurry. On this basis, the controlling factor of the copper CMP material removal mechanism is proposed. The results show that the chemical and electrochemical reaction products on the copper surface are complex and vary considerably as a function of the solution pH. Under acidic conditions (pH 4) the copper surface underwent strong chemical dissolution while the corrosion was mild and uniform under alkaline conditions (pH 11). The corrosion effect was the lowest in near neutral solutions because the surface was covered with non-uniform Cu(IO3)2·H2O/Cu-periodate/copper oxides films, which had better passivation effect. The surface film thickness and mechanical removal properties were studied by AES and AFM nano-scratch tests. Based on the combined surface film analysis and CMP experiment results, it can be concluded that the controlling factor during copper CMP in a periodate-based slurry is the chemical-enhanced mechanical removal of the surface films. The periodate-based slurry should be modified by the addition of corrosion inhibitors and complexing agents to achieve a good copper surface quality with moderate chemical dissolution.

  18. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  19. Nanotopography Impact in Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Polishing-Dependence on Slurry Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jea-Gun Park; Takeo Katoh; Ungyu Paik

    2004-01-01

    The nanotopography of the surface of silicon wafers has become an important issue in ULSI device manufacturing since it affects the post-chemical mechanical polishing (post-CMP) uniformity of the thickness deviation of dielectric films. In this study, the nanotopography impact was investigated in terms of its dependence on the characteristics of ceriabased slurries, such as the abrasive size, the grain size of the polycrystalline abrasive and the surfactant added to the slurry. It was found that the magnitude of the post-CMP oxide thickness deviation due to nanotopography increased with the surfactant concentration in the case of smaller abrasives but was almost independent of the concentration in the case of larger abrasives. The grain size of the polycrystalline abrasive did not affect the nanotopography impact.

  20. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Min; SONG Zhi-Tang; LIU Bo; FENG Song-Lin; CHEN Bomy

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance,a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change films.We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method.The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer.The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed.Meanwhile,Ge2 Sb2 Te5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged.After the top electrode is deposited,currentvoltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1 mA to 0.025 mA.Furthermore,we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method.

  1. Chemical and morphological features of nanofilled composite resin: influence of finishing and polishing procedures and fluoride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Luísa Botta Martins; Domingos, Patrícia Aleixo Dos Santos; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of finishing and polishing procedures and different fluoride solutions on superficial morphology and chemistry of the nanofilled composite resin Supreme XT (3M) through the EDX analysis and SEM evaluation. Circular specimens (n = 30) of 10 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were prepared, with half of the sample assays finished and polished with Super-Snap® sandpaper. The experimental groups were divided according to the presence or absence of finishing and polishing and solutions (artificial saliva, 0.05% of manipulated sodium fluoride solution, Fluordent Reach, Oral B, Fluorgard). Specimens were immersed in each respective solution for 1 min per day, during 60 days and stored in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1°C between immersion periods. Topography and chemical analysis was qualitative. It was observed that specimens submitted to finishing and polishing procedures had lower superficial degradation. Fluoride solutions promoted superficial alterations on specimens, being the highest degradation obtained with Fluordent Reach. It can be concluded that finishing and polishing procedures and the immersion media influence the superficial morphology of composite resin tested; the Fluordent Reach was the fluoride solution that most affected the material's surface.

  2. Classical molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations of chemical-mechanical polishing of amorphous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagarov, Evgueni Anatolievich

    Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is a widely accepted process in the semiconductor industry. Despite intense theoretical and experimental research on CMP, there is a serious lack of fundamental understanding of the physical-chemical processes of polishing. The present work is intended to investigate these fundamental processes on an atomistic level. To model CMP on the atomic scale, a model of the amorphous silica is prepared by applying Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques to systematically investigate molecular dynamics preparation. These simulations yield high-quality models of amorphous silica, which are in excellent agreement with experimental results and are defect-free. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the mechanical deformation during CMP of silica for different geometries and relative velocities. The simulations clarify asperity shape evolution during the process of shear and reveal temperature distributions as a function of time. It is found that the ratio of radii of a particle and asperity strongly affects the amount of the material removed whereas the relative velocity has a weaker affect on it. During shear, a significant local temperature increase occurs. This temperature increase lasts for a short time (picoseconds), but it can have a major impact on the amount of material removed. It is found that there could be significant deposition of the material from the particle to the slab, which can fill surface trenches and thereby make the surface smoother. An analytic model is developed for describing the amount of material removed as a function of asperity and particle radii and relative velocity. Density-functional calculations of different surfaces of two silica polymorphs, alpha-quartz and beta-cristobalite, are performed. The surface energies are calculated as a function of oxygen partial pressure for several different surface reconstructions and terminations. The case of hydrogen passivation is investigated to

  3. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  4. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radiofrequency cavity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Tian; Michael Kelley; Charles Reece

    2005-11-14

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant data sets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (100), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3 - 1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is ?? 30% and that of the surface composition is ?? 5%.

  5. Surface studies of niobium chemically polished under conditions for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and College of William and Mary (United States)]. E-mail: mkelley@jlab.org; Wang Shancai [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Plucinski, Lukasz [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Smith, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Boston University (United States); Nowell, Matthew M. [EDAX TSL (United States)

    2006-11-30

    The performance of niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities is strongly impacted by the topmost several nanometers of the active (interior) surface, especially as influenced by the final surface conditioning treatments. We examined the effect of the most commonly employed treatment, buffered chemical polishing (BCP), on polycrystalline niobium sheet over a range of realistic solution flow rates using electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD), stylus profilometry, atomic force microscopy, laboratory XPS and synchrotron (variable photon energy) XPS, seeking to collect statistically significant datasets. We found that the predominant general surface orientation is (1 0 0), but others are also present and at the atomic-level details of surface plane orientation are more complex. The post-etch surface exhibits micron-scale roughness, whose extent does not change with treatment conditions. The outermost surface consists of a few-nm thick layer of niobium pentoxide, whose thickness increases with solution flow rate to a maximum of 1.3-1.4 times that resulting from static solution. The standard deviation of the roughness measurements is {+-}30% and that of the surface composition is {+-}5%.

  6. Surface modification of ceria nanoparticles and their chemical mechanical polishing behavior on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zefang, E-mail: zfzhang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Xinanna Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201506 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu Lei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Weili, E-mail: rabbitlwl@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Xinanna Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201506 (China); Song Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Xinanna Electronic Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201506 (China)

    2010-04-01

    To improve their chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performance, ceria nanoparticles were surface modified with {gamma}-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) through silanization reaction with their surface hydroxyl group. The compositions, structures and dispersibility of the modified ceria particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), laser particle size analyzer, zeta potential measurement and stability test, respectively. The results indicated that APS had been successfully grafted onto the surface of ceria nanoparticles, which led to the modified ceria nanoparticles with better dispersibility and stability than unmodified ceria particles in aqueous fluids. Then, CMP performance of the modified ceria nanoparticles on glass substrate was investigated. Experimental results showed that the modified ceria particles exhibited lower material removal rate (MRR) but much better surface quality than unmodified ceria particles, which may be explained by the hardness reduction of ceria particles, the enhancement of lubrication of the particles and substrate surfaces, and the elimination of the agglomeration among the ceria particles.

  7. KDP Aqueous Solution-in-Oil Microemulsion for Ultra-Precision Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of KDP Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Dong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel functional KH2PO4 (KDP aqueous solution-in-oil (KDP aq/O microemulsion system for KDP crystal ultra-precision chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP was prepared. The system, which consisted of decanol, Triton X-100, and KH2PO4 aqueous solution, was available at room temperature. The functional KDP aq/O microemulsion system was systematically studied and applied as polishing solution to KDP CMP technology. In this study, a controlled deliquescent mechanism was proposed for KDP polishing with the KDP aq/O microemulsion. KDP aqueous solution, the chemical etchant in the polishing process, was caged into the micelles in the microemulsion, leading to a limitation of the reaction between the KDP crystal and KDP aqueous solution only if the microemulsion was deformed under the effect of the external force. Based on the interface reaction dynamics, KDP aqueous solutions with different concentrations (cKDP were applied to replace water in the traditional water-in-oil (W/O microemulsion. The practicability of the controlled deliquescent mechanism was proved by the decreasing material removal rate (MRR with the increasing of the cKDP. As a result, the corrosion pits on the KDP surface were avoided to some degree. Moreover, the roughnesses of KDP with KDP aq/O microemulsion (cKDP was changed from 10 mM to 100 mM as polishing solutions were smaller than that with the W/O microemulsion. The smallest surface root-mean-square roughness of 1.5 nm was obtained at a 30 mmol/L KDP aq solution, because of the most appropriate deliquescent rate and MRR.

  8. The way to zeros: The future of semiconductor device and chemical mechanical polishing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    For the last 60 years, the development of cutting-edge semiconductor devices has strongly emphasized scaling; the effort to scale down current CMOS devices may well achieve the target of 5 nm nodes by 2020. Planarization by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), is one technology essential for supporting scaling. This paper summarizes the history of CMP transitions in the planarization process as well as the changing degree of planarity required, and, finally, introduces innovative technologies to meet the requirements. The use of CMP was triggered by the replacement of local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) as the element isolation technology by shallow trench isolation (STI) in the 1980s. Then, CMP’s use expanded to improving embedability of aluminum wiring, tungsten (W) contacts, Cu wiring, and, more recently, to its adoption in high-k metal gate (HKMG) and FinFET (FF) processes. Initially, the required degree of planarity was 50 nm, but now 0 nm is required. Further, zero defects on a post-CMP wafer is now the goal, and it is possible that zero psi CMP loading pressure will be required going forward. Soon, it seems, everything will have to be “zero” and perfect. Although the process is also chemical in nature, the CMP process is actually mechanical with a load added using slurry particles several tens of nm in diameter. Zero load in the loading process, zero nm planarity with no trace of processing, and zero residual foreign material, including the very slurry particles used in the process, are all required. This article will provide an overview of how to achieve these new requirements and what technologies should be employed.

  9. Ultrasmooth gold surfaces prepared by chemical mechanical polishing for applications in nanoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael S; Ferrato, Michael-Anthony; Niec, Adrian; Biesinger, Mark C; Carmichael, Tricia Breen

    2014-12-02

    For over 20 years, template stripping has been the best method for preparing ultrasmooth metal surfaces for studies of nanostructures. However, the organic adhesives used in the template stripping method are incompatible with many solvents, limiting the conditions that may subsequently be used to prepare samples; in addition, the film areas that can be reliably prepared are typically limited to ∼1 cm(2). In this article, we present chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) as an adhesive-free, scalable method of preparing ultrasmooth gold surfaces. In this process, a gold film is first deposited by e-beam evaporation onto a 76-mm-diameter silicon wafer. The CMP process removes ∼4 nm of gold from the tops of the grains comprising the gold film to produce an ultrasmooth gold surface supported on the silicon wafer. We measured root-mean-square (RMS) roughness values using atomic force microscopy of 12 randomly sampled 1 μm × 1 μm areas on the surface of the wafer and repeated the process on 5 different CMP wafers. The average RMS roughness was 3.8 ± 0.5 Å, which is comparable to measured values for template-stripped gold (3.7 ± 0.5 Å). We also compared the use of CMP and template-stripped gold as bottom electrical contacts in molecular electronic junctions formed from n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers as a sensitive test bed to detect differences in the topography of the gold surfaces. We demonstrate that these substrates produce statistically indistinguishable values for the tunneling decay coefficient β, which is highly sensitive to the gold surface topography.

  10. Study on planarization machining of sapphire wafer with soft-hard mixed abrasive through mechanical chemical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchao; Lu, Jing; Xu, Xipeng

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the material removal mechanism of sapphire wafer with soft-hard mixed abrasives through mechanical chemical polishing (MCP). The polishing film, which contains diamond as hard abrasives and high reactivity silica as soft abrasives, is prepared through sol-gel technology. Silica abrasives with regular spherical shape and high reactivity are prepared through hydrolysis-precipitation. Diamond grits with three different particle sizes are used as abrasives. Results show that the rate of material removal of mixed abrasives during MCP is more than 52.6% of that of single hard abrasives and the decrease in surface roughness is more than 21.6% of that of single hard abrasives. These results demonstrate that the ideal planarization of sapphire wafer with high removal rate and good surface quality can be achieved when the effect of mechanical removal of hard abrasives and the chemical corrosion effect of soft abrasives are in dynamic equilibrium. A model that describes the material removal mechanism of sapphire with mixed abrasives during MCP is proposed. The results of thermodynamic calculation and polishing residue analysis are used to demonstrate the rationality of the model.

  11. Gallic Acid as a Complexing Agent for Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing Slurries at Neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yung Jun; Kang, Min Cheol; Kwon, Oh Joong; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Gallic acid was investigated as a new complexing agent for copper (Cu) chemical mechanical polishing slurries at neutral pH. Addition of 0.03 M gallic acid and 1.12 M H2O2 at pH 7 resulted in a Cu removal rate of 560.73±17.49 nm/min, and the ratio of the Cu removal rate to the Cu dissolution rate was 14.8. Addition of gallic acid improved the slurry performance compared to glycine addition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and contact angle measurements showed that addition of gallic acid enhanced the Cu polishing behavior by suppressing the formation of surface Cu oxide.

  12. 镁合金化学抛光工艺%Chemical polishing process of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周游; 姚颖悟; 吴坚扎西; 吕千

    2012-01-01

    研究了一种应用于AZ31镁合金的化学抛光工艺.通过考察抛光液组成及工艺参数对镁合金失重和反射率的影响,确定了较佳的抛光工艺条件为:磷酸650 mL/L,丙三醇250 mL/L,柠檬酸0.6 g/L,硫酸铜0.5 g/L,温度50℃,时间3 min.经此条件抛光后的镁合金表面平整光亮,失重为23 g/cm2,反射率为50%,在3.5%(质量分数)NaCl溶液中的腐蚀电位比未抛光时正移0.9 V,腐蚀电流密度下降近一个数量级,耐蚀性提高.%A chemical polishing process for AZ31 Mg alloy was studied. The effects of composition of polishing solution and process parameters on weight loss and reflectivity of the Mg alloy were discussed. The optimal polishing process conditions were obtained as follows: H3PO4 650 mL/L, glycerol 250 mL/L, citric acid 0.6 g/L, copper sulfate 0.5 g/L, temperature 50 °C, and time 3 min. The Mg alloy surface polished under the above conditions is level and bright, and has a weight loss of 23 g/cm2 and a reflectivity of 50%. The corrosion resistance of the Mg alloy is improved after polishing due to the positive shift of corrosion potential by 0.9 V and the decrease of corrosion current density by nearly one order of magnitude in 3.5wt% NaCl solution as compared with the Mg alloy without polishing.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2 Nanoparticles and Their Efficacy in Chemical Mechanical Polishing Steel Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP technology is extensively used in the global planarization of highly value-added and large components in the aerospace industry. A nanopowder of SiO2 was prepared by the sol-gel method and was compounded into polishing slurry for the CMP of steel substrate. The size of the SiO2 abrasives was controlled by varying the sol-gel reaction conditions. The polishing efficacy of nano-SiO2 was studied, and the CMP mechanism with nanosized abrasives was further investigated. The proposed methods can produce SiO2 abrasives whose size can be controlled by varying the sol-gel reaction conditions. The size of the SiO2 abrasives was controlled in the range from 58 to 684 nm. The roughness of the steel substrate strongly depends on the size of the abrasive, and the surface roughness decreases as the abrasive size declines. A super-smooth surface with a roughness of 8.4 nm is obtained with nanosized SiO2. Ideal CMP slurry can be used to produce material surfaces with low roughness, excellent global planarization, high selectivity, an excellent finish, and a low-defected rate.

  14. Chemical mechanical polishing of Indium phosphide, Gallium arsenide and Indium gallium arsenide films and related environment and safety aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, John Bogere

    As scaling continues with advanced technology nodes in the microelectronic industry to enhance device performance, the performance limits of the conventional substrate materials such as silicon as a channel material in the front-end-of-the-line of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) need to be surmounted. These challenges have invigorated research into new materials such as III-V materials consisting of InP, GaAs, InGaAs for n-channel CMOS and Ge for p-channels CMOS to enhance device performance. These III-V materials have higher electron mobility that is required for the n-channel while Ge has high hole mobility that is required for the p-channel. Integration of these materials in future devices requires chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a smooth and planar surface to enable further processing. The CMP process of these materials has been associated with environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues due to the presence of P and As that can lead to the formation of toxic gaseous hydrides. The safe handling of As contaminated consumables and post-CMP slurry waste is essential. In this work, the chemical mechanical polishing of InP, GaAs and InGaAs films and the associated environment, health and safety (EH&S) issues are discussed. InP removal rates (RRs) and phosphine generation during the CMP of blanket InP films in hydrogen peroxide-based silica particle dispersions in the presence and absence of three different multifunctional chelating carboxylic acids, namely oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are reported. The presence of these acids in the polishing slurry resulted in good InP removal rates (about 400 nm min-1) and very low phosphine generation (isolation structures was planarized and scratches, slurry particles and smearing of InP were absent. Additionally, wafers polished at pH 6 showed very low dishing values of about 12-15 nm, determined by cross sectional SEM. During the polishing of blanket GaAs, GaAs RRs were

  15. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry; Streszczenia 40. Zjazdu Naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego i Stowarzyszenia Inzynierow i Technikow Przemyslu Chemicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods.

  16. Characterization of wet pad surface in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process with full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Jung, Sung Pyo; Shin, Jun Geun; Yang, Danning; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2011-07-04

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a key process for global planarization of silicon wafers for semiconductors and AlTiC wafers for magnetic heads. Removal rate of wafer material is directly dependent on the surface roughness of a CMP pad, thus the structure of the pad surface has been evaluated with variable techniques. However, under in situ CMP process, the measurements have been severely limited due to the existence of polishing fluids including the slurry on the pad surface. In here, we newly introduce ultra-high resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT) to investigate the surface of wet pads. With FF-OCT, the wet pad surface could be quantitatively characterized in terms of the polishing pad lifetime, and also be three-dimensionally visualized. We found that reasonable polishing span could be evaluated from the surface roughness measurement and the groove depth measurement made by FF-OCT.

  17. Materials of yearly scientific assembly of Polish Chemical Society, Lublin 1995; Materialy ze zjazdu naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego, Lublin 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Scientific conference accompanied the yearly assembly of Polish Chemical Society has bee held in 1995 in Lublin. The general review on scientific progress of the most important field of chemistry in Poland have been presented. The conference has been divided into 16 plenary sessions and 3 microsymposia. The sessions topics as follows: S-1 - physical chemistry; S-2 - physicochemistry of the surface; S-3 - catalysis; S-4 - chemical technology; S-5 - inorganic chemistry; S-6 - coordination chemistry; S-7 -crystallochemistry; S-8 - electrochemistry; S-9 - organic chemistry; S-10 -chemistry of polymers; S-11 - chemistry in medicine; S-12 - chemistry and technology of solid state materials; S-13 - young scientists forum; S-14 -didactics in chemistry; S-15 - theoretical chemistry; S-16 - environmental protection. Also the 3 microsymposia have been organized. It was: M-1 -chemistry of heteroorganic compounds; M-2 chromatography; M-3 - plasma chemistry.

  18. APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT ON THE POLISHED SURFACE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kraus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the preparation and characterization of thin transparent nanolayers with phase composition ZrF4 and different modification of SiO2 with special focus on affecting the surface roughness of the material and the way of exclusion of the thin nanolayer on the surface of the polished aluminium material. The thin nanolayer was prepared by the sol-gel method. The final treatment based on PTFE was applied on the surface of some samples. This treatment is suitable for increasing wear resistance. The films were characterized with help of SEM microscopy and EDS analysis. The surface roughness was measured with classical surface roughness tester. The results on this theme have already published but not on the polished surface of the aluminium material. The results from the experiment show the problems with application of these nanolayers because a cracks were found on the surface of the material and deformations of the layer after application of the PTFE final layer. The surface layer formation is discussed.

  19. Polishing gold and gold-alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Sawed cross-section samples are rough polished at minimum pressure with 14 micron grit. After saw marks are polished away, polishing grit is changed to 0.05 micron. When smooth appearance is attained, surface is then chemically polished by hand in dust free room.

  20. Core/shell composites with polystyrene cores and meso-silica shells as abrasives for improved chemical mechanical polishing behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang, E-mail: cy.jpu@126.com; Qin, Jiawei; Wang, Yayun; Li, Zefeng [Changzhou University, School of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-09-15

    The core/shell-structured organic/inorganic composite abrasive has an important potential application in damage-free chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) due to its non-rigid mechanical property. In this work, the PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites, containing polystyrene (PS) sphere (211 ± 4 nm) cores and mesoporous silica shells (31 ± 3 nm in thickness) were synthesized through directed surface sol–gel process of tetraethylorthosilicate on the polymer cores in the presence of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant. For comparison, the conventional core/shell PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} composites with non-porous silica shells were also prepared via a modified Stöber procedure that involved the hydrolysis of TEOS under acidic condition. The physical properties of the samples were examined by small-angle X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption. As novel abrasives, the core/shell-structured PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites were introduced into the CMP process for silicon oxide films. The oxide-CMP performance among conventional solid silica particles, PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} composites, and novel PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites was explored by atomic force microscopy. Polishing results indicated that the substrate revealed a comparable root-mean-square surface roughness (0.25 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.02 nm, respectively) after CMP with PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} and PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} abrasives under the same polishing conditions. However, the material removal rate of the PS/{sub M}SiO{sub 2} composites (123 ± 15 nm/min) was about three times larger than that of the PS/{sub N}SiO{sub 2} composites (47 ± 13 nm/min). The reduced surface roughness and improved removal rate might be due to the optimization of the physical and/or chemical environments in the local contacting region between abrasives

  1. Study of impurity distribution in mechanically polished, chemically treated and ultra-high vacuum degassed pure Niobium samples using TOFSIMS technique

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, A

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Superconducting radio frequency cavities (SCRF) are highly dependent on the surface treatment processes, which in turn is influenced by the chemistry within the penetration depth of Niobium (Nb). The present study analyses various impurities within the RF penetration depth (~50nm) of Nb samples treated by SCRF cavity processing techniques like colloidal silica polishing (simulating centrifugal barrel polishing), buffer chemical polishing (BCP), high pressure rinsing (HPR) and degassing under ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition at 600{\\deg}C for 10hrs. Various modes of Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) technique was employed to study the effect of the above treatments on the vast spectrum of impurities that include interstitials, hydrocarbons, oxides, acidic residuals, reaction products and metallic impurities. UHV degassing treatment was the only treatment capable of reducing hydrogen contamination, but, it led to extensive oxygen, carbon and metallic impurities in the ...

  2. Study on the Effects of Corrosion Inhibitor According to the Functional Groups for Cu Chemical Mechanical Polishing in Neutral Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Jae Jeong [Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    As the aluminum (Al) metallization process was replaced with copper (Cu), the damascene process was introduced, which required the planarization step to eliminate over-deposited Cu with Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) process. In this study, the verification of the corrosion inhibitors, one of the Cu CMP slurry components, was conducted to find out the tendency regarding the carboxyl and amino functional group in neutral environment. Through the results of etch rate, removal rate, and chemical ability of corrosion inhibitors based on 1H-1,2,4-triazole as the base corrosion inhibitor, while the amine functional group presents high Cu etching ability, carboxyl functional group shows lower Cu etching ability than base-corrosion inhibitor which means that it increases passivation effect by making strong passivation layer. It implies that the corrosion inhibitor with amine functional group was proper to apply for 1st Cu CMP slurry owing to the high etch rate and with carboxyl functional group was favorable for the 2nd Cu CMP slurry due to the high Cu removal rate/dissolution rate ratio.

  3. A nano-scale mirror-like surface of Ti-6Al-4V attained by chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenliang, Liang; Weili, Liu; Shasha, Li; Hui, Kong; Zefang, Zhang; Zhitang, Song

    2016-05-01

    Metal Ti and its alloys have been widely utilized in the fields of aviation, medical science, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for its excellent specific strength, resistance to corrosion, and biological compatibility. As the application of Ti moves to the micro or nano scale, however, traditional methods of planarization have shown their short slabs. Thus, we introduce the method of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to provide a new way for the nano-scale planarization method of Ti alloys. We obtain a mirror-like surface, whose flatness is of nano-scale, via the CMP method. We test the basic mechanical behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) in the CMP process, and optimize the composition of CMP slurry. Furthermore, the possible reactions that may take place in the CMP process have been studied by electrochemical methods combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An equivalent circuit has been built to interpret the dynamic of oxidation. Finally, a model has been established to explain the synergy of chemical and mechanical effects in the CMP of Ti-6Al-4V. Project supported by the National Major Scientific and Technological Special Project during the Twelfth Five-year Plan Period of China (Grant No. 2009ZX02030-1), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51205387), the Support by Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 11nm0500300), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai City, China (Grant No. 14XD1425300).

  4. Substrate preparation by contactless mechanochemical polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, S.; Lachish, U.; El-Hanany, U.

    1985-10-01

    A simple, yet effective, polishing technique for substrate preparation is presented. It is contactless chemical polish which does not introduce any defects into the substrate during the process. The method can be readily adopted in all cases where chemical polishing is practical for substrate preparation. Results similar to those obtained by the more sophisticated hydroplaning method can be achieved.

  5. Buffer Chemical Polishing and RF Testing of the 56 MHz SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill,A.

    2009-01-01

    The 56 MHz cavity presents a unique challenge in preparing it for RF testing prior to construction of the cryomodule. This challenge arises due to the physical dimensions and subsequent weight of the cavity, and is further complicated by the coaxial geometry, and the need to properly chemically etch and high pressure rinse the entire inner surface prior to RF testing. To the best of my knowledge, this is the largest all niobium SRF cavity to be chemically etched and subsequently tested in a vertical dewar at 4K, and these processes will be the topic of this technical note.

  6. Experimental Study of Chemical Mechanical Rough Polishing for Hard Disk Substrate%硬盘基板化学机械粗抛光的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利宾; 刘玉岭; 王胜利; 林娜娜; 杨立兵

    2011-01-01

    For rough polishing of NiP/Al substrate of hard disk, SiO2 colloid was adopted to polish the substrate of hard disk under different pressures, speed, pH values, abrasive concentration and activator concentration, the removal rate of hard disk substrate was measured and the surface analyses after chemical mechanical rough polishing were accomplished by atomic force microscope (AFM). Finally, five key polishing parameters were optimized. The results show that when the pressure is 0. 10 Mpa, the speed is 80 rad/min, the pH value is 11.2, the ratio of abrasive volume with the deionized water is 1:0. 5, and surfactant concentration is 9 mL/L, the removal rate of hard disk substrate is 27 mg/min, the surface roughness after polishing is 0.281 nm. After rough polishing of hard disk substrate, high removal rate and good surface roughness are obtained, and it will greatly reduce the time of fine polishing, which is beneficial to increase the polishing efficiency.%针对硬盘NiP/Al基板粗抛光,采用SiO2作为抛光磨料的碱性抛光液,在不同压力、转速、pH值、磨料浓度和活性剂体积浓度下,对硬盘基板粗抛光的去除速率和表面粗糙度的变化规律进行研究,用原子力显微镜观察抛光表面的微观形貌.最后对5个关键参数进行了优化.结果表明:当压力为0.10 MPa,转速为80 rad/min,pH值为11.2,磨料与去离子水体积比为1∶0.5,表面活性剂体积浓度为9 mL/L时,硬盘基板的去除速率为27 mg/min,粗抛后表面粗糙度为0.281 nm,获得了高的去除速率和较好的表面粗糙度,这样会大大降低精抛的时间,有利于抛光效率的提高.

  7. Structural and chemical characteristics of atomically smooth GaN surfaces prepared by abrasive-free polishing with Pt catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Junji; Sadakuni, Shun; Okamoto, Takeshi; Hattori, Azusa N.; Yagi, Keita; Sano, Yasuhisa; Arima, Kenta; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the structural and chemical characteristics of atomically flat gallium nitride (GaN) surfaces prepared by abrasive-free polishing with platinum (Pt) catalyst. Atomic force microscopy revealed regularly alternating wide and narrow terraces with a step height equivalent to that of a single bilayer on the flattened GaN surfaces, which originate from the differences in etching rate of two neighboring terraces. The material removal characteristics of the method for GaN surfaces were investigated in detail. We confirmed that an atomically smooth GaN surface with an extremely small number of surface defects, including pits and scratches, can be achieved, regardless of the growth method, surface polarity, and doping concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the flattening method produces clean GaN surfaces with only trace impurities such as Ga oxide and metallic Ga. Contamination with the Pt catalyst was also evaluated using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. A wet cleaning method with aqua regia is proposed, which markedly eliminates this Pt contamination without affecting the surface morphology.

  8. Research on Abrasives in the Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process for Silicon Nitride Balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si 3N 4) has been the main material for balls in ceramic ball bearings, for its lower density, high strength, high hardness, fine thermal stability and anticorrosive, and is widely used in various fields, such as high speed and high temperature areojet engines, precision machine tools and chemical engineer machines. Silicon nitride ceramics is a kind of brittle and hard material that is difficult to machining. In the traditional finishing process of silicon nitride balls, balls are lapped...

  9. XPS, UV–vis spectroscopy and AFM studies on removal mechanisms of Si-face SiC wafer chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Pan, Guoshun, E-mail: pangs@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Xiaolei; Xu, Li; Zou, Chunli; Gong, Hua; Luo, Guihai [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • CMP removal mechanism of Si-face SiC wafer is investigated through XPS analysis. • UV–vis spectroscopy is used to study CMP removal mechanisms. • CMP removal model of Si-face SiC wafer is proposed. • The variations of atomic step morphology on ultra-smooth surface via AFM is studied. - Abstract: Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) removal mechanisms of on-axis Si-face SiC wafer have been investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS results indicate that silicon oxide is formed on Si-face surface polished by the slurry including oxidant H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but not that after immersing in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution. UV–vis spectroscopy curves prove that • OH hydroxyl radical could be generated only under CMP polishing by the slurry including H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and abrasive, so as to promote oxidation of Si-face to realize the effective removal; meanwhile, alkali KOH during CMP could induce the production of more radicals to improve the removal. On the other side, ultra-smooth polished surface with atomic step structure morphology and extremely low Ra of about 0.06 nm (through AFM) is obtained using the developed slurry with silica nanoparticle abrasive. Through investigating the variations of the atomic step morphology on the surface polished by different slurries, it's reveals that CMP removal mechanism involves a simultaneous process of surface chemical reaction and nanoparticle atomic scale abrasion.

  10. Investigation on the surface characterization of Ga-faced GaN after chemical-mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Pan, Guoshun, E-mail: pangs@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhou, Yan; Shi, Xiaolei; Zou, Chunli; Zhang, Suman [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Tiny-sized nanoparticles were introduced in GaN CMP to realize a good surface. • The relationship between surface characterization and abrasive size was conducted. • An atomic step-terrace structure was achieved on GaN surface after CMP. • Pt/C catalyst nanoparticles were used in GaN CMP to get a higher MRR. - Abstract: The relationship between the surface characterization after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and the size of the silica (SiO{sub 2}) abrasive used for CMP of gallium nitride (GaN) substrates was investigated in detail. Atomic force microscope was used for measuring the surface morphology, pit feature, pit depth distribution, and atomic step-terrace structure. With the decrease of SiO{sub 2} abrasive size, the pit depth reduced and the atomic step-terrace structure became more whole with smaller damage area, resulting in smaller roughness. For tiny-sized SiO{sub 2} abrasive, an almost complete atomic step-terrace structure with 0.0523 nm roughness was achieved. On the other hand, in order to acquire higher removal, Pt/C nanoparticle was employed as a catalyst in CMP slurry. The result indicates that when Pt/C catalyst content was reached to 1.0 ppm, material removal rate was increased by 47.69% compared to that by none of the catalyst, and besides, the pit depth reduced and the surface atomic step-terrace structure was not destroyed. The Pt/C nanoparticle is proved to be the promising catalyst to the surface preparation of super-hard and inert materials with high efficiency and good surface.

  11. Materials of jubilee scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society, Warsaw`94. Homo chemicus; Materialy z jubileuszowego zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego, Warszawa`94. Homo chemicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Jubilee Scientific Assembly of the Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1994 in Warsaw. The general view on scientific progress in chemistry in Poland has been presented during plenary session. The conference has been divided into 15 sessions and 3 microsymposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. Sessions topics were: analytical chemistry, chemistry of solid state materials, physical chemistry, coordination chemistry, medical chemistry, chemistry of metalorganic compounds, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry of polymers, young scientists forum, didactics and history of chemistry, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, environment protection. Microsymposia`s topics were as follows: chemistry of saccharides, electrochemistry, membranes and membrane processes.

  12. Corrosion electrochemical mechanism of chemical mechanical polishing of copper in K3Fe(CN)6 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何捍卫; 胡岳华; 黄可龙

    2002-01-01

    Polarization curves of copper were measured in NH3*H2O media containing K3Fe(CN)6. Components of passive film were analyzed by XPS. Relation of polishing rate with corrosion current density was investigated during CMP. Copper can be passivated in the slurry and main component of passive film is Cu4Fe(CN)6. Relation of polishing rate with corrosion current density is linear direct ratio and expressed as R=KJcorr during CMP. Coefficient K varies with different slurry systems but is constant under experimental conditions, which does not vary with NH3*H2O, K3Fe(CN)6, γ-Al2O3 concentrations, polishing pressures and rotative rate in a slurry system during CMP.

  13. Materials of the yearly scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society - Torun`93: chemistry of new materials; Materialy z dorocznego zjazdu naukowego - Torun`93: chemia nowych materialow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Scientific conference accompanied the assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1993 in Torun. The conference has been divided into 12 sections and 4 symposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The general view on scientific progress has been presented during the plenary session. Then proceedings have performed in specialist sessions on: contemporary methods in organic chemistry chemistry, chemistry and physico-chemistry of polymers, coordination chemistry state-of-the-art prospects, absorption and absorbents, new chemical technologies of organic compounds, new chemical technologies of inorganic compounds, environment protection, new methods in analytical chemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics, crystallochemistry, history of chemistry and didactics, new substances in health protection, membranes and membrane techniques, electroactive organic compounds, zeolites - material properties.

  14. Materials of yearly scientific assembly of Polish Chemical Society, Poznan 23-26 September 1996; Materialy ze zjazdu naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego, Poznan 23-26 wrzesnia 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1996 in Poznan. The general view on scientific progress of chemistry in Poland has been presented. The conference has been divided into 18 sessions covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The sessions topics were as follows: S-1 physical chemistry; S-2 photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics; S-3 catalysis; S-4 inorganic chemistry and coordination chemistry; S-5 organic chemistry; S-6 chemistry of hetero organic compounds; S-7 medical chemistry; S-8 crystallochemistry; S-9 environment protection; S-10 didactics in chemistry; S-11 analytical chemistry; S-12 chemical technology; S-13 chemical engineering; S-14 chemistry of polymers; S-15 young chemists forum; S-16 professor forum; S-17 membranes and membrane processes; S-18 supermolecular chemistry.

