Sample records for chemical oxygen demand

  1. Chitosan on Reducing Chemical Oxygen Demands in Laundry Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko


    Full Text Available Laundry liquid waste contains several chemical substances in detergent raw materials such as phosphate, surfactants, ammonia, and total suspended solids. The existence of detergent in high concentrations and exceeds the quality standards that have been estabilished in a body of water can lead to cases of enviromental pollution in the form of increased turbidity an Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD levels. Therefore in order to maintain and to ensure the availabillity of water in terms of quality, it requires coagulation-flocculation process to laundry liquid waste before discharging into water bodies. This study aims to determine the decrease of COD levels and turbidity level in laundry liquid waste using chitosan coagulant in “X” laundry, Tembalang District, Semarang. The research is a quasi experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group research design with 6 times replication. The total samples are 60 in wich 24 tested for the levels of turbidity and 6 controls. The test results of Kruskal-Wallis with significance p-value < 0,05 indicates that dosage variation (p=0,000 gives different levels of COD and dosage variation (p=0,000 provide 755,97 mg/l and the advantage levels of turbidity before treatment was 516,20 NTU. The optimum dosage of chitosan coagulant is on the dose of 200 mg/l with the effectiveness decrease of COD levels and turbidity levels on 72,67% an 98,67% respectively.

  2. Optimization of the determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters. (United States)

    Silva, Alexandra M E Viana da; Silva, Ricardo J N Bettencourt da; Camões, M Filomena G F C


    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is one of the most relevant chemical parameters for the management of wastewater treatment facilities including the control of the quality of an effluent. The adequacy of decisions based on COD values relies on the quality of the measurements. Cost effective management of the minor sources of uncertainty can be applied to the analytical procedure without affecting measurement quality. This work presents a detailed assessment of the determination of COD values in wastewaters, according to ISO6060:1989 standard, which can support reduction of both measurement uncertainty and cost of analysis. This assessment includes the definition of the measurement traceability chain and the validation of the measurement procedure supported on sound and objective criteria. Detailed models of the measurement performance, including uncertainty, developed from the Differential Approach, were successfully validated by proficiency tests. The assumption of the measurement function linearity of the uncertainty propagation law was tested through the comparison with the numerical Kragten method. The gathered information supported the definition of strategies for measurement uncertainty or cost reduction. The developed models are available as electronic supplementary material, in an MS-Excel file, to be updated with the user's data.

  3. Correlation between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants in Egypt to Obtain the Biodegradability Indices


    Khaled Zaher Abdallah; Gina Hammam


    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) are the most commonly used parameters for the characterization of wastewaters. Both of these parameters have advantages and disadvantages, and the choice usually depends on many factors such as the time period required to determine each one of them. It is essential to obtain a correlation between BOD5 and COD for various wastewater treatment plants, to help in the design and operation of these plants. In this paper, the biodegr...

  4. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando


    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  5. Application of Ozone and Oxygen to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand and Hydrogen Sulfide from a Recovered Paper Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Terry


    Full Text Available A pilot study was performed at the Fox River Fiber recovered paper processing company in DePere, Wisconsin, to determine the extent to which injection of oxygen and ozone could reduce the high chemical oxygen demand, COD, in the effluent and the effectiveness of the ozone/oxygen stream in suppressing production of hydrogen sulfide gas in downstream sewage lines. Adaptive Ozone Solutions, LLC, supplied the oxygen/ozone generation and injection system. Samples were analyzed both before and after oxygen/ozone injection. Hydrogen sulfide gas was continuously monitored at sewer stations downstream of Fox River Fiber. Results showed that with a very short contact time, effluent COD was reduced by over 15%. A simple kinetic model predicts that a contact time of fewer than 30 minutes could reduce COD by as much as 60%. In addition, downstream hydrogen sulfide gas production in the sewage mains was also better controlled, such that costly Bioxide applications could be reduced.

  6. Study on Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Water with Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-Hai; DING Hong-Chun; FANG Yan-Ju; XIAN Yue-Zhong; JIN Li-Tong


    A new method for determining chemical oxygen demand (COD) value in water using ion chromatography coupled with nano TiO2-K2S2O8 co-existing system was described. The photocatalytic oxidation system and nano TiO2-K2S2O8 co-existing system could degrade the organic compounds in water. All sulfur-containing species in the reactive solution were eventually transformed to sulfate which could be determined by conductivity detector in ion chromatography. The change of conductivity of sulfate was proportional to COD value. The optimal experimental conditions and the mechanism of the detection were discussed. The application range was 10.0-300.0 mg·L -1 and the lowest limit of detection was 3.5 mg·L -1. It was considered that the value obtained could be reliably correlated with the COD value obtained using the conventional methods.

  7. A modified method for estimation of chemical oxygen demand for samples having high suspended solids. (United States)

    Yadvika; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Sreekrishnan, T R; Satya, Santosh; Kohli, Sangeeta


    Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of samples having high suspended solids concentration such as cattle dung slurry with open reflux method of APHA-AWWA-WPCF did not give consistent results. This study presents a modification of the open reflux method (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) to make it suitable for samples with high percentage of suspended solids. The new method is based on a different technique of sample preparation, modified quantities of reagents and higher reflux time as compared to the existing open reflux method. For samples having solids contents of 14.0 g/l or higher, the modified method was found to give higher value of COD with much higher consistency and accuracy as compared to the existing open reflux method.

  8. Chemical Oxygen Demand of Seawater Determined with a Microwave Heating Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; JI Hongwei; LIU Ying; XIN Huizhen


    This paper investigates a microwave heating method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in seawater. The influences of microwave-power, heating time and standard substances on the results are studied. Using the proposed method, we analyzed the glucose standard solution, the coefficient of variation being less than 2%. Compared with the traditional electric stove heating method, the results of F-test and T-test showed that there was no significant difference between the two methods, but the microwave method had slightly higher precision and reproducibility than the electric stove method. With the microwave heating method, several seawater samples from Jiaozhou Bay and the South Yellow Sea were also analyzed. The recovery was between 97.5% and 104.3%. This new method has the advantages of shortening the heating time, improving the working efficiency and having simple operation and therefore can be used to analyze the COD in seawater.

  9. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control. (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D


    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  10. Protozoan biomass relation to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand removal in activated sludge mixed liquor. (United States)

    Akpor, Oghenerobor B; Momba, Maggy N B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O


    The relationship between biomass concentration to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in mixed liquor supplemented with sodium acetate was investigated, using three protozoan isolates and three different initial biomass concentrations (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) cells/mL). The study was carried out in a shaking flask environment at a shaking speed of 100 rpm for 96 h at 25 degrees C. Aliquot samples were taken periodically for the determination of phosphate, nitrate, COD and dissolved oxygen, using standard methods. The results revealed remarkable phosphate removal of 82-95% at biomass concentration of 10(3)cells/mL. A high nitrate removal of over 87% was observed at all initial biomass concentration in mixed liquor. There was an observed COD increase of over 50% in mixed liquor in at the end of 96-h incubation and this was irrespective of initial biomass concentration used for inoculation. The study shows the trend in nutrient and COD removal at different biomass concentrations of the test isolates in mixed liquor.

  11. Electrochemical treatment of rice grain-based distillery effluent: chemical oxygen demand and colour removal. (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar


    The electrochemical (EC) treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 1.5 dm3 electrolytic batch reactor using aluminium plate electrodes. With the four-plate configurations, a current density (j) of 89.3 A/m2 and pH 8 was found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 93% and 87%, respectively. The chemical dissolution of aluminium was strongly influenced by initial pH (pHi). At higher pHi (pH 9.5) anode consumption decreased while energy consumption increased. At the optimal current density 89.3 A/m2, the aluminium electrode consumption was 16.855 g/dm3 wastewater and energy consumption was 31.4 Wh/dm3 achieving a maximum COD removal of 87%. The settling and filterability characteristics ofelectrochemically treated sludge were also analysed at different pH. It was noted that treated slurry at pHi 9.5 gave best settling characteristic, which decreased with increase in pH. EC-treated effluent at pHi 8 had provided best filterability. Characteristics of scum and residues are also analysed at different pH.

  12. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand in pulping effluent. (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yuancai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu


    A new method has been developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in pulping effluent using chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry. Two calibration models were established by inducing UV-visible spectroscopy (model 1) and derivative spectroscopy (model 2), combined with the chemometrics software Smica-P. Correlation coefficients of the two models are 0.9954 (model 1) and 0.9963 (model 2) when COD of samples is in the range of 0 to 405 mg/L. Sensitivities of the two models are 0.0061 (model 1) and 0.0056 (model 2) and method detection limits are 2.02-2.45 mg/L (model 1) and 2.13-2.51 mg/L (model 2). Validation experiment showed that the average standard deviation of model 2 was 1.11 and that of model 1 was 1.54. Similarly, average relative error of model 2 (4.25%) was lower than model 1 (5.00%), which indicated that the predictability of model 2 was better than that of model 1. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method did not need chemical reagents and digestion which were required in the conventional methods, and the testing time of the new method was significantly shorter than the conventional ones. The proposed method can be used to measure COD in pulping effluent as an environmentally friendly approach with satisfactory results.