  15. Polish visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  16. Ultrasonic Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  17. Synergetic effect of benzotriazole and non-ionic surfactant on copper chemical mechanical polishing in KIO{sub 4}-based slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); He, Yongyong [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Niu, Xiangyu; Li, Yuzhuo [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Luo, Jianbin, E-mail: luojb@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-05-02

    Ruthenium will be integrated into copper interconnects as a barrier layer in the near future. During the chemical mechanical polishing process of the ruthenium barrier layer, copper polishing performance with barrier slurries is crucial to microchips' final performance. This paper mainly studies the synergetic effect of benzotriazole (BTA) and non-ionic surfactant on copper polishing performance using KIO{sub 4}-based barrier slurries. The results show that, the copper removal rate (RR) and static etching rate increase with increasing concentration of KIO{sub 4} due to the increasing proportion of the Cu–periodate and Cu–iodate compounds like Cu(IO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Cu(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} of the passivating film on the copper surface; the added BTA can further enhance the copper RR instead of suppressing it probably due to the formation of incomplete Cu–BTA thin film. It is demonstrated that the combination of BTA and non-ionic surfactant exhibits excellent performance in suppressing the copper RR to about 200 Å/min, realizing satisfactory copper surface quality and achieving desirable material removal rate selectivity among copper, ruthenium and low-κ dielectrics. The synergetic passivation mechanism of BTA and non-ionic surfactant on the copper surface was investigated. It is proposed that in the presence of KIO{sub 4} as an oxidizer, the added BTA and non-ionic surfactant can form a porous passivating film on the copper surface which is mainly composed of the Cu–BTA complex, the adsorbed non-ionic surfactant and the leftover insoluble copper compounds like Cu(IO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Cu(IO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and then the hydrophobic polypropylene oxide segments of non-ionic surfactant can be effectively absorbed on the hydrophobic Cu–BTA complex as a supplement. The above two parts are integrated into a complete passivating film to protect the copper surface from chemical dissolution and excessive mechanical abrasion. - Highlights: • The copper

  18. Phytochemical and physical-chemical analysis of Polish willow (Salix spp.) honey: identification of the marker compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2014-02-15

    The case study of Polish Salix spp. honey was compared with published data on willow honey from other regions. GC-FID/MS (after HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction) and targeted HPLC-DAD were applied. Phenolic content, FRAP/DPPH assays and the colour coordinates were determined spectrophotometrically. Beside ubiquitous linalool derivatives, borneol (up to 10.9%), bicyclic monoterpenes with pinane skeleton (pinocarvone up to 10.6%, myrtenal up to 4.8% and verbenone up to 3.4%) and trans-β-damascenone (up to 13.0%) dominated in the headspace. The main compounds of the extractives were vomifoliol (up to 39.6%) and methyl syringate (up to 16.5%) along with not common 4-hydroxy-3-(1-methylethyl)benzaldehyde (up to 11.1%). Abscisic acid (ABA) was found (up to 53.7 mg/kg) with the isomeric ratio (Z,E)-ABA:(E,E)-ABA=1:2. The honey exhibited low antioxidant potential with pale yellow colour. The composition of Polish willow honey is similar to Mediterranean willow honeys with several relevant differences.

  19. Deposition and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films on Mirror-Polished Si Substrate by Biased Enhanced Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, T.; Sharda, T.; Jimbo, T.; Umeno, M.

    Hard and smooth nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films were deposited on polished silicon substrates by biased enhanced growth in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The films deposited with varying the methane concentration and biasing voltage were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, nano-indenter, x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Stress in the films increases with decreasing methane concentration in the gas-phase and with increasing biasing. The adhesion between NCD film and Si substrate is very strong sustaining the compressive stress as high as high as 85 GPa. It was hypothesized that hydrogen content of the films and graphitic content of the films are responsible in generating stress. The hardness is well correlated with the Raman peak intensity ratio of NCD peak to G peak.

  20. Laser polishing of niobium for SRF applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Michael [JLAB; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael [W& M

    2013-09-01

    Smooth interior surfaces are desired for niobium SRF cavities, now obtained by buffered chemical polish (BCP) and/or electropolish (EP). Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from chemistry and in-process inspection. Here we show that laser polishing can produce smooth topography with Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements similar to that obtained by EP. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damaging it. Computational modeling was used to simulate the surface temperature and explain the mechanism of laser polishing.

  1. Environment-friendly Chemical Polishing Technology of BFe10-1-1 Copper Alloy%绿色环保型BFe10-1-1铁白铜化学抛光工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊学; 张晖; 杨锦瑜

    2011-01-01

    Taking H2O2 as main oxidant, the process of environment-friendly chemical polishing of Bfel 0-1-1 copper alloy was investigated. The influence of type of brightener, type of corrosion inhibitor, type of stabilizer of hydrogen peroxide, the polishing solution composition and polishing condition including polishing temperature and polishing time on the surface quality of the polished BFel0-1-1 copper alloy was discussed, and processing condition was optimized. The optimum composition of the chemical polishing solution for the BFelO-1-1 copper alloy was recommended to be composed of 350 mL/L hydrogen peroxide (30%) , 50 mL/L sulfuric acid, 17--20 mL/L ethyl alcohol, 1 mL/L OP-10, and 1 g/L 1,2,3-Benzotriazole, while the optimized polishing condition was suggested as temperature about 50 ℃ and polishing time 3~5 min.%研究以H2O2为主要氧化剂的化学抛光液对BFe10-1-1铁白铜进行表面化学抛光,考察了光亮剂、缓蚀剂、H2O2稳定剂的种类,化学抛光液各组分的含量,抛光温度以及抛光时间对铜合金抛光效果的影响.优化出抛光液组成及抛光工艺条件:质量分数为30%的H2O2 350 mL/L,浓H2SO450 mL/L,无水乙醇17~20mL/L,OP-10 1 mL/L,苯骈三氮唑(BTA)1 g/L,水余量;在50℃下抛光3~5 min.

  2. BFe30-1-1铜合金的化学抛光工艺研究%Chemical polishing technology of BFe30-1-1 copper alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖

    2011-01-01

    The process of chemical polishing of BFe30-l-l copper alloy with nitric acid was investigated. The influence of type of brightener, type of corrosion inhibitor, the polishing solution composition and polishing condition including polishing temperature and polishing time on the surface quality of the polished BFe30-l-l copper alloy was discussed, and processing condition was optimized. The optimum composition of the chemical polishing solution for the BFe30-l -1 copper alloy was 350 ~ 450 mL/L sulfuric acid, 3 ~5 mL/L hydrochloric acid,30 ~40 mL/L nitric acid,2 ~4 mL/L polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether, and 3 g/L benzotriazole, while the optimized polishing conditions were temperature 30℃ and polishing time 3 ~ 5 min.%研究以含硝酸的化学抛光液对BFe30-1-1铜合金进行化学抛光的方法,考察光亮剂的种类、缓蚀剂的种类、化学抛光液各组分的含量、抛光温度以及抛光时间对铜合金抛光效果的影响.结果表明,在实验范围内优化工艺条件为:350~450mL/L H2SO4,3~5 mL/L HCl,30 ~40 mL/L HNO3,2~4 mL/L辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OP-10),3 g/L苯骈三氮唑(BTA),水余量,抛光温度30℃左右,抛光时间3~5 min.在此工艺条件下对BFe30-1-1铜合金进行化学抛光,可以获得较好的抛光效果.

  3. Nano-scale stick-slip friction model for the chatter scratch generated by chemical mechanical polishing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Jin; Yang, Ji Chul; Yoon, Bo Un; Lee, Hyeon-Deok; Kim, Taesung

    2012-07-01

    Although Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process is a still promising technology for the fabrication of the next generation devices, CMP-induced defects tackle further development of CMP process. In particular, even nano-sized scratches generated by CMP process kill the device directly. However mechanism of scratch formation was not clearly understood yet. CMP-induced scratches are classified as razor, chatter mark and skipping scratch. Among them, chatter mark scratch (or chatter scratch) is the most critical defect for the device yield loss. Chatter scratch has a periodic pattern of scars, which is reminiscent of a stick-slip friction pattern. Based on that similarity, stick-slip model was proposed in this paper in order to explain how chatter scratch is formed. And controlling parameters for chatter scratch are defined. During stick period the friction force that exceeds the yield strength of wafer surface makes chatter scratch and the distance between chatter marks is determined by slip period.

  4. Communicating in Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Bernard; Malinowska, Krystyna T.

    This Polish textbook consists of a series of narrations and dialogs based on photographs depicting typical activities in the daily lives of Polish citizens. Two sets of questions follow each selection; the first set is intended to stimulate communication on what has been seen and heard, while the second set asks the students to compare what they…

  5. The impact of polishing on germanium-on-insulator substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Wang; Ruan Yujiao; Chen Songyan; Li Cheng; Lai Hongkai; Huang Wei

    2013-01-01

    We prepared germanium-on-insulator (GOI) substrates by using Smart-CutTM and wafer bonding technology.The fabricated GOI is appropriate for polishing due to a strong bonding strength (2.4 MPa) and a sufficient bonding quality.We investigated mechanical polishing and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) systematically,and an appropriate polishing method-mechanical polishing combined with CMP-is obtained.As shown by AFM measurement,the RMS of GOI after polishing decreased to 0.543 nm.And the Ge peak profile of the XRD curve became symmetric,and the FWHM is about 121.7 arcsec,demonstrating a good crystal quality.

  6. CHINESE RE POLISHING POWDER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Due to its high polishing efficiency, long working life and wide application range, RE polishing powder has become the most popular fine polishing material. In recent years, accompanying the rapid development of electronic information technology, the demand for polishing powder is

  7. 固结磨料化学机械研抛K9玻璃的材料去除机理%Material Removal Mechanism of K9 Glass During Chemical Mechanical Polishing by Fixed Abrasive Pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊吉龙; 朱永伟; 李军; 叶剑锋

    2012-01-01

    采用失重法对固结磨料研抛K9玻璃材料去除过程中的机械与化学作用进行了分离,采用显微硬度方法分析了研抛液对K9玻璃工件表层硬度的影响.研究结果表明:研抛液能与K9玻璃发生化学反应并在其表面形成一层较基质材料软的变质层,变质层厚度随浸泡时间的延长而增加;单纯研抛液的化学作用对K9玻璃的材料去除作用有限,固结磨料研抛垫对K9玻璃的机械去除作用主要以脆性去除为主,化学与机械的交互作用是K9玻璃影响材料去除的主要方式:当研抛盘转速为200r/min时,化学作用与机械作用达到平衡,交互作用最为强烈,材料去除率达到最大值.%The mechanical and chemical functions during the material removal process are separated by adopting weight loss measurements when fixed abrasive pad works on K9 glass. The influence of polishing slurry on the surface hardness of K9 glass is also analyzed by the micro-hardness method. The research results show that the chemical reaction between polishing slurry and K9 glass will take place and form a denatured layer on the surface of K9 glass, which is softer than host material and whose thickness increases with soak time. The material removal rate of K9 glass by chemical function is very limited and the mechanical function of K9 glass is mainly by brittle removal, while the interaction of chemical and mechanical functions is the main factor in influencing the material removal rate of K9 glass. When the rotation speed of the polishing pad is 200 r/min, the chemical and mechanical functions come to a balance with their interaction being the strongest, and the material removal rate reaches its maximum.

  8. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  10. Removal Of Optical Coatings Without Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Helen

    1980-11-01

    A process for removing antireflection, mirror and polarizer coatings has been developed at ILC, based on work begun by LLL (Applied Optics Vol. 17, No. 12, 15 June 1978 - "Notes on Optical Coating Removal", N.J. Brown). Because of the danger (personnel hazard) involved in the hydrofluoric acid process, we employed an ammonium bifluoride solution, combined with various polishing components. The substrates, generally BK7, are fairly soft and also sensitive to chemical action. Therefore we have limited our polishing materials to aluminum oxide powder graded at 0.1 pm or smaller. For some coatings, no polishing material is used, as the ammonium bifluoride solution is adequate to remove the coating. The resulting clean surface is washed and neutralized, and is then ready for recoating.

  11. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  12. 单晶金刚石机械研磨与化学机械抛光工艺%Mechanical Lapping and Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process for Single Crystal Diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛洪明; 金洙吉; 史卓颖

    2015-01-01

    单晶金刚石在工业、国防等领域的应用日益广泛,对其加工表面质量的要求不断提高,使用常温低压的化学机械抛光可实现金刚石的超光滑低损伤表面加工。通过理论分析及实验研究得出,使用硅酸盐玻璃材质研磨盘进行研磨加工,可以将金刚石表面粗糙度Ra降至15~25 nm,且无明显机械划痕;在2 MPa压力及室温环境下进行单晶金刚石化学机械抛光实验,优选出Fenton试剂酸性水基抛光液,使用该抛光液抛光单晶金刚石可获得粗糙度Ra值4 nm以下的光滑表面。%Single crystal diamond is more and more widely used in national defense and industrial field , which requires better surface quality .The technique of chemical-mechanical polishing at normal-tempera-ture and low-pressure environment can achieve ultra-smooth diamond surface with low damage .Theoreti-cal analysis and experimental research show that the polished diamond surface roughness Ra can be re-duced to 15—25 nm without obvious mechanical scratches by using silicate glass as grinding disc .The chemical-mechanical polishing experiment was held under the condition of 2 MPa pressure and normal-temperature .Experimental results show that the water-based acidic Fenton reagent was effective in parti-cular process parameters , and overall surface roughness Ra was processed to be less than 4 nm.

  13. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  14. Nasalization in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Jerzy

    1977-01-01

    This paper gives a complete account of vowel nasalization in Standard Polish. A distinction is made between obligatory and phonostylistic processes. Phonostylistic evidence may serve as a basis for making unambiguous decisions about the structure of underlying representations, intermediate phonological forms, and assimilation of borrowings to the…

  15. 雾化施液抛光硅片位错的化学腐蚀形貌分析%Chemical Corrosion Morphology Analysis of Dislocations of Silicon Wafer Polished by Ultrasonic Atomization CMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    壮筱凯; 李庆忠

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究硅片经雾化施液抛光技术加工后存在的位错缺陷。方法应用化学腐蚀法、光学方法分析硅片不同部位的位错腐蚀形貌、位错密度及其分布,通过单因素实验研究雾化参数对位错形貌和位错密度的影响规律。在相同的工艺参数下,和传统抛光进行对比实验。结果雾化抛光硅片的平均位错密度为1.2×104/cm2,边沿处的位错密度小于其他区域。在相同的工艺参数下,雾化施液CMP的抛光液消耗量约为传统CMP的1/10,但硅片的位错腐蚀形貌和位错密度明显好于传统抛光,且蚀坑分布均匀分散,没有出现位错排等严重缺陷。通过增大雾化器的出雾量能有效改善硅片表层的位错缺陷。结论相对于传统抛光,雾化施液抛光技术能更加高效地去除硅片的位错缺陷。%ABSTRACT:Objective To study the dislocation defect of silicon wafer which was polished by ultrasonic atomization chemical me-chanical polishing ( CMP) . Methods The chemical etching method and optics method were used to analyze the morphology, densi-ty, and distribution of the dislocation etch pits. Besides, the influence of atomization quantity on the morphology and density of dis-location was studied by single factor experiment. Then comparative experiments were conducted with traditional CMP under the same conditions. Results The average dislocation density of the polished silicon wafer was about 1. 2×104/cm2 and the dislocation density in edge area was lower than other areas. Besides, the dislocation morphology and dislocation density of silicon wafer pol-ished by ultrasonic atomization CMP were obviously better than those treated by traditional CMP under the same conditions while thepolishing liquid consumption was about one tenth of traditional CMP. The dislocation etch pits distributed evenly and there were no serious flaws such as dislocation piles and so on. In addition to that, the dislocation defect could be

  16. Polish device for FOCCoS/PFS slit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Souza Marrara, Lucas; dos Santos, Leandro Henrique; Ferreira, Décio; dos Santos, Jesulino Bispo; de Paiva Vilaça, Rodrigo; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Sodré Junior, Laerte; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, "FOCCoS", for the Prime Focus Spectrograph, "PFS", is responsible for transporting light from the Subaru Telescope focal plane to a set of four spectrographs. Each spectrograph will be fed by a convex curved slit with 616 optical fibers organized in a linear arrangement. The slit frontal surface is covered with a special dark composite, made with refractory oxide, which is able to sustain its properties with minimum quantities of abrasives during the polishing process; this stability is obtained This stability is obtained by the detachment of the refractory oxide nanoparticles, which then gently reinforce gently the polishing process and increase its the efficiency. The surface roughness measured in several samples after high performance polishing was about 0.01 microns. Furthermore, the time for obtaining a polished surface with this quality is about 10 times less than the time required for polishing a brass, glass or ceramic surface of the same size. In this paper, we describe the procedure developed for high quality polishing of this type of slit. The cylindrical polishing described here, uses cylindrical concave metal bases on which glass paper is based. The polishing process consists to use grid sequences of 30μm, 12μm, 9μm, 5μm, 3μm, 1μm and, finally, a colloidal silica on a chemical cloth. To obtain the maximum throughput, the surface of the fibers should be polished in such a way that they are optically flat and free from scratches. The optical fibers are inspected with a microscope at all stages of the polishing process to ensure high quality. The efficiency of the process may be improved by using a cylindrical concave composite base as a substrate suitable for diamond liquid solutions. Despite this process being completely by hand, the final result shows a very high quality.

  17. 钨的化学机械抛光过程中TiN-W电偶的腐蚀行为%Galvanic Corrosion of TiN-W Electro-couple During Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程璇; 林昌健

    2001-01-01

    Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is a process whereby mechanical and chemical forces are combined to remove material from a wafer and polish it to a flat surface. Tungsten CMP is an important process to gain the global planarity of silicon wafers with tungsten (W) plugs. Tungsten is actually deposited on a thin adhesive layer of titanium nitride (TiN) on silicon. When close to the final stage of polishing, TiN and W will be simultaneously exposed to the polishing chemistry, forming a galvanic couple. The corrosion of TiN and W couple will result in different polish rate.   This work studied the potential difference and galvanic currents on particulate contamination of the abrasive on the patterned surface and on corrosion behaviors of TiN and W. The polarization curves of TiN and W were, respectively, obtained in 0.01 mol/L KNO3 solutions in the absence and presence of three typical oxidants (H2O2, KIO3, Fe(NO3)3) by DC polarization technique. The corrosion potentials and galvanic currents were measured when TiN and W were placed in a specially designed electrochemical cell to form electro-couple. The preliminary results revealed that the corrosion rate of TiN-W electro-couple significantly increased in the presence of 4.5% H2O2 at pH 4.0, while reduced to the minimal in the presence of Fe(NO3)3 at pH 1.5. Agitation significantly enhanced the corrosion rate of TiN-W couple.%化学机械抛光(CMP)技术是同时利用化学和机械作用来获得固体表面亚微米尺度上平整性非常有效的方法,从90年代初期起已成为制备高质量镜头和镜面及集成电路制造过程中硅片表面预处理工艺中最常用的技术之一.钨的化学机械抛光是用钨坯获得硅片球面平整度的重要工艺.其过程实际上是先将钨沉积到硅上已有的薄粘附层-氮化钛上,然后进行化学机械抛光.当抛光阶段接近终了时,氮化钛和钨表面将同时暴露在化学抛光液中形成电偶对,并在界

  18. Review on Application of Rare Earth Polishing Powders in Glass Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueshun; Yang Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviewed different explanations to the mechanism of glass polishing, the practices of glass polishing and the preparation of polishing powders, addressed the growth mechanism of CeO2 crystals, summarized the roles of rare earth elements in glass polishing and the factors that may influence the polishing effects, and specified the existing problems in glass polishing.

  19. Laser polishing of niobium for superconducting radio-frequency accelerator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [William and Mary College; Klopf, John M. [William and Mary College; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB

    2014-08-01

    Interior surfaces of niobium cavities used in superconducting radio frequency accelerators are now obtained by buffered chemical polish and/or electropolish. Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from noxious chemistry and availability of in-process inspection. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damage. Computational modeling was used to estimate the surface temperature and gain insight into the mechanism of laser polishing. Power spectral density analysis of surface topography measurements shows that laser polishing can produce smooth topography similar to that obtained by electropolish. This is a necessary first step toward introducing laser polishing as an alternative to the currently practiced chemical polishing.

  20. Polishing technique for beryllium mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests, accomplished by inserting entire X ray telescope and polished mirror into vacuum line 67 m long and taking photographs of an X ray resolution source, indicate that polishing increases mirror efficiency from 0.06 percent for X rays at 0.8 nm and increases resolution from 15 to 3.75 arc-seconds.

  1. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  2. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  3. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  4. Subjective Quality of Life of Polish, Polish-Immigrant, and Polish-American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdes, Celia; Zych, Adam A.

    2000-01-01

    Compares subjective quality of life of elderly Poles living in Poland, and Polish immigrants and Polish-American ethnics living in Chicago as part of a secondary data analysis of a study initially conducted in Poland. Conclusions lend support to the idea that U.S.-born elderly people and elderly immigrants to the United States have a significantly…

  5. 化学机械抛光在光学晶体加工中的应用%Application of chemical mechanical polishing in the processing of optical crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储向峰; 汤丽娟; 董永平; 乔红斌; 朱小华

    2012-01-01

    Intensive investigation on crystal materials accelerated the development of modern science and technology, and the demand for various crystals has been increasing. The surface processing of crystals has become a research focus because ultra-smooth surface is needed in many application fields, In this research, we introduce the development of chemical mechanical polishing of a few kinds of crystals including saphire, LiNbO3, LiB3 O5, CdZnTe, MgO, SiC and InSb, discuss the existing problems and the developing trend in the CMP field of the crystals.%晶体材料的深入研究加速了现代科学技术的发展,其需求量也迅速增加.在很多应用领域要求晶体的表面超光滑,因此晶体表面处理和加工成为目前研究的热点.介绍了几种典型光学晶体(蓝宝石晶体、铌酸锂晶体、三硼酸锂晶体、碲锌镉晶体、氧化镁晶体、碳化硅晶体和锑化铟晶体)化学机械抛光的最新研究成果,并探讨了光学晶体化学机械抛光存在的问题及发展趋势.

  6. Polishing of denture base acrylic resin with chairside polishing kits: an SEM and surface roughness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzivasileiou, Konstantinos; Emmanouil, Ioannis; Kotsiomiti, Eleni; Pissiotis, Argirios

    2013-01-01

    Heat-cured acrylic resin specimens were polished using either conventional laboratory polishing, sandpaper, or three commercial chairside kits. The surface roughness of the polished specimens was measured with a contact profilometer. Scanning electron microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs of the polished surfaces. Laboratory polishing produced the smoothest surfaces in all cases, while sandpaper application produced the roughest. Use of the chairside polishing kits resulted in significantly rougher surfaces compared to those produced by laboratory polishing. Nonetheless, polishing of trimmed denture bases using chairside polishing kits is an effective alternative procedure for cases in which the laboratory procedure is not applicable.

  7. Co - pyrolysis of biomass and Polish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordylewski, Wlodzimierz; Stojanowska, Grazyna [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland); Jones, Jenny [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Inst.

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents results of studies of the chemical decomposition of coal, biomass and their blends during low rate heating gasification in atmosphere of air or nitrogen. Polish lignite (Turow), sawdust of pine and blends of these two fuels have been used in the research and it has been investigated the influence of ion exchanged calcium on their pyrolysis. The primary products of devolatilization provided important information for understanding subsequently the leading to toxic organic compounds and synergistic effects of these fuels. The influence of blending ratio and influence of calcium catalysts was discussed.

  8. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  9. Tooth polishing: The current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Madhuri Alankar; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Daing, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients' need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  10. Fused-Polished Fiber Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien; Chi; Shiao-Min; Tseng

    2003-01-01

    We report on fused-polished fiber couplers with a new fabrication method. This structure so fabricated is promising while achieving high-performance all-fiber WDM devices. Potential advantages and prospects of our works are presented.

  11. 铜抛光液中缓蚀剂5-氨基四唑(ATA)的作用机制研究%Investigation on the Mechanisms of Corrosion Inhibitor 5-aminotetrazole Used in the Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇宏; 董莹; 戴媛静; 雒建斌

    2012-01-01

    The influences of inhibitors ( benzotriazole( BTA)and 5-aminotetrazole( ATA) )in slurry with varying pH values on the chemical mechanical polishing( CMP) of copper were studied by the methods of the static corrosion, contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) ,and the effective mechanisms of ATA on copper surface were discussed. The results show that BTA and ATA are excellent copper corrosion inhibitors. In the range of pH values 3 - 10, the inhibitors form the passivity films and protect the copper surface from chemical attack, resulting in the decrease of the removal rates of copper and static corrosion rates,especially in the optimum condition of pH =4. ATA has better inhibition effect for copper corrosion than BTA in the range of pH =3 ~5, because ATA molecule can be preferentially adsorbed on copper surface by nitrogen atoms of amidogen and azole to form the protect films, resulting in the inhibition of the oxide formation from hydrogen peroxide and the improvement of the surface quality. In conclusion, ATA is one of the best inhibitors suitable for acid slurry of copper CMP.%采用静态腐蚀实验、接触角测试、XPS等手段,比较在不同pH值下抛光液中缓蚀剂(5-氨基四唑(ATA),苯并三唑(BTA))对铜表面化学机械抛光(CMP)的影响,并探讨ATA在铜表面的作用机制.结果表明,BTA和ATA是优良的铜缓蚀剂,当pH值为3~10时,两者可在铜表面成膜,保护铜表面不受腐蚀,从而降低铜片的静态腐蚀速率和去除率,其中当pH =4时,2种缓蚀剂表现出最佳的缓蚀性能.当pH值为3~5时,ATA的缓蚀性能优于BTA.ATA通过四唑环上的N原子和氨基上的N原子吸附在铜表面,形成保护膜,从而抑制了H2O2对铜表面的腐蚀,改善了表面质量,是一种优良的适用于酸性铜抛光液的缓蚀剂.

  12. The impact of 90 years of drainage works on some chemical properties of raised peat bog organic soils - case study from valley of the Upper San river in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    Wetland ecosystems, including raised peat bogs are characterized by a specific water conditions and unique vegetation, which makes peatland highly important habitats due to protection of biodiversity. Transformation of peat bog areas is particularly related to changes in the environment e.g. according to reclamation works. Drainage of peatlands is directly associated to the decrease of groundwater levels and lead to a number of changes in the chemical and physical properties of peat material, included contents of exchangeable cations in the surface layers of peat soils in the decession phase of peat development and release above compounds from the soil to ground or surface waters. The aim of the research was to determine the impact of extended drainage works on chemical composition of sorption complex of raised peat bog organic soils and identification the potential environmental effects of alkaline cations leaching to the surface waters. Research was carried out on the peat bogs located in the Upper San valley in Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Soil samples used in this study were collected from 3 soil profiles in 10 or 20 cm intervals to the approximately 130 cm depth. Laboratory analyses included determination of basic properties of organic material such as the degree of peat decomposition, ash content, soil pH and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen concentrations. Additionally the amount of alkaline cations, exchangeable and extractable acidity was determined. Furthermore, the degree of saturation of the sorption complex with alkaline cations (V) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) are calculated. In order to evaluate the impact of the examined peat bog to the environment, also water samples were collected and ions composition was measured. The obtained results show that studied organic soils are oligotrophic and strongly acidic. In the case of organic material related to decession phase of peat development, as a result of the lengthy drainage works

  13. Astronarium - Filmography of Polish Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radajewski, Bogumił; Mikołajewski, Maciej; Czart, Krzysztof; Guz, Iwona; Rubaszewski, Adam; Stelmach, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    ``Astronarium'' is a series of TV programs about astronomy and space research co-produced by the Polish Astronomical Society and Polish Television. It has been planned for three seasons and 34 episodes in total (8, 13 and 13 per season). The first season was presented in March and April 2015 and the second started in September 2015. The third one is planned for 2016. ``Astronarium'' has been broadcast on the nationwide channel TVP Regionalna, which later changed its name to TVP 3.

  14. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  15. Electrochemical polishing of notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Alan R.; Alberts, Alfred H.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the selective electrochemical polishing of a lateral tip of a deep longitudinal notch in a work piece used to test crack initiation properties of materials. A DC power source is connected to the work piece and to an electrode disposed laterally along the distal end of an insulated body which is inserted in the longitudinal notch. The electrode and distal end of the body are disposed along the tip of the notch, but are spaced from the notch so as to provide a lateral passage for an electrolyte. The electrolyte is circulated through the passage so that the electrolyte only contacts the work piece adjacent the passage. Conveniently, the electrolyte is circulated by use of an inlet tube and an outlet tube provided at opposite ends of the passage. These tubes are preferably detachably located adjacent the ends of the passage and suitable seals are provided. A holding device including arms to which the tubes are attached is conveniently used to rapidly and easily locate the test specimen with the passage aligned with the tubes. The electrode is preferably a wire which is located in grooves along the distal end of the insulated body and up one side of the body or a plastic sheath insulated thin metal strip.

  16. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  17. 铜化学机械抛光中复合缓蚀剂的作用机制%Mechanisms of Mixed Corrosion Inhibitors in Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚桦; 王宁; 顾忠华; 潘国顺

    2013-01-01

    将复合缓蚀剂(苯并三氮唑(BTAH)和十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS))应用到铜的化学机械抛光液中,考察BTAH和SDS对铜表面化学机械抛光的影响,并探讨BTAH和SDS在铜表面的作用机制;分析BTAH和SDS抛光液中络合剂和表面活性剂对铜化学机械抛光性能的影响。结果表明:BTAH和SDS在铜表面形成了致密的Cu-BTAH和Cu-SDS保护膜,是优良的铜缓蚀剂。当以磷酸氢二胺(AHP)为络合剂,羟乙基纤维素(HEC)为表面活性剂时,优化后的BTAH和SDS抛光液取得了低至Ra0.2 nm的表面粗糙度,同时发现HEC有降低纳米颗粒残留的作用。%Mixed corrosion inhibitors(benzotriazole(BTAH)and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS))were utilized in copper chemical mechanical polishing(CMP)slurry.The influences of BTAH and SDS,complexing agent,and surfactant on the CMP of copper were studied,and the mechanisms of BTAH and SDS on copper surface were discussed.The results show that compact Cu-BTAH and Cu-SDS protective films are formed on the copper surface,and thus,which are excellent copper corrosion inhibitors.When using BTAH and SDS as mixed corrosion inhibitors,ammonium phosphate(AHP)as complexing agent,and hydroxy ethyl cellulose(HEC)as surfactant,a low surface roughness of 0.2 nm is got by this CMP slurry.The appearance of HEC in the slurry is found to be very effective in reducing the nano-sized particle deposition on copper surface.

  18. Polish-German bilingualism at school. A Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the institutional frames for the acquisition of Polish literacy skills in Germany and the maintenance of Polish-German bilingualism after the repatriation of bilingual children to Poland. These processes are examined in the context of recent developments in the European domestic job market. While the European Union has placed proficiency in several languages among its educational objectives, and foreign languages have been made obligatory school subjects in all member countries, the potential advantages of internal European migrations for producing high-proficiency bilinguals are being ignored. Bilingualism resulting from migration and biculturalism enjoys little social prestige in the host countries. In Germany, there is significant regional variation in how school authorities react to challenges posed by the presence of minority languages. In many cases, the linguistic potential of many second-generation migrants and re-emigrants gets largely wasted because of lacking interest and incentives from German and Polish institutions alike.

  19. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Os in H3PO4-Based Slurries%锇在磷酸体系抛光液中化学机械抛光研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储向峰; 汤丽娟; 董永平; 乔红斌; 朱小华

    2013-01-01

    (锇有可能作为大规模集成电路铜互连扩散阻挡层新材料.)利用自制的抛光液对金属锇片进行抛光,研究在双氧水-磷酸体系抛光液中H2O2浓度和抛光液pH值对抛光速率的影响.结果表明,当抛光液中主要成分仅为氧化剂H2O2时,并不能在金属锇表面达到好的腐蚀效果.在磷酸体系抛光液中,H2O2能够通过促进阴极反应的进行从而增强抛光液对金属锇的化学作用;低浓度H2O2通过增强抛光液对金属锇的化学腐蚀能力,从而增加了抛光速率值:较高浓度H2O2的加入对抛光速率值影响较小.H3PO4能够在抛光液中起到抑制剂、pH调节剂和络合剂的作用.当抛光液pH值为4.0时,金属锇表面生成的钝化膜最致密.当pH值为4.0或5.0时,金属锇表面生成的钝化膜OCP值大于金属锇的OCP值,且此条件下的抛光速率值较高.%Osmium (Os) may be used in copper interconnects of ultra-large scale integration as a new barrier material.In this work,chemical mechanical polishing experiments were performed on Os disk using home-made H3PO4-based slurries and the effect of the H2O2 concentration and pH value on the material removal rate (MRR) was investigated.Good corrosion cannot be obtained on Os surface when only H2O2 is the main components in slurry.In H3PO4-based slurries,H2O2 can accelerate the cathode reaction and enhance the chemical action of the slurry on the surface of Os.Low concentration H2O2 promotes the chemical corrosion ability to corrode Os surface and increases the material removal rate; the increasing of H2O2 concentration has less influences on the MRR when the concentration of H2O2 is higher.Phosphoric acid plays a role of inhibitor,pH adjusting agent and complexing agent in the slurry.When pH value is 4.0,the passive film on the surface of Os is most compact.The OCP values of the passive films formed on the surface of Os are higher than those of Os and the MRR attains higher values when the pH value

  20. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M. L.; Olesen, A. S.; Larsen, H. E.; Stubager, J.; Hanson, S. G.; Pedersen, T. F.; Pedersen, H. C.

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the work carried out on a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost and time consumption can become relatively large numbers in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, but then the object needs to be manually polished. During the polishing process the operator needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduces by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 - 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2 and A3. Based on simple intensity measurements we estimates the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annual photo-detector to collect the scattered light we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random structures and light scattered from scratches.

  1. Polishing of dental porcelain by polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Sato, Hideaki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Hojo, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) exhibits excellent abrasive characteristics and is commonly used as loose grains for precision machining of hard ceramics and other materials that are difficult to grind and polish. In the present study, we investigated using bonded PCD for polishing dental porcelain, for which a lustrous surface is difficult to obtain by polishing. We compared the surface texture and characteristics of dental porcelain after polishing with bonded PCD with that obtained using bonded monocrystalline diamond (MCD), which is commonly used for this purpose. Polishing was performed at various pressures and rotational speeds on a custom-built polishing apparatus using bonded PCD or MCD with grain sizes of 3.92 μm on specimens consisting of VITA Omega 900 dentin porcelain after firing and then glazing to a specified surface roughness. The surface roughness of the polished porcelain and the abrasion quantity in terms of its polishing depth were measured, and its surface texture and characteristics were investigated. At low polishing pressures, PCD yielded a finer polished surface than MCD. The polishing depth after polishing for 20-30 min was approximately 2-3 μm with PCD and 1-2 μm with MCD. The polished surface was more uniform and smooth with PCD than with MCD.