  13. Influence of Chemical Oxygen Demand Concentrations on Anaerobi Ammonium Oxidation by Granular Sludge From EGSB Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX). Methods An Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) reactor was used to cultivate the granular sludge and to perform the ANAMMOX reaction in the bench scale experiment. NH4+-N and NO2--N were measured by usingcolorimetric method. NO3--N was analyzed by using the UV spectrophotometric method. COD measurement was based on digestion with potassium dichromate in concentrated sulphuric acid. Results When the COD concentrations in the reactors were 0 mg/L, 200 mg/L, 350 mg/L, and 550 mg/L, respectively, the NH4+-N removal efficiency was 12.5%, 14.2%, 14.3%, and 23.7%; the removal amount of NO2--N was almost the same; the nitrate removal efficiency was 16.8%, 94.5%, 86.6%, and 84.2% and TN removal efficiency was 16.3%, 50.7%, 46.9%, and 50.4%, moreover, the COD removal efficiency concentrations have a significant influence on anaerobic ammonium oxidation by granular sludge.

  14. A portable photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters. (United States)

    Zhang, Shanqing; Li, Lihong; Zhao, Huijun


    A photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is developed using a nanostructured mixed-phase TiO2 photoanode, namely PeCOD probe. A UV-LED light source and a USB mircroelectrochemical station are powered and controlled by a laptop computer, which makes the probe portable for onsite COD analyses. The photoelectrochemical measurement of COD was optimized in terms of light intensity, applied bias, and pH. Under the optimized conditions, the net steady state currents originated from the oxidation of organic compounds were found to be directly proportional to COD concentrations. A practical detection limit of 0.2 ppm COD and a linear range of 0-120 ppm COD were achieved. The analytical method using the portable PeCOD probe has the advantages of being rapid, low cost, robust, user-friendly, and environmental friendly. It has been successfully applied to determine the COD values of the synthetic samples consisting of potassium hydrogen phthalate, D-glucose, glutamic acid, glutaric acid, succinic acid, and malonic acid, and real samples from various industries, such as bakery, oil and grease manufacturer, poultry, hotel, fine food factory, and fresh food producer, commercial bread manufacturer. Excellent agreement between the proposed method and the conventional COD method (dichromate) was achieved.

  15. Removal of chemical oxygen demand from textile wastewater using a natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramavandi, Bahman [Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadfard, Sima [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A biomaterial was successfully synthesized from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl{sub 3}-induced crude extract (FCE). The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for the pretreatment of real textile wastewater. Tests were performed to evaluate the effects of FCE quantity, salt concentration, and wastewater pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction during a coagulation/flocculation process. Experimental results indicated that the wastewater could be effectively treated by using a coagulation/flocculation process, where the BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the effluent was improved to 0.48. A low coagulant dose, 1.5mg/L, achieved a high COD removal percentage, 89%, at operational conditions of neutral pH and room temperature. The experimental data revealed that the maximum COD removal occurred at water pH<8. Increasing the salt promoted the COD removal. The settling and filterability characteristics of the sludge were also studied. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies were conducted to determine the sludge structure and composition, respectively. Overall, FCE as an eco-friendly biomaterial was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant and a promising option for the removal of COD from wastewaters.

  16. Environmental capacity of chemical oxygen demand in the Bohai Sea: modeling and calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xixi; WANG Xiulin; SHI Xiaoyong; LI Keqiang; DING Dongsheng


    A three-dimensional advection-diffusion model coupled with the degradation process is established for describing the transport of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Comparison of the simulated distribution of COD at the surface in the Bohai Sea in August, 2001 with field observations, shows that the model simulates the dataset reasonably well. The Laizhou Bay, Bohai Bay, and Liaodong Bay were contaminated heavily near shore. Based on the optimal discharge flux method, the Environmental Capacity (EC) and allocated capacities of COD in the Bohai Sea are calculated. For seawater of Grades I to IV of the Chinese National Standard, the ECs of COD in the Bohai Sea were 77×104t/a, 116×l04t/a, 154×l04t/a and 193×104t/a, respectively. The Huanghe (Yellow) River pollutant discharge accounted for the largest percentage of COD at 14.3%, followed by that of from the Liugu River (11.5%), and other nine local rivers below 10%. The COD level in 2005 was worse than that of Grade II seawater and was beyond the environmental capacity. In average, 35% COD reduction is called to meet the standard of Grade I seawater.

  17. Using gas flux to estimate biological and chemical sediment oxygen demand in oil sands-affected wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner Costa, J.; Slama, C.; Ciborowski, J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)


    The constituents of oil sands process-affected (OSPM) wetlands include high salinity, conductivity and naphthenic acid concentrations. These constituents are expected to strain microbial communities and change methane and carbon dioxide flux rates as well as sediment oxygen consumption compared to fresher, reference wetland sites. Four OSPM and 4 reference wetlands were examined during the summers of 2009 and 2010 to determine if carbon loss in the form of sediment-associated microbial respiration differs between OSPM and reference wetlands. The study showed that OSPM wetlands release about 10 times less methane than reference wetlands. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was measured in 2009 and gas flux estimates of carbon dioxide were used to estimate biological sediment oxygen consumption (BSOC). Chemical sediment oxygen demand (CSOD) was estimated by subtracting BSOC from total SOD. SOD rates were found to be two times higher in OSPM wetlands than reference. CSOD was higher than biologically consumed oxygen for both wetland classes. Although microbial activity in OSPM wetlands may be lower, more oxygen is consumed in OSPM than in reference wetlands. The reclamation of boreal wetlands in the Alberta Athabasca region requires carbon accrual. Less microbial activity may promote carbon accumulation within OSPM wetlands. However, the wetland's sediment layer may have less organic input as a result of high chemical oxygen consumption because it limits benthos respiration.

  18. Quantum dots assisted photocatalysis for the chemiluminometric determination of chemical oxygen demand using a single interface flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Frigerio, Christian [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal); Santos, Joao L.M., E-mail: [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C. [Requimte, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Porto University, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030, Porto (Portugal)


    Highlights: {yields} A novel flow method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand is proposed. {yields} CdTe nanocrystals are irradiated with UV light to generate strong oxidizing species. {yields} Reactive species promote a fast catalytic degradation of organic matter. {yields} Luminol is used as a chemiluminescence probe for indirect COD assessment. {yields} A single interface flow system was implemented to automate the assays. - Abstract: A novel flow method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is proposed in this work. It relies on the combination of a fully automated single interface flow system, an on-line UV photocatalytic unit and quantum dot (QD) nanotechnology. The developed approach takes advantage of CdTe nanocrystals capacity to generate strong oxidizing species upon irradiation with UV light, which fostered a fast catalytic degradation of the organic compounds. Luminol was used as a chemiluminescence (CL) probe for indirect COD assessment, since it is easily oxidized by the QD generated species yielding a strong CL emission that is quenched in the presence of the organic matter. The proposed methodology allowed the determination of COD concentrations between 1 and 35 mg L{sup -1}, with good precision (R.S.D. < 1.1%, n = 3) and a sampling frequency of about 33 h{sup -1}. The procedure was applied to the determination of COD in wastewater certified reference materials and the obtained results showed an excellent agreement with the certified values.

  19. High removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand from tequila vinasses by using physicochemical and biological methods. (United States)

    Retes-Pruneda, Jose Luis; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Medina-Ramírez, Iliana; Chavez-Vela, Norma Angelica; Lozano-Alvarez, Juan Antonio; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Jauregui-Rincon, Juan


    The goal of this research is to find a more effective treatment for tequila vinasses (TVs) with potential industrial application in order to comply with the Mexican environmental regulations. TVs are characterized by their high content of solids, high values of biochemical oxygen demand (BODs), chemical oxygen demand (COD), low pH and intense colour; thus, disposal of untreated TVs severely impacts the environment. Physicochemical and biological treatments, and a combination of both, were probed on the remediation of TVs. The use of alginate for the physicochemical treatment of TVs reduced BOD5 and COD values by 70.6% and 14.2%, respectively. Twenty white-rot fungi (WRF) strains were tested in TV-based solid media. Pleurotus ostreatus 7992 and Trametes trogii 8154 were selected due to their ability to grow on TV-based solid media. Ligninolytic enzymes' production was observed in liquid cultures of both fungi. Using the selected WRF for TVs' bioremediation, both COD and BOD5 were reduced by 88.7% and 89.7%, respectively. Applying sequential physicochemical and biological treatments, BOD5 and COD were reduced by 91.6% and 93.1%, respectively. Results showed that alginate and selected WRF have potential for the industrial treatment of TVs.

  20. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium. (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M


    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  1. Efficiency of some soil bacteria for chemical oxygen demand reduction of synthetic chlorsulfuron solutions under agiated culture conditions. (United States)

    Erguven, G O; Yildirim, N


    This study searches the efficiency of certain soil bacteria on chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of synthetic chlorsulfuron solutions under agitated culture conditions. It also aims to determine the turbidity of liquid culture medium with chlorsulfuron during bacterial incubation for 120 hours. As a result the highest and lowest COD removal efficiency of bacteria was determined for Bacillus simplex as 94% and for Micrococcus luteus as 70%, respectively at the end of the 96th hour. It was found that COD removal efficiency showed certain differences depend on the bacterial species. It was also observed that B. simplex had the highest COD removal efficiency and it was a suitable bacterium species for bioremediation of a chlorsulfuron contaminated soils.