  2. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht;

    2016-01-01

    needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...... complications during the casting process. In this work we present a method for measuring the RMS-values of the surface roughness while simultaneously determining the polishing direction. We are mainly interested in the RMS-values in the range from 0 – 100 nm, which corresponds to the finish categories of A1, A2...... and A3 (Finishing guide, Bales). Based on simple intensity measurements, we estimate the RMS-value of the surface roughness, and by using a sectioned annually shaped photo-detector to collect the scattered light, we can determine the direction of polishing and distinguish light scattered from random...

  3. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  4. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  5. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  6. Semiological analysis of Polish theater posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Nikolić; Uroš Nedeljković

    2016-01-01

    Through the application of semiological analysis to theater posters made by two Polish authors, the paper uncovers signs, meanings, codes and specifics of the „Polish school of poster-making“ and contemporary Polish posters. Aside from this, I suggest a methodological framework for studying the issue of coding and shaping a theater poster as a culturally specific form of visual communication. The aesthetic and semiotic outlook of the Polish theater posters which were chosen is analyzed using ...

  7. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  8. New examples of small Polish structures

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrowolski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We answer some questions from a paper of Krupi\\'nski by giving suitable examples of small Polish structures. First, we present a class of small Polish group structures without generic elements. Next, we construct a first example of a small non-zero-dimensional Polish $G$-group.

  9. An Investigation on a Tin Fixed Abrasive Polishing Pad with Phyllotactic Pattern for Polishing Wafer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉山; 刘电飞; 寇智慧

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the polishing ability of polishing pads, a kind of polishing pad with the tin fixed abrasive blocks, which are arranged based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, was designed and fabricated by the use of electroplating technology, and also its polishing ability for JGS-2 wafer was investigated by polishing experiments. The research resuits show that the phyllotactic parameters of the polishing pad influence the arrangement density of the tin fixed abrasive blocks, the polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern is feasibly fabricated by the use of electroplating technology, and the good polishing result can be obtained by using the polishing pad with pbyllotactic pattern to polish a wafer when the diameter D of the tin fixed abrasive block is between Φ. 3 mm and Φ1. 4 mm, and the phyllotactic coefficient k between 1.0 and 1.1, respectively.

  10. Development of Application of RE Polishing Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueshun; Huang Shaodong; Yang Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    The manufacturing method and functions of the RE polishing powder and comparation of the current situation of its production and application home and abroad were introduced.By analyzing the development of the liquid crystal (plate) display, the wide application of the RE polishing powder in the field of the liquid crystal display and predicts the development direction of the market of the RE polishing powder was presented.In addition, the development trends of the RE polishing powder industry and forecasts the application prospect of the RE polishing powder was analyzed.

  11. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  12. Successful intervention in a child with toxic methemoglobinemia due to nail polish remover poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are most susceptible to accidental exposure of common household substances and one of the common household substances is nail polish remover. We are presenting a case of accidental ingestion of nail polish remover with lethal methemoglobinemia (serum methemoglobin level-72%. This patient was treated successfully with injection methylene blue. However, even small amounts can be dangerous to children, so it is important to keep this and all household chemicals in a safe place

  13. Parameter Optimization for Laser Polishing of Niobium for SRF Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Klopf, John Michael [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Surface smoothness is critical to the performance of SRF cavities. As laser technology has been widely applied to metal machining and surface treatment, we are encouraged to use it on niobium as an alternative to the traditional wet polishing process where aggressive chemicals are involved. In this study, we describe progress toward smoothing by optimizing laser parameters on BCP treated niobium surfaces. Results shows that microsmoothing of the surface without ablation is achievable.

  14. Implications of Polishing Techniques in Quantitative X-Ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémond, Guy; Nockolds, Clive; Phillips, Matthew; Roques-Carmes, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Specimen preparation using abrasives results in surface and subsurface mechanical (stresses, strains), geometrical (roughness), chemical (contaminants, reaction products) and physical modifications (structure, texture, lattice defects). The mechanisms involved in polishing with abrasives are presented to illustrate the effects of surface topography, surface and subsurface composition and induced lattice defects on the accuracy of quantitative x-ray microanalysis of mineral materials with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). PMID:27446758

  15. ZERODUR for stress mirror polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Stress mirror polishing is considered as one of several polishing technologies for the generation of the aspherical shaped primary mirror segments of the thirty meter telescope (TMT). For stress mirror polishing it is essential to precisely know the elastic response of glass ceramic substrate materials under a given deformation load. In the past it was experimentally shown that glass ceramics do not respond instantaneously to loading and unloading conditions, this effect was called "delayed elasticity." Recently SCHOTT has shown that it is possible to use a model to predict the characteristic thermal expansion behaviour of individual ZERODUR® batches for a given temperature profile. A similar approach will be used to predict the delayed elastic behavior of ZERODUR® under time dependent loads. In this presentation the delayed elasticity effect of ZERODUR® is reviewed. The delayed elastic response of the material to load conditions is shown and discussed. First results of a model approach based on experimental results and tools that have been built up for the modelling of the delayed elasticity effect of ZERODUR® will be presented.

  16. An Overview of Polish Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Cynarski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the revival of Polish martial arts from the perspectives of cultural sociology, the sciences of physical culture, and the humanistic theory of martial arts. The Polish Martial Arts (Polskie Sztuki Walki are a subject still requiring serious scientific examination, even in Poland. There are few works concerning the history of Polish weapons, and most only describe techniques for wielding specific types of edged weapons. Nevertheless, there is a large group of enthusiasts trying to restore and cultivate the old Polish tradition, a tradition with heavy emphasis on the art of fencing. The author knows many of the people and facts presented here, from personal observation and from direct participation in these arts. As a disciple of the late Master Yoshio Sugino (10th-dan Kobudo Katori Shinto-ryu, he fought against the Polish saber champion, and he has taken part in joint exhibitions of Polish and Japanese fencing.

  17. Coal prep in Brazil: the Polish approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilli, C.B.

    1988-02-01

    With one exception, all coal mined in Brazil is washed at the pit head because of its high dirt content. Since the early 1970s five complete coal preparation plants have been designed and constructed by a consortium, using Polish technology. Among the changes effected by the Polish engineers was the introduction of Polish designed equipment. These have led to several small modifications on the usual flowsheet design, which have increased recoveries. 4 figs.

  18. Polish-Chinese Economic Relations after Polish Accession to European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowska, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analize polish-chinese economic relations after polish accession to the European Union structures. Studies carried out in the first part of the article concern trade rates between the two countries. Results show that polish import from China exceed export. The negative trends persist for many years and are continually deepening. From the geographical side, polish import from China flows mainly from the east coast part of China including Peking an...

  19. Polish in the light of grammaticalization theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hansen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish in the light of grammaticalization theory The paper is concerned with grammaticalization, a type of language change whereby lexical items, in specifi contexts, come to serve grammatical functions, and grammatical items acquire new grammatical functions. The aim is twofold: to shed light at the main properties of grammaticalization, and to demonstrate its applicability to Polish data. Some prominent examples in Polish are discussed: the grammaticalization of modals, imperative and avertive constructions. The paper closes with a non-exhaustive list of leads for further research into grammaticalization in Polish.

  20. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Regional Varieties of Polish: Views from Two Polish Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milobog, Magdalena; Garrett, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of perceptions and attitudes relating to regional varieties of Polish. The methodology followed folk linguistic approaches to attitudes research. Respondents in two Polish provinces were asked to draw on a map of Poland where they thought the main regional varieties of Polish were spoken, and then to name and…

  1. Lexical Server of Polish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gajecki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Lexical Server of Polish Language, the tool that aids natural language processing (NLP. Database of the server consists of dictionary units enriched by lexical information. The lexical server should be able to perform identification of word forms and generations of all inflected forms of the word. The server is dedicated to the people who are looking for NLP algorithms or implement them. The algorithms can be implemented in different kinds of programming languages and different operating systems. There are some examples of problems when lexical server can be useful: automatic text correction, tcxt indexing, keywords extraction, text profile building.

  2. SELECTED FEATURES OF POLISH FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Spychalski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research carried out among farm owners in Wielkopolskie voivodeship referring to selected features of social capital. The author identifies and estimates impact of some socio-professional factors on social capital quality and derives statistical conclusion. As a result there is a list of economic policy measures facilitating rural areas development in this aspect. The level of education, civic activity and tendency for collective activity are main conditions of social capital quality in Polish rural areas.

  3. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  4. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  5. The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Duškin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus The Semantics Laboratory Team of Institute of Slavic Studies of Polish Academy of Sciences is planning to begin work on the creation of a Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus. The three selected languages are representatives of the main groups of Slavic languages: Bulgarian represents the southern group of Slavic languages, Polish – the western group of Slavic languages, Russian – the eastern group of Slavic languages. Our project will be the first parallel corpus of these three languages. The planned corpus will be based on material, dating from one period (the 20th century and will have a synchronous nature. The project will not constitute the sum of the separate corpora of selected languages. One of the problems with creating multilingual parallel corpora are different proportions of translated texts between the selected languages, for example, Polish literature is often translated into Bulgarian, but not vice versa. Bulgarian, Russian and Polish differ typologically – Bulgarian is an analytic language, Polish and Russian are synthetic. The parallel corpus should have compatible annotation, while taking into account the characteristic features of the selected languages. We hope that the Bulgarian-Polish-Russian parallel corpus will serve as a source of linguistic material of contrastive language studies and may prove to be a big help for linguists, translators, terminologists and students of linguistics. The results of our work will be available on the Internet.

  6. Effect of the geometry of workpiece on polishing velocity in free annular polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quantang Fan; Jianqiang Zhu; Bao'an Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Base on Coulomb friction model, the workpieces with different geometry rotating in free annular polishing are simulated. From simulation, the following conclusions are drawn. The angular velocity of workpiece is higher than that of polishing pad if the ring rotates uncontrolled in free annular polishing. The circular workpiece can synchronize with polishing pad through controlling the rotation of ring, which depends on the radii of ring and workpiece, the friction coefficients of polishing pad-workpiece and ring-workpiece,and the angular velocity of polishing pad. The workpiece with sharp corner cannot contact with the ring contiguously, which causes the contact state changing and the angular velocity of workpiece fluctuating ceaselessly, and this type of workpiece should be controlled with clamp to rotate synchronistically with the polishing pad.

  7. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  8. Influence of Zn (II) ion on abrasive-free polishing of hard disk substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hong, E-mail: hong_lei2005@163.com; Zhao, Rong, E-mail: zr890804@163.com; Chen, Ruling, E-mail: chen_ruling@163.com

    2014-07-01

    With higher requirement setting for hard disk substrate to minimize roughness and defects of the polished surface, abrasive-free polishing (AFP) of hard disk substrate has been put forward in this paper. The effect of Zn (II) ion on the AFP of hard disk substrate in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based slurry was investigated by AFP tests. The results indicate that the material removal rate of hard disk substrate polished in slurry with Zn (II) ion is obviously higher than that without Zn (II) ion. And surface polished by slurry containing Zn (II) ion exhibits lower surface roughness and fewer nano-asperity peaks than that without Zn (II) ion. Furthermore, the acting mechanism of Zn (II) ion in AFP of hard disk substrate was analyzed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that metal Zn appears on the polished surface, implying the tribochemistry reaction occurs during AFP. The electrochemical reaction between metal Zn and oxide film Ni{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of hard disk substrate during AFP can promote the chemical effect in AFP and lead to the increasing of material removal rate. - Highlights: • Zn (II) ion improves surface quality in abrasive-free polishing (AFP). • The removal rate increases with the increasing of Zn (II) ion content. • Tribo-chemistry reaction exists during AFP. • Zn (II) ion accelerates the electrochemistry reaction during AFP.

  9. Optimization of Polishing Parameters with Taguchi Method for LBO Crystal in CMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li; Yongwei Zhu; Dunwen Zuo; Yong Zhu; Chuangtian Chen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was used to polish Lithium triborate (UB_3O_5 or LBO) crystal. Taguchi method was applied for optimization of the polishing parameters. Material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness are considered as criteria for the optimization. The polishing pressure, the abrasive concentration and the table velocity are important parameters which influence MRR and surface roughness in CMP of LBO crystal. Experiment results indicate that for MRR the polishing pressure is the most significant polishing parameter followed by table velocity; while for the surface roughness, the abrasive concentration is the most important one. For high MRR in CMP of LBO crystal the optimal conditions are: pressure 620 g/cm~2, concentration 5.0 wt pct, and velocity 60 r/min, respectively. For the best surface roughness the optimal conditions are: pressure 416 g/cm~2, concentration 5.0 wt pct, and velocity 40 r/min, respectively. The contributions of individual parameters for MRR and surface roughness were obtained.

  10. Convergent polishing: a simple, rapid, full aperture polishing process of high quality optical flats & spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-12-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher.

  11. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, B. [Rohm and Haas Co. (United States); Tsuzuki, S. [Rohm and Haas Co. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  12. Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

    2008-01-01

    The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants.

  13. Polishing X-ray Mirror Mandrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. The process allows fabricating precisely shaped mandrels to be used and reused as masters for replicating high-quality mirrors. MSFC's Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center (SOMTC) has grinding and polishing equipment ranging from conventional spindles to custom-designed polishers. These capabilities allow us to grind precisely and polish a variety of optical devices, including x-ray mirror mandrels. This image shows Charlie Griffith polishing the half-meter mandrel at SOMTC.

  14. New Environmental Practices in Polish Production Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five case studies in Poland, the paper discusses, how a specific environmental policy influences the firms? industrial environmental practices. The study illustrates, how the Polish environmental policy, dominated by environmental charges on emissions, is extremely effective in improving...

  15. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  16. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  17. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  18. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  19. Influences of polishing on return loss of optical fiber connectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ji-an; LIU De-fu; ZHONG Jue

    2005-01-01

    With Al2O3 and SiO2 as polishing medium, under different polishing conditions, e.g. with different polishing pressure, polishing time and polishing fluid, the influences of polishing treatment on the return loss of optical fiber connectors were investigated. The return loss of optical fiber connectors is 32 - 38 dB before polishing. The results show that dry polishing(i. e. no polishing fluid) with Al2O3 has less influence on return loss of optical fiber connectors, while dry polishing with SiO2 reduces return loss to about 20 dB because of the end-face of optical fiber contaminated. The wet polishing(i. e. using distilled water as polishing fluid) with Al2O3 or SiO2 can increase return loss to 45 -50 dB, but wet polishing with Al2 O3 may produce optical fiber undercut depth of 80 - 140 nm. Wet polishing with SiO2 should be preferentially selected for optical fiber connectors and polishing time should be controlled within 20 - 30 s.

  20. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  1. Internet Use of Polish by Polish Melburnians: Implications for Maintenance and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Debski, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has become an important communication medium and it is having a significant impact on language use. The present study takes a "snapshot" of how the Polish language is currently used with modern communications technologies by Polish-Australians living in Melbourne. Through a questionnaire, it surveys which communications…

  2. DISPERSION OF NANODIAMOND AND ULTRA-FINE POLISHING OF QUARTZ WAFER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwei Zhu; Zhijing Feng; Baichun Wang; Xianyang Xu

    2004-01-01

    Mechanochemical Modification (MCM) of nanodiamond surface with DN-10 was studied in relation to the performance of nanodiamond in polishing quartz wafers. Results show that the modified nanodiamond is more stable in the pH range 8~11. A super smooth surface with an average roughness of 0.214 nm was achieved using a nanodiamond-based slurry regulated by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine. It is suggested that the principal ultra-fine polishing mechanism of quartz wafer involves atom-level removal under the synergism of chemical and mechanical actions.

  3. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  4. Polish parliament liberalizes abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-22

    On October 24, the Sejm (Poland's lower house of parliament) voted 228 to 195 (with 16 abstentions) to amend Poland's March 1993 ban on abortions. The amendment legalizes abortion until the 12th week of pregnancy for women who face financial hardship or difficult personal circumstances. Client counseling by a doctor who will not perform the abortion and a 3-day wait are required. Abortions will be permitted in licensed private clinics, as well as in public hospitals. Anyone performing an illegal abortion can receive 2 years' imprisonment. The government will subsidize contraceptive pills, and a sex education curriculum will be developed for schools. Abortion had been legal and widely available under communist rule; however, a Catholic-aligned government limited abortion to cases where a woman's life or health was endangered, where the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest, or where the fetus had a severe anomaly. The Catholic Church opposed the new measure, and the Senat (Poland's upper house), on October 3, had voted 40 to 52 (with 2 abstentions) against the amendment. Although the Sejm had previously voted 208 to 61 (with 15 abstentions) in favor of the amendment, 120 of those opposed to the measure, primarily members of the Polish Peasants Party (part of Poland's ruling coalition), had walked out in protest just before an August tally. The Democratic Left Alliance, the other coalition partner, supports the amendment. The most recent vote in the Sejm overturns the Senat veto; however, before the law can go into effect in 1997, it must be signed by President Aleksandr Kwasniewski (a supporter) after a review by Poland's conservative constitutional tribunal.

  5. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestel, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  6. The Effect of Heat Treatment and Mechanical Polishing on Nitinol Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Soo; Lee, Se Chol; Kim, Kyu Suk; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Chan Soo [Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    To understand the effect of heat treatment and mechanical polishing of a Nitinol wire on the chemical composition and physical morphology of the wire surface. Stents with a diameter of 1.0 cm, length of 8-10 cm, and composed of a Nitinol wire, were heat-treated at 500 .deg. C for 30 minutes, and mechanically polished with walnut shell granules. The wire surface morphology was studied with both an optical and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, an elemental analysis was performed by Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Long microcracks along the wire direction and short microcracks across the wire were observed by SEM from the raw Nitinol wire. Upon heat treatment, the color of the wire turned blue, and Na, K, Cl, Si, Al atoms were seen from the EDX of the heat treated wire, which were absent in the original wire. The microcracks disappeared with the mechanical polishing, and the Na, K, Cl, Si, Al atoms all disappeared after the mechanical polishing. Mechanical polishing using walnut shell granules effectively removed the microcracks of a nitinol wire and impurities produced from the heat treatment.

  7. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogienko Olena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization. It has been found out that forming of economic competency is based on the competency-based and personality-based approaches that allow to direct the educational process at a student as an active subject of learning, to create conditions for his/her creative potential development, to educate a competent specialist possessing all the competencies needed in professional activity. The influence of Polish universities’ integration into European system of student exchange on the quality of future specialists’ training has been revealed. Flexibility and variety of syllabi and curricula of economists’ professional training at Polish universities have been emphasized. Among perspective teaching methods we have singled out situational modeling as it allows to create situations at most approximated to those in professional activity, is oriented at co-creation and teamwork. It has been found out that the peculiarities of economists’ professional training at Polish universities are flexibility, diversification, standardization, personalization and adaptation to modern labour market. It has been proved that the result of economists’ professional training at Polish universities is a highly qualified specialist able to adapt to dramatic changes in economy and society.

  8. Results of a polishing study for SCHOTT XLD glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Yadwad, Harshwadhan; Dietrich, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Extremely low dispersion glasses (e.g. SCHOTT XLD glasses) play an essential role in the color correction of optical systems. Together with short flint glasses (KZFS Types) they can be used for apochromatic color correction in the visible spectrum or even for broadband color correction in combination with lanthanum crown glasses (LAK Types). Unfortunately the chemical composition of those glasses leads to a high coefficient of thermal expansion, low hardness and low resistance against chemical attacks. As a consequence these glasses tend to be difficult in processing. Therefore the glass engineer's task is to improve processing characteristics while keeping their special optical properties. N-FK58 XLD is an example of a new generation of XLD glasses from SCHOTT with improved workability. In 2014 a processing study has been conducted to optimize the polishing of XLD glasses. This presentation will show the results of this study for N-FK58 XLD and the application to other fluorophosphates glasses.

  9. Developing free morphological data for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Radziszewski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing free morphological data for Polish A limiting factor in construction of Natural Language Processing (NLP systems is often the availability of morphological resources. This indeed happens for Polish: the freely available corpus with manual morpho-syntactic annotation (part of the IPI PAN Corpus is not coupled with any free morphological analyser. There exists a very large morphological dictionary of Polish available under a free licence – Morfologik. Unfortunately, its tagset differs significantly from the tagset of the corpus and, what is more, its morphological description lacks desired rigour. We amend this situation by performing a massive conversion of the dictionary into the tagset compliant with the corpus. The conversion results in a free dictionary containing entries for almost 3.5 million different word forms. In this article we report on our methodology, discuss some morphological and syntactic issues related to both tagsets and present the characteristics of the resulting dictionary.

  10. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  11. Priorities in the Polish health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieszporska, Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Since 1999, Polish health policy has changed, the quality of services has increased, and also the level of financing, mainly from public benefits. Despite constant growth of indexes reflecting the health status of Polish society, such as life expectancy, quality of life, or decreasing index of deaths at birth, just as in the majority of European countries, in Poland the society is growing older, which implies the necessity to reorganize the system. In this paper, the author has described the most important factors that determine the operation of the health system in Poland, as well as presents the ways it was restructured over the last few years, taking into consideration the structural, legislative, financial, organizational, and quantitative aspects. Also, the latest trends in Polish health policy, which take into account new goals of the system, have been presented within.

  12. POLISH-RUSSIAN COOPERATION OF POMORSKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina GOMULKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Russian Cooperation of Pomorskie Province commenced in 1999 and was based on the intergovernmental agreements. The new agreement, executed between the authorities of the Pomeranian Province and Kaliningrad Oblast in 2002, provided for cooperation in many areas. The contacts between the partners were dominated by economic cooperation. The Polish–Russian cooperation stopped with Polish accession to the Schengen zone. Cooperation resumed when in 2011 and agreement on small cross-border traffic was signed and then ratified in 2012. 

  13. Centrifugal barrel polishing of 1.3 GHz Nb cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamashevich, Yegor; Foster, Brian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Navitski, Aliaksandr; Steder, Lea; Elsen, Eckhard [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are the key components of particle accelerators such as the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL, under construction) and the planned future International Linear Collider (ILC). Steady progress in surface treatment techniques of SRF cavities in both the achievable quality factor Q and the accelerating electric field Eacc makes new accelerators and ambitious projects feasible. One of the alternative surface preparation techniques which is actually being explored is centrifugal barrel polishing (CBP) pioneered at KEK in Japan in mid-nineties by T. Hiuchi et al. CBP is a mechanical polishing of cavities and results in around 10 x smaller surface roughness and mirror-like surface as compared to chemistry alone. Q and E{sub acc} are expected to be at least as high as for chemically treated cavities. CBP eliminates the bulk chemistry and has the potential to completely replace the chemistry. The University of Hamburg is installing a CBP machine to study it as a cavity preparation and repair technique for 9-cell 1.3 GHz SRF cavities at the Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The setup and first commissioning tests will be presented and discussed.

  14. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najmy, S.W. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  15. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder...

  16. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  17. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens;

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components...

  18. Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kocoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr This article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.

  19. Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marcińczuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish The paper presents a typology of events built on the basis of TimeML specification adapted to Polish language. Some changes were introduced to the definition of the event categories and a motivation for event categorization was formulated. The event annotation task is presented on two levels – ontology level (language independent and text mentions (language dependant. The various types of event mentions in Polish text are discussed. A procedure for annotation of event mentions in Polish texts is presented and evaluated. In the evaluation a randomly selected set of documents from the Corpus of Wrocław University of Technology (called KPWr was annotated by two linguists and the annotator agreement was calculated. The evaluation was done in two iterations. After the first evaluation we revised and improved the annotation procedure. The second evaluation showed a significant improvement of the agreement between annotators. The current work was focused on annotation and categorisation of event mentions in text. The future work will be focused on description of event with a set of attributes, arguments and relations.

  20. Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1990-01-01

    Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

  1. Fluid jet polishing of optical surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fähnle, O.W.; Brug, H. van; Frankena, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new finishing process that is capable of locally shaping and polishing optical surfaces of complex shapes. A fluid jet system is used to guide a premixed slurry at pressures less than 6 bars to the optical surface. We used a slurry comprising water and 10% #800 SiC abrasives (21.8 μm to

  2. Neurocognitive Dimensions of Lexical Complexity in Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlachta, Zanna; Bozic, Mirjana; Jelowicka, Aleksandra; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of English suggest that speech comprehension engages two interdependent systems: a bilateral fronto-temporal network responsible for general perceptual and cognitive processing, and a specialised left-lateralised network supporting specifically linguistic processing. Using fMRI we test this hypothesis in Polish, a Slavic…

  3. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  4. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  5. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  6. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  7. Design Considerations of Polishing Lap for Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The future X-ray observatory missions, such as International X-ray Observatory, require grazing incidence replicated optics of extremely large collecting area (3 m2) in combination with angular resolution of less than 5 arcsec half-power diameter. The resolution of a mirror shell depends ultimately on the quality of the cylindrical mandrels from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation studies have been performed to optimize the operational parameters as well as the polishing lap configuration. Furthermore, depending upon the surface error profile, a model for localized polishing based on dwell time approach is developed. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel, having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process.

  8. Between Polish Positivism and American Capitalism: The Educational Agents' Experiment in the Polish-American Community, 1889-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszynska-Kirchmann, Anna D.

    2008-01-01

    "Ameryka-Echo" was one of the most popular Polish-language weeklies, published in the United States between 1889 and 1972. Its founder and owner, Antoni A. Paryski, consciously sought to transplant ideas of Polish Positivism to the Polish-American immigrant communities in the United States. Reading was a central concept of…

  9. Tooth polishing: Relevance in present day periodontal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Charu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Time has seen the emergence of more efficient and effective devices like jet abrasives. However, the role of rubber cups with prophy angles cannot be overlooked as they are still being widely used and provide an economical alternative. Owing to several shortcomings associated with the air polishing device using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 , trends are shifting towards the usage of low abrasive powders. Recent demonstration of Glycine Powder Air Polishing (GPAP in removing subgingival biofilm results in less gingival erosion than hand instrumentation or NaHCO 3 air-polishing. Despite the emergence of latest advances in polishing, data suggesting selective polishing of teeth is compelling.

  10. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  11. Role of interaction forces in controlling the stability and polishing performance of CMP slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basim, G Bahar; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Moudgil, Brij M

    2003-07-15

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is an essential step in metal and dielectric planarization in multilayer microelectronic device fabrication. In the CMP process it is necessary to minimize the extent of surface defect formation while maintaining good planarity and optimal material removal rates. These requirements are met through the control of chemical and mechanical interactions during the polishing process by engineering the slurry chemistry, particulate properties, and stability. In this study, the performance of surfactant-stabilized silica CMP slurries at high pH and high ionic strengths are investigated with particular emphasis on the particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions. It is shown that for the design of consistently high performing slurries, stability of abrasive particles must be achieved under the dynamic processing conditions of CMP while maintaining sufficient pad-particle-wafer interactions.

  12. High polishing selectivity ceria slurry for formation of top electrode in spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Hao [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae-Hyung [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Hyung [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jea-Gun, E-mail: parkjgL@hanyang.ac.kr [Advanced Semiconductor Materials and Devices Development Center, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    During the formation of the top electrode (T.E.) in spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory, a slurry with a high polishing rate of SiO{sub 2} and a low polishing rate of metal (T.E. material) is required in the chemical mechanical planarization application area. We used a ceria-based slurry with a polymeric additive to maintain the high polishing rate of SiO{sub 2} while it suppresses the polishing rate of the T.E. material, tantalum and ruthenium. We found ruthenium showed a significantly higher selectivity than tantalum in the ceria-based slurry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the adsorption characteristics of the polymeric additive on the T.E. material. Except for the adsorbed polymeric additive, we found that zeta potential of the T.E. material played a critical role in determining the polishing selectivity of SiO{sub 2}-to-T.E. material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High selective chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) slurry was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The slurry has a high selectivity of SiO{sub 2}-to-metals like tantalum and ruthenium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spin-transfer-torque magnetic memory requires such high selectivity slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface zeta potential was used to explain CMP mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tantalum and ruthenium have different rate-determining steps during CMP.

  13. Potentiodynamic behaviour of mechanically polished titanium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, O.R.; DePauli, C.P.; Giordano, M.C.

    1984-08-01

    The behaviour of titanium electrodes mechanically polished and/or anodically polarized at low positive potential in solutions at constant ionic strength between pH 0.3 and 11.0 is reported. The oxide electroformation potential on a mechanically polished electrode shows a complex dependence on the bulk solution pH. This dependence is similar to that obtained through acid-base titration with titanium as the indicating electrode. The formation of hydroxo-complexes on the spontaneously formed titanium oxide offers a possible explanation for the oxide electroformation potential dependence on pH. Anodic and cathodic wide current peaks are obtained between the potential of the hydrogen evolution and that of the massive oxide electroformation; the corresponding redox system becomes evident at pH 4.0 from the first potentiodynamic cycle. An interpretation of these processes involving the participation of non stoichiometric oxides and hydrogen ions is attempted.

  14. Lacquer polishing of X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.; Roethig, D. T.; Brookover, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques for polishing figured X-ray optics by a lacquer-coating process are described. This acrylic lacquer coating has been applied with an optical quality of an eighth-wave in red light and very effectively covers surface roughness with spatial wavelengths less than about 0.2 mm. Tungsten films have been deposited on the lacquer coatings to provide highly efficient X-ray reflectivity.

  15. EFFECTS OF POLISHING PARAMETERS ON MATERIAL REMOVAL FOR CURVED OPTICAL GLASSES IN BONNET POLISHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianfeng; YAO Yingxue; XIE Dagang; GAO Bo; YUAN Zhejun

    2008-01-01

    The paper firstly analyzes the influence factor on material removal rate of curved optical work-pieces in the bonnet polishing. Then the experiments are conducted to reveal the effects of several polishing parameters on the material removal rate when the spherical optical glasses are polished with different curvature radius, such as the decrement of the bonnet, the rotational speed of the bonnet and the curvature radius of the work-piece's surface using a bonnet trial-manufacturing machine developed by our assignment groups. In the end, the curvilinear relationships between these parameters and the material removal rate are acquired and the laws of the effects on material removal rate in bonnet polishing by several parameters are given. When the spherical-pieces are polished with smaller curvature radius, it is not proportional to either bonnet decrement or bonnet rotational speed as described by the Preston equation although the removal rate increases as the relative velocity or the applied pressure increases. Therefore, for the purpose of calculating more accurately the material removal of the spherical work-pieces, the Preston equation should be modified and studied further.

  16. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  17. Can polish university female students swim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the work: There are only few studies in Polish and foreign literature providing solid information on swimming skills of university students. The aim of the study carried out at the University of Warmia & Mazury in Olsztyn was to determine swimming skills of Polish university female students starting their studies. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2012 on 298 female students of the 1 st year course, at the age of 19 – 20. Anonymous questionnaire was used in the research. Results: It has been shown that almost 72% of the women could not swim at all, and 26% swam poorly. Within the group of women able to swim, the greatest percentage was set by women using classical style (49% and “their own” one (27% and only 13% of the students used crawl, 9% - back stroke and 2% - butterfly style. Of all the women declaring swimming abilities, the biggest percentage (16% could cover the distance of only 20 – 50 m; fewer students (6% covered the distance of 50 – 100 m; and 5% could swim only 20 m. Only a marginal number of students (2% could cover the distance from 100 to 1000 m; none could swim more than 1000 m. Conclusions: The study showed a very pessimistic picture of swimming skills of Polish university female students in respect of the number of women able to swim, their knowledge of swimming styles, and the length of the covered distance.

  18. Characterization and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on air polishing dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kazuhiro; Oda, Hirotake; Inatomi, Michitomo; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    Air polishing is known as an effective and time saving tooth cleaning method. However, this method increased surface roughness and bacterial adhesion on dentin surface. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine Streptococcus mutans adhesion on dentin surface after air polishing as compared to the conventional method. The dentin blocks (4 × 4 × 1 mm) were polished by a rubber cup with polishing material (Polishing) and air-polished by 25 μm glycine (G25), 65 μm glycine (G65), and 65 μm sodium bicarbonate (NHC65) microparticles. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured by a laser electron microscope. The amount of adhered S. mutans was quantified using a resazurin reduction assay (alamarBlue(®)). The Ra of G25 and G65 was significantly (p Polishing. However, there was no significant difference in S. mutans adhesion among Polishing, G25, and G65, while NHC65 showed significantly (p polishing using glycine microparticles conditioned S. mutans adhesion on dentin surface in a similar fashion than the conventional method, and less than air polishing using sodium bicarbonate microparticles.

  19. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  20. Surface polishing of niobium for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Niobium cavities are important components in modern particle accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology. The interior of SRF cavities are cleaned and polished in order to produce high accelerating field and low power dissipation on the cavity wall. Current polishing methods, buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electro-polishing (EP), have their advantages and limitations. We seek to improve current methods and explore laser polishing (LP) as a greener alternative of chemical methods. The topography and removal rate of BCP at different conditions (duration, temperature, sample orientation, flow rate) was studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Differential etching on different crystal orientations is the main contributor to fine grain niobium BCP topography, with gas evolution playing a secondary role. The surface of single crystal and bi-crystal niobium is smooth even after heavy BCP. The topography of fine grain niobium depends on total removal. The removal rate increases with temperature and surface acid flow rate within the rage of 0~20 °C, with chemical reaction being the possible dominate rate control mechanism. Surface flow helps to regulate temperature and avoid gas accumulation on the surface. The effect of surface flow rate on niobium EP was studied with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Within the range of 0~3.7 cm/s, no significant difference was found on the removal rate and the macro roughness. Possible improvement on the micro roughness with increased surface flow rate was observed. The effect of fluence and pulse accumulation on niobium topography during LP was studied with optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, and PSD analysis. Polishing on micro scale was achieved within fluence range of 0.57~0.90 J/cm2, with pulse accumulation adjusted accordingly. Larger area treatment was proved possible by

  1. GEMAS: Distribution of major elements in Polish agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza-Dobek, Aleksandra; Pasieczna, Anna; Kwecko, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Amount and quality of produced food is highly dependent on soil chemical properties and composition. The GEMAS project (Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil of Europe) has provided new homogeneous geochemical data for Polish agricultural soils. This study presents the distribution of common major elements such as CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, SiO2, determined in 129 samples of agricultural soil of Poland. The total element concentrations obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were compared with the results from aqua regia acid digestion determined by ICP-MS. The distribution patterns of selected major elements reveal two major geochemical provinces - the northern province and the southern province, distinguished with respect to the natural geochemical background and resulting from the geological evolution of the region. The soil of the northern province (Polish Lowland), dominated by glacial deposits, show low contents of CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, and high contents of SiO2. High silica content reflects the presence of sand-rich deposits which belong to the larger European feature with cover sands and loess of mainly Weichselian age and stretching from Ukraine to western Germany and Denmark. The southern province is characterised by high concentrations of almost all major elements (except SiO2). Soils in the Sudetes, Upper Silesia and the Carpathian Mountains developed in majority on pre-Quaternary rocks. In the Sudetes, soil formed on magmatic and metamorphic rocks of Paleozoic age. In the Carpathians and Upper Silesia, the flysch and molasse formations containing various material of magmatic and sedimentary origin constitute the immediate substratum of soil.