  2. Converting Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of Cellulosic Ethanol Fermentation Wastewater into Microbial Lipid by Oleaginous Yeast Trichosporon cutaneum. (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Hu, Mingshan; Zhang, Huizhan; Bao, Jie


    Cellulosic ethanol fermentation wastewater is the stillage stream of distillation column of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD is required to reduce before the wastewater is released or recycled. Without any pretreatment nor external nutrients, the cellulosic ethanol fermentation wastewater bioconversion by Trichosporon cutaneum ACCC 20271 was carried out for the first time. The major components of the wastewater including glucose, xylose, acetic acid, ethanol, and partial of phenolic compounds could be utilized by T. cutaneum ACCC 20271. In a 3-L bioreactor, 2.16 g/L of microbial lipid accumulated with 55.05% of COD reduced after a 5-day culture of T. cutaneum ACCC 20271 in the wastewater. The fatty acid composition of the derived microbial lipid was similar with vegetable oil, in which it could be used as biodiesel production feedstock. This study will both solve the environmental problem and offer low-cost lipid feedstock for biodiesel production.

  3. Effects of chitosan on growth of an aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) in polluted waters with different chemical oxygen demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiu-jin; NIAN Yue-gang; JIN Xiang-can; YAN Chang-zhou; LIU Jin; Jiang Gao-ming


    Effects of chitosan on a submersed plant, Hydrilla verticillata, were investigated. Results indicated that H. verticillata could prevent ultrastructure phytotoxicities and oxidativereaction from polluted water with high chemical oxygen demand (COD). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in H. verticillata treated with 0.1% chitosan in wastewater increased with high COD (980 mg/L) and decreased with low COD (63 mg/L), respectively. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the stroma and grana of chloroplast basically remained normal. However, plant cells from the control experiment (untreated with chitosan) were vacuolated and the cell interval increased. The relict of protoplast moved to the center, with cells tending to disjoint. Our findings indicate that wastewater with high COD concentration can cause a substantial damage to submersed plant, nevertheless, chitosan probably could alleviate the membrane lipid peroxidization and ultrastructure phytotoxicities, and protect plant cells from stress of high COD concentration polluted water.

  4. Removal of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved nutrients by a sunken lawn infiltration system during intermittent storm events. (United States)

    Hou, Lizhu; Yang, Huan; Li, Ming


    Urban surface water runoff typically contains high but varying amounts of organic matter and nutrients that require removal before reuse. Infiltration systems such as sunken lawns can improve water quality. However, there is currently insufficient information describing the treatment efficiency of lawn-based infiltration systems. In this study, novel sunken lawn infiltration systems (SLISs) were designed and their pollutant removal effectiveness was assessed. The results revealed that SLISs with Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne effectively removed most chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and dissolved nutrients. Average CODCr, total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were reduced by 78.93, 66.64, 71.86 and 75.83%, respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations met the standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption in China. The NH4(+)-N in the synthetic runoff was shown to be removed by adsorption during the stormwater dosing and nitrification during subsequent dry days, as well as through uptake by plants. Phosphorus was mainly removed by adsorption and chemical precipitation. The NH4(+)-N and phosphorus Langmuir isotherm model fitted the clay loam soil adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. Overall, these results indicate that an SLIS provides an alternative means of removing runoff pollutants owing to its efficiency, easy operation and maintenance.

  5. Efficiency of horizontal roughing filter in removing nitrate, phosphate and chemical oxygen demand from effluent of waste stabilization pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Khezri


    Full Text Available Background: The effective size of the end grain of horizontal roughing filters (HRFs is larger than 2 mm. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of HRFs in removing nitrate, phosphate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD from effluent of a wastewater stabilization pond. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2013. The pilot project was transferred to the Karaj wastewater treatment plant (stabilization pond, and the installation, equipping, and start-up of the system began using an effluent treatment plant. Sampling was done from March to August in 3 rates, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/h, and included simultaneous sampling from inlet and outlet filtering to determine the concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and COD. Results: At filtration rates of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/h, the average nitrate removal equaled 25%, 32%, and 34%, respectively, average phosphate removal equaled 29%, 26%, and 28%, respectively, and the average COD removal at filtration rates of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/h equaled 62%, 66%, and 68%, respectively. Outlet values of phosphate and nitrate were lower than the standards set by the Environmental Standards Organization (ESO (P < 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the HRF function was approximately adequate in COD removal, but its efficiency in nitrate and phosphate removal was lower.

  6. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis. (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R


    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions.

  7. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters. (United States)

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue


    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform.

  8. Ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove chemical oxygen demand and polyphenols from olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi, Angelo


    Full Text Available We investigated the biofiltration ability of the aquatic fern Azolla to remove polyphenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD from olive mill wastewater (OMWw collected from the traditional (TS and continuous (CS extraction systems. Azolla biomass was packed into five sequential Imhoff cones and five sequential columns. In both experiments, the filtrates collected from the 5th biofilter showed a decrease in polyphenol contents: from 7650 mg l–1 to 3610 mg l–1 in TS OMWw and from 3852 mg l–1 to 1351 mg l–1 in CS OMWw. The COD contents decreased from 110200 mg L–1 to 52400 mg L–1 in TS OMWw and from 41600 mg L–1 to 2300 mg L–1 in CS OMWw. A 5:1 OMWw to Azolla-fresh-weight ratio was optimal for both polyphenol and COD removal. The biofiltration ability of alfalfa was compared with that of Azolla, but the treatment with alfalfa did not result in the reduction of COD or polyphenols.La eficacia del helecho de agua azolla para eliminar polifenoles y reducir la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de los alpechines obtenidos en el proceso de obtención tradicional y continuo del aceite de oliva, fue investigado mediante ensayos de filtración. Cinco conos secuenciales de Imhoff y cinco columnas secuenciales se rellenaron de biomasa de Azolla. En ambos experimentos, el filtrado procedente de la quinta extracción mostró una disminución en el contenido de polifenoles de 7650 mg L–1 a 3610 mg L–1en el alpechín obtenido mediante el sistema tradicional y de 3852 mg L–1 a 1351 mg L–1en el alpechín del sistema continuo. La demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín del sistema tradicional disminuyó de 110200 mg L–1 a 52400 mg L–1 en y de 41600 mg L–1a 2300 mg L–1en el procedente del sistema continuo. Una proporción en peso 5:1 de alpechín: Azolla fue la óptima tanto para la reducción de los polifenoles como para la de la DQO. La eficiencia del tratamiento biológico con alfalfa se comparó con la obtenida con Azolla. Los

  9. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi. (United States)

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O


    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  10. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste. (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F


    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  11. Performance of on-site pilot static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for treating dairy processing wastewater and chemical oxygen demand balance modeling under different operational conditions. (United States)

    Oh, Jin Hwan; Park, Jaeyoung; Ellis, Timothy G


    The performance and operational stability of a pilot-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for the treatment of dairy processing wastewater were investigated under a wide range of organic and hydraulic loading rates and temperature conditions. The SGBR achieved average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS)-removal efficiencies higher than 90% even at high loading rates up to 7.3 kg COD/m(3)/day, with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 h, and at low temperatures of 11 °C. The average methane yield of 0.26 L CH4/g COD(removed) was possibly affected by a high fraction of particulate COD and operation at low temperatures. The COD mass balance indicated that soluble COD was responsible for most of the methane production. The reactor showed the capacity of the methanogens to maintain their activity and withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads.

  12. Improving the simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand and terephthalic acid in a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor by using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Hu, Dong-Xue; Tian, Yu; Chen, Zhao-Bo; Ge, Hui; Cui, Yu-Bo; Ran, Chun-Qiu


    Central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were implemented to optimize the operational parameters for a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor (CFASR) in remedying mixed printing and dyeing wastewater (MPDW). The individual and interactive effects of three variables, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH and sludge loading rate (SLR), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid (TA) removal rates were evaluated. For HRT of 15.3-19.8 hours, pH of 7.2-8.1 and SLR of 0.4-0.6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per kg mixed liquor suspended solids per day, COD and TA removal rates of the CFASR exceeded 85% and 90%, respectively. The check experiment revealed that the effluent from the optimized CFASR was stable below the limitation of 100 mg COD/L and the TA concentration decreased by 6.0% compared to the usual CFASR. The results verified that the RSM was useful for optimizing the operation parameters of the CFASR in remedying MPDW.

  13. Characterization of a novel micro-pressure swirl reactor for removal of chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen from domestic wastewater at low temperature. (United States)

    Ren, Qingkai; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Suiyi; Bian, Dejun; Huo, Mingxin; Zhou, Dandan; Huo, Hongliang


     A novel micro-pressure swirl reactor (MPSR) was designed and applied to treat domestic wastewater at low temperature by acclimating microbial biomass with steadily decreasing temperature from 15 to 3 °C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was constantly removed by 85% and maintained below 50 mg L(-1) in the effluent during the process. When the air flow was controlled at 0.2 m(3) h(-1), a swirl circulation was formed in the reactor, which created a dissolved oxygen (DO) gradient with a low DO zone in the center and a high DO zone in the periphery for denitrification and nitrification. 81% of total nitrogen was removed by this reactor, in which ammonium was reduced by over 90%. However, denitrification was less effective because of the presence of low levels of oxygen. The progressively decreasing temperature favored acclimation of psychrophilic bacteria in the reactor, which replaced mesophilic bacteria in the process of treatment.