  2. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  3. Performance analysis of CO2 laser polished angled ribbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Choi, Hun-Kook; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Man-Seop; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-min; Ahsan, Md. Shamim

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates CO2 laser assisted simultaneous polishing of angled ribbon fibers consisting eight set of optical fibers. The ribbon fibers were rotated vertically at an angle of 12° and polished by repetitive irradiation of CO2 laser beam at the end faces of the fibers. Compared to mechanically polished sharp edged angled fibers, CO2 laser polishing forms curve edged angled fibers. Increase in the curvature of the end faces of the ribbon fibers causes the increase of the fibers' strength, which in turn represents great robustness against fiber connections with other devices. The CO2 laser polished angled fibers have great smoothness throughout the polished area. The smoothness of the fiber end faces have been controlled by varying the number of laser irradiation. After CO2 laser polishing, the average value of the fiber angle of the ribbon fibers is ∼8.28°. The laser polished ribbon fibers show low insertion and return losses when connecting with commercial optical communication devices. The proposed technique of polishing the angled ribbon fibers is highly replicable and reliable and thus suitable for commercial applications.

  4. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  5. Visible Light Activated Photocatalytic Water Polishing System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal targets development of a LED light activated photocatalytic water polishing system that enables reduction of organic impurities (TOC and...

  6. Origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liang-Yong; Liu Bo; Song Zhi-Tang; Liu Wei-Li; Feng Song-Lin; David Huang; S.V Babu

    2011-01-01

    We report on the investigation of the origin of high oxide to nitride polishing selectivity of ceria-based slurry in the presence of picolinic acid. The oxide to nitride removal selectivity of the ceria slurry with picolinic acid is as high as 76.6 in the chemical mechanical polishing. By using zeta potential analyzer, particle size analyzer, horizon profilometer, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the pre-and the post-polished wafer surfaces as well as the pre-and the post-used ceria-based slurries are compared. Possible mechanism of high oxide to nitride selectivity with using ceria-based slurry with picolinic acid is discussed.

  7. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  8. Innovative undertakings in the Polish industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zwolak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine if there is any correlation between the sale of new or significantly improved products and the physical capital and human capital in the Polish industry between 2011 and 2013. In the quantitative analysis a Cobb-Douglas regression model has been used and together with its parameters it has obtained results which indicate a higher degree of flexibility of the sale of new and significantly improved goods relative to real capital expenditure streams (0.868 than human capital investment flows (0.190. The model of innovation growth rate (Cobb-Douglas theory indicates that the flexibility of sold production of new and significantly improved goods can be equal to unity. The research has found regression dependence of new and substantively improved products sold on the physical and human capital expenditure. Thus, there is an imbalance of these capitals in the impact on the volatility of sold production of new and significantly improved goods in the industry. The above-specified production relative to the combined effect of real and human capital investment flows was growing more than proportionally (1.058 in the industry in the years 2011–2013. The current potential for innovation with an unchanged production method allows us to obtain increasing economies of scale of production sold of new and significantly improved goods in the Polish industry. The conducted research shows that the impact of human capital (0.190 amounts only to one-fifth of the potential opportunities available in the Polish industry.

  9. Competence of Irish and Polish Teachers in the Opinions of Young Polish Immigrants in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, Ireland has experienced the arrival of immigrants from various countries from all over the world including Poland. The Polish came to Ireland with their families including children of school age obliged to attend compulsory education. These children have attended schools dissimilar from the ones they are accustomed to in their home…

  10. New development of atmospheric pressure plasma polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wang; Jufan Zhang; Shen Dong

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma polishing (APPP) is a precision machining technology used for manufacturing high quality optical surfaces. The changes of surface modulus and hardness after machining prove the distinct improvement of surface mechanical properties. The demonstrated decrease of surfacc residual stresses testifies the removal of the former deformation layer.And the surface topographies under atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicate obvious amelioration of the surface status,showing that the 0.926-nm average surface roughness has been achieved.

  11. Foreign direct investment in the Polish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gutowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI plays an extraordinary and increasingly important role in global and local business. This type of investment gives the country a better position to prepare for rapidly changing economic conditions. Considering the external effects of FDI, it should be assumed that the most important one is coinvolvement in the development of a country in which they are located. In the Polish economy the value of foreign direct investment is very high and it is one of the most important causes of the economic growth.

  12. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  13. Personality and temperamental features vs. quality of life of Polish seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżewska, Maria; Leszczyńska, Irena; Grubman-Nowak, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In Poland seafarers are a significantly large occupational group and their work is highly burdening and hazardous. The environmental, physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial factors have a great impact on their quality of work and life. This report examines their quality of life and the relationship between quality of life, personality and temperament was evaluated. A total of 300 Polish seafarers took part in this study. Their average age is 44. Incorporated methods used were: WHOQOL-BREF, a survey for people working at sea, questionnaires: NEO-FFI and PTS. The results have shown that their quality of life is quite high. Polish seafarers show neuroticism below average and high extraversion. They are open, agreeable and scrupulous. Their power of stimulation and inhibition processes is correct.

  14. Deterministic Computer-Controlled Polishing Process for High-Energy X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A deterministic computer-controlled polishing process for large X-ray mirror mandrels is presented. Using tool s influence function and material removal rate extracted from polishing experiments, design considerations of polishing laps and optimized operating parameters are discussed

  15. Polishing techniques for MEGARA pupil elements optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazaga, R.; Carrasco, E.; Aguirre, D.; Salas, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias, J.; Arroyo, J. M.; Hernández, M.; López, N.; López, V.; Quechol, J. T.; Salazar, M. F.; Carballo, C.; Cruz, E.; Arriaga, J.; De la Luz, J. A.; Huepa, A.; Jaimes, G. L.; Reyes, J.

    2016-07-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias.. It will offer RFWHM 6,000, 12,000 and 18,700 for the low- , mid- and high-resolution, respectively in the wavelength range 3650-9700Å. .The dispersive elements are volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings, sandwiched between two flat Fused Silica windows of high optical precision in large apertures. The design, based in VPHs in combination with Ohara PBM2Y prisms allows to keep the collimator and camera angle fixed. Seventy three optical elements are being built in Mexico at INAOE and CIO. For the low resolution modes, the VPHs windows specifications in irregularity is 1 fringe in 210mm x 170mm and 0.5 fringe in 190mm x 160mm. for a window thickness of 25 mm. For the medium and high resolution modes the irregularity specification is 2 fringes in 220mm x 180mm and 1 fringe in 205mm x 160mm, for a window thickness of 20mm. In this work we present a description of the polishing techniques developed at INAOE optical workshop to fabricate the 36 Fused Silica windows and 24 PBM2Y prisms that allows us to achieve such demanding specifications. We include the processes of mounting, cutting, blocking, polishing and testing.

  16. The investigation of material removal in bonnet polishing of CoCr alloy artificial joints

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Shengye; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In the process of form control using bonnet polishing an influence function is of vital importance for establishing material removal rates. However, the effects of polishing cloth, workpiece hardness and polishing parameters (such as precess angle, head speed, tool pressure and tool offset) on influence function when polishing CoCr alloys are not yet established and these factors affect the deterministic polishing process. In order to obtain a controlled polishing process, this study has furt...

  17. Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sosnowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian Modern Polish and Russian are characterized by some features which demonstrate an increasing level of analitism. In the process of transformation from synthetic to analytical language, a crucial role is played by prepositional units. In this research, analitism is understood in a traditional way as a morphological and syntactic phenomenon. The fact that the synthetic structure of a language may, in some conditions, turn into an analytical one, as happened in the case of Bulgarian and Macedonian, has been intriguing linguists ever since, and has made me attempt to answer the question: What is the condition of modern Polish and Russian, which are languages with a rich literary tradition and solid grammatical norms, which belong to a group of synthetic languages? The analytical tendencies in morphology include the following: a decrease in the number of cases in all inflected parts of speech; a more frequent use of uninflected nouns and adjectives; the growing importance of nouns with common gender, and, in particular, the use of forms of masculine gender to depict feminine gender; differences in expressing collectiveness in a group of nouns (using collective meaning for forms that have singular meaning; substituting case forms with prepositions; substituting case forms with subordinate clauses; substituting case forms with “helper” words. Analytical tendencies in the area of numeral functioning include: substituting inflected forms of ordinal numerals with cardinal ones; the gradual disappearing inflection of numerals; confusing the forms of noun cases after numerals; the disappearing declination of collective numerals; displacing other cases with so-called simple cases; changing the syntactical position which the numeral should be inflected in; abandoning the declination of first elements of collective numerals. During the study of analytic tendencies in morphology, it was necessary to examine

  18. Chemical Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  19. POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

  20. Ultrasmooth surface polishing based on the hydrodynamic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenqiang; Guan, Chaoliang; Li, Shengyi

    2013-09-01

    This study will examine the feasibility of applying the hydrodynamic effect to ultrasmooth surface polishing. Differing from conventional pad polishing, hydrodynamic effect polishing is noncontact, as the polishing wheel is floated on the workpiece under the hydrodynamic effect. The material removal mechanism and the removal contour are analyzed in detail. Dynamic pressure and shear stress distribution on the workpiece are numerically simulated in three dimensions under different clearances between the polishing wheel and the workpiece, showing that the dynamic pressure distribution and the magnitude of shear stress on the workpiece are greatly influenced by the clearance. It is clearly demonstrated from fixed-point polishing experiments that material removal rates and contours are determined by the combined action of dynamic pressure and shear stress. A material removal analytic model is presented with the hydrodynamic effect polishing method. Finally, a polishing experiment is conducted on a quartz glass and the plastic scratches, cracks, and bumpy structures on the initial surface are clearly removed. Moreover, the processed surface roughness is improved to 0.145 nm rms, 0.116 nm Ra.

  1. Global Citizenship Education in School Curricula. A Polish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present global citizenship education from a Polish perspective. Analyzing the issue, the first part of this paper presents the development of citizenship education, followed by the current status of global citizenship education in Polish schools. In the second part of the study I draw attention to national curricula…

  2. Graphene-based side-polished optical fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Vahid; Ghezelsefloo, Masoud

    2016-12-20

    We demonstrate a novel design for optical fiber amplifiers, utilizing side-polished fibers with a single-layer graphene overlay as the active medium and carrier injection in the graphene layer to provide the required inversion. We study the effects of an electrically induced graphene p-i-n heterojunction in the forward bias regime on optical modes of side-polished fibers and show that gain values of 0.51, 1.81, and 1.79 dB/cm for wavelengths 1064, 1330, and 1550 nm can be obtained for single-mode side-polished fibers. Our results show that in multi-mode side-polished fibers, higher order modes experience higher values of gain, and gain can be increased by increasing polished depth. The proposed system is a tunable wideband optical amplifier that can operate for wavelengths larger than 1000 nm.

  3. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  4. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland....

  5. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  6. Edge effect in fluid jet polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peiji; Fang, Hui; Yu, Jingchi

    2006-09-10

    The edge effect is one of the most important subjects in optical manufacturing. The removal function at different positions of the sample in the process of fluid jet polishing (FJP) is investigated in the experiments. Furthermore, by using finite-element analysis (FEA), the distributions for velocity and pressure of slurry jets are simulated. Experimental results demonstrate that the removal function has a ring-shaped profile, except for a little change in the size at the operated area even if the nozzle extends beyond the edge of the sample. FEA simulations reveal a similar distribution of velocity with a cavity resulting in the ring-shaped profile of material removal at different impact positions. To a certain extent, therefore, the removal function at the edge of the surface of the sample appears similar to that inside of it, so that the classical edge effect can be neglected in FJP.

  7. Plurilingualism and polish teenage learners of english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Otwinowska‑Kasztelanic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using several languages has become a norm for those who want to learn and work in the European Union. However, teaching for plurilingualism is also a challenge. The present paper first clarifies the notions of plurilingualism and multilingualism, then discusses the role of crosslinguistic similarity in language learning in the case of European languages. It also shows how lexical crosslinguistic similarity can be used in teaching typologically related and unrelated languages, and discusses the key factors in noticing such similarity. The research presented reports on examining and raising language awareness of Polish‑‑ English cognate vocabulary in the case of a group of Polish teenage learners of English. It presents the results of a small‑‑ scale study in quasi‑‑ experimental design, as well as qualitative research on the learners’ opinions and attitudes. Finally, the paper presents implications for language pedagogy and focuses on the fact that awareness raising may affect the learners’ plurilingual competence.

  8. Polish academic institutions in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chwiałkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media are nowadays commonly used by universities to communicate, collaborate, share knowledge and build relationships with candidates, currently enrolled students, alumnus and other stakeholders. However, previous researches focus mainly on the use of social media for marketing purposes of companies. Very little attention is paid to a specific group of organizations i. e. universities. The objective of the research presented in the article is the identification of the existing trends of using social media as a communication tool between the university and its main stakeholders – the students. The research covered the activity of public universities (in Poland on Facebook – the most popular social media platform among Polish Internet users (and students.

  9. Surface roughness and morphology of resin composites polished with two-step polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Say, Esra; Yurdagüven, Haktan; Yaman, Batu Can; Özer, Füsun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate surface roughness (Ra) and morphology of supra-nanofilled [Estelite Omega (EO), Estelite ∑ Quick (EQ)], micro-hybrid [Esthet.X HD (EHD), G-aenial (GAE)] and nano-hybrid [Clearfil Majesty Posterior (CMP), Charisma Diamond (CD), Beautifil II (BII)] composites polished with two-step polishing systems [Enhance/PoGo (EP); Venus Supra (VS)]. Composite discs, 30 of each type, were prepared. Each composite group was divided into three subgroups: Mylar (control), EP and VS. Ra was evaluated with profilometer. In each composite group, the control had the lowest Ra. With both polishing systems, EO and EQ had significantly the lowest Ra, whereas CMP and BII had the highest. Except for GAE, CD and BII, the differences in Ra between EP and VS in each composite group were significant, showing smoother surfaces for EP. Supra-nanofilled composites created smoother surfaces than nano-hybrids, and their performance was similar or slightly better than that of micro-hybrids.

  10. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  11. [POLISH EXPEDITION TO SPITSBERGEN IN 1934].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Polish expedition to Spitsbergen in 1934 was already the second Polish polar expedition to the Arctic. It was scientific-mountaineering in character. 7 persons took part in it: Witold Biernawski (1898-1957)--film-maker and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Bernadzikiewicz (1907-1939)--expedition leader, Henryk Mogilnicki (1906-1999)--photographer and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Zbigniew Różycki (1906-1988)--geologist, Stanisław Siedlecki (1912-2002)--meteorological observer, Sylweriusz Bohdan Zagrajski (1892-1940)--triangulator, Antoni Rogal-Zawadzki (1896-1974)--topographer and photogrammetrist. The purpose of this expedition was to collect data in geology and cartography, and to a lesser degree--in glaciology, botany, zoology and meteorology. It lasted from May 20 to September 16, 1934. The time between June 20 - August 28 the group spent on Spitsbergen's Torell Land. The outcome: an area of app. 300 square kilometres of previously undiscovered land was marked by triangular system, covered by photogrammetric photos and surveyed. Geological research covered the land of app. 500 square kilometres and the group collected geological specimens of app. 800 kg in weight. On the basis of their research, two maps (at a scale of 1:50 000 and 1:200 000) were published. The participants collected also botanical and zoological material. Meteorological observations were carried out at the base over Van Keulen fjord throughout the whole expedition. Different objects on Torell Land were named by the expedition, their names referring largely to Poland (Annex I). Approximately 200 photographs and a film were shot by the expedition. Apart from scientific research, the participants published also diaries of the expedition.

  12. Patient's autonomy of will in Polish law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-01

    A principle of Polish legislation is that the evidence of legality for any medical intervention is the patient's consent. The issue is directly referred to by both the Patient's Rights Act from 2008 and the Medical Profession Act from 1996. The patient's consent may be given after obtaining reliable, accessible and thorough information about all stages of medical intervention: diagnosis, therapy prospects or rehabilitation. The extent of information about the potential risk of medical treatment should include the typically foreseeable results, which usually brings the matter down to typical risk. However, there are interventions, which bear greater risk, and even though it can't be considered typical, it should also be mentioned, despite the fact that the postulate of tactfulness should be respected here. The burden of proof that appropriate information has been given lies upon the doctor. Thus default consent, especially one given on being admitted to hospital, to all medical actions isn't valid in legal terms. The role of forms including standard information for giving consent is limited. Polish law doesn't regulate this issue, and other forms of indirect communication are used as auxiliary and cannot replace direct contact between a patient and a doctor. According to the Patient's Rights Act, in case of deliberate breach of those rights, the court can grant the aggrieved party with an appropriate sum as financial compensation for the harm sustained or an appropriate sum of money for the charity chosen by the aggrieved party. It is a legal basis for claiming compensation for non-material harm in case of a breach of the patient's right to give consent. It is possible both in case of liability in tort, as well as contractual claims.

  13. [Fifty years of cooperation--FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This year, the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) celebrates its 50th anniversary. The Polish Biochemical Society, represented by the Society's President, Kazimierz Zakrzewski, was a founding member of the organization. The text presents a history of collaboration between FEBS and Polish Biochemical Society, the participation of Polish Biochemical Society members in different FEBS activities, as well as the role they played in running the Federation. Author describes FEBS Congresses which taken place in Warsaw, the first 3rd FEBS Meeting in 1966 and then 29th Congress in 2004. The profiles of Jakub Karol Parnas, the founding father of the Polish biochemistry and some crucial Presidents of the Society, are also presented. The text describes Parnas Conferences, organized jointly by Polish and Ukrainian Biochemical Societies from 1996, and growing from 2011 into three-nation event with participation of Ukrainian, Israeli and Polish scientists, largely due to significant help from FEBS. Summarizing the last few years, author judge the cooperation between the Federation and the Polish Biochemical Society as optimal.

  14. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems.

  15. A scanning electron microscopy comparison of enamel polishing methods after air-rotor stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, C; Sfondrini, G

    1996-01-01

    In the last few years, orthodontic literature has shown particular interest in the interproximal enamel reduction technique described as stripping or slenderizing. Most researchers have shown, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, the difficulties encountered while attempting to remove coarse abrasions left after stripping with the first instrument. The objective of this SEM study was to compare the different polishing methods proposed in the literature and to assess the efficiency of our own procedure. For this purpose, 48 healthy human teeth (premolars and molars) were used after removal for orthodontic or periodontal reasons. The teeth were divided into eight groups of six teeth each (two molars and four premolars), and mounted on a typodont to simulate a clinical situation. Each group underwent stripping according to one of the following techniques: 16-blade tungsten carbide bur and fine and ultrafine diamond burs; coarse diamond bur and fine and ultrafine diamond burs; coarse diamond disk and Sof-Lex disks (Dental products/3M, St. Paul, Minn.); 16-blade tungsten carbide bur and phosphoric acid on finishing strip; and 8-straight blade tungsten carbide diamond bur and Sof-Lex disks. The SEM investigations demonstrated that it is not possible to eliminate, with normal polishing and cleaning methods, the furrows left on the enamel both by the diamond burs and the diamond disks and the 16-blade tungsten carbide burs. Mechanical and chemical stripping as well did not prove to be effective. By contrast, with the use of a 8-straight blade tungsten carbide bur followed by Sof-Lex disks for polishing the enamel, it is possible to obtain well-polished surfaces that many times appear smoother than the intact or untreated enamel.

  16. Optimization of ion exchange in polishers at PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.D. [Pedro Point Technology, Inc., Pacifica, CA (United States); Fruzzetti, K. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Blowdown polishers are indispensable components in the secondary systems of pressurized water reactors. The application of advanced amines to reduce iron levels in final steam generator feedwater influences the resin selection for and operation of condensate polishers. There are many opportunities to optimize blowdown polisher performance. This paper summarizes the work currently underway to optimally use resin properties such as ion selectivity and capacity and operational parameters to maximize water quality while minimizing cost. It is shown that the best amine for a given power plant is a complex function of amine properties, ion exchange resin choice, purification systems and other plant design and operational parameters. (orig.)

  17. Contrastive Analysis of Metatext. Expressing Polish "niemniej" in Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Kisiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive Analysis of Metatext. Expressing Polish niemniej in Bulgarian The author discusses possible ways of expressing meanings of Polish niemniej, tym niemniej and niemniej jednak in Bulgarian. A confrontative analysis of the equivalents gives grounds for a reflection on how to conduct a cross-linguistic examination of metatext. Two important questions are raised: whether it is methodologically justified to compare objects non-identical such as units and compositions, lexical and grammatical means, and what exactly equivalence within metatext class means. It is expected that analysis of metatext in Polish and Bulgarian will allow to discover mechanisms of creating metatextual units.

  18. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Gołaś; Mariusz Ścibek

    2010-01-01

    The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consume...

  19. The social shaping of innovation in polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise......The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...

  20. Hydraulic supports for polishing TMT M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haifei; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Haixiang; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    For polishing the ultra-thin TMT M3MP, a polishing support system with 18 hydraulic supports (HS) is introduced. This work focuses on the designing and testing of these HSs. Firstly the design concept of HS system is discussed; then mechanical implementation of the HS structure is carried out, with special consideration of fluid cycling, work pressurization and the weight component. Afterward the piping installation and the de-gas process for the working fluid are implemented. Pressurization and stiffness are well checked before system integration for the single HS unit. Finally the support system is integrated for the polishing process.

  1. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  2. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    , the duration of each process stage and predict the end of process in a precise and unmanned way. This paper presents and analyses the utilization of acoustic emission for generation of control signals in the stone polishing process for achieving these control objectives in an industrial set-up prototype........ The determination of the point in time to change a polishing media or stop the process is needed for computer controlled functional surface generation. During the last years, several research works have been done in order to build grinding/polishing monitoring systems to determine process characteristics...

  3. Profilometric analysis of root surfaces after using various polishing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surfaces. Though polishing was done with various abrasive particles with different sizes over a long period of time, it was never been highlighted to evaluate the ideal polishing material and the particle size that would produce the ideal surface smoothness (Ra 5 μm are not able to produce the surface smoothness <0.2 μm. Only, submicron sized particles are able to produce the desired smoothness.

  4. Study on the influence of the rotational speed of polishing disk on material removal in aspheric surface compliant polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a soft polishing tool is compressed on a stiff workpiece of curved surface, the contact area is a piece of the curved surface. In the process of aspheric surface polishing, the machining speed is always provided by the rotational speed of the spindle of a computer numerical control lathe. Yet, the polishing tool is usually made rotating to remove cutting scraps and broken abrasives from the contact area. The rotational speed of the polishing tool would change the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area, and it would definitely change the volume of material removal in the surface of the workpiece. This article studies how the rotational speed of the polishing tool changes the distribution state of the relative speed in the whole contact area and material removal in the volume of the surface of the workpiece. The computing results show that the volume of material removal increases with the increase in both the rotational speed of polishing disk and the rotational speed of lathe spindle, but the polishing quality is totally not in this case.

  5. Stress-induced light scattering method for the detection of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nonaka, K.

    2014-08-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as the chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are one of the most important technique to glass substrate manufacturing. Mechanical interaction in the form of friction occurs between the abrasive and the substrate surface during polishing, which may cause formation of latent flaws on the glass substrate surface. Fine polishing-induced latent flaws may become obvious during a subsequent cleaning process if glass surfaces are corroded away by chemical interaction with the cleaning liquid. Latent flaws thus reduce product yield. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, such as the light-scattering methods, used to detect foreign matters on the glass substrate surface. However, it is difficult to detect latent flaws by these methods because the flaws remain closed. Authors propose a novel inspection technique for fine polishing-induced latent flaws by combining the light scattering method with stress effects, referred to as the stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM). SILSM is able to distinguish between latent flaws and particles on the surface. In this method, samples are deformed by an actuator and stress effects are induced around the tips of latent flaws. Due to the photoelastic effect, the refractive index of the material around the tip of a latent flaw is changed. This changed refractive index is in turn detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera as variations in light scattering intensity. In this report, surface latent flaws are detected non-destructively by applying SILSM to glass substrates, and the utility of SILSM evaluated as a novel inspection technique.

  6. The effectiveness of polishing kits: influence on surface roughness of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Verena; Grumser, Katharina; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of intraoral and technical polishing kits. Zirconia specimens were sintered, ground, and polished with 14 different two-step or three-step polishing kits. Surface roughness (Ra, Rz) after each treatment step was determined, and scanning electron micrographs were made. Except for one system, all polishing kits were effective in reducing the surface roughness of ground zirconia. Differences in surface roughness were high after the first polishing step but were reduced to Ra/Rz values similar to or lower than those of the sintered reference after the final polishing step. Achieving smooth surfaces depended on a sequential application of all polishing steps.

  7. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  8. Electrochemical and mechanical polishing and shaping method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Jones, William David (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Benson, Carl M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system are provided for the shaping and polishing of the surface of a material selected from the group consisting of electrically semi-conductive materials and conductive materials. An electrically non-conductive polishing lap incorporates a conductive electrode such that, when the polishing lap is placed on the material's surface, the electrode is placed in spaced-apart juxtaposition with respect to the material's surface. A liquid electrolyte is disposed between the material's surface and the electrode. The electrolyte has an electrochemical stability constant such that cathodic material deposition on the electrode is not supported when a current flows through the electrode, the electrolyte and the material. As the polishing lap and the material surface experience relative movement, current flows through the electrode based on (i) adherence to Faraday's Law, and (ii) a pre-processing profile of the surface and a desired post-processing profile of the surface.

  9. Luster Polish Strengthening Treatment for Raceway Surface of Aeroengine Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Si-er; TENG Hong-fei; MA Fu-jian; HAO Jian-jun; CHEN Tao

    2007-01-01

    A new surface strengthening technology, luster polish strengthening treatnent, was proposed to treat the raceway surface of aeroengine bearings (9Cr18Mo) with the centrifugal strengthening machine exclusively designed for luster polish strengthening treatment. The experimental results showed that luster polish strengthening treatment produced a compressive residual stress layer with a depth of over 80 μm below the surface of the bearing raceway, and thus effectively removed the metamorphic layer in the raceway surface. After luster polish strengthening treatment, the average surface hardness of the aeroengine bearing raceway was increased from 61.02 HRC to 63.01 HRC, the surface roughness was reduced from 0.06 μm to 0.03 μm, and the contact fatigue life of the aeroengine bearings was improved by about 90%, with the dispersion of fatigue life being reduced remarkably.Theoretical calculation result agrees with that obtained by experiment.

  10. Employability management practices in the Polish ICT sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzec, I.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; Scholarios, D.; van der Schoot, E.; Jędrzejowicz, P.; Bozionelos, N.; Epitropaki, O.; Knauth, P.; Mikkelsen, A.; van der Heijde, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current career thinking and employability management practices within the Polish Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. The aim of this contribution is to identify career management problems and to determine obstacles for implementing employability management pr

  11. DIVERSIFICATION OF UNIVERSITY INCOME – POLISH PRACTICE AND INTERNATIONAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rozmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the face of global economic problems European (and not only European universities are forced to diversify their income. The constant and stable stream of governmental funds for education is beginning to dry up. For the majority of Polish universities the main and noticeably dominant source of income are the revenues from teaching activity. Thus the current diversification of universities’ revenues appears to be just a fiction. The situation is even worse because of both the global economic crisis and the imminent decrease in the birth rate. Polish universities should follow funding models of foreign leaders, who successfully deal with diversification of their revenues. Obviously we cannot compare such universities as Harvard or Oxford with Polish universities, but some of their solutions are worth following. Only by diversifying sources of their revenues will Polish universities be able to compete with the foreign leaders and secure a stable basis for development and use of their potential.

  12. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  13. Characterization of ultra-fine surfaces produced by robot assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania; Sobiecki, Rene;

    2011-01-01

    Polishing is the final processing steps in many high precision applications as for example bearings, moulds and dies. The paper describes a new robot assisted polishing (RAP) machine and the characterization techniques employed to measure the polished surfaces. Focus is given to the comparison...... of different measuring principles applied to polished surfaces. Finally the progression of the surface topography during RAP polishing is investigated and documented....

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golnaz Karimi; Parisa Ziarati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of d...

  15. Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulgarian-Polish Language Resources (Current State and Future Development The paper briefly reviews the first Bulgarian-Polish digital bilingual resources: corpora and dictionaries, which are currently developed under bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS: joint research project “Semantics and contrastive linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary”, coordinated by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska (ISS-PAS.

  16. Modeling radial flow ion exchange performance for condensate polisher conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallcross, D. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Renouf, P.

    2001-11-01

    A theoretical model is developed which simulates ion exchange performance within an annular resin bed. Flow within the mixed ion exchange bed is diverging, with the solution flowing outwards away from the bed's axis. The model is used to simulate performance of a mixed annular bed operating under condensate polisher conditions. The simulation predictions are used to develop design envelope curves for practical radial flow beds and to estimate potential cost savings flowing from less expensive polisher vessels. (orig.)

  17. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE) was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972) within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations). The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statu...

  18. Study on new float polishing with the MCF

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, K.; Matsuo, Y.; Yamamoto, K; Zheng, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: As a continuation of a previous paper [1], the report demonstrates the various possibilities of float polishing utilizing the present improved magnetic compound fluid (MCF). The MCF developed by one of authors, Shimada, in 2001, was improved by the addition of α-cellulose, thereby achieving a clearance as great as 8mm as shown in another paper [1]. The present paper describes the possibility of the application of the MCF float polishing technique with α-cellulose.Design/methodology/a...

  19. Borel Hierarchies in Infinite Products of Polish Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rana Barua; Ashok Maitra

    2007-05-01

    Let be a product of countably infinite number of copies of an uncountable Polish space . Let $_(\\overline{}_)$ be the class of Borel sets of additive class for the product of copies of the discrete topology on (the Polish topology on ), and let $\\mathcal{B}=\\cup_{ < _1}\\overline{}_$. We prove in the Lévy-Solovay model that $$\\overline{}_ = _ \\cap\\mathcal{B}$$ for 1 ≤ < 1.

  20. Automation of Die and Mold Polishing: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-02

    molecules. 2 The dominant theories appear to be the molecular removal theory supported by Rabinowicz and the abrasive wear theory supported by Samuels...53 Rabinowicz states, "practical experience suggests that in polishing copper, an abrasive size of 3 pm represents approximately the demarcation...Reading, Massachusetts: Addison- Wesley, 1984), pp. 563. 51. Ibid., pp. 562. 52. E. Rabinowicz , "The Nature of Polished and Burnished Surfaces, Proceedings

  1. Polish and English wordnets -- statistical analysis of interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bujok, Maksymilian; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Wordnets are semantic networks containing nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs organized according to linguistic principles, by means of semantic relations. In this work, we adopt a complex network perspective to perform a comparative analysis of the English and Polish wordnets. We determine their similarities and show that the networks exhibit some of the typical characteristics observed in other real-world networks. We analyse interlingual relations between both wordnets and deliberate over the problem of mapping the Polish lexicon onto the English one.

  2. Analysis of selected segments of Polish e-finance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ma ł achowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected websites of Polish e-finance segment are analyzed, including news servic- es on finance and economy, portals of financial product and service suppliers, spe- cialized financial services websites. The aim of this paper is to present a functional and structural analysis of selected e-finance websites and portals, together with evaluation of their usability, based on own research and third party studies. Basic statistical data on Polish segment of finance and e-finance is presented

  3. Evaluating Thin Client Computers for Use by the Polish Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    36 Real Player Windows Y 37 Windows Media Player Windows Y Table 2. List of Software and Tests Results B. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The second ...acquired – this is for use in case of a primary server crash; Participation in eLearning program – internet-based courses on Microsoft products.71... Languages OLP NL Device CAL 30x Windows Server CAL 2003 Polish OLP NL Device CAL 30x Windows Terminal Svr CAL 2003 WinNT Polish OLP NL Device CAL

  4. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-09-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

  5. Parameter investigation of air-driving fluid jet polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zong-Ru; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Pham, Loc Huu; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2012-10-01

    Air-driving fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique was first presented in 2011. Slurry was drop out due to Venturi effect inside the atomizer which is the main component of air-driving FJP system, and was guided to mix with air flow by the nozzle. The Venturi effect and the added high speed air flow provide slurry more kinetic energy to impact the optical surface. Therefore, the air-driving FJP system has a rotational symmetrical Gaussian-like removal profile with lower air pressure and normal incidence configuration. In this paper, we investigate oblique incidence polishing to find the optimal material removal performance of the technique, including removal shape and depth and surface roughness. Different oblique angles ranged from 80 to 20 degree were tested. The air-driving FJP system was adapted upon a CNC machine, so not only single point polishing but also straight line polishing with constant feed rate can be carried out. We report on the performance of oblique air-driving FJP in different air pressure and processing time, and also the material removal of dynamic polishing for N-BK7, Fused Silica and ZERODUR®. The results indicate oblique incidence can get a Gaussian-like removal shape, and improve the surface roughness. The air-driving FJP not only has the advantages of conventional fluid jet polishing, such as no tool wears, cutter interference and debris deposition problems, but also has excellent material removal rate with lower energy.

  6. Environmentally Conscious Polishing System Based on Robotics and Artificial Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dieste

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the manufacturing issues that are essential in the production flow, but it generates the major amount of defects on parts. Finishing tasks in which polishing is included are performed in the final steps of the manufacturing sequence. Any defect in these steps impliesrejection of the part, generating a big amount of scrap and generating a huge amount of energy consumption, emission, and time to manufacture and replace the rejected part. Traditionally polishing process has not evolved during the last 30 years, while other manufacturing processes have been automated and technologically improved. Finishing processes (grinding and polishing, are still manually performed, especially in freeform surface parts, but to be sustainable some development and automation have to be introduced. This research proposes a novel polishing system based on robotics and artificial vision. The application of this novel system has allowed reducing the failed parts due to finishing process down to zero percent from 28% of rejected parts with manual polishing process. The reduction in process time consumption, and amount of scrapped parts, has reduced the energy consumption up to 30% in finishing process and 20% in whole manufacturing process for an injection moulded aluminium part for automotive industry with high production volumes.

  7. Applicationof Computer Visionfor Polishing RobotinAutomotive Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rachmat Anom Besari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polishing is a highly skilled manufacturing process with a lot of constraints and interaction with environment. In general, the purpose of polishing is to get the uniform surface roughness distributed evenly throughout part’s surface. In order to reduce the polishing time and cope with the shortage of skilled workers, robotic polishing technology has been investigated. This paper studies about vision system to measure surface defects that have been characterized to some level of surface roughness. The surface defects data have learned using artificial neural networks to give a decision in order to move the actuator of arm robot. Force and rotation time have chosen as output parameters of artificial neural networks. Results shows that although there is a considerable change in both parameter values acquired from vision data compared to real data, it is still possible to obtain surface defects characterization using vision sensor to a certain limit of accuracy. The overall results of this research would encourage further developments in this area to achieve robust computer vision based surface measurement systems for industrial robotic, especially in polishing process. Keywords: polishing robot, vision sensor, surface defects, and artificial neural networks

  8. Personality of Polish gay men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  9. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  10. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  11. Effects of a paste-free prophylaxis polishing cup and various prophylaxis polishing pastes on tooth enamel and restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, David A; Barnes, Caren; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W

    2011-01-01

    The application of cleaning and polishing agents to a patient's dentition is a routine part of many dental practices. This study measured the surface roughness and surface gloss of tooth enamel, composite resin, and dental porcelain restorative materials when exposed to a paste-free prophylaxis polishing cup as well as a conventional prophylaxis polishing paste. Samples of human tooth enamel, a composite resin restorative material, and dental porcelain were prepared by a series of polishing papers to produce a flat smooth surface. The baseline average surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a contact stylus profilometer, and the surface gloss was measured with a glossmeter. The test samples were subjected to a standardized polishing routine using a paste-free prophylaxis polishing cup and a fine- or coarse-particle prophylaxis paste. Post-treatment surface roughness and gloss measurements were compared using a paired t statistical test. The conventional prophylaxis pastes increased surface roughness and decreased the gloss of the composite resin and tooth enamel test groups. The paste-free cups did not significantly affect the surface roughness of the enamel or the restorative materials. Dental porcelain surface roughness essentially was not affected by the application of paste-free cups and the fine and coarse pastes.