  14. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand using a coupled coagulation-electrocoagulation-ozone treatment of industrial wastewater that contains offset printing dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa M, G.; Barrera D, C.; Balderas H, P.; Zaldumbide O, F. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes P, H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon y Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Bilyeu, B., E-mail: [Xavier University of Louisiana, Department of Chemistry, 1 Drexel Drive, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States)


    Industrial offset printing processes generate wastewater with highly colored obtaining values of 5 x 10{sup 6}Pt-Co units and great values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 5.3 x 10{sup -5} mg L{sup -1}. Thus, conventional technologies such as biologicals treatment fail in reaching the discharge limits. In this research, a sequential treatment was applied: coagulation with aluminum hydroxychloride (AHC), electrocoagulation with Al anodes and finally ozonation. Optimal conditions are found when adding 20 mg L{sup -1} AHC, followed by electrocoagulation at 4 A for 50 min, and finally alkaline ozonation for 15 min, resulting in an overall color removal of 99.99% color and 99.35 COD. The sludge generated by the coagulation process was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. (Author)

  15. Development of A Novel Methode for COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand Measurement based onPhotoelectrochemical Cell: Characterization of TiO2/ITO Film Working Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Krisnandi


    Full Text Available Nanosize TiO2 film,immobilized on an ITO (Indium Tin Oxide glass, was successfully fabricated. The film was prepared by a dip coatingtechnique in a hydrothermal sol-gel system and subjected to a heat treatment at 100°C up to 450°C. Characterization ofthe film by XRD, AFM, BET methods revealed the occurrence of anatase form and 9.64 nm in crystallite size; havingthree dimensional profile and roughness with height of typically 9.8 nm; and surface area of 58.21 m2/g. The film thenwas employed as a working electrode in a photo electrochemical system (PES. This PES generated a photocurrent thatproportional to the organic chemical concentration in the water sample. Integration of the photocurrent versus timegives a charge (Q that represent the event of complete mineralization of organic chemical in the TiO2 surface and canbe correlated to the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of measured water. This system has a potential to be developedfor a novel COD sensor.

  16. Effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratios on pollutants removal in the subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent aeration. (United States)

    Song, Siyu; Pan, Jing; Wu, Shiwei; Guo, Yijing; Yu, Jingxiao; Shan, Qingchi


    The matrix oxidation reduction potential level, organic pollutants and nitrogen removal performances of eight subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) (four with intermittent aeration, four without intermittent aeration) fed with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio of 3, 6, 12 and 18 were investigated. Nitrification of non-aerated SWISs was poor due to oxygen deficiency while higher COD/N ratios further led to lower COD and nitrogen removal rate. Intermittent aeration achieved almost complete nitrification, which successfully created aerobic conditions in the depth of 50 cm and did not change anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The sufficient carbon source in high COD/N ratio influent greatly promoted denitrification in SWISs with intermittent aeration. High average removal rates of COD (95.68%), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) (99.32%) and total nitrogen (TN) (89.65%) were obtained with influent COD/N ratio of 12 in aerated SWISs. The results suggest that intermittent aeration was a reliable option to achieve high nitrogen removal in SWISs, especially with high COD/N ratio wastewater.

  17. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source (United States)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian


    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification , the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs ( q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant ( k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate ( b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation ( K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  18. Assessment of a modified and optimised method for determining chemical oxygen demand of solid substrates and solutions with high suspended solid content. (United States)

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M


    A modified approach to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of solid substrates based on the DIN 38414-S9 standard method is proposed. The adapted procedure is assessed and compared with standard methods widely used for water and wastewater such as the American Public Health Association-American Water Works Association-Water Pollution Control Federation (APHA-AWWA-WPCF) standard methods 5220 B-open reflux (SM-OR) and 5220 D-closed reflux colorimetric (SM-CR). Solutions with high suspended concentration of solids, as well as digestates from an anaerobic reactor, were used during the comparative test. For solid substrates, the COD recovery was about 100% when the proposed method was used. For solutions with solid content higher than 20 g TS L(-1), the recovery was only completed when the proposed method was used, showing that the methods traditionally employed are not very appropriate for samples with the described characteristics. For instance, percentages of COD recovery in the ranges of 77.3-87.1% and 89.4-94.1% were achieved when the SM-OR and SM-CR methods were used, respectively.

  19. Chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and colour reduction in slaughterhouse wastewater by unmodified and iron-modified clinoptilolite-rich tuff. (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, J; Solache-Ríos, M; Martínez-Miranda, V


    In this study, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, and total organic carbon in effluents from a slaughterhouse in central Mexico was performed using clinoptilolite-rich tuff. The experimental parameters considered were initial concentration of the adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Surface morphology of the materials was tested by using scanning electron microscopy. Specific surface area was analysed by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and phase composition was analysed by using X-ray diffraction. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The highest COD removal was observed in slightly acidic pH conditions. The maximum reduction efficiency of COD was accomplished with unmodified clinoptilolite-rich tuff at a contact time of 1440 min. In these conditions, the adsorbent was efficient for treating wastewater from a slaughterhouse. Moreover, after several regeneration cycles with Fenton reagent or hydrogen peroxide, the regenerated zeolite with H2O2 (3%) showed the best reduction efficiencies.