  12. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  13. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  14. Surface graphitization analysis of cerium-polished HFCVD diamond films with micro-raman spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shubin; SUN Yujing; TIAN Shi

    2008-01-01

    The etching technique using Ce is a convenient and fast method for polishing and shaping diamond films. In this study, the influence of polishing parameters such as polishing temperature and time on the surface crystallinity and phase composition of diamond films was thoroughly investigated via the analysis of Raman spectra such as FWHM and ID/IG. Moreover, the issue on the graphitization of diamond after polishing with Ce was further researched through the detailed study of the depth distribution of Raman data including FWHM and ID/IG, and a result completely different from the hot-iron metal polished ones was obtained. The results showed that polished diamond films had considerably higher diamond content than those before polishing, and not a bit of graphitization was found in the polished ones, owing to a higher solubility of carbon in rare earth metal Ce than that in transition metals, and the original crystallinity of the films polished with Ce did not deteriorate.

  15. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  16. Paul Lazarsfeld and Polish sociology: a historical record of contact, perception, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułek, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper records the Polish aspects of P. F. Lazarsfeld's sociointellectual biography and examines his impact on Polish sociology. The analysis is divided into three chronological parts. In the 1930s, Lazarsfeld's empirical work inspired Polish sociologists in their studies on unemployment. In the late 1950s and 1960s, his model of empirical social research shaped the style of sociological practice in Poland. In the 1990s, some of Lazarsfeld's substantive contributions, mainly in the area of election studies, were taken up in Polish sociology. Lazarsfeld's influence on Polish sociology was conditioned by changes in Polish society and sociology, which is emphasized in this analysis.

  17. Polish device for FOCCoS/PFS slit system

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Arruda, Marcio Vital; Marrara, Lucas Souza; Santos, Leandro Henrique dos; Ferreira, Décio; Santos, Jesulino Bispo dos; Vilaca, Rodrigo de Paiva; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Junior, Laerte Sodre; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-01-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, FOCCoS, for the Prime Focus Spectrograph, PFS, is responsible for transporting light from the Subaru Telescope focal plane to a set of four spectrographs. Each spectrograph will be fed by a convex curved slit with 616 optical fibers organized in a linear arrangement. The slit frontal surface is covered with a special dark composite, made with refractory oxide, which is able to sustain its properties with minimum quantities of abrasives during the polishing process; this stability is obtained This stability is obtained by the detachment of the refractory oxide nanoparticles, which then gently reinforce gently the polishing process and increase its the efficiency. The surface roughness measured in several samples after high performance polishing was about 0.01 microns. Furthermore, the time for obtaining a polished surface with this quality is about 10 times less than the time required for polishing a brass, glass or ceramic surface of the same size. In this paper, ...

  18. The role of food in the Polish migrant adjustment journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lorraine; Paszkiewicz, Irena

    2017-02-01

    In 2015, there were 916,000 Poles living in the UK, making them the largest group of non-UK nationals at 16.5 percent of the population. Though increasingly research has focused on the consequences of this migration for both migrants themselves and the receiving country, little research has looked at food habits. This paper will explore the role of food in the Polish migrant adjustment journey. A qualitative approach was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with nine Polish migrants. In this study, Polish migrants described the move to a new culture as a time of stress and loneliness. Due to a lack of money, they were forced to eat local food, which exacerbated their unease, as they found it to be tasteless and unhealthy. As soon as their financial situation improved, they reverted to a Polish diet, relying on ingredients brought from home, from London, or more recently, purchased from local Polish shops. This gave them comfort, and all participants acknowledged the vital role of food in their adjustment to life in a new culture.

  19. [Contribution of the Polish-German Mental Health Society to changes in Polish psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to give a profile of the history and work of the Polish-German Mental Health Society (PNTZP). Founded in 1990, the PNTZP's supreme objective is to develop and reinforce partnership between Polish and German psychiatry on a range of levels. The methods it uses to further this aim include bilateral meetings, seminars, and annual symposia. In view of its historical roots, the PNTZP is constantly mindful of the excesses perpetrated on the mentally ill during the National Socialist period, and believes it has an obligation to promote a brand of psychiatry founded on the person, respect for human dignity, and the will and individuality of every man. For this reason, ethics are an essential element of discussion, including discussions with patients and their families. The society advocates the implementation of the National Programme of Mental Health Care and the development of community psychiatry in Poland. It supports the development of various structures for the treatment and assistance of people with mental illness, as well as scientific and academic reflection on the social and cultural implications of psychiatric thought and action. It is committed to facilitating the exchange of experiences between different professional groups, patients, and their families in order to promote mutual inspiration and support in the challenging task of developing psychiatry. A record of these years of meetings may be found in the twenty issues of the periodical Dialog. This example of cooperation across official state borders may be held up as a benchmark for the development of European psychiatry, and the joint work and discussions may offer help and inspiration in day-to-day therapeutic practice. The PNTZP is open to new people and initiatives, and is always looking for people willing to get involved in its work.

  20. Linguistic complexity: English vs. Polish, text vs. corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Orczyk, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rank-frequency distributions of words in selected English and Polish texts. We show that for the lemmatized (basic) word forms the scale-invariant regime breaks after about two decades, while it might be consistent for the whole range of ranks for the inflected word forms. We also find that for a corpus consisting of texts written by different authors the basic scale-invariant regime is broken more strongly than in the case of comparable corpus consisting of texts written by the same author. Similarly, for a corpus consisting of texts translated into Polish from other languages the scale-invariant regime is broken more strongly than for a comparable corpus of native Polish texts. Moreover, we find that if the words are tagged with their proper part of speech, only verbs show rank-frequency distribution that is almost scale-invariant.

  1. Laser measurement and analysis of reposition error in polishing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weisen; Wang, Junhua; Xu, Min; He, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, robotic reposition error measurement method based on laser interference remote positioning is presented, the geometric error is analyzed in the polishing system based on robot and the mathematical model of the tilt error is presented. Studies show that less than 1 mm error is mainly caused by the tilt error with small incident angle. Marking spot position with interference fringe enhances greatly the error measurement precision, the measurement precision of tilt error can reach 5 um. Measurement results show that reposition error of the polishing system is mainly from the tilt error caused by the motor A, repositioning precision is greatly increased after polishing system improvement. The measurement method has important applications in the actual error measurement with low cost, simple operation.

  2. Polishing of quartz by rapid etching in ammonium bifluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallin, Orjan; Danielsson, Rolf; Lindberg, Ulf; Thornell, Greger

    2007-07-01

    The etch rate and surface roughness of polished and lapped AT-cut quartz subjected to hot (90, 110, and 130 degrees C), concentrated (50, 65, 80 wt %) ammonium bi-fluoride have been investigated. Having used principal component analysis to verify experimental solidity and analyze data, we claim with confidence that this parameter space does not, as elsewhere stated, allow for a polishing effect or even a preserving setting. Etch rates were found to correlate well, and possibly logarithmically, with temperature except for the hottest etching applied to lapped material. Roughness as a function of temperature and concentration behaved well for the lapped material, but lacked systematic variation in the case of the polished material. At the lowest temperature, concentration had no effect on etch rate or roughness. Future efforts are targeted at temperatures and concentrations closer to the solubility limit.

  3. Human Factors in Nuclear Power Engineering in Polish Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarek-Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Human factors in nuclear power engineering in Polish conditions” focuses on analysis of dynamics of preparing Polish society to build fi rst nuclear power plant in XXI century in Poland. Authors compare experience from constructing nuclear power plant Sizewell B (Great Britain and Sizewell C, which is in preparation phase with polish nuclear power program. Paper includes aspects e.g. of creating nuclear safety culture and social opinion about investment. Human factors in nuclear power engineering are as well important as relevant economical and technical factors, but very often negligible. In Poland where history about Czarnobyl is still alive, and social opinion is created on emotions after accident in Fukushima, human factors are crucial and should be under comprehensive consideration.

  4. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  5. Inspection technique of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates using stress-induced light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yoshitaro; Sakai, Kazufumi; Nonaka, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    The fine polishing technique, e.g. Chemical Mechanical Polishing treatment (CMP), is one of the most important techniques in the glass substrate manufacturing. However, mechanical interaction, e.g. friction, occurs between the abrasive and the surface of substrates. Therefore, latent flaws are formed in the surfaces of glass substrates depending on the polishing condition. In the case of the cleaning process of the glass substrate in which the latent flaws existed, latent flaws become obvious because glass surfaces were eaten away by chemical interaction of cleaning liquid. Therefore, latent flaws are the cause of decrease the yield of products. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, e.g. light scattering method, foreign matter on the surface of glass substrates. Though, it is difficult to detect the latent flaws by these method, because these are closed. The present authors propose a novel inspection technique of latent flaws which occurred by the fine polishing technique, using light scattering method with stress concentration (Stress-Induced Light scattering Method; SILSM). SILSM is possible to classify and separately detect latent flaws and particles on the surfaces. Samples are deformed by the actuator and stress concentrations are occurred around the tip of latent flaws. By photo-elastic effect, the refractive index of around the tip of latent flaws is changed. And then, changed refractive index is detected by cooled CCD camera as the light scattering intensity. In this report, applying SILSM to glass substrates, latent flaws on the surface of glass substrates are detected non-destructively, and the usefulness of SILSM is evaluated as novel inspection technique of latent flaws.

  6. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  7. Evolution of polish E-commerce - main trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present main phases of Polish e-commerce development and to show its major trends. The author also tries to predict future directions of its development. The whole e-commerce process of development is divided into five phases. The first part of the paper presents the beginnings of Polish e-commerce. Then the following stages of development are discussed with presentation of some key figures e.g. percentage of individuals who ordered goods or services over the Inter...

  8. Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872–1940 is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of biological methods of treatment in psychiatry. Both some eccentric views and specific personality probably equally contributed to his almost complete isolation among psychiatrists in the interwar Poland.

  9. Chronology of the Polish Crisis, January 1-August 31, 1982,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-28

    of Journalists of the Polish People’s Republic, made up of members supporting martial law. 21 The baptism of Walesa’s seventh child (born in January...Black Madonna of Czestochowa. 10 Glemp told approximately 100,000 worshippers at an outdoor mass in Warsaw that Poles would greet the Pope in *peace...At a gathering of some 300,000 Polish pilgrims cele- brating the 600th anniversary of the Black Madonna of Jasna Gora, Glemp called on the Jaruzelski

  10. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  11. Computer Controlled Polishing of the Off-axis Aspheric Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the manufacturing and testing procedures to make large off-axis aspherical mirrors are presented. The difficulties in polishing and testing for both circular-aperture and rectangular-aperture mirrors are previewed, and a possible solution is given. The two mirrors have been polished by means of CCOS, and the final accuracy is 25nm rms for 770mm×210mm rectangular mirror and 20nm rms for φ600mm circular mirror. These results just meet the optical tolerances specified by the designer, and the manufacturing and testing procedures presented here show good ability to make the large off-axis aspherical mirrors.

  12. [Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872-1940) is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of biological methods of treatment in psychiatry. Both some eccentric views and specific personality probably equally contributed to his almost complete isolation among psychiatrists in the interwar Poland.

  13. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces...... in Northern Europe. As such, this map is clearly designed as an operational map produced to outline and regulate, not just the actual plan of the offensive, but also to produce a narrative about the Polish army as capable of undertaking such a massive enterprise. We argue, with a point of departure...

  14. Polish queer lesbianism: sexual identity without a lesbian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the state of Polish lesbianism. It presents the history of lesbian groups, lesbian culture, and community in Poland. It puts social and political activism of lesbians in the context of the growing feminist movement and strong nationalism in Poland. Showing the important role of the Internet communication and the way in which queer philosophy is understood in this country, it investigates sexual identity formation and the process through which lesbian communities develop in Poland. The analysis of Polish lesbianism confirms the constructionists' theory that sexual identity formation highly depends on cultural and political circumstances.

  15. Polish as a Foreign Language: New Context, Regulations and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popławska Anna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the developments in Poland after the collapse of communism in 1989 from the point of view of foreign language teaching, including a swift reorientation and transition from a public school system with Russian as the main foreign language, to a diversified language teaching market focused on teaching English and other languages. A particular stress is placed on a relatively new phenomenon, being an increased demand and new opportunities for teaching Polish as a foreign language to be further promoted as a result of anticipated amendments to legal regulations governing the status and certification of the Polish language.

  16. High-Productivity Ultraprecise Polishing Technique of CVD Diamond Film%CVD金刚石膜高效超精密抛光技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑泽伟; 金洙吉; 王坤; 温泉

    2011-01-01

    CVD diamond film, as the material for optical transmission windows and new-generation computer chips, is required to be fine polished. However, there is so far no individual method which can polish CVD diamond film with both high efficiency and fine polishing quality. This paper attempted to polish CVD diamond film by combining chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) method and mechanical polishing method. CVD diamond film was first polished by fixed abrasive and free diamond abrasive to remove course asperities, and subsequently polished by CMP to achieve fine surface. According to the experimental results, the material removal rate achieved by free diamond abrasive is much higher than that by fixed abrasive. The surface roughness of CVD diamond film polished by free diamond abrasive is about 42. 2 nm. Fine surface quality of CVD diamond film was achieved by CMP and the surface roughness is about 4. 551 nm.%CVD金刚石膜作为光学透射窗口和新一代计算机芯片的材料,其表面必须得到高质量抛光,但是现存方法难以满足既高效又超精密的加工要求.本文提出机械抛光与化学机械抛光相结合的方法.首先,采用固结金刚石磨料抛光盘和游离金刚石磨料两种机械抛光方法对CVD金刚石膜进行粗加工,然后采用化学机械抛光的方法对CVD金刚石膜进行精加工.结果表明,采用游离磨料抛光时材料去除率远比固结磨料高,表面粗糙度最低达到42.2 nm.化学机械抛光方法在CVD金刚石膜的超精密抛光中表现出较大的优势,CVD金刚石膜的表面粗糙度为4.551 nm.

  17. Removing Mid-Spatial Frequency (MSF) Errors Using Stress-Polishing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD proposes to evaluate how stress polishing can be used to extend the application of super-polishing to fast aspheres and freeforms, removing sub-aperture...

  18. Performance of a novel polishing rubber wheel in improving surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Geum-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Chae, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Hee; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Replacing glazing with polishing is still controversial in terms of the surface roughness of dental porcelains. This study investigated the polishing performance of a ceramic-polishing rubber wheel (CP-RW), which contains large uniform and rounded silicon carbide particles and small diamond particles, in improving the surface roughness of two feldspathic porcelains for sintering and CAD/CAM milling. Using a confocal laser scanning microscopy, the changes in the surface roughness parameters were evaluated before and after polishing or glazing for three surface treatment groups: SofLex polishing, CP-RW polishing, and Glazing. Regardless of the parameters, all treatments reduced roughness values (repeated measures ANOVA, ppolishing were lower than those obtained after SofLex polishing and glazing (2-way ANOVA, pPolishing both ceramics with CP-RW made the surfaces smooth with the lowest roughness values in all parameters. The effect was dependent on the materials used.

  19. Evaluation of the Mineral Concentration in Beef from Polish Native Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaradzki, Piotr; Florek, Mariusz; Staszowska, Agnieszka; Litwińczuk, Zygmunt

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of macrominerals and microminerals in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles of young bulls of five breeds-Polish Red (PR), White-Backed (WB), Polish Black-and-White (PBW), Simmental (SIM) and Polish Holstein-Friesian (PHF). The meat of the Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls was found to contain significantly less K, Mg and Ca and more Mn than other breeds. The meat of the White-Backed bulls contained significantly (P Polish Red, Simmental and Polish Holstein-Friesian breeds. Moreover, the meat of White-Backed bulls showed a significantly (P Polish Red and Polish Black-and-White) and the Simmental breed. Similar content of macronutrients was found in the LL and ST muscles. However, in the case of micronutrients, the LL muscle contained significantly more Zn, Fe and Cu as well as Mn (P > 0.05).

  20. Hardness of celluloid strip-finished or polished composite surfaces with time

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. H.; KREJCI,Ivo; Lutz, F

    2000-01-01

    An in-vitro study revealed that a celluloid strip-finished composite surface discolored more than the polished composite surface. Thus, the celluloid strip-finished composite surface may not cure enough compared with the polished composite surface.

  1. Banking Efficiency, Consolidation and Foreign Ownerhip: Evidence from the Polish Banking Market

    OpenAIRE

    Havrylchyk, Olena

    2007-01-01

    The thesis consists of four separate papers that can be read individually. In the first paper “Efficiency of the Polish Banking Industry: Foreign versus Domestic Banks” we analyze the efficiency of foreign and domestic banks. The second paper entitled “Foreign Acquisitions and Industry Wealth Effects of Privatisation: Evidence from the Polish Banking Industry” investigates the reaction of Polish bank stocks to acquisition by foreign investors. The third paper “Consolidation of the Polish Bank...

  2. The Influence of Surface Polish and Beverages on the Roughness of Nanohybrid and Microhybri Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Surface roughness is a key factor in the aesthetics of restorative dentistry as it can determine the clinical quality and success of restorative materials. The chemical process of dissolution in the presence of mechanical forces can accelerate the surface roughness of tooth-coloured restorative materials. Objectives: To determine the degree of surface roughness of a microhybrid and a nanohybrid resin composite after polishing and immersion in various solutions. Materials and Methods: Two resin composites were used : a microhybrid (Gradia direct, GC, and a nanohybrid (Ice, SDI. A total of 54 disc-shaped specimens were prepared for each composite and immersed in distilled water incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. After 24 h, the baseline measurement for surface roughness (Ra was performed and the specimens were divided into 3 groups of 18 and tested with unpolished or after polishing with Sof-Lex disc and Enhance point systems. Specimens in each group were subdivided into 3 subgroups (n = 6 and immersed in 3 solutions (distilled water, coffee, and cola for 7 days incubated at 37 °C. After 7 days, the specimens were rinsed with tap water for 10 seconds, dried with paper towel and Ra was measured again. Two randomly selected specimens of each group were sputter coated with gold and examined using a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Results: Gradia direct showed a greater Ra than ice in all solutions for all polishing systems (p < 0.001. Specimens polished with Enhance point revealed a significantly greater roughness than Sof-Lex discs and both showed greater Ra than unpolished specimens. Specimens immersed in coffee exhibited significantly greater surface roughness than that of distilled water (p < 0.05 and cola (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Nano-hybrid composite showed a significantly smoother surface than microhybrid. Coffee exhibited the highest Ra compared to distilled water and cola. Enhance point revealed

  3. A REVIEW ON SEWAGE TREATMENT AND POLISHING USING MOVING BED BIOREACTOR (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMAL ALI KAWAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluent treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs are advanced technique in biological treatment operations become increasing widely and popular use all over the world to treat various types of effluents with very different operating status. It is a combination of two separate processes suspended and attached growth systems for the treatment in order to minimize the concentrations of the contaminated parameters at the required level for reuse or final destination. The MBBR has been proved to be effective in great removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD with nutrients (N and P from the effluent stream simultaneously. It provides additional capacity of wastewater treatment technology with high treatment efficiency; low capital, operational, maintenance and replacement cost; single reliable and robust operation procedure. This process can be used for new sewage treatment works or for modifying (upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants as it is efficient, compact and easy to operate. The efficiency of MBBR depends on the filling percent of biofilm carriers to be provided inside the tank, surface area of the biocarrier, diffused aeration supply and the organic loading. The aim of this paper is reviewing the sewage treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactor MBB technology as an alternative and successful method. It presents the advantages of the MBBR compared to conventional waste water treatment. The review also includes many relevant researches carried out at the laboratory andpilot scales plants that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs.

  4. [Jakub Barner (1640-1683) and his Chymia philosophica (1698): side notes on the publication of the Polish translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinke, Rafat T

    2014-01-01

    The translation of Chymiaphilosophica by Jakub Barner is the second publication in Polish historiography of a printed source work on early modem chemistry (alchemy) written by a Polish citizen, well known and influencial across Europe (the first such translation comprised the treatises of Michael Sendivogius). This admirable initiative of unquestionable value to Polish historians of science resulted in an elegantly published volume, with an extensive introduction and useful appendices. The language of the translation is pleasant to read, retaining the spirit of the original by means of a moderate use of archaisms and generally accurate selection of proper terminology. A closer comparison of some fragments of the translation reveals, however, that it omits essential words, phrases and even entire sentences. The translation itself is occasionally incorrect as well, completely changing the meaning of the author's text and distorting his intentions, thereby undermining the reliability of the Polish translation as a whole. In the factual layer, identifying both chemical substances and (especially) the names of the authors cited by Barner often appear to be doubtful or problematic. Apart from numerous obvious mistakes, as well as leaving many surnames unidentified even when it was very difficult, the translators and/or editors of the Polish text created some non-existent authors as a result of errors produced while copying their surnames from the original text or due to unfounded assumptions that some chemical or botanical terms are names of chemical authors. There is also no consistency in the spelling of surnames (usually left in the Latin form, sometimes spelled with wrong inflection, but also modernised). In the biographical introduction there are also numerous factual errors and some bizarre mistranslations. Not only did its author fail to correct invalid information of earlier biographers of Barner, relying only on the most obvious and accessible publications, but

  5. Application of Swales' Model in the Analysis of Research Papers by Polish Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebiowski, Zosia

    1999-01-01

    Reports the investigation of the organizational structure of introductory sections of research papers written by Polish authors in English and Polish. The aim of the study was to test whether in view of cultural differences, reflected in the Anglo-American and Polish intellectual styles, the rhetorical pattern of research papers would vary between…

  6. Patterns of Language Use: Polish Migrants from the 1980s and Their Children in Melbourne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the retention of Polish language and culture by first generation Polish migrants from the 1980s and their second generation offspring (aged 15-24) from endogamous and exogamous marriages. We examine various domains such as the home, social networks, visits to Poland, institutions of learning, the Polish media, the Polish…

  7. A grooved glass surface-plate for making a flat polished surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Isoji

    2017-01-01

    To obtain a flat polished surface for microchemical analyses such as EPMA, SIMS, and ATR micro-FTIR, a glass plate with a grooved surface was developed for hand polishing with an abrasive film. It eases the polishing process by minimizing slipping or sticking, and results in negligible relief in the sample surface.

  8. Desirability of Personal Characteristics Associated with Creativity: Through the Eyes of Polish and Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowicz, Elzbieta; Tokarz, Aleksandra; Beauvale, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The social desirability of characteristics associated with creativity and cultural stereotypes was examined across Polish and Chinese cultures. Polish responses were compared with those from an earlier Chinese study (n = 451). First, we carried out an initial study among 116 Polish students to determine what traits are parts of the national…

  9. Polish Migrant Parents of Secondary School Boys in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Daria; McGhee, Derek

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the parents of secondary school Polish boys and their capacity to realise their educational and professional aspirations for their children. Our primary finding is that although many Polish parents face considerable challenges in manoeuvring through the educational system, some Polish parents display a level of agency…

  10. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrat...

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  12. The Mission of the Polish Universities in Environmental Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Boleslaw K.

    In order to reduce pollution, secure long-term energy needs, retard the depletion of non-renewable resources, and harmonize industrialization with the vulnerable environment, Polish universities are directing their efforts toward intensification of ecological education and intensification of research activities. Its efforts are connected with…

  13. The "Metrica Regni" Project: The Polish Experience of EAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The fonds of Crown Chancery Public Register ("Metrica Regni") was chosen for the pilot project to introduce Encoded Archival Description (EAD) because of its historical value, typical archival structure and existing finding aids. The rights and privileges granted by Polish kings were recorded in the Register. The oldest books in the…

  14. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  15. In-situ photopatterning of hydrogel microarrays in polished microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication method which enables simple and eproducible photopatterning of micron- sized hydrogel arrays inside closed microchips. To achieve this, the glass cover of the microchip is thinned by mechanical grinding and polishing. This procedure reduces the spacing between the photomask

  16. Financial repression, money growth, and seignorage: The Polish experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Budina, N.

    1997-01-01

    Financial Repression, Money Growth and Seignorage: The Polish Experience. — A small analytical framework is developed to analyze the relation between reserve requirements, base money growth and seignorage revenues. From the analysis, the authors can derive of steady-state seignorage revenues as a fu

  17. "The Polishing Cloth": Student Writing Creates Writing Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah L.

    The concept of using good student writing to inspire more good student writing, of using a text to create the next year's text is a vital process that demonstrates DeKalb College's emphasis on individual student instruction and recognition. "The Polishing Cloth" is a collection of the best student essays from English composition,…

  18. Jules Verne - a new polishing technique related to FJP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.; Fähnle, O.W.; Meeder, M.; Wons, T.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A variation on the fluid jet polishing (FJP) technique, arbitrarily named Jules Verne (JV), will be described in this article. Jules Verne is a glass processing technique that removes material due to the fact that the tool and the surface are in close contact, and a slurry moves in between the tool

  19. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wysokiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours, that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ2=16945.8, P<0.001 between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  20. The Meanings of Learning as Described by Polish Migrant Bloggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popow, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the meanings given to learning by Polish migrant bloggers. It presents the result of an analysis of ten blogs, written by Poles living abroad. The blogs under analysis were chosen on the basis of random sample. The analysed material was categorised by recurring themes, which included: learning in Poland, language acquisition,…

  1. Patients' Opinions about Polish Surgeons and Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakowski, Marek; Hładoń, Aleksandra; Seweryn, Mariusz; Ciosek, Jakub; Świątkiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    In Polish society Stereotypes about the surgeons are deeply rooted, which could really affect their relationship with the patient and the entire treatment process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of an opinion survey on the image of the surgeon and operative treatment.

  2. Attitudes and Motivations of Polish Students towards Entrepreneurial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Miller, Christopher; Jones, Amanda; Packham, Gary; Pickernell, David; Zbierowski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Polish economy is continuing its expansion through the adoption of free market economics in the post-communist era. To encourage this growth in a future where difficult global economic conditions are likely to persist, it is essential that entrepreneurial activity is encouraged within the next generation of graduates. This study aims…

  3. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013-2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10-14h after fingernail painting (ppolish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed.

  4. Reference values of maximal oxygen uptake for polish rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Michał; Ładyga, Maria; Długołęcka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2014-12-09

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes' fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the "trainability" of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19-22 years (U23 category).

  5. Values Education--A Reality or Myth in Polish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switala, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), which is coming to an end, will offer all kinds of summaries and reflections on this issue. The aim of this paper, strictly related with the goals of the DESD, is to answer the following questions: (1) "Is the Polish school ready to provide values education?"; (2)…

  6. Stress polishing demonstrator for ELT M1 segments and industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Bernard, Anaïs.; Laslandes, Marie; Floriot, Johan; Dufour, Thibaut; Fappani, Denis; Combes, Jean Marc; Ferrari, Marc

    2014-07-01

    After two years of research and development under ESO support, LAM and Thales SESO present the results of their experiment for the fast and accurate polishing under stress of ELT 1.5 meter segments as well as the industrialization approach for mass production. Based on stress polishing, this manufacturing method requires the conception of a warping harness able to generate extremely accurate bending of the optical surface of the segments during the polishing. The conception of the warping harness is based on finite element analysis and allowed a fine tuning of each geometrical parameter of the system in order to fit an error budget of 25nm RMS over 300μm of bending peak to valley. The optimisation approach uses the simulated influence functions to extract the system eigenmodes and characterise the performance. The same approach is used for the full characterisation of the system itself. The warping harness has been manufactured, integrated and assembled with the Zerodur 1.5 meter segment on the LAM 2.5meter POLARIS polishing facility. The experiment consists in a cross check of optical and mechanical measurements of the mirrors bending in order to develop a blind process, ie to bypass the optical measurement during the final industrial process. This article describes the optical and mechanical measurements, the influence functions and eigenmodes of the system and the full performance characterisation of the warping harness.

  7. Ancient Polish Books in Buryatian Republic near Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Panasiuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Polish books in Buryatian Republic near Mongolia: presentation of the problem and topics for the furhter research.   Przedstawienie problemów badawczych związanych ze starymi polskimi księgami znalezionymi w Buriacji.

  8. Pre-Posed Possessive Constructions in Russian and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Erik Richard

    2013-01-01

    In Contemporary Standard Russian (CSR) and Contemporary Standard Polish (CSP) nominal possession is conveyed by means of the adnominal genitive. In this construction the dependent follows the noun it modifies and is marked morphologically for possession in the genitive case. The head noun is marked morphologically for any one of the six…

  9. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consumers who have received better quality product at a lower price. Moreover, changes in consumers’ habits have occurred. This is described by reduction in consumption of hard liquors on behalf of soft alcohols with the major position of beer. Polish beer market is close to satisfying consumers’ demands. Beer consumption per one inhabitant in Poland is close to European mean but its development will not be so dynamic as before. The situation is caused by the risk arising from the law which is not clear. Moreover, increasing fiscal aggravations and costs of production which due to the increase of prices of raw materials are also critical.

  10. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlązak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkień, Justyna; Korzec, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  11. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being affecte

  12. A Finite Element Model for Wafer Materiall Removal Rate and Non-uniformity in Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process%机械化学抛光中晶圆材料切削率和非均匀性有限元模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭跃彬

    2001-01-01

    提出了一个机械化学抛光中晶圆材料非均匀性的有限元模型.通过分析压力、摩擦力、抛光垫和承载膜的可压缩性对晶圆的应力分布的影响,研究了抛光过程中晶圆厚度的不均匀性.结果证明非均匀剪应力是晶圆厚度变化的一个主要原因.这个模型也建立了声发射信号的变化和晶圆厚度不均匀性的关系.通过对晶圆材料切削率的声发射信号监测,证明了实验结果和模型预测值的一致性.%A 3D finite element model is presented for wafer non-uniformity in chemicalmechanical polishing(CMP)process. Film thickness non-uniformity of the wafer during CMPprocess was investigated by examining the influence of applied pressure, friction force,pad andcarrier film compressibility on stress distribution across the wafer diameter. It shows that non-uniform shear stress distribution on wafer plays an important role on the non-uniformity. Themodel relates the variation of acoustic emission (AE)signal from non-uniform stress distribu-tion on the wafer to its non-uniformity. The agreement between model prediction and experi-mental results is demonstrated by AE monitoring of material removal rate in CMP process.

  13. Professor Ludwik Rydygier father and legend of Polish surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, K

    2011-02-01

    Ludwik Rydygier is undoubtedly the father of Polish gastrointestinal surgery. He performed two pioneering stomach operations: on 16 November 1880, first in Poland and second in the world after Jules Pean, the surgical removal of the pylorus in a 64-year-old patient suffering from stomach cancer; the operation took about four hours, unfortunately the patient died 12 hours later, and on 21 November 1881 he performed the world's first pylorectomy due to gastric ulcer, applying his own method of pylorectomy followed by the restoration by end-to-end anastomosis of the duodenal stump with the stomach stump; the patient survived the operation and recovered. Three years later, Rydygier introduced a new method of surgical treatment of peptic ulcer disease by means of gastroenterostomy. This review was designed to commemorate the outstanding achievements of Professor Rydygier, who worked at two universities: at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, and at the Lemberg (Lviv) University. He was one of the founders of the Association of Polish Surgeons and an organizer of the first Meeting of Polish Surgeons in 1889. He was the author of over 200 published papers and several text-books on surgical infections, surgical techniques, orthopaedics and traumatology, urology, neurosurgery, and gynaecology. Professor Ludwik Rydygier possessed comprehensive knowledge of surgery and other medical disciplines, he was a courageous surgeon and skilled operator, being at the same time an extremely gifted organizer. His promotion to the rank of General of Polish Army crowned his credits for country's defence. At the anniversary of 90 years after his death, Polish surgeons pay the tribute to their mentor.

  14. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  15. Analysis of nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand in effluent from a system of aerated lagoons followed by polishing pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Hassan; Alizadeh, Rahimeh; Tosinejad, Horiyeh; Porghaffar, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    In this descriptive-analytical study, nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand were assessed for effluent from a system of facultative partially mixed lagoons followed by the polishing pond using 120 grab samples over 1 year. Filtered and non-filtered samples of polishing pond effluent were tested in the presence and absence of a nitrification inhibitor. Effective factors, including 5-day biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll A, and temperature, were measured using standard methods for water and wastewater tests. The results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with SPSS version 16. Findings show that the annual mean of the total 5-day BOD in the effluent from the polishing pond consisted of 44.92% as the algal carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), 43.61% as the nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand (NBOD), and 11.47% as the soluble CBOD. According to this study, the annual mean ratios of algal COD and 5-day algal CBOD to TSS were 0.8 and 0.37, respectively. As the results demonstrate, undertaking quality evaluation of the final effluent from the lagoons without considering nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand would undermine effluent quality assessment and interpretation of the performance of the wastewater treatment plant.

  16. Two planar polishing methods by using FIB technique: Toward ultimate top-down delayering for failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. D., E-mail: dandan.wang@globalfoundries.com; Huang, Y. M.; Tan, P. K.; Feng, H.; Low, G. R.; Yap, H. H.; He, R.; Tan, H.; Dawood, M. K.; Zhao, Y. Z.; Lam, J.; Mai, Z. H. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte. Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Presently two major limiting factors are hindering the failure analysis (FA) development during the semiconductor manufacturing process and technology improvement: (1) Impossibility of manual polishing on the edge dies due to the amenability of layer peeling off; (2) Abundant demand of multi-locations FA, especially focusing different levels of layers simultaneously. Aiming at resolving these limitations, here we demonstrate two unique high precision polishing methods by using focused ion beam (FIB) technique. One is the vertical top down chemical etching at the aimed location; the other one is the planar top down slicing. Using the FIB for delayering not only solves these problems mentioned above, but also offers significant advantages over physical planar polishing methods such as: (1) having a better control of the delayering progress, (2) enabling precisely milling at a region of interest, (3) providing the prevention of over-delayering and (4) possessing capability to capture images at the region of interest simultaneously and cut into the die directly to expose the exact failure without damaging other sections of the specimen.

  17. Thinning and polishing of cross-section of depth-graded WSi2/Si multilayer for linear zone plate application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiushi Huang; Jingtao Zhu; Haochuan Li; Zhengxiang Shen; Xiaoqiang Wang; Zhanshan Wang; Yongjian Tang

    2012-01-01

    A linear zone plate named multilayer laue lens (MLL) is fabricated using a depth-graded multilayer structure.The lens shows considerable potential in focusing an X-ray beam into a nanometer scale with high efficiency.In this letter,a depth-graded multilayer consisting of 324 alternating WSi2 and Si layers with a total thickness of 7.9 μm is deposited based on the thickness sequence according to the demands of the zone plate law. Subsequently,the multilayer sample is sliced and thinned to an ideal depth along the cross-section direction using raw abrasives and diamond lapping.Finally,the cross-section is polished by a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) technique to remove the damages and improve the surface smoothness. The final depth of the MLL is approximately 7 μm with an achieved aspect ratio greater than 400. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that interfaces are sharp,and the multilayer structure remains undamaged after the thinning and polishing processes.The surface roughness achieved is 0.33 nm.

  18. Electrochemical behavior and polishing properties of silicon wafer in alkaline slurry with abrasive CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiao-lan; XU Da-yu; ZHANG Xiao-wei; SHI Xun-da; JIANG Nan; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of silicon wafer in alkaline slurry with nano-sized CeO2 abrasive was investigated. The variations of corrosion potential (φcorr) and corrosion current density (Jcorr) of the P-type (100) silicon wafer with the slurry pH value and the concentration of abrasive CeO2 were studied by polarization curve technologies. The dependence of the polishing rate on the pH and the concentration of CeO2 in slurries during chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) were also studied. It is discovered that there is a large change of φcorr and Jcorr when slurry pH is altered and the Jcorr reaches the maximum (1.306 μA/cm2) at pH 10.5 when the material removal rate(MRR) comes to the fastest value. The Jcorr increases gradually from 0.994 μA/cm2 with 1% CeO2 to 1.304 μA/cm2 with 3% CeO2 and reaches a plateau with the further increase of CeO2 concentration. There is a considerable MRR in the slurry with 3% CeO2 at pH 10.5. The coherence between Jcorr and MRR elucidates that the research on the electrochemical behavior of silicon wafers in the alkaline slurry could offer theoretic guidance on silicon polishing rate and ensure to adjust optimal components of slurry.

  19. Understanding Foreign Future and Deconstructing Polish Past: The Experiences of Schooling under a Communist Rule Recollected by Contemporary Polish Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustulka, Paula; Slusarczyk, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The article elaborates on the recollections of schooling under the communist rule in Poland as presented in biographical interviews with contemporary Polish migrants living in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway. An analysis of childhood and schooling nexus is elicited on two platforms, specifically as (1) interviewees' first-hand experiences…

  20. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  1. Development of a Computer-Controlled Polishing Process for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Ramsey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The future X-ray observatory missions require grazing-incidence x-ray optics with angular resolution of polished mandrels from which the shells are replicated. With an aim to fabricate better shells, and reduce the cost/time of mandrel production, a computer-controlled polishing machine is developed for deterministic and localized polishing of mandrels. Cylindrical polishing software is also developed that predicts the surface residual errors under a given set of operating parameters and lap configuration. Design considerations of the polishing lap are discussed and the effects of nonconformance of the lap and the mandrel are presented.

  2. The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kononenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Problems of Semantic Equivalence in Different Types of Ukrainian-Polish and Polish-Ukrainian Dictionaries This article deals with the problems of semantic equivalence that authors of various types of dictionaries, including bilingual ones, are faced with. Words and phraseological units of common Polish and Ukrainian origin separately developed their systems of meanings in both languages, making it difficult to identify analogues that adequately reflect the semantic structure of linguistic units. In general, the author’s assumptions are based on experience of publishing Polish-Ukrainian and Ukrainian-Polish dictionaries of various types.   Problemy ekwiwalencji semantycznej w ukraińsko-polskich i polsko-ukraińskich słownikach różnych typów Artykuł porusza problem ekwiwalencji semantycznej, który napotykają autorzy słowników różnych typów, w tym dwujęzycznych. Polskie i ukraińskie wyrazy i jednostki frazeologiczne o wspólnym pochodzeniu rozwijają w każdym języku swoje własne systemy znaczeń, utrudniając określenie odpowiedników i adekwatne odzwierciedlenie struktury semantycznej jednostek. Ogólne założenia autorki są oparte na jej doświadczeniu w publikowaniu polsko-ukraińskich i ukraińsko-polskich słowników różnych typów.

  3. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (ppolished specimens were acquired. Delta Ra values ranged from 0.146 for CE to 0.400 for KZ. Delta Ra values for KZ, WZ, and SZ were significantly greater than for CE. Significant differences in delta Ra values were also observed between KZ and CM. The SEM images obtained were consistent with the profilometric findings. Diamond-impregnated polishing systems were more effective than silica carbide-impregnated ones in reducing the surface roughness of ground monolithic zirconia.

  4. Surface roughness of a novel dental porcelain following different polishing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Chen, Ji-Hua; Wang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of a novel dental porcelain following different polishing procedures. One hundred twenty Imagine Reflex porcelain disks were prepared and randomly assigned into six groups according to different treatments: Group 1: CeraMaster polishing system (CP); Group 2: CP + diamond polishing paste (DP); Group 3: Sof-Lex polishing system (SS); Group 4: SS + DP; Group 5: SiC paper polishing; Group 6: reglazing (control). After the respective treatments, surface roughness values were measured using a profilometer. Qualitative analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Results demonstrated that a combination of the CeraMaster polishing system and a diamond polishing paste could produce similar superficial smoothness to that of the reglazed surface of the tested porcelain.

  5. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma polishing method in machining of silicon ultra-smooth surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jufan ZHANG; Bo WANG; Shen DONG

    2008-01-01

    The modern optics industry demands rigorous surface quality with minimum defects, which presents challenges to optics machining technologies. There are always certain defects on the final surfaces of the compo-nents formed in conventional contacting machining proc-esses, such as micro-cracks, lattice disturbances, etc. It is especially serious for hard-brittle functional materials, such as crystals, glass and ceramics because of their special characteristics. To solve these problems, the atmospheric pressure plasma polishing (APPP) method is developed. It utilizes chemical reactions between reactive plasma and surface atoms to perform atom-scale material removal. Since the machining process is chemical in nature, APPP avoids the surface/subsurface defects mentioned above. As the key component, a capacitance coupled radio-fre-quency plasma torch is first introduced. In initial opera-tions, silicon wafers were machined as samples. Before applying operations, both the temperature distribution on the work-piece surface and the spatial gas diffusion in the machining process were studied qualitatively by finite element analysis. Then the following temperature measurement experiments demonstrate the formation of the temperature gradient on the wafer surface predicted by the theoretical analysis and indicated a peak temper-ature about 90℃ in the center. By using commercialized form talysurf, the machined surface was detected and the result shows regular removal profile that corresponds well to the flow field model. Moreover, the removal profile also indicates a 32 mm3/min removal rate. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), the surface roughness was also measured and the result demonstrates an Ra 0.6 nm surface roughness. Then the element composition of the machined surface was detected and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technology. The results also demonstrate the occurrence of the anticipated main reactions. All the experiments have proved that

  6. Problems in laser repair welding of polished surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skumavc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.

  7. Characterization of the polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffer, Mathilde; Longuet, Jean-Louis; Labrugère, Christine; Fargin, Evelyne; Bousquet, Bruno; Dussauze, Marc; Lambert, Sébastien; Cormont, Philippe; Néauport, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the polishing induced contamination layer at the fused silica optics surface. Samples were prepared using an MRF polishing machine and cerium-based slurry. The cerium and iron penetration and concentration were measured in the surface out of defects. Cerium is embedded at the surface in a 60 nm layer and concentrated at 1200 ppmw in this layer while iron concentration falls down at 30 nm. Spatial distribution and homogeneity of the pollution were also studied in scratches and bevel using SIMS and EPMA techniques. An overconcentration was observed in the chamfer and we saw evidence that surface defects such as scratches are specific places that hold the pollutants. A wet etching was able to completely remove the contamination in the scratch.

  8. Impact of polishing on the light scattering at aerogel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Katcin, A.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kirilenko, P.S. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, E.A., E-mail: E.A.Kravchenko@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    Particle identification power of modern aerogel RICH detectors strongly depends on optical quality of radiators. It was shown that wavelength dependence of aerogel tile transparency after polishing cannot be described by the standard Hunt formula. The Hunt formula has been modified to describe scattering in a thin layer of silica dust on the surface of aerogel tile. Several procedures of polishing of aerogel tile have been tested. The best result has been achieved while using natural silk tissue. The resulting block has optical smooth surfaces. The measured decrease of aerogel transparency due to surface scattering is about few percent. This result could be used for production of radiators for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detectors.

  9. OVERCONSUMPTION AND DECONSUMPTION AS CONTEMPORARY MARKET TRENDS. POLISH CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jasiulewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marketers are trying t o meet contemporary market trends, such as overconsumption and sustainable consumption, that stand in opposition to each other. The article presents a review of the literature and the results of the research, conducted with the help of a questionnaire, regarding issues of contemporary consumer trends, such as overconsumption and deconsumption. An attempt was made to assess whether the behaviours of Polish consumers are a part of sustainable and responsible consumption trend, which has become increasingly noticeable in many developed market economies. The results of the study indicate that it is impossible to state clearly that Polish consumers do not consume in a sustainable way, although many of their behaviours indicate overconsumption. However, their behaviour in the market in some areas is consistent with the idea of deconsumption

  10. Gas and coal outbursts in Polish minescauses and assessing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WIERZBICKI Miroslaw

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some information about gas and coal outbursts threat in Polish coal mines.It shows the methodology for threat identification and monitoring for gas and coal outbursts in the Polish coal mines.One of the main methods of assessing threats in the mining industry in Poland and China is desorbometric method.The paper presents some results of estimation of uncertainties of the desorption rate Ap,determined in situ,by use of liquid manometric desorbometer gauge.It was observed that,if there are coal subgrains in desorbometer contaminator,the results of desorption rate may be even up to 60% higher than results obtained for the normative sample.Possibly method of the uncertainty reduction are presented in the paper as well.

  11. Finding Poland: Negotiating the local and the global and the semiperipheral identity of Polish SF&F fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Polish science fiction, fantasy, and role-playing game fandom brings to the fore problems of Polish identity and patriotism, as well as views on Polish fandom as a specific local phenomenon and as a part of global pop culture. Polish fandom may be framed as a semiperipheral culture, with fans expressing Polish identity and engaging in strategies of negotiating the global and the local.

  12. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  13. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  14. Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habitats are characterized.

  15. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor&Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson&Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor&Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson&Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusion: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  16. The Polish experience with bank and enterprise restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Negret, Fernando; Luca PAPI

    1997-01-01

    Among transitional economies, Poland was a pioneer in bank and enterprise restructuring, tackling it through innovative pro tempore legislation which linked bank recapitalization to improvements in the bank's operating systems, aiming at increasing efficiency and loan recovery. The approach encouraged banks to play a central role in enterprise restructuring. In this paper, the authors critically and comprehensively analyze the Polish approach, presenting and discussing its pros and cons, desc...

  17. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.;

    2013-01-01

    averaging and/or poor 3D-EBSD data quality. In this work a low kV focused ion beam was successfully implemented to automatically polish surfaces during 3D-EBSD of La- and Nb-doped strontium titanate of volume 12.6 × 12.6 × 3.0 μm. The key to achieving this technique is the combination of a defocused low k...

  18. Ultra-precision figuring using submerged jet polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyan Shi; Jiahu Yuan; Fan Wu; Yongjian Wan

    2011-01-01

    A new removal optimization method called submerged jet polishing (SJP) is reported. Experiments are conducted to obtain the removal shape. Results of SJP indicate that a Gaussian shape removal function can be obtained and that the removal rate is sensitive to variations in the standoff distance. SJP is applied to the corrective figuring of a BK7 optical glass. The flatness is improved from photovolatic (PV) 0.066 A to 0.024 A (A = 632.8 nm) after three iterations, and the root mean square (RMS) value is improved from 0.013 A to 0.00395 A. The experimental result indicates that SJP has a capability for ultra-precision figuring and can be applied in polishing complex-shaped surfaces.%@@ A new removal optimization method called submerged jet polishing(SJP)is reported.Experiments are conducted to obtain the removal shape.Results of SJP indicate that a Gaussian shape removal function can be obtained and that the removal rate is sensitive to variations in the standoff distance.SJP is applied to the corrective figuring of a BK7 optical glass.The flatness is improved from photovolatic(PV)0.066 A to 0.024 λ(λ=632.8 nm)after three iterations,and the root mean square(RMS)value is improved from 0.013 A to 0.00395 A.The experimental result indicates that SJP has a capability for ultra-precision figuring and can be applied in polishing complex-shaped surfaces.

  19. Generalized Exponential Distribution in Flood Frequency Analysis for Polish Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Iwona; Strupczewski, Witold G; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Kochanek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Many distributions have been used in flood frequency analysis (FFA) for fitting the flood extremes data. However, as shown in the paper, the scatter of Polish data plotted on the moment ratio diagram shows that there is still room for a new model. In the paper, we study the usefulness of the generalized exponential (GE) distribution in flood frequency analysis for Polish Rivers. We investigate the fit of GE distribution to the Polish data of the maximum flows in comparison with the inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution, which in our previous studies showed the best fitting among several models commonly used in FFA. Since the use of a discrimination procedure without the knowledge of its performance for the considered probability density functions may lead to erroneous conclusions, we compare the probability of correct selection for the GE and IG distributions along with the analysis of the asymptotic model error in respect to the upper quantile values. As an application, both GE and IG distributions are alternatively assumed for describing the annual peak flows for several gauging stations of Polish Rivers. To find the best fitting model, four discrimination procedures are used. In turn, they are based on the maximized logarithm of the likelihood function (K procedure), on the density function of the scale transformation maximal invariant (QK procedure), on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics (KS procedure) and the fourth procedure based on the differences between the ML estimate of 1% quantile and its value assessed by the method of moments and linear moments, in sequence (R procedure). Due to the uncertainty of choosing the best model, the method of aggregation is applied to estimate of the maximum flow quantiles.

  20. The Adaptive Capabilities of Organizations. Case of Polish Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Ciszewska-Mlinaric

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information gathering and analysis, reaction design and implementation, and activities correction and learning are three types of adaptive capabilities connected to three phases of organizational adaptation to the environment. The primary objective of this article is to present how adaptive capabilities of high and low performers differ. In the second part of the article the key factors influencing the adaptive capabilities of Polish public hospitals will be identified and examined.

  1. Forecasting the Polish zloty with non-linear models

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Rubaszek; Pawel Skrzypczynski; Grzegorz Koloch

    2011-01-01

    The literature on exchange rate forecasting is vast. Many researchers have tested whether implications of theoretical economic models or the use of advanced econometric techniques can help explain future movements in exchange rates. The results of the empirical studies for major world currencies show that forecasts from a naive random walk tend to be comparable or even better than forecasts from more sophisticated models. In the case of the Polish zloty, the discussion in the literature on ex...

  2. Macroeconomic Reasons of Debts in Polish Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Szymańska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Author analyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated: a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocation of health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low level of public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capital and a monopolistic position of the payer.

  3. Generalized Exponential Distribution in Flood Frequency Analysis for Polish Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Iwona; Strupczewski, Witold G.; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Kochanek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Many distributions have been used in flood frequency analysis (FFA) for fitting the flood extremes data. However, as shown in the paper, the scatter of Polish data plotted on the moment ratio diagram shows that there is still room for a new model. In the paper, we study the usefulness of the generalized exponential (GE) distribution in flood frequency analysis for Polish Rivers. We investigate the fit of GE distribution to the Polish data of the maximum flows in comparison with the inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution, which in our previous studies showed the best fitting among several models commonly used in FFA. Since the use of a discrimination procedure without the knowledge of its performance for the considered probability density functions may lead to erroneous conclusions, we compare the probability of correct selection for the GE and IG distributions along with the analysis of the asymptotic model error in respect to the upper quantile values. As an application, both GE and IG distributions are alternatively assumed for describing the annual peak flows for several gauging stations of Polish Rivers. To find the best fitting model, four discrimination procedures are used. In turn, they are based on the maximized logarithm of the likelihood function (K procedure), on the density function of the scale transformation maximal invariant (QK procedure), on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics (KS procedure) and the fourth procedure based on the differences between the ML estimate of 1% quantile and its value assessed by the method of moments and linear moments, in sequence (R procedure). Due to the uncertainty of choosing the best model, the method of aggregation is applied to estimate of the maximum flow quantiles. PMID:26657239

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  5. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  6. Organization of BBMRI.pl: The Polish Biobanking Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoń, Małgorzata; Strapagiel, Dominik; Gleńska-Olender, Joanna; Chróścicka, Anna; Ferdyn, Katarzyna; Skokowski, Jarosław; Kalinowski, Leszek; Pawlikowski, Jakub; Marciniak, Błażej; Pasterk, Markus; Matera-Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kozera, Łukasz

    2017-01-19

    In Poland storage of human biological samples takes place at most universities and scientific institutions conducting research projects in the field of biomedicine. The First International Biobanking Conference organized by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in 2014 shed a light on the situation of Polish biobanking infrastructures. The country has around 40 large biorepositories, which store unique biological material such as whole brains, muscle fibers from patients with rare diseases, as well as thousands of samples from patients with lifestyle diseases. There are only two population-based biobanks working locally and several disease-oriented biobanks specializing mainly in oncological diseases. Consortium BBMRI.pl created plans for establishing a Polish Network of Biobanks, with national node which meets standards for biobanks and cooperation to guarantee development of biomedical sciences and international collaboration between Poland and other countries. The Polish network will enhance research activities, due to better visibility of samples and data that are stored in the national biobanking catalogue. However, it requires more than a comprehensive understanding of all benefits. The list of examples of benefits can be presented as follows: (i) a reduction of the duration and cost of clinical trials and subsequent time to market for anticancer drugs; (ii) more precise patient diagnosis and the associated impact on treatment and lower healthcare costs for providers, individuals, and the nation; (iii) improvements in research experiment time frames and data efficiencies; (iv) convergence to an industry standards for biospecimen quality; (v) optimization of capital infrastructure and IT technology.

  7. TWENTY FIVE YEARS OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Polish Society of Ecological Engineering (PTIE was founded in 1990 and received its legal personality in the same year. It is a continuation of the Polish Committee for Development and Environment Protection (established in 1972 within the framework of the Chief Technical Organization (now Federation of Engineering Associations. The main objective of the PTIE establishment was taking action to adapt to the requirements of economic development environmental protection development. The statutory objectives of PTIE are realized through experts activity and paper publication. In terms of content PTIE activity focuses on popularizing rational use and conservation of natural environment and earth’s natural resources. With the current rapid advances in science, technique, dynamic economic development and overexploitation of natural resources, environmental engineering and its activities in line with the state of environmental policy it contributes to the so-called sustainable development, protection, adapts and creates the conditions necessary for human life, plants and animals. The Society currently has a well-established position in the world of science by issuing two scientific magazines in Polish and English. It cooperates with various research and educational centers, industries and as well as with local government, administration and state in solving local environmental economic problems. This paper presents the rise and activity of PTIE and major Society achievements in the years 1990–2015.

  8. The pharmaceutical care in asthma - Polish and global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieczkowski, Damian; Poniatowski, Patryk; Merks, Piotr; Jaguszewski, Milosz

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical care is a pharmacist's contribution to the care of individual patients and leads to optimize the use of drugs. The pharmaceutical care may improve adherence, clinical effectiveness of providing therapy and improve the health-related quality of life. The conducted literature review confirmed that pharmaceutical care and advanced pharmaceutical services are clinical effective in asthma. The implementation of pharmaceutical care under Polish conditions is currently insufficient and remains challenging for the future. Herein we should admit, that the polish government has recently put an effort to appoint specially dedicated team establishing a program of reimbursed pharmaceutical care. This move should be considered as a new phase for amendments community pharmacy in Poland. The experience of different health care systems, including for instance United Kingdom, Australia or Canada, might be used in the process of changing Polish perspective. Herein, we have reviewed the literature and highlighted the services creating the program of pharmaceutical care in asthma. This unique work describes the complex nature of optimal pharmaceutical services emphasizing the strong necessity of multidimensional approach in this field.

  9. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change.

  10. The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecke, Steffi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates institutional change in the Polish public science system (PPSS) in the past twenty years. Employing macro-statistical data, the paper argues that this change process has unfolded stepwise and relatively late despite major political and economic transformations in post-socialist Poland. Using a historical-institutionalist perspective, the paper focuses on processes of institutional change, including layering, displacement, and dismantling. One major finding is that the speed and depth of the gradual transformation differs considerably between the three research performing sectors of the Polish public science system. As the Polish Academy of Sciences was reproduced institutionally, the former governmental units for applied R&D were partly dismantled and displaced by private sector R&D units. In contrast, the Higher Education sector underwent a strong expansion and, thus, layering of new research activities and fields. Since policy shifts within the PPSS occurred relatively late, the more than two decades following the collapse of communism are of special interest to scholars of incremental, yet cumulative, institutional change. PMID:27077386

  11. Research of polishing process to control the iron contamination on the magnetorheological finished KDP crystal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoshan; Li, Shengyi; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Hao; Tie, Guipeng

    2015-02-20

    A new nonaqueous and abrasive-free magnetorheological finishing (MRF) method is adopted for processing a KDP crystal. MRF polishing is easy to result in the embedding of carbonyl iron (CI) powders; meanwhile, Fe contamination on the KDP crystal surface will affect the laser induced damage threshold seriously. This paper puts forward an appropriate MRF polishing process to avoid the embedding. Polishing results show that the embedding of CI powders can be avoided by controlling the polishing parameters. Furthermore, on the KDP crystal surface, magnetorheological fluids residua inevitably exist after polishing and in which the Fe contamination cannot be removed completely by initial ultrasonic cleaning. To solve this problem, a kind of ion beam figuring (IBF) polishing is introduced to remove the impurity layer. Then the content of Fe element contamination and the depth of impurity elements are measured by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The measurement results show that there are no CI powders embedding in the MRF polished surface and no Fe contamination after the IBF polishing process, respectively. That verifies the feasibility of MRF polishing-IBF polishing (cleaning) for processing a KDP crystal.

  12. Media events and their impact on Polish national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja.S. Klisinski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The author emphasizes in the article that great media event which has been arranged and organized by the authorities (e.g. the European Championship on the football Euro-2012 has a direct impact on the growth of national brand popularity in the international ranking. In particular, the positive results of the arrangement of the European Championship Euro-2012 have been analyzed in the article. The problems of recognizing of Polish trade brands and logos are explored. Media events and brand-leaders are considered. The championship Euro-2012 has been also viewed as a media event in the article. The status of the Polish national brand has been investigated. The results of the analysis. It has been revealed that inhabitants of such three Polish provinces as Lyubuskij, Lodzinskij and Kuyavsko-Pomorskij are the most benefited from the European Championship. Such benefits were the result of investing into the road projects. It will be enough to look at the motorway network. Lyubuskij province it is A2, Kuyavsko-Pomorskij province – A1, Lodzinskij one is intersection of the both above mentioned motorways. When the roads are being built, the people who sell the land enrich, as well as the building companies and their local subcontractors. The investment attractiveness of the by-the-road territories is growing up. The plants, logistic centers, inks, motels, filling stations also appear. But, first of all, Poland has gained benefits and the value of its national brand has attained a high 20th place. Euro-2012 as a one of the four world biggest sports events which has been arranged once a four-year cycle had a favorable impact on the Polish brand, significantly improved Polish «soft power». It is the ability to achieve goals with the help of different methods from the power supported by geopolitical and economic factors (so called «hard power». Conclusions and directions of futher researches. The authors plan to explore the

  13. Surface roughness evaluation based on acoustic emission signals in robot assisted polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agustina, Beatriz; Marín, Marta María; Teti, Roberto; Rubio, Eva María

    2014-11-14

    The polishing process is the most common technology used in applications where a high level of surface quality is demanded. The automation of polishing processes is especially difficult due to the high level of skill and dexterity that is required. Much of this difficulty arises because of the lack of reliable data on the effect of the polishing parameters on the resulting surface roughness. An experimental study was developed to evaluate the surface roughness obtained during Robot Assisted Polishing processes by the analysis of acoustic emission signals in the frequency domain. The aim is to find out a trend of a feature or features calculated from the acoustic emission signals detected along the process. Such an evaluation was made with the objective of collecting valuable information for the establishment of the end point detection of polishing process. As a main conclusion, it can be affirmed that acoustic emission (AE) signals can be considered useful to monitor the polishing process state.

  14. Surface Roughness Evaluation Based on Acoustic Emission Signals in Robot Assisted Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Agustina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The polishing process is the most common technology used in applications where a high level of surface quality is demanded. The automation of polishing processes is especially difficult due to the high level of skill and dexterity that is required. Much of this difficulty arises because of the lack of reliable data on the effect of the polishing parameters on the resulting surface roughness. An experimental study was developed to evaluate the surface roughness obtained during Robot Assisted Polishing processes by the analysis of acoustic emission signals in the frequency domain. The aim is to find out a trend of a feature or features calculated from the acoustic emission signals detected along the process. Such an evaluation was made with the objective of collecting valuable information for the establishment of the end point detection of polishing process. As a main conclusion, it can be affirmed that acoustic emission (AE signals can be considered useful to monitor the polishing process state.

  15. Polish system of education in maritime health care and medical assistance for seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodnik, Tomasz; Jeżewska, Maria; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kotłowski, Andrzej; Leszczyńska, Irena; Grubman-Nowak, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The Polish public awareness of the crucial importance of the own maritime economy to the very existenceof the national state has its historical reasons. The Polish maritime involvement has seen several dramaticcrises, but the Polish nationals have become an established group in the global marine trade workforceand are entitled to the proper health care. In this paper the main maritime health issues are mentioned.To meet the issues, also the national education system provides the opportunities for both seafarers andmedical professionals. The Polish doctors can specialise in the maritime medicine. In many cases the generalmedicine students formations include these topics as well. The psychological aspects are also takeninto account, both of the education of the seafarers and the organisational structure of the Polish healthcare system. Some recent aspects of the Polish participation in the international cooperation in the fieldof the medical support of the maritime economy are also described.

  16. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Minimal surface roughness is a critical feature for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used to engineer particle accelerators. Current methods for polishing Niobium cavities typically utilize solutions containing a mixture of concentrated sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Polishing processes such as these are effective, yet there are many hazards and costs associated with the use (and safe disposal) of the concentrated acid solutions. An alternative method for electrochemical polishing of the cavities was explored using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride. Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the ionic polishing solution. Final surface roughness of the Nb was found to be comparable to that of the acid-polishing method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This indicates that ionic liquid-based electrochemical polishing of Nb is a viable replacement for acid-based methods for preparation of SRF cavities.

  17. Magnetorheology of xanthan-gum-coated soft magnetic carbonyl iron microspheres and their polishing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Lee, Jung Won; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myeong Woo

    2013-06-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are colloidal suspensions of soft magnetic particles dispersed in a non-magnetic liquid. Among their applications, MR polishing has attracted considerable attention owing to its smart control of the polishing characteristics for dedicated microelectromechanical system applications. To improve the polishing characteristics of MR fluids, we fabricated carbonyl iron (CI) microspheres coated with xanthan gum (XG) by using a solvent casting method. The morphologies and densities of both pure CI and CI/XG particles were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a pycnometer, respectively. In addition, the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids under various applied magnetic field strengths were examined using a rotational rheometer. The MR polishing characteristics were conducted using an MR polishing machine to examine the surface roughness and the material removal by MR polishing with added nano-ceria slurry abrasives.

  18. Chances and restrictions for farms situated on areas with environmental restrictions - data from Polish FADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Niewęgłowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the higher environmental biodiversity of Poland in comparison to Europe and due of fact that 32.5% share of all areas are protected by Polish nature protection law – it is very important to make an analyis about managing on these areas. There are a lot of restrictions in the Polish nature protection law. Farm owners are obliged to manage their farms due to Polish nature protection law. Farmers operating on that areas ought to play double role on agrarian market. They are producers of Polish food with high quality first and they are managers of Polish landscape and biodiversity – second. Because of that there is a very important thing to find out how they manage the environmental in protected areas. Data source for this issue was Polish FADN. There are very interesting results from this issue but they are only the first data because they are from one year.

  19. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.

  20. Towards an American Model of Criminal Process: The Reform of the Polish Code of Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roclawska Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, the Polish Parliament passed an amendment to the Code of Criminal Procedure. The legislators decided to expand a number of adversarial elements present in current Polish criminal proceedings. When these changes come into effect (July 1, 2015, Polish criminal procedure will be similar to American regulations, in which the judge’s role is to be an impartial arbitrator, not an investigator.

  1. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  2. The Effect of Electrochemical Polishing Time on Surface Topography of Mild Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-cheng; ZHU Jin-hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the variation of the altitude density function (ADF) and the autocorrelation function (ACF) about the surface profile of mild steel during electrochemical polishing (ECP). The results show that the variation features of ADF with polishing time are flat-steep-flat, and the variation features of ACF with polishing time are random-regular-random. There is a fine surface smoothness at the special period of ECP. Both the original surface and the full ECP surface show an obvious roughness.

  3. Effect of electrochemical polishing time on surface topography of mild steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baocheng Wang; Jinhua Zhu

    2007-01-01

    The variation in altitude density function (ADF) of the surface topography of mild steel during electrochemical polishing (ECP) was investigated, and the mechanism of the variation of surface roughness with polishing time was analyzed. The results show that the variation trend of ADF with polishing time is flat-steep-flat; the variation of surface roughness results in the different distributions of surface current density, and there is a fine surface smoothness in the special period of ECP from 4 to 8 s.

  4. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  5. Higher Magnification Imaging of the Polished Aluminum Collector Returned from the Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Burkett, P. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The polished aluminum collector (previously referred to as the polished aluminum kidney) was intended for noble gas analysis for the Gene-sis mission. The aluminum collector, fabricated from alloy 6061T, was polished for flight with alumina, then diamond paste. Final cleaning was performed by soak-ing and rinsing with hexane, then isopropanol, and last-ly megasonically energized ultrapure water prior to installation. It was mounted inside the collector canister on the thermal shield at JSC in 2000. The polished aluminum collector was not surveyed microscopically prior to flight.

  6. Research progress in tribo-electrochemistry and tribo-electrochemical polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Wenjie

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the status quo and recent progress in the research on tribo-electrochemistry in aqueous and non-aqueous media, respectively, are reviewed. Much more attention has been paid to the tribo-electrochemical mechanisms for the control of friction and wear. Based on a summary of the conventional polishing principles of hard and brittle materials, the tribo-electrochemical polishing method is proposed. The results of the preliminary test show that tribo-electrochemical polishing is promising to become a critical technology in the high efficient polishing and planarization of microelectronic materials.

  7. Experimental Study on the Effects of Alumina Abrasive Particle Behavior in MR Polishing for MEMS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Shin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the magnetorheological (MR polishing process has been examined asa new ultra-precision polishing technology for micro parts in MEMS applications. In theMR polishing process, the magnetic force plays a dominant role. This method uses MRfluids which contains micro abrasives as a polishing media. The objective of the presentresearch is to shed light onto the material removal mechanism under various slurryconditions for polishing and to investigate surface characteristics, including shape analysisand surface roughness measurement, of spots obtained from the MR polishing process usingalumina abrasives. A series of basic experiments were first performed to determine theoptimum polishing conditions for BK7 glass using prepared slurries by changing the processparameters, such as wheel rotating speed and electric current. Using the obtained results,groove polishing was then performed and the results are investigated. Outstanding surfaceroughness of Ra=3.8nm was obtained on the BK7 glass specimen. The present resultshighlight the possibility of applying this polishing method to ultra-precision micro partsproduction, especially in MEMS applications.

  8. Effect of polishing on the microleakage of three different restorative materials: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of polishing systems on the microleakage of three different restorative materials (Ketac Molar Easymix, Ketac N100 and Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction of 60 freshly extracted premolars. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into three groups and restored with the three materials. The restored teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week. The restored teeth were then divided into two subgroups (polished and not polished of 10. Finishing and polishing of the polished group was done using the Sof-Lex polishing system. Furthermore, all the restorations were subjected to dye penetration testing. Results: Results showed that maximum microleakage was observed for the not polished group of Filtek P90 and least levels of microleakage were seen for the polished group of Ketac Molar Easymix. Conclusion: There was a significant difference seen when Ketac Molar Easymix was compared with Ketac N100 and Filtek P90 in terms of the extent of microleakage exhibited on polishing of the three materials; with the former exhibiting the least microleakage scores.

  9. Polymorphism of the PrP prion protein gene in Polish Merino and old-type Polish Merino from Brylewo flock

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    Niżnikowski Roman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on Polish Merino (143♀ and 39♂ and old-type Polish Merino sheep (176♀ and 61♂ in Brylewo flock (Wielkopolskie Province. The examined sheep were at the age of one year. Prion protein (PrP genotype was determined in all animals. In both breeds four alleles (ARR, ARQ, AHQ, VRQ were found. Highly significant effect of breed and insignificant impact of gender within breed was observed in regard to the frequency of occurrence of alleles and genotypes susceptible to classical scrapie in the sheep. Eight different PrP genotypes in Polish Merino and nine genotypes in old-type Polish Merino were identified. Very high frequency of ARR/ARR genotype in old-type Polish Merino and high frequency of ARR/ARQ genotype in Polish Merino were found, with relatively significant frequency of occurrence of the genotypes containing VRQ allele. In old-type Polish Merino, three animals (of both genders had VRQ/VRQ genotype. Breeding work involving elimination of animals encoding valine at codon 136, and introduction of rams with ARR allele to the population increased the frequency of occurrence of ARR/ARR genotype and ARR allele in the population of old-type Polish Merino. To improve the distribution of the genotypes genetically resistant to scrapie in the flock of Polish Merino only rams with ARR/ARR genotype were left. This guarantees an increase in the frequency of occurrence of genotypes genetically resistant to scrapie in the offspring.

  10. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

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    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  11. Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian

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    Roman Roszko

    2015-11-01

    To analyse both the languages there is used the method of theoretical contrastive studies, which the most important features are: (1 orienting the studies from the content grounds to the formal grounds, (2 using a semantic interlanguage as tertium comparationis. First of all, the content of hypothetical modality and its definition and paraphrase is given here. Next, the gradational character of this category is discussed. There are distinguished six groups of lexemes expressing the corresponding degrees of hypothetical modality — from a shadow of uncertainty (minimal degree of probability to an almost complete certainty (maximum degree of probability. The experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus is widely applied in the studies.

  12. ESTIMATION OF RISK NEUTRAL MEASURE FOR POLISH STOCK MARKET

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    Paweł Kliber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the application of risk neutral measure estimation in the analysis of the index WIG20 from Polish stock market. The risk neutral measure is calculated from the process of the options on that index. We assume that risk neutral measure is the mixture of lognormal distributions. The parameters of the distributions are estimated by minimizing the sum of squares of pricing errors. Obtained results are then compared with the model based on a single lognormal distribution. As an example we consider changes in risk neutral distribution at the beginning of March 2014, after the outbreak of political crisis in the Crimea.

  13. Polish Decadence: Leopold Staff's Igrzysko in the European Context

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    Julia Przybos

    2012-03-01

    expression. It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and patriotism had been effectively fused in Polish national conscience. In this charged political context a Polish author revisiting Church dogma or tradition was at risk of being perceived not only as a religious outcast but also as a traitor to the cause of Polish independence. To test my hypothesis I propose to examine Igrzysko (Game, a forgotten play by Leopold Staff. Admired today chiefly as a poet, the young Staff wrote Igrzysko in Poland after a long sojourn in Paris where he had lived among the international crowd of fin de siècle writers and artists. The play was first produced in Lemberg in 1909 and after a few performances vanished forever from Polish theatrical repertoire. Leopold Staff's play is set in ancient Rome and depicts tribulations of an actor who, while impersonating a Christian awaiting crucifixion, converts to Christianity. In his play, Staff revives the legend of Saint Genesius, an actor in Arles who died a martyr's death in 286 under Diocletian. In Spain, Saint Genesius's legend inspired Lope de Vega who wrote Acting is Believing (Lo fingido verdadero, 1607. In France, it was the source for Jean Rotrou's Saint Genest (1646. All told, the legend of Genesius is a popular theme for artists who wish to explore the distinction between art and life. An important addition to this old tradition, Staff's play contains, however, a decadent and potentially scandalous twist. Unlike in Acting is Believing and Saint Genest, the protagonist's conversion is very short

  14. Body Composition and Somatotype of the Elite of Polish Fencers

    OpenAIRE

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in épée (n=10), foil (n=10) and sabre (n=10). They were aged 23.3±2.9; their length of training was 12.6±2.5 years, with the f...

  15. Polish cement industry cartel - preliminary examination of collusion existence

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    Sylwester Bejger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a case of a cartel in Polish cement industry. Short description of the industry and characteristics of the cartel with its fundamental illegal practices, market sharing and price fixing, have been done. We focused on examination of possibility of detection of a cartel-like behavior of players in an industry on a basis of cartel markers' evaluation, using statistical data we can actually obtain. On a basis of examination of market shares of players and price/supply processes we found distinctive, theoretically motivated patterns characteristic for collusive equilibrium in an industry.

  16. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

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    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.

  17. HOW STRONG IS POLISH FOOTBALL? "HOST PARADOX" IN FIFA'S RANKING

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    Marek M. Kamiński

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes unintiutive properties (paradoxes of the FIFA's ranking of national football teams. The most surprising phenomenon is underrating the teams of the main championship tournament hosts. This "host effect" follows the absence of hosts in preliminaries and the resulting restriction of hosts' pre-tournament matches to friendlies that enter the FIFA system with low weights. Various models built with the FIFA data allow to estimate that the place of the Polish team as a host of Euro 2012 was lowered from 16 to 35 positions.

  18. Does Polishing a Rifle Bore Reduce Bullet Drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    thus lower drag. A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat...drag on the bullets. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ballistic coefficient, aerodynamic drag, rifle bore, bore polishing, Remington 700 5R 16. SECURITY...A Remington 700 5R Mil-Spec chambered in 300 Winchester Magnum was used. The bullets used were a 155.5 grain Berger Fullbore Boat Tail and a 125

  19. Polish banking system during the global financial crisis

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    Edward Wiszniowski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lasting for over a year the global crisis in financial markets, affected individual countries’ banking systems to a different degree. The present article discusses the phenomenon and its effects on the Polish banking system. The aim of the article is to present trends, the scale of the crisis and the current level of danger to stability of domestic financial market. The result of the research is a synthetic estimation of the level of the financial sector stability, taking into account the risks to solvency, liquidity, profitability, and quality loan portfolio and changes in deposits.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF SLOVAKIAN AND POLISH HONEY HAVING REGARD TO THE WATER ACTIVITY AND WATER CONTENT

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    Miroslava Kačániová

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present of this study aimed to characterize forty honeys from apiarists available in the Slovakian and Polish apiarists in respect to microbial quality. The chemical parameters as water activity and water content of each honey sample were obtained to differentiate them, because these two factors are important of microorganisms contamination. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect against two pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus and one yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also studied. Concerning the chemical parameters, honey samples were found to meet European Legislation (EC Directive 2001/110 except for water content of four samples. Microbiologically, the commercial quality was considered good and all samples showed to be negative in respect to safety parameters. The antimicrobial activities of honey samples were tested by 10%, 25% and 50% (by mass per volume concentration. The strongest antimicrobial effect was shown by 50% honey concentration against Escherichia coli.

  1. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations.

  2. Electrolyte composition and removal mechanism of Cu electrochemical mechanical polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边燕飞; 翟文杰; 程媛媛; 朱宝全; 王金虎

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of electrolytes and the material removal mechanisms for Cu electrochemical mechanical planarization (ECMP) at different pH values including 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (TTA), hydroxyethylidenediphosphoric acid (HEDP), and tribasic ammonium citrate (TAC) were investigated by electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis, nano-scratch tests, AFM measurements, and polishing of Cu-coated blanket wafers. The experimental results show that the planarization efficiency and the surface quality after ECMP obtained in alkali-based solutions are superior to that in acidic-based solutions, especially at pH=8. The optimal electrolyte compositions (mass fraction) are 6% HEDP, 0.3% TTA and 3% TAC at pH=8. The main factor affecting the thickness of the oxide layer formed during ECMP process is the applied potential. The soft layer formation is a major mechanism for electrochemical enhanced mechanical abrasion. The surface topography evolution before and after electrochemical polishing (ECP) illustrates the mechanism of mechanical abrasion accelerating electrochemical dissolution, that is, the residual stress caused by the mechanical wear enhances the electrochemical dissolution rate. This understanding is beneficial for optimization of ECMP processes.

  3. Optical characterization of polished Mo2C foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jacob; Geerts, W.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Gutierrez; Radican, K.; Rivera, N.; Holland, P.; Givens, J.; Oyama, Ted

    2003-03-01

    Mo_2C has been in use by industry for a number of years, however its optical properties are previously uncharacterized with no reports of experimentally obtained values for the refraction index(n) and extinction coefficient(k). Toward the goal of identifying the values for these properties several tests are performed on a Molybdenum foil carburized in a stream of 20 molar CH4 in H2 at 1373K. The surface of the sample is polished to an optically flat finish using several diamond disks in an Allied High Tech polisher. X-ray data shows that the remaining surface material is Mo_2C. Ψ and Δ are measured with a Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer from 190 to 1700nm. Then n, k, and reflectance are calculated using FilmWizard. The spectra for refraction, extinction, and reflectance of Mo_2C differ greatly from those reported for Mo. Generally they exhibit a quasi-linear character increasing with wavelength with structures in the red and blue parts of the spectra.

  4. Historical Roots of Generalized Trust in Polish Society

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    Borowiecki Łukasz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses how historical events shape generalized trust in contemporary Polish society. The analysis consists of a set of logistic regression models. The impact of historical variables is controlled for age, sex, education and the size of the municipality. This is the first quantitative study on Poland that links historical events with the current levels of trust among Polish citizens. The common knowledge is that the Partitions of Poland had negative impact on trust. Literature on the topic hints that historical demo? graphics should play a role too. The findings suggest that Partitions had little impact with only Greater Poland and Pomerania having lower levels of generalized trust. Historical literacy rate and the presence of Ukrainian or Belarusian population are negatively associated with generalized trust while the abrupt migrations after the World War I are positively associated. The rapid character of migration is supposed to positively impact generalized trust by forcing individuals to cooperate and rely on people with whom they have no personal ties.

  5. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis.

  6. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Spleen examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Joanna; Walas, Maria Krystyna

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasound scan of the spleen is an integral part of the overall abdominal examination. Due to its anatomical position, physical examination of the spleen is frequently supplemented with an ultrasound which plays a special role in the differential diagnostics of splenic diseases and facilitates the determination of further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Similarly to other types of ultrasound scans, the examiner should be familiar with all significant clinical information as well as results of examinations and tests conducted so far. This enables to narrow the scope of search for etiological factors and indicate specific disease entities in the findings as well as allows for accurate assessment of coexistent pathologies. The article presents the standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society concerning the apparatus, preparation for the examination, technique and description of the findings. The authors discuss the normal anatomy of the spleen and the most common pathologies ranging from splenomegaly to splenic traumas. The indications for the contrast-enhanced ultrasound and characteristic patterns of enhancement of individual focal lesions are presented. This article is supplemented with photographic documentation, which provides images of the discussed lesions. The ultrasound examination, if carried out in compliance with current standards, allows for accurate interpretation of detected changes. This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasound Examination Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated with the current knowledge.

  7. THE LOW PRICE EFFECT ON THE POLISH MARKET

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    Adam Zaremba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the characteristics of the low price anomaly, which implies higher returns to stocks with a low nominal price. The research aims to broaden academic knowledge in a few ways. Firstly, we deliver some fresh evidence on the low price effect from the Polish market. Secondly, we analyze the interdependence between the low price effect and other return factors: value, size and liquidity. Thirdly, we investigate whether the low price effect is present after accounting for liquidity. Fourthly, we check to see whether the low price effect is robust to transaction costs. The paper is composed of three main sections. In the beginning, we review the existing literature. Next, we present the data sources and research methods employed. Finally, we discuss our research findings. Our computations are based on all the stocks listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE in the years 2003-2013. We have concluded that the low price effect is present on the Polish market, although the statistical significance is very weak and it disappears entirely after accounting for transaction costs and liquidity.

  8. Semen analysis standardization: is there any problem in Polish laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Filipiak, Eliza; Bergier, Leszek; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of compliance of Polish laboratories with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, with regard to semen analysis methodology. A survey requesting information about methods of semen analysis was distributed to employees of 55 laboratories. Respondents who had participated in external seminological workshops (31%) were termed certified respondents (CR), the remaining (69%)-non-certified respondents (NCR). Only one laboratory (6%) in the CR group and none in the NCR were compliant with WHO guidelines for methods and equipment used to evaluate seminal volume, sperm motility, concentration, vitality and morphology. Most problems were of volume measurement (weighing method was reported by 17% of CR and 10% of NCR) and staining method for sperm morphology (Papanicolau or Diff-Quik were found in 33% of CR and 23% of NCR). A three- or four-point grading of sperm motility was used by the majority of respondents; however, 17% of CR and 37% of NCR did not use a laboratory counter to tally spermatozoa. Although a haemocytometer method was used by 80% of laboratories in each group, the improved Neubauer chamber was used only by 42% of CR and 19% of NCR. In each group, 24% of laboratories did not perform a vitality test. Procedural errors and the interchangeable utilization of two or even three methods to analyse a given parameter was observed in both groups. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the methods and continuous, unified training in semen analysis in Polish laboratories.

  9. The third mission of Polish universities: Theory and practice

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    Jolanta Buczek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish universities have three missions to fulfill: education, research activities, and building relationships with the environment. This paper addresses issues related to the implementation of the last two, with emphasis on the collaboration between universities and the environment. The scientific research market is comprised of universities (supply, business enterprises (demand and the regulatory sector. Hence, the presented study first contains a brief description of the parties active in the research market, complemented by a practical look at the commercialization of research results. The authors conducted interviews with university faculty, who are professionally engaged in the commercialization of research. Internal procedures were analyzed, as well as strategies and regulations in force in this area. As a result of these interviews and analyses a catalog was generated of methods and strategies of commercialization of research and barriers that inhibit this process. The main conclusion of analyses is that Polish science and development policy is tasked with stimulation of activity of all the respective interest groups in the scientific research market, i.e. private entities in the financing of the R&D sector and the motivation of universities as well. Further improvements in legislative, educational, financial and fiscal solutions remain key challenges in Poland.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  11. Effects of Different Polishing Protocols on Lithium Disilicate Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia Mara da; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado de; Silva, Eduardo Galera da; Pagani, Clóvis

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polishing protocols on surface roughness and morphology of lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS e.max CAD). Fifty ceramic bars (2.0x3.0x2.5 mm) were produced and randomly divided into five groups (n=10), according to surface treatments: C: Control; Cer: Ceramaster (60 s); CW: cloth wheel with large-grit diamond (30 s) + cloth wheel with fine-grit diamond paste (30 s); E: grey Exa-Cerapol (20 s) + pink Exa-Cerapol (20 s) + Cerapol Super (20 s); F: Felt wheel with large-grit diamond paste (30 s) + Felt wheel with fine-grit diamond paste (30 s). The samples were evaluated quantitatively for surface roughness (Ra) and qualitatively by SEM, at different moments: initial (prior to roughening), after roughening and after polishing procedures. Ra means were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (ppolishing protocols, no statistically significant differences were observed between the Cer and E groups (p=0.6347), E and CW groups (p=0.1366), and CW and FW groups (p=0.5433). Comparing different stages in the same group, it was possible to observe that CW (ppolishing systems were effective in reducing the surface roughness of the studied ceramic type.

  12. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  13. Prototype segments polishing and testing for ELT M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo, Jacques; Chouarche, Laurent; Chaussat, Gilles; Hamy, Anne-Laure; Carel, Jean-Louis; Pernet, Bruno; Billet, Jacques; Leplan, Hervé; Ruch, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Sagem - Reosc has been awarded by ESO a contract for the manufacturing and testing of seven prototype segments of the E-ELT primary mirror in 2008. The purpose of this contract was to demonstrate the ability to produce aspherical off-axis hexagonal segments with very little edge effect and very high quality wavefront error and plan the production of the 931 segments needed for the primary mirror and spares. The manufacturing of the prototype segments is now completed. They have been delivered. Sagem has achieved for the best segment integrated on its support an overall surface error of 23 nm RMS and 6 nm RMS after removal of the allowed amount of Focus, Astigmatism and Trefoil. This article will present the process developped by Sagem and its performance. Sagem has also assessed the performances of an alternate manufacturing process based on the polishing of the segments under stress conditions (Stress Mirror Polishing). The results obtained by this process will also be presented.

  14. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency.

  15. Polish Government policy for coal (1989-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotr Zientara

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and assess the consecutive Governments' policy for coal (1989-2006) in the context of the systemic transformation of the Polish economy. The paper presents a critical analysis of the rationale and effectiveness of government efforts to restructure the Polish coal mining industry in the light of economic theory, published literature, and a survey of three collieries. Some parallels, toutes proportions gardees, are drawn between the situation in the UK under Margaret Thatcher and that in Poland. The paper argues that, despite throwing billions of zlotys at the industry in the form of direct subsidies and debt write-offs, decision makers failed to make the collieries economically sound. The weaknesses of the consecutive governments - manifesting itself, amongst other things, in the unwillingness and/or inability to confront the miners' unions, to introduce market mechanisms into the sector, to ensure competent management and, crucially, to press on with nationwide economic liberalisation - are seen as the principal reasons behind the failure.

  16. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  17. Influence of Polish Arms, Armour and Militaria on Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenkiewicz, Z. S.

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to approximately the 15th century the arms and the armament of a Polish knight were very similar in style to those used in the west: heavy Armour, heavy sword, and heavy horse. However, in the face of the continuous attacks by Tartars, and later on Turks, on Polish territories, the enemy consisting of very light cavalry, on small but very quick and manageable horses, the heavy knights were of little use. Long before the 15th century the armament and the tactics had to be slowly modified and adapted to the enemy's armament and stratagems.

    Hasta antes del siglo XV, las armas y armamento de los caballeros polacos eran muy similares en estilo a los utilizados en Occidente: una pesada armadura, una pesada espada, un pesado caballo. Sin embargo, frente a los contínuos ataques al territorio polaco, primero de los tártaros y posteriormente de los turcos, utilizando una caballería muy ligera montando caballos de pequeño tamaño pero muy rápidos y manejables, los caballeros tan pesadamente armados eran de poca utilidad. Tácticas y armamento hubieron de adaptarse a las del enemigo. [traducido por la redacción

  18. GMOs IN THE POLISH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES CONSUMER AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Jabłońska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of GMOs brings numerous benefi ts at the same time raising fears of threats to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to present the way GMOs are perceived by fruit and vegetables consumers, their attitude to genetic manipulations and knowledge of the presence of GMOs on the Polish food market. A survey conducted among 200 people served to accomplish this aim. The research shows that the majority of the respondents see GM foods as hazardous to health and they refuse to buy transgenic fruit and vegetables. At the same time 80% of them do not have suffi cient knowledge about GMOs, their cultivation and presence on the market as GM food. This also refers to a group of people with a university degree. As many as 1/3 of the surveyed do not know whether GMOs are present on the Polish market, and only 9% indicated GMOs share of over 60% of the market, while nearly 70% of the respondents pointed to the presence of transgenic fruit and vegetables, listing a number of their species. This shows the need for widespread education and dissemination activities. 

  19. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubacz, K.; Chalupnik, S. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Laboratory of Radiometry

    2001-07-01

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish underground mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31is used to measure the radon progeny concentration in air. This unit proceeds together with the cyclone, the separator of the respirable fraction in the dust sampler. The cyclone causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of the short lived radon progeny that can play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. Measurements of the unattached fraction were done with help of the alpha spectroscopy system and special kind of metal grids called diffusion battery screens that are designated to separate the unattached fraction. Results of the survey show that the average ratio of unattached to attached fractions is at level 3-5% in Polish coal mines. But it may cause the significant increase in the dose equivalent, due to these calculations at least 15-20% in comparison with dose equivalent caused by attached fraction 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Hazard Classification of Household Chemical Products in Korea according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and labeling of Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Dae-Jong; Yu, Myeong-Hyun; Park, Yuon-Shin; Noh, Hye-Ran; Kim, Hae-Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to review the validity of the need for the application of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) to household chemical products in Korea. The study also aimed to assess the severity of health and environmental hazards of household chemical products using the GHS. Methods 135 products were classified as ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ and 98 products were classified as ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides....

  1. Speech Processing Application Based on Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Piotr

    The article presents methods of improving speech processing based on phonetics and phonology of Polish language. The new presented method for speech recognition was based on detection of distinctive acoustic parameters of phonemes in Polish language. Distinctivity has been assumed as the most important selection of parameters, which have represented objects from recognized classes. Speech recognition is widely used in telecommunications applications.

  2. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  3. Influence of noble gas ion polishing species on extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den A.J.R.; Zoethout, E.; Makhotkin, I.A.; Louis, E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2012-01-01

    Low energy ion polishing is attractive in thin films because of the small interaction zone with the treated material. In this context, various noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been applied for low energy ion polishing of interfaces in nanoscale optical Mo/Si multilayers in order to mitigate the

  4. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

  5. The Impact of Temperature on Anaerobic Biological Perchlorate Removal and Aerobic Polishing of the Effluent - paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    This abstract describes a pilot-scale evaluation of anaerobic biological perchlorate (C1O4) removal followed by aerobic effluent polishing. The anaerobic biological contactor operated for 3.5 years. During that period, two effluent polishing evaluations, lasting 311 an...

  6. Knowledge and knowledge bases in the learning process of Polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses how Polish companies face the trend of globalisation and cope with competition from companies in the West, and innovate their production continuously......The article discusses how Polish companies face the trend of globalisation and cope with competition from companies in the West, and innovate their production continuously...

  7. Holocaust Education in Polish Public Schools: Between Remembrance and Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milerski, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the historical and political context of Holocaust education, and its implementation in Polish schools. Perceptions of the Holocaust continue to change, influenced by Poland's social and political situation. The Polish historical context is quite specific; it includes the long history of Poles and Jews as neighbors, with local…

  8. The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Evaluations among Polish-Born Adolescents Learning English: Evidence from Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lynn; Schleef, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve full native-like competence in a second language, speakers must also acquire sociolinguistic awareness in that language. This paper reports the results of a study investigating the acquisition of sociolinguistic awareness among immigrant Polish adolescents learning English in the UK. This paper asks whether Polish-born…

  9. Development of on the machine process monitoring and control strategy in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) can be used to polish rotational symmetric and free form components achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm. With the aim to enable unmanned robust and cost efficient application of RAP, this paper presents the development of a monitoring and control strategy f...

  10. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    A multisensory polishing arm with integrated three component force sensor, a miniature acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer was developed for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process. The arm design was optimized for integration of a force and an AE sensor. The f...

  11. Word Boundaries in L2 Speech: Evidence from Polish Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and perceptual studies investgate B2-level Polish learners' acquisition of second language (L2) English word-boundaries involving word-initial vowels. In production, participants were less likely to produce glottalization of phrase-medial initial vowels in L2 English than in first language (L1) Polish. Perception studies employing word…

  12. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...

  13. Information Competencies and Their Implementation in the Educational Process of Polish Universities Exploratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonakiewicz-Kolosowska, Anna; Socik, Iwona; Gajewska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the development and perspectives of improving the quality of Information Literacy programmes in Polish technical universities, considering the Bologna Process and the general conditions of the Polish higher education system. The survey conducted in selected technical and medical universities provided an overview of changes…

  14. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  15. Effects of Chairside Polishing and Brushing on Surface Roughness of Acrylic Denture Base Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Kyun Kim; Ju-Mi Park; Min-Ho Lee; Jae-Youn Jung; Shipu Li; Xinyu Wang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 3 chairside polishing kits and mechanical brushing on the surface roughness of 3 different acrylic denture base resins were compared. Acrylic denture base resins (auto-polymerizing, heat-polymerizing, injected heat-polymerizing resins) were examined after a tungsten carbide bur, and after chairside polishing using 3 polishing kits and pumice. The specimens were subjected to mechanical brushing using a wear tester to simulate 30 000 strokes of brushing. The surface roughness of the acrylic denture base resin specimens was measured using a contact pro-filometer. After the test, the random polished acrylic resins were evaluated by scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Acrylic denture base resins polished using the 3 types of polishing kits had a smoother surface than those finished with the tungsten carbide bur (p <0.05). The surface of the resin polished by a TC cutter exceeded the Ra of 0.2 μm (p<0.05). The auto-polymerizing resin showed a significantly higher surface roughness than the heat-polymerizing resin and injected heat-polymerizing resin (p>0.05). In the case of polishing step wise, there was almost no change in surface roughness after brushing (p>0.05).

  16. Fighting alcoholism among railway workers in the light of early 20th Century Polish-language temperance publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2016-12-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The Polish-language temperance periodicals provide, among other things, valuable information referring to as yet unknown though essential problem of fighting alcoholism among railway workers in Europe, USA and the Polish territories of the Three Partitions.

  17. Polishing and toothbrushing alters the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Kanehira, Masafumi; Finger, Werner J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the surface roughness and gloss of composite resins after using two polishing systems and toothbrushing. Six composite resins (Durafill VS, Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, Venus Diamond, and Venus Pearl) were evaluated after polishing with two polishing systems (Sof-Lex, Venus Supra) and after toothbrushing up to 40,000 cycles. Surface roughness (Ra) and gloss were determined for each composite resin group (n=6) after silicon carbide paper grinding, polishing, and toothbrushing. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences in both Ra and gloss between measuring stages for the composite resins tested, except Venus Pearl, which showed significant differences only in gloss. After polishing, the Filtek Z350 XT, Kalore, and Venus Diamond showed significant increases in Ra, while all composite resin groups except the Filtek Z350 XT and Durafill VS with Sof-Lex showed increases in gloss. After toothbrushing, all composite resin demonstrated increases in Ra and decreases in gloss.

  18. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Weinell, Claus Erik; Pedersen, M. S.;

    2002-01-01

    A Fundamental mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint was used to conduct a parameter study. The aims were to show how a mathematical model can reduce the amount of experimental work needed to estimate the behaviour of self-polishing antifouling paints at different conditions......, and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na......Cl, pigment particle size. pigment volume concentration of the paint, the rate of pigment dissolution, and the pore size distribution of the leached layer. The modelling approach can be applied to any type of self-polishing antifouling paint provided that kinetic, solubility and diffusivity data are available...

  19. An in vitro study to identify a ceramic polishing protocol effecting smoothness superior to glazed surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuran, Noxy George; Sreelal, T

    2014-09-01

    Polishing is taken up as an alternative to reglazing after adjustments of glazed ceramic prosthesis. An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate three different ceramic polishing systems and their combinations to identify a method that would achieve surface smoothness superior to the glazed surface. 77 glazed feldspathic porcelain disc surfaces, of diameter 12.5 mm and thickness 2 mm were constituted into seven groups of 11 specimen surfaces each. The glazed surfaces in the first group served as control (C). They were not subjected to deglazing or polishing. The remaining 66 surfaces underwent deglazing. The deglazed surfaces in the second group (D) were retained as such and did not undergo polishing. The deglazed surfaces in the third group (Wh), were polished using a polishing wheel (CeraMaster). In the fourth group (K), an adjustment kit (Porcelain Adjustment kit) was used for polishing the deglazed surfaces. The fifth group (Wx) was polished with diamond particle-impregnated wax (Dura-Polish Dia). In all these three groups, polishing was done for 40 s. The deglazed surfaces of the sixth group (WhWx) were polished initially with polishing wheel for 40 s and then with diamond particle-impregnated wax for 40 s. In the seventh group (KWx), the deglazed surfaces were polished with an adjustment kit (Porcelain Adjustment kit) for 40 s followed by diamond particle-impregnated wax (Dura-Polish Dia) for 40 s. In the sixth and seventh groups, the total polishing time was 80 s each. From each group, one specimen was set aside for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining ten specimens in each group underwent colorimetry and profilometry. Colorimeter (Minolta CR-200b ChromaMeter; Minolta, Osaka, Japan) was used to measure parameters according to CIE L*a*b* colour system and colour difference (ΔE) between control and other groups were calculated. Profilometer (Talysurf CLI 2000) was used to measure the surface roughness (Ra). The data were statistically

  20. Multi-objective optimization of circular magnetic abrasive polishing of SUS304 and Cu materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, NhatTan; Yin, ShaoHui; Chen, FengJun; Yin, HanFeng [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Pham, VanThoan [Hanoi University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, TrongNhan [Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City, HCM City (Viet Nam)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, a Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (MOPSOA) is applied to optimize surface roughness of workpiece after circular magnetic abrasive polishing. The most important parameters of polishing model, namely current, gap between pole and workpiece, spindle speed and polishing time, were considered in this approach. The objective functions of the MOPSOA depend on the quality of surface roughness of polishing materials with both simultaneous surfaces (Ra1, Ra2), which are determined by means of experimental approach with the aid of circular magnetic field. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach is compared between the optimal results with the experimental data. The results show that the new proposed polishing optimization method is more feasible.

  1. POLYMORPHISM OF PROLACTIN RECEPTOR GENE (PRLR IN THE POLISH LANDRACE AND POLISH LARGE WHITE SWINE POPULATION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATA ZIÓŁKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin receptor gene was found in pig chromosome 16, and it is one of the genes with a significant effect on reproduction traits in sows. The objective of the research was to determine polymorphism of the prolactin receptor gene in pigs of two maternal breeds: Polish Landrace and Polish Large White, as well as analyse relations between particular allelomorphic variants, and reproduction traits of examined sows. Two PRLR gene alleles, A and B, were isolated, they were obtained after AluI restriction gene digestion of the PCR product with the length of 163 bp; furthermore, three genotypes were identified: PRLRAA – 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRAB – 104, 85, 59, 19 bp; PRLRBB – 104, 59 bp. We assessed 122 sows, in terms of their age at the first farrowing, as well as the sizes of the two subsequent litters. No statistically significant differences were found in the examined reproduction traits in sows with different allelomorphic relations, both within each breed and between breeds. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to conduct further research on a larger animal group.

  2. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  3. Material Removal Model Considering Influence of Curvature Radius in Bonnet Polishing Convex Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianfeng; YAO Yingxue

    2015-01-01

    The bonnet tool polishing is a novel, advanced and ultra-precise polishing process, by which the freeform surface can be polished. However, during the past few years, not only the key technology of calculating the dwell time and controlling the surface form in the bonnet polishing has been little reported so far, but also little attention has been paid to research the material removal function of the convex surface based on the geometry model considering the influence of the curvature radius. Firstly in this paper, for realizing the control of the freeform surface automatically by the bonnet polishing, on the basis of the simplified geometric model of convex surface, the calculation expression of the polishing contact spot on the convex surface considering the influence of the curvature radius is deduced, and the calculation model of the pressure distribution considering the influence of the curvature radius on the convex surface is derived by the coordinate transformation. Then the velocity distribution model is built in the bonnet polishing the convex surface. On the basis of the above research and the semi-experimental modified Preston equation obtained from the combination method of experimental and theoretical derivation, the material removal model of the convex surface considering the influence of the curvature radius in the bonnet polishing is established. Finally, the validity of the model through the simulation method has been validated. This research presents an effective prediction model and the calculation method of material removal for convex surface in bonnet polishing and prepares for the bonnet polishing the free surface numerically and automatically.

  4. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools vs. Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison of Information Accessibility and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Norman L.; Smith, Catherine; Davidson, Barry S.; Tanner, Tyrone; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Recent reforms in Polish education, Canadian interest in cooperative education, and differences in government involvement in Polish vs. Canadian education motivate the current comparative study of Polish post-secondary vocational schools (PVSs) and Canadian community colleges (CCs). While PVSs and CCs may initially appear equivalent (e.g., both…

  5. [Evaluation of potassium iodide in Polish dietary salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, E; Rokicka, B; Gajda, J; Jarecka, J; Oraczewska, A; Karłowski, K

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of iodine deficiency occurring still in Poland include serious health disorders in the population, such as psycho- somatic retardation, hypothyroidism, endemic goitre, even cretinism. Administration of iodized edible salt with daily diet is an effective method for prevention of iodine deficiency. The condition of success is the proper level of potassium iodide in this salt and adequate distribution of iodized salt in various regions of the country. Successful iodine prophylaxis should be based on iodination of edible salt in amounts of 30 +/- 10 mg of KJ/kg. The permission given in the period from February to May 1994 by the General Sanitary Inspector for the production and marketing of edible salt iodized in proportions of 30 +/- 10 mg KJ/kg opened the possibility of starting its production in salt mines. The purpose of the presently reported work was to assess, in cooperation with the Province Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, the adequacy of iodination of the Polish edible salt produced in the years 1994-1995. The study was carried out according to the Polish Standard "Salt (Sodium Chloride) /PN-80/C-84081.35. Potassium iodide determination by photo colorimetric method." In 1995 the number of edible salt samples analyzed was 2484, and this number included 2129 samples of iodized salt. Potassium iodide content agreeing with the above permission was found in 122 samples, that is in 57.4% of iodized salt samples. In 603 samples (28.3%) of iodized salt this content was below that given in the permissions. In 1994 this study was carried out taking 2172 samples of edible salt, including 1586 samples of iodized salt. The content of potassium iodide agreeing with the permissions (30 +/- 10 mg/kg) was found in 342 samples (28, 1%), but 272 (22.4%) samples of iodized salt produced by salt mines contained lower amounts of potassium iodide than the amount indicated in the permissions, but still within the limits set down in the Polish Standard (20 +/- 5 mg

  6. The Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, A; Kuś, M; Kupiec, T; Bykowska, M; Zielińska, G; Jasiński, M E; March, A L

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism and the first research conducted under this project. On September 28th 2012, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin and the Institute of National Remembrance-Commission for Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation agreed to support the creation of the Polish Genetic Database of Victims of Totalitarianism (PBGOT, www.pbgot.pl). The purpose was to employ state-of-the-art methods of forensic genetics to identify the remains of unidentified victims of Communist and Nazi totalitarian regimes. The database was designed to serve as a central repository of genetic information of the victim's DNA and that of the victim's nearest living relatives, with the goal of making a positive identification of the victim. Along the way, PGBOT encountered several challenges. First, extracting useable DNA samples from the remains of individuals who had been buried for over half a century required forensic geneticists to create special procedures and protocols. Second, obtaining genetic reference material and historical information from the victim's closest relatives was both problematic and urgent. The victim's nearest living relatives were part of a dying generation, and the opportunity to obtain the best genetic and historical information about the victims would soon die with them. For this undertaking, PGBOT assembled a team of historians, archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, and forensic geneticists from several European research institutions. The field work was divided into five broad categories: (1) exhumation of victim remains and storing their biological material for later genetic testing; (2) researching archives and historical data for a more complete profile of those killed or missing and the families that lost them; (3) locating the victim's nearest relatives to obtain genetic reference samples (swabs), (4) entering the genetic data from both victims and family

  7. Gender-dependent language anxiety in Polish communication apprehensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between communication apprehension and language anxiety from the perspective of gender. As virtually no empirical studies have addressed the explicit influence of gender on language anxiety in communication apprehensives, this paper proposes that females are generally more sensitive to anxiety, as reflected in various spheres of communication. For this reason, language anxiety levels in communication apprehensive females should be higher, unlike those of communication apprehensive males. Comparisons between them were made using a student t test, two-way ANOVA, and post-hoc Tukey test. The results revealed that Polish communication apprehensive secondary grammar school males and females do not differ in their levels of language anxiety, although nonapprehensive males experience significantly lower language anxiety than their female peers. It is argued that the finding can be attributed to developmental patterns, gender socialization processes, classroom practices, and the uniqueness of the FL learning process, which is a stereotypically female domain.

  8. Surface contamination by smearing during polishing - A PIXE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    Preparation of samples for PIXE analysis follows standard procedures in order to present a smooth, uniform surface for microscopic investigation and analysis. Reports on the quality of the surface preparation are scant. We report on investigations of preparation of metallic samples for micro-probe analysis. These samples are metal strips of typically 0.5 mm width and 10-15 mm length, sandwiched between natural pyrite crystals and quartz glass, mounted in epoxy resin. The surface was polished using diamond abrasives. The smearing of metallic Ag, Au and Cu was investigated and was found to be most prevalent for Cu, but also clearly detectable for Ag and Au. The potential influence of beam halo and beam scattering in the resin mount appears to be negligible, but the results imply additional, as yet unidentified, factors besides smearing to explain all observations.

  9. Proficiency Testing and Language Teaching: Russian and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Garn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential application of proficiency testing in U.S. colleges and universities. Specific consideration is giv-en to: the Oral Proficiency Interview, based on ILR or ACTFL guidelines, administered on a large scale at the Defense Language In-stitute and occasionally employed in American academia; the Diag-nostic Assessment Interview, the assessment tool of choice at DLI, basically unheard of in academia; and the new Polish proficiency test, which is part and parcel of the standardized series of language tests administered throughout Europe, based on Language Testers of Eu-rope guidelines. The author proposes that introducing the underlying principles of proficiency testing into American academia and promot-ing a better awareness of level tasks and expectations on the part of language teachers could help to eliminate the disconnect between testing and teaching. It could benefit instruction from early to ad-vanced stages.

  10. Italian, French, Polish: in the Bermuda Triangle of linguistic interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Balicka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing contacts between nations make people learn foreign languages. Unfortunately, the use of more than one language system may cause errors due to linguistic interference. In the present paper we consider different definitions of this phenomenon and describe the conditions reąuired for its presence, along with proposals on how to eliminate interference mistakes. A specific case is false friends, words similar in form but different in meaning, which can lead to misunderstandings or even disgrace. As interference implies the knowledge of at least two languages, bilingualism is another problem discussed in the paper. We present different approaches to interference and study the relation between bilingualism and interference. Finally, we discuss loanwords as one of the results of interference. With all these considerations in mind we can make a specific study of interference mistakes made by Polish students of Italian philology.

  11. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski W.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  12. Sister chromatid exchange in Polish White improved goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the frequency of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange in Polish White Improved goats (Capra hircus). The mean number of SCEs/cell was 2.73 +/- 1.84. The effect of sex and age on SCE incidence was also investigated. No statistically significant differences in the number of SCEs/cell were observed between the males and females. On the other hand, age was found to significantly influence SCE frequency. A lower SCE frequency was observed in younger goats. A positive correlation between chromosome length and SCE number was identified. The longer the chromosome, the more exchanges occurred. The highest number of SCEs was observed in the interstitial region, the lowest in the distal area.

  13. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  14. 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Korytowski, Adam; Maurer, Helmut; Szymkat, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This book contains extended, in-depth presentations of the plenary talks from the 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization, held in Kraków, Poland in 2013. Each chapter in this book exhibits a comprehensive look at new theoretical and/or application-oriented results in mathematical modeling, optimization, and optimal control. Students and researchers involved in image processing, partial differential inclusions, shape optimization, or optimal control theory and its applications to medical and rehabilitation technology, will find this book valuable. The first chapter by Martin Burger provides an overview of recent developments related to Bregman distances, which is an important tool in inverse problems and image processing. The chapter by Piotr Kalita studies the operator version of a first order in time partial differential inclusion and its time discretization. In the chapter by Günter Leugering, Jan Sokołowski and Antoni Żochowski, nonsmooth shape optimization problems for variational inequa...

  15. Polishing surgical metal pieces, granulomatosis and mineralogical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Chemarin, C; Roux, E; Cavalin, C; Rosental, P-A; Thivolet-Bejui, F; Vincent, M

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the case of a 44-year-old man with pulmonary nodules whose histological analysis initially suggested tuberculosis. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) culture was negative and a questionnaire revealed a professional activity of brushing and polishing surgical instruments without any protection for 7 years.  A mineralogical analysis by optical and electron microscopy was performed on both a healthy lung tissue biopsy and a lung nodule in a paraffin block. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of metal particles (iron oxide, titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and steel) in both samples. This study suggests that mineralogical analysis combined with a questionnaire on dust exposure could help redirect the diagnosis of a dust-related disease.

  16. Old age in Polish and American tv series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOANNA ANIOŁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The educational and socialization role of the media is not the latest novelty, however there are niches that have not been developed yet. Realizing the opinion-forming role of the mass media, which may be reflected in social behaviours, the authors of this article will analyse the content of chosen media products. The image of elderly people presented by the most popular Polish and American series will be examined. The research aims to find whether Desperate Housewives and Colours of happiness (original title: Barwy szczęścia adjust the image of old age to the social-demographic situation, which is constantly changing in the majority of countries. Does the colossus – television promote stereotypes which make age discrimination morally approved – or just the opposite – a well thought out image, shaping the recognition and respect for people in their “third age”?

  17. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  18. Optical Properties of Polish Lakes: The Secchi Disc Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiak Dariusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation of water transparency of the largest Polish lakes was presented on the basis of documentary material collected by the Voivodeship Inspectorates for Environment Protection as well as university geography departments in the period of 1991-2013. Seasonal results of the Secchi disc measurements (spring, summer for 706 lakes were gathered. This is more than 68% of the total number of Polish lakes with a surface area larger than 50 ha. The mean water transparency of these lakes was 1.87 m, while the median was 1.58 m. Distinct inter-regional differences of the Secchi disc transparency were found, and it was also possible to distinguish three relatively homogeneous groups of macroregions where lakes have different optical characteristics. They can be divided into areas with lakes with high (3.05 m, medium (1.99-2.11 m and low (1.22-1.52 m water transparency. The Secchi disc transparency of these lakes was also analysed in relation to concentration values of the main forms of the optically significant constituents of water (coloured dissolved organic matter, suspended matter. The mean transparency of turbid, stained and clear lakes was, respectively, 1.16, 2.02, and 2.92 m. Moreover, regional empirical models to predict Secchi disc transparency from chlorophyll a concentration were also developed. It was assumed that inter-regional differences between models could be due to the probably different time of the ice sheet recession. The influence of the lake morphometry was most fully reflected in the impact of the depth conditions.

  19. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA BIAŁEK-JAWORSKA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita- tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than business groups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func- tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  20. Compressive elastic moduli and polishing performance of non-rigid core/shell structured PS/SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives evaluated by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ailian [College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213016 (China); Mu, Weibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Chen, Yang, E-mail: cy.jpu@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2014-01-30

    The core/shell structured polystyrene (PS)/SiO{sub 2} composite microspheres with different silica shell morphology were synthesized by a modified Stöber method. As confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the rough discontinuous shell consisted of separate SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for composite-A, while the smooth continuous one was composed of amorphous silica network for composite-B. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to probe the compressive Young's moduli (E) and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performances of the as-prepared PS/SiO{sub 2} composite microspheres. On the basis of the Hertzian contact mechanics, the calculated E values of the PS microspheres, composite-A and composite-B were 2.9 ± 0.4, 5.1 ± 1.2 and 6.0 ± 1.2 GPa, respectively. Compared to traditional abrasives, thermally grown silicon oxide wafers after polished by the core/shell PS/SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives obtained a lower root mean square roughness and a higher material removal rate value. In addition, there is an obvious effect of shell morphology of the composites on oxide CMP performance and structural stability during polishing process. This approach would provide a basis for understanding the actual role of organic/inorganic core/shell composite abrasives in the material removal process of CMP.

  1. 抛光废渣回收利用于抛光砖生产的研究%Study of Polishing Residue Recycling in Polished Tile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾权; 邝志均; 王业豪; 向发清; 吴向光; 谢穗

    2012-01-01

    The polished production process was difficult to directly produce large amounts of residue in the polishing stage recovery and recy- cling, and thus caused a great deal of damage to the surrounding environment. Resin, silicon carbide, magnesium chloride and other impuri- ties contained in the polishing residue to produce the green body expansion, resulting in direct recovery of polishing residue since the most important cause of the hole, deformation and other defects. Existing polished tiles in the polishing stage, the large amount of residue was diffi- cult to directly recycling problems, natural subsidence, separation and recovery, used separately, the optimal treatment ideas, innovative way the technical content of polishing residue recovery.%现有的抛光砖生产工艺由于在抛光阶段会产生大量的废渣.很难直接回收利用.从而对周边环境造成极大的破坏。其中抛光废渣中含有氯氧镁水泥等杂质是造成抛光废渣直接回收利用时产生坯体膨胀、针孔、变形等缺陷的最重要原因。针对现有的抛光砖在抛光阶段产生大量的废渣难于直接回收再用的难题,本文提出了分类回收、自然沉降、分开使用的最优处理思路,创新性地丰富了抛光废渣回收领域的技术内涵。

  2. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins′ surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Uppal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Specimens (n = 40 measuring 8 mm (length × 5 mm (width × 4 mm (height were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite. After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems. The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD. Significant difference (P < 0.05 in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing.

  3. Effects of air polishing on the resin composite-dentin interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Tada, Kazuhiro; Seki, Hideaki; Kakuta, Kiyoshi; Miyagawa, Yukio; Shen, Jie-Fei; Morozumi, Yuko; Kamoi, Hisahiro; Sato, Soh

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine defect depths and volumes at the resin composite-dentin (R/D) interface after air polishing with different particles and spray angles. Samples were 54 dentin specimens that were formed in saucer-shaped cavities filled with resin composite. Each specimen was air polished with either sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or one of two glycine (Gly) powders. The air polisher was set at angles of 90° to the interface and at 45° to the interface from both the dentin and resin composite sides. Air polishing with Gly powder produced defects with less depth and volume than NaHCO3 powder (p polishing with a spray angle of 45° to the interface from the resin composite side produced fewer defects (p polishing from the dentin side. Air polishing to the R/D interface from the resin composite side produced fewer defects to the interface because the hardness of the resin composite was higher than that of dentin.

  4. Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing: effects on frictional force and degree of debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Brisa dos Santos; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Debris buildup on the bracket-wire interface can influence friction. Cleansing brackets with air-powder polishing can affect this process. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force and amount of debris remaining on orthodontic brackets subjected to prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Methods: Frictional force and debris buildup on the surface of 28 premolar brackets were evaluated after orthodontic treatment. In one hemiarch, each bracket was subjected to air-powder polishing (n = 14) for five seconds, while the contralateral hemiarch (n = 14) served as control. Mechanical friction tests were performed and images of the polished bracket surfaces and control surfaces were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied for comparative analysis between hemiarches at p < 0.05. Results: Brackets that had been cleaned with air-powder polishing showed lower friction (median = 1.27 N) when compared to the control surfaces (median = 4.52 N) (p < 0.01). Image analysis showed that the control group exhibited greater debris buildup (median = 2.0) compared with the group that received prophylaxis with air-powder polishing (median = 0.5) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing significantly reduces debris buildup on the bracket surface while decreasing friction levels observed during sliding mechanics. PMID:27653265

  5. Evaluation of one-step micro polishers for residual resin removal after debonding on fluorosed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmalatha Challa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of one step micro polishers for residual resin removal on fluorosed teeth using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Methods and Material: 55 teeth with mild to moderate fluorosis were selected with five teeth as control. Metal brackets were bonded onto 50 teeth which were divided into 5 groups. The finishing and polishing methods which were tested include tungsten carbide burs (TCB, multistep finishing system (Sof-Lex, one step polishers (PoGo and combination of TCB with multistep and one step polishing systems. After resin removal, all the samples were examined under SEM for assessment of the enamel surface. Results: The enamel surface was closest to untouched enamel in samples finished with the PoGo one step polishers followed by Sof-Lex multistep finishing system. However, they took the longest time to finish. TCB required the shortest time for residual resin removal. Conclusions: All polishing systems produce a certain degree of damage to the enamel surface with the smoothest surface being produced by one step polishers on fluorosed teeth.

  6. Characteristic of wet method of phosphorus recovery from polish sewage sludge ash with nitric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazda Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA is a concentrated source of phosphorus and can be successfully recycled via a number of different routes. This paper presents research results on phosphorus recovery from differently combusted sewage sludge with the use of nitric acid extraction. Different SSA forms from Polish thermal utilization stations were compared. It was revealed that sewage treatment technology as well as combustion technology influence many physical and chemical parameters of ashes that are crucial for further phosphorus recovery from such waste according to the proposed method. Presented research defines extraction efficiency, characterized extracts composition and verifies the possibility of using SSA as cheaper and alternative sources of phosphorus compounds. Gdynia, Kielce and Kraków SSA have the best properties for the proposed technology of phosphorus recovery with high extraction efficiency greater than 86%. Unsuitable results were obtained for Bydgoszcz, Szczecin Slag and Warszawa SSA. Extraction process for Łódź and Szczecin Dust SSA need to be improved for a higher phosphorus extraction efficiency greater than 80%.

  7. Integrated Surface Topography Characterization of Variously Polished Niobium for Superconducting Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley, G. Ribeill

    2009-05-01

    As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro-and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents flow. Interior surface chemical polishing (BCP/EP) to remove mechanical damage leaves surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely-used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is being used to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of EP is reported, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography.

  8. The electrochemical polishing behavior of the Inconel 718 alloy in perchloric-acetic mixed acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gfehu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Chen, Y.C.; Chang, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2008-02-15

    The electropolishing behavior of the Inconel 718 alloy was studied by using rotating disc electrode (RDE) in the HClO{sub 4}-CH{sub 3}COOH mixed acids with different HClO{sub 4}-concentrations. After electropolishing, surface morphologies of RDE specimens were examined with surface profiler, atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. According to the surface morphologies observed, three types of anodic dissolution behavior can be characterized in relation to the HClO{sub 4}-content in mixed acids; namely, leveling without brightening of the surface in the mixed acids with 10 and 20 vol% HClO{sub 4}, leveling and brightening of the surface in the mixed acids with 30 and 40 vol% HClO{sub 4}, and a matt and gray surface in the mixed acids with 50 vol% or more HClO{sub 4}. Anodic dissolution in the first and second dissolution types follows a mass-transfer controlled mechanism, in which a linear relationship between the reciprocal of limiting-current density and the reciprocal of square root of rotating speed of RDE specimen can be detected. Owing to precipitation of salt film on the polished surface of the Inconel 718 material, saturated dissolved metallic ions could be the chemical species for the mass-controlled mechanism. The salt film, in addition, could enhance the corrosion resistance of the Inconel 718 alloy.

  9. The Application of FT-IR Spectroscopy for Quality Control of Flours Obtained from Polish Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglińska, Alicja; Reder, Magdalena; Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Samples of wheat, spelt, rye, and triticale flours produced by different Polish mills were studied by both classic chemical methods and FT-IR MIR spectroscopy. An attempt was made to statistically correlate FT-IR spectral data with reference data with regard to content of various components, for example, proteins, fats, ash, and fatty acids as well as properties such as moisture, falling number, and energetic value. This correlation resulted in calibrated and validated statistical models for versatile evaluation of unknown flour samples. The calibration data set was used to construct calibration models with use of the CSR and the PLS with the leave one-out, cross-validation techniques. The calibrated models were validated with a validation data set. The results obtained confirmed that application of statistical models based on MIR spectral data is a robust, accurate, precise, rapid, inexpensive, and convenient methodology for determination of flour characteristics, as well as for detection of content of selected flour ingredients. The obtained models' characteristics were as follows: R2 = 0.97, PRESS = 2.14; R2 = 0.96, PRESS = 0.69; R2 = 0.95, PRESS = 1.27; R2 = 0.94, PRESS = 0.76, for content of proteins, lipids, ash, and moisture level, respectively. Best results of CSR models were obtained for protein, ash, and crude fat (R2 = 0.86; 0.82; and 0.78, resp.). PMID:28243483

  10. Does Business Model Affect CSR Involvement? A Survey of Polish Manufacturing and Service Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study explores links between types of business models used by companies and their involvement in CSR. As the main part of our conceptual framework we used a business model taxonomy developed by Dudzik and Witek-Hajduk, which identifies five types of models: traditionalists, market players, contractors, distributors, and integrators. From shared characteristics of the business model profiles, we proposed that market players and integrators will show significantly higher levels of involvement in CSR than the three other classes of companies. Among other things, both market players and integrators relied strongly on building own brand value and fostering harmonious supply channel relations, which served as a rationale for our hypothesis. The data for the study were obtained through a combined CATI and CAWI survey on a group of 385 managers of medium and large enterprises. The sample was representative for the three Polish industries of chemical manufacturing, food production, and retailing. Statistical methods included confirmatory factor analysis and one-way ANOVA with contrasts and post hoc tests. The findings supported our hypothesis, showing that market players and integrators were indeed more engaged in CSR than other groups of firms. This may suggest that managers in control of these companies could bolster the integrity of their business models by increasing CSR involvement. Another important contribution of the study was to propose and validate a versatile scale for assessing CSR involvement, which showed measurement invariance for all involved industries.

  11. The effect of various polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Atabek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of three finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nano-manufactured composite resins. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Nano-ceramic Ceram-X (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany, nano-filled Premise (Kerr Corporation, Orange, NJ, USA and nano-filled Clearfil Majestic (Kuraray Medical Inc., Tokyo, Japan composite resins were tested. Forty samples of each material were cured under matrix strips. The samples were then randomly assigned into four test groups: 1 unpolished; 2 polished with burs out of resin reinforced by zircon-rich glass fiber (Stainbuster, Abrasive Technology, Inc., Lewis Center, OH, USA; 3 polished with aluminum oxide impregnated polymer points (Enhance Finishing System, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA followed by diamond impregnated micro-polishing points (PoGo, Dentsply Caulk; and 4 polished with aluminum oxide disks (Sof-Lex, Dentsply Caulk. The sample surface roughness values (Ra were determined using a profilometer, and the surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in surface roughness were detected among the finishing and polishing systems (p>0.05. However, all finishing and polishing techniques created statistically rougher surfaces than the control group (p<0.05. The mean Ra values of the finishing and polishing systems were ranked as follows: Mylar strip < Enhance Finishing System+PoGo < Stainbuster < Sof-Lex. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscope photomicrographs. CONCLUSION: All polishing systems produced clinically acceptable surface roughness on the tested composite materials. The smoothest surfaces were achieved using the nano-ceramic composites with the Enhance Finishing System and PoGo.

  12. Effect of polishing techniques and time on surface roughness, hardness and microleakage of resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Daniela; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Powers, John M

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of immediate and delayed polishing on the surface roughness, microhardness and microleakage of a microfilled (Filtek A110) and a hybrid (Filtek Z250) resin composite. Standardized preparations were made on the buccal surfaces of 256 bovine teeth; half were restored with each composite (128 teeth per composite). Immediately after curing, gross finishing was carried out with #280 sandpaper. The specimens restored with each composite were divided into two subgroups. The first group (IM) was polished immediately after gross finishing, using three different systems (n=16): Sequence A, Sof-Lex; Sequence B, Flexicups and Sequence C, Flexicups + Jiffy Polishing Brush + Flexibuffs. The specimens were then stored for three weeks in saline 37 degrees C. The second group (DE) was stored for two weeks, then polished with the same systems and stored for one additional week. The controls (n=16) were analyzed without polishing. Five readings per specimen were taken for surface roughness and hardness. After immersion in basic fuchsin, microleakage was evaluated (40x) using standardized scores. The data were analyzed at a significance level of 0.05, with analysis of variance and an SNK test (surface roughness and microhardness) or with Kruskal-Wallis (microleakage). In both composites, only for the sequential technique was there an influence of delay in polishing on roughness (Ra). Flexicups exhibited the highest Ra of the three systems. The IM and Filtek Z-250 groups showed higher hardness than the DE and Filtek A-110 groups, respectively. Dentin margins showed more leakage than enamel margins; the sequential technique produced more leakage than the other techniques in dentin (pcomposite, time and polishing technique--had a significant influence on surface roughness, hardness and microleakage. Generally, immediate polishing produced no detrimental effect compared to delayed polishing.

  13. Polishing of Anaerobic Secondary Effluent and Symbiotic Bioremediation of Raw Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To assess polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent and symbiotic bioremediation of primary effluent by microalgae, bench scale bubbling column reactors were operated in batch modes to test nutrients removal capacity and associated factors. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with oil and grease in terms of hexane extractable material (HEM) in the reactors were measured after batch cultivation tests of Chlorella Vulgaris, indicating the releasing algal metabolites were oleaginous (dissolved HEM up to 8.470 mg/L) and might hazard effluent quality. Ultrafiltration adopted as solid-liquid separation step was studied via critical flux and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Although nutrients removal was dominated by algal assimilation, nitrogen removal (99.6% maximum) was affected by generation time (2.49 days minimum) instead of specific nitrogen removal rate (sN, 20.72% maximum), while phosphorus removal (49.83% maximum) was related to both generation time and specific phosphorus removal rate (sP, 1.50% maximum). COD increase was affected by cell concentration (370.90 mg/L maximum), specific COD change rate (sCOD, 0.87 maximum) and shading effect. sCOD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress, generally from lipid accumulation to starch accumulation when phosphorus lower than 5 mg/L, while HEM for batches with initial nitrogen of 10 mg/L implied this threshold around 8 mg/L. HEM and COD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results to synthetic anaerobic secondary effluent with slight inhibition while 4 symbiotic bioremediation of raw municipal wastewater with microalgae and activated sludge showed competition for ammonium together with precipitation or microalgal luxury uptake of phosphorus. Critical flux was governed by algal cell concentration for ultrafiltration membrane with pore size of 30 nm, while

  14. Genome-wide characteristics of copy number variation in Polish Holstein and Polish Red cattle using SNP genotyping assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, A; Jasielczuk, I; Szmatoła, T; Pawlina, K; Ząbek, T; Żukowski, K; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2015-04-01

    Copy number variation (CNV), which results from deletions or amplifications of large fragments of genomic DNA, is widespread in mammalian genomes and apart from its potential pathogenic effect it is considered as a source of natural genetic diversity. In cattle populations, this kind of genetic variability remains still insufficiently elucidated and studies focusing on the detection of new structural genomic variants in different cattle populations may contribute to a better understanding of cattle breeds' diversity and genetic basis of production traits. In this study, by using BovineSNP50 assay and cnvPartition algorithm we identified CNVs in two different cattle breeds: Holstein (859 animals) and Polish Red (301). In Holstein cattle we found 648 CNVs which could be reduced to 91 non-redundant variable genomic regions (CNVRs) covering in total 168.6 Mb of the genomic sequence. In Polish Red cattle we detected 62 CNVs, localized in 37 variable regions encompassing 22.3 Mb of the sequence, corresponding to 0.89 % of the autosomal genome. Within the regions we identified 1,192 unique RefSeq genes which are engaged in a variety of biological processes. High concordance of the regions' distribution was found between the studied breeds, however copy number variants seemed to be more common in Holstein cattle. About 26 % of the regions described in this study could be classified as newly identified. The results of this study will broaden the knowledge of CNVs in genomes of cattle of different breeds and will provide foundations for further research aiming to identify a relationship between this type of genetic variation and phenotypic traits.

  15. Is countercurrent regeneration an option for condensate polishing? Yes, it is.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, K. [DONG Energy Generation A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents a brief report on operation experience with a three-train separate bed condensate polisher in countercurrent operation/regeneration mode installed at a 400 MW ultra supercritical unit. Operation data show that the quality of the polished condensate is superior to that of the previously used standard (cation-mixed bed) condensate polisher, and it has been possible to almost completely eliminate sodium sulfate-related deposition problems in the plant cycle experienced when operating with that standard design unit. (orig.)

  16. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treated and untreated areas of the material has been made.

  17. Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Garabík

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Web presentation of bilingual corpora (Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish In this paper we focus on the web-presentation of bilingual corpora in three Slavic languages and their possible applications. Slovak-Bulgarian and Bulgarian-Polish corpora are collected and developed as results of the collaboration in the frameworks of two joint research projects between Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, from one side, and from the other side: Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, coordinate by authors of this paper.

  18. Semantic relations between verbs in Polish WordNet 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Maziarz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic relations between verbs in Polish WordNet 2.0 The noun dominates wordnets. The lexical semantics of verbs is usually under-represented, even if it is essential in any semantic analysis which goes beyond statistical methods. We present our attempt to remedy the imbalance; it begins by designing a sufficiently rich set of wordnet relations for verbs. We discuss and show in detail such a relation set in the largest Polish wordnet. Our design decisions, while as general and language-independent as possible, are mainly informed by our desire to capture the nature and peculiarities of the verb system in Polish.

  19. Relationship Between Competitive Strategies and the Success Perception of Polish Born Globals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowska-Prokop Ewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the competitive strategies applied by Polish born global enterprises. To reveal these strategies, two competitive models developed by M.E. Porter are applied to an original data set obtained from 256 small and medium Polish enterprises through a survey employing the CATI technique. The outcomes of these strategies, as perceived by the companies applying them, are also evaluated against two hypotheses. We conclude that Polish firms apply both basic strategies of competition, i.e. cost leadership strategies and differentiation strategies and that a substantial majority of companies perceive themselves to have succeeded on the market.

  20. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  1. Effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işil Sarikaya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-five cylindirical specimens (15x2 mm were prepared for each feldspathic (Vita VMK 95, Ceramco III and low-fusing dental porcelain (Matchmaker. Fifty-five specimens of machinable feldspathic porcelain blocks (Vitablocs Mark II, (12x14x18 mm were cut into 2-mm-thick slices (12x14 mm with low speed saw. The prepared specimens were divided into 11 groups (n=5 representing different polishing techniques including control ((C no surface treatment, glaze (G and other 9 groups that were finished and polished with polishing discs (Sof-Lex (Sl, two porcelain polishing kits (NTI (Pk, Dialite II (Di, a diamond polishing paste (Sparkle (Sp, a zirconium silicate based cleaning and polishing prophy paste (Zircate (Zr, an aluminum oxide polishing paste (Prisma Gloss (Pg, and combinations of them. The surface roughness of all groups was measured with a profilometer. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (a=0.05. RESULTS: For all porcelain material groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group Gl, Group Sl, Group Pk, and Group Di, which were not significantly different from each other (p>0.05.When comparing the 4 different porcelain materials, the machinable feldspathic porcelain block group (Mark II demonstrated statistically significantly less Ra values than the other porcelain materials tested (p<0.05. No significant difference was observed between the VMK 95 and Ceramco III porcelain groups (p=0.919, also these groups demonstrated the highest Ra values. CONCLUSION: Subjected to surface roughness, the surfaces obtained with polishing and/or cleaning-prophy paste materials used alone were rougher compared to the surfaces finished using Sof-lex, Dialite, and NTI polishing kit

  2. Apparatus and method for deterministic control of surface figure during full aperture polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Feit, Michael Dennis; Steele, William Augustus

    2013-11-19

    A polishing system configured to polish a lap includes a lap configured to contact a workpiece for polishing the workpiece; and a septum configured to contact the lap. The septum has an aperture formed therein. The radius of the aperture and radius the workpiece are substantially the same. The aperture and the workpiece have centers disposed at substantially the same radial distance from a center of the lap. The aperture is disposed along a first radial direction from the center of the lap, and the workpiece is disposed along a second radial direction from the center of the lap. The first and second radial directions may be opposite directions.

  3. Cases of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Isolated from Polish Patients: Imported or Indigenous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cases of nine Polish patients with diagnosed cystic echinococcosis (CE were examined. A total of nine isolates obtained postoperatively were investigated using PCR and sequencing. The mitochondrial region of nad1 gene was amplified. This PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of Echinococcus canadensis G7 in seven patients and E. granulosus G1 in two patients. These data demonstrate that E. canadensis is the predominant causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis in Poland. E. granulosus G1 detection in Polish patients suggests that the parasite was imported; however it does not exclude the possibility that these cases could have been of Polish origin.

  4. Cases of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Isolated from Polish Patients: Imported or Indigenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Monika; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Dąbrowska, Julia; Chomicz, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The cases of nine Polish patients with diagnosed cystic echinococcosis (CE) were examined. A total of nine isolates obtained postoperatively were investigated using PCR and sequencing. The mitochondrial region of nad1 gene was amplified. This PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of Echinococcus canadensis G7 in seven patients and E. granulosus G1 in two patients. These data demonstrate that E. canadensis is the predominant causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis in Poland. E. granulosus G1 detection in Polish patients suggests that the parasite was imported; however it does not exclude the possibility that these cases could have been of Polish origin.

  5. Sword of Christ. Christian inspirations of Polish socialism before the January Uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuligowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the history of the Christian fraction of Polish socialism against the background of the era, from the very beginning until its end after the January Uprising. On the basis of the texts from the era the understanding of socialism, the principles of the program of Clusters of the Polish People and the anatomy of Fr. Piotr Ściegienny’s conspiracy have been reconstructed. The text reproduces the utopian ideas of social reconstruction by Zenon Świętosławski and Ludwik Królikowski and based on these the text also shows the place of Christian socialism in the Polish socialist thought.

  6. Behaviour of Self-Standing CVD Diamond Film with Different Dominant Crystalline Surfaces in Thermal-Iron Plate Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Chao; ZHOU Zu-Yuan; LI Bin; ZHOU You-Liang; J. Askri; LI Cheng-Ming; TANG Wei-Zhong; TONG Yu-Mei; LU Fan-Xiu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Self-standing CVD diamond films with different dominant crystalline surfaces are polished by the thermal-iron plate polishing method. The influence of the dominant crystalline surfaces on polishing efficiency is investigated by measuring the removal rate and final roughness. The smallest rms roughness of 0.14μm is measured with smallest removal rate in the films with the initial (220) dominant crystalline surface. Activation energy for the polishing is analysed by the Arrhenius relation. It is found that the values are 170kJ/mol, 222kJ/mol and 214kJ/mol for the film with t hree different dominant crystalline surfaces. Based on these values, the polishing cause is regarded as the graphitization-controlling process. In the experiment, we find that transformation of the dominant crystalline surfaces from (111) to (220) always appears in the polishing process when we polish the (111) dominant surface.

  7. [20th anniversary of Association Doctors of Hope. Experience resulting from the cooperation with Polish medical communities in the Polish Borderlands (Kresy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chłap, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    20th Anniversary of Association Doctors of Hope (ADH) is an opportunity for presentation of the conclusions resulting from the realization of our tasks, especially those related to the Polish medical communities in the Borderlands. Maintaining the contacts with the Polish minorities in Lithuania, Latria, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Romania, Moldavia and Georgia are the priority tasks of ADH. Those communities differ in the extent of their needs and the relations with the local authorities in the context of the aid provided by our Association and the cooperation with us. The programme of our medical missions in the Borderlands included: a) rendering immediate aid by supplying medicines, medical materials; b) physical examination of groups of Poles (including the youths); c) organizing joint medical and pedagogical conferences concerning heath problems and healthy lifestyle. The article refers to the need for coordination of the cooperation among Polish organizations, the organizations in the Borderlands and consulates, in order to facilitate studying of the Poles in Poland, as well as to arrange for specialization residencies in Poland for doctor of Polish descent. Perfecting of the professional qualifications is a vital factor in strengthening the respect for the Polish communities, which, as minorities, are continuously expose to breaking the law by the local authorities.

  8. The Impact of a First-Generation Immigrant Environment on the Heritage Language: Productive Vocabularies of Polish Toddlers Living in the UK and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miekisz, Aneta; Haman, Ewa; Luniewska, Magdalena; Kus, Katarzyna; O'Toole, Ciara; Katsos, Napoleon

    2017-01-01

    The expressive lexical skills of 53 Polish bilinguals aged 24-36 months living in the UK and Ireland were assessed using Polish and British English adaptations of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. Polish vocabulary scores were compared to those of 53 Polish monolinguals matched for age, gender and parental education. The…

  9. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  10. Comparison of buffered chemical polished and electropolished 3.9 GHz cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Helen; Cooper, Charlie A.; Ge, Mingqi; Gonin, Ivan V.; Harms, Elvin R.; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Solyak, Nikolay; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    Five 3.9 GHz 9 cell cavities have been measured for the DESY FLASH module. These cavities were BCP processed and reached gradients of typically about 25 MV/m with Q drop starting at about 20 MV/m. Recently a few one cell cavities have been processed with EP and at least one has tested to a gradient of 30 MV/m with Q drop starting at about 25 MV/m. We will compare the results and give an update to the thermal analysis in relation to global thermal breakdown at 3.9 GHz.

  11. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nowacka

    Full Text Available Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic from Poland.Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis microbial strains was analyzed.As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic. Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively. A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml. Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance of radicals and metal complexes. 2. international conference of the Polish EPR Association. Warsaw 9-13 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Radicals and Metal Complexes has been held in Warsaw from 9 to 13 September 1996. It was the Second International Conference of the Polish EPR Association. The very extensive group of systems containing paramagnetic species has been studied by means of ESR or other magnetic techniques like ENDOR, Spin Echo etc. By radiation or photochemically generated radicals have been stabilized in low temperatures or being detected by means of very fast pulsed techniques. The chemical reactions, reaction kinetics of radicals as well as spin interaction with matrices have been studied and discussed. Over 100 lectures and posters have been presented.

  13. A Short History of Polish-Ukrainian Terminography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Wojciech Łukasik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Short History of Polish-Ukrainian Terminography Specialised dictionaries fulfil a plethora of linguistic and cognitive functions in specialised communication. In particular, such reference works help introduce, harmonise and standardise national terminologies, thus playing an indispensable role in disseminating high quality specialised knowledge. An even more important role may be attributed to bilingual and multilingual specialised dictionaries, whose primary goal is to facilitate the flow of scientific and technical information at an international level. This function has come to the fore in today’s multinational and interconnected professional world. In light of the developing and ever stronger cooperation between Poland and Ukraine, an attempt is being made to evaluate bilingual and multilingual terminographic works containing Polish and Ukrainian which have been published in Poland to date. The aim is to assess the positive developments and to identify the gaps in Polish-Ukrainian terminography. It is hoped that the findings presented in this paper will be applied by terminographers in order to compile terminological dictionaries of higher quality, which satisfy the needs of specific users and follow terminographic principles.   Krótka historia terminografii polsko-ukraińskiej Słowniki specjalistyczne pełnią ważne funkcje lingwistyczne i kognitywne w komunikacji specjalistycznej. W szczególności dzieła terminograficzne umożliwiają rozpowszechnianie, harmonizację i standaryzację terminologii narodowych, stając się niezbędnym narzędziem w transferze wysokiej jakości wiedzy specjalistycznej. Jeszcze ważniejszą rolę można przypisać dwu- i wielojęzycznym słownikom specjalistycznym, których prymarnym celem jest ułatwienie przepływu informacji naukowej i technicznej w wymiarze globalnym, szczególnie w dzisiejszym jednoczącym się, wielonarodowościowym świecie. W świetle rozwijającej się coraz

  14. Competition between surface modification and abrasive polishing: a method of controlling the surface atomic structure of 4H-SiC (0001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2015-03-10

    The surface atomic step-terrace structure of 4H-SiC greatly affects its performance in power device applications. On the basis of the crystal structure of 4H-SiC, we propose the generation mechanism of the a-b-a*-b* type, a-b type and a-a type step-terrace structures. We demonstrate that the step-terrace structure of SiC can be controlled by adjusting the balance between chemical modification and physical removal in CeO2 slurry polishing. When chemical modification plays the main role in the polishing of SiC, the a-b-a*-b* type step-terrace structure can be generated. When the roles of physical removal and chemical modification have similar importance, the a-b-a*-b* type step-terrace structure changes to the a-b type. When physical removal is dominant, the uniform a-a type step-terrace structure can be generated.

  15. Ergodicity and asymptotic stability of Feller semigroups on Polish metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, FuZhou; Liu, Yuan

    2015-06-01

    We provide some sharp criteria for studying the ergodicity and asymptotic stability of general Feller semigroups on Polish metric spaces. As application, the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with degenerate stochastic forcing will be simply revisited.

  16. Effect of filler type and polishing on the discoloration of composite resin artificial teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Soichiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hayakawa, Iwao; Loyaga-Rendon, Paola G; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the effects of filler type and polishing on the discoloration of composite resin artificial teeth were examined. Four types of experimental resins were prepared: one was a matrix resin, while the others were composite resins containing three different types of fillers (nano-sized silica filler with or without silanization, and prepolymerized filler). Specimens were immersed in distilled water, coffee, red wine, or curry. Color change after immersion was measured using a colorimeter. Color difference values (delta E) and changes in translucency parameter (delta TP) were statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's comparison. On the influence of the polishing factor, statistically significant differences were neither observed in delta E nor delta TP between polished and non-polished tooth surfaces. On the contrary, the influences of filler type and discoloration medium, and their interaction thereof, were significant. With unsilanized filler, the delta E value of composite resin artificial teeth was significantly increased.

  17. Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kroemeke

    2015-02-01

    The obtained results indicated very high reliability and accuracy for the Polish adaptation of the SPA. The tool can be used as a predictor and/or indicator of successful aging and life quality of seniors.

  18. Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics research report 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Scientific interests of Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences are focused on DNA replication and repair, gene expression, gene sequencing and molecular biophysics. The work reviews research projects of the Institute in 1994-1995.

  19. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  20. Trauma Related Guilt Inventory – psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation (TRGI-PL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Popiel

    2015-10-01

    The Polish adaptation of the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory is a reliable and valid tool for assessing guilt as a multidimensional phenomenon, comprising emotional and several cognitive characteristics, in trauma survivors.