  20. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain. (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun


    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). A high NH4(+)-N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4(+)-N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4(+)-N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4(+)-N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4(+)-N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4(+)-N enrichment wastewater pollution control.

  1. 海水化学需氧量烘箱加热测定方法的研究%Determination of seawater chemical oxygen demand by oven heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈加正; 侯沙沙; 刘鹰; 罗荣强


    A method for the determination of seawater chemical oxygen demand (COD), using oven instead of electric furnace to heat samples, was proposed. In this study, standard samples were heated under different conditions of temperature and time to obtain optimum heating conditions. The concentration range of the method was then assessed under the optimum operation conditions. In the end the method was applied to analyze seawater samples in comparison with the electric furnace method. All these results showed a good accuracy and precision of the oven heating method with less time and energy consumed, expecially when a large number of samples were ana- lyzed simultaneously.%在海水化学需氧量(COD)测定中,利用烘箱代替海洋监测规范中的电炉对样品进行加热;探讨了烘箱加热测定法所需的加热条件及其测定范围,并通过实际水样测定了解此法的精确度和准确度。结果表明,烘箱加热测定法具有与海洋监测规范方法同等水平的精确度和准确度,并且在大批量样品测定中具有省时、省电、省力的优点,具有较好的应用价值。

  2. Comparison of Poly Aluminum Chloride and Chlorinated Cuprous for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Color Removal from Kashan Textile Industries Company Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseindoost Gh.1 MSPH,


    Full Text Available Aims Textile wastewaters are the most important health and environmental problems in Kashan. This research was aimed to compare the poly aluminum chloride and chlorinated cuprous efficiency for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color from Kashan Textile Industries Company wastewater. Materials & Methods This experimental bench scale study in a batch system was conducted on 20 composed wastewater samples collected from Kashan Textile Industries Company raw wastewater. During 5 months, in the beginning of every week a day was selected randomly and in the day a composed sample was taken and studied. PAC at the doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mg.l-1 and chlorinated cuprous at the doses of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500mg.l-1 were applied. The optimum pH also optimum concentration of PAC and chlorinated cuprous were determined using Jar test. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 using descriptive statistics and Fisher Exact test. Findings The average concentration of COD in the raw textile wastewater was 2801.56±1398.29mg.l-1. The average COD concentration has been decreased to 1125.47±797.55mg.l-1. There was a significant difference between the effects of these two coagulants efficiency (p<0.05. The average COD removal efficiency for chlorinated cuprous and PAC was 58.52% and 72.56%, respectively. Also, the average color removal efficiency by chlorinated cuprous and PAC were 17.23 and 64.45%, respectively. Conclusion PAC is more efficient than chlorinated cuprous for both COD and color removal from KTIC wastewater.

  3. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia


    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded.

  4. Development of variable pathlength UV-vis spectroscopy combined with partial-least-squares regression for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring. (United States)

    Chen, Baisheng; Wu, Huanan; Li, Sam Fong Yau


    To overcome the challenging task to select an appropriate pathlength for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring with high accuracy by UV-vis spectroscopy in wastewater treatment process, a variable pathlength approach combined with partial-least squares regression (PLSR) was developed in this study. Two new strategies were proposed to extract relevant information of UV-vis spectral data from variable pathlength measurements. The first strategy was by data fusion with two data fusion levels: low-level data fusion (LLDF) and mid-level data fusion (MLDF). Predictive accuracy was found to improve, indicated by the lower root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) compared with those obtained for single pathlength measurements. Both fusion levels were found to deliver very robust PLSR models with residual predictive deviations (RPD) greater than 3 (i.e. 3.22 and 3.29, respectively). The second strategy involved calculating the slopes of absorbance against pathlength at each wavelength to generate slope-derived spectra. Without the requirement to select the optimal pathlength, the predictive accuracy (RMSEP) was improved by 20-43% as compared to single pathlength spectroscopy. Comparing to nine-factor models from fusion strategy, the PLSR model from slope-derived spectroscopy was found to be more parsimonious with only five factors and more robust with residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.72. It also offered excellent correlation of predicted and measured COD values with R(2) of 0.936. In sum, variable pathlength spectroscopy with the two proposed data analysis strategies proved to be successful in enhancing prediction performance of COD in wastewater and showed high potential to be applied in on-line water quality monitoring.

  5. Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

  6. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams, 2014 and 2015 (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.; Graham, Jennifer L.


    Dissolved oxygen concentrations in streams are affected by physical, chemical, and biological factors in the water column and streambed, and are an important factor for the survival of aquatic organisms. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) rates in Kansas streams are not well understood. During 2014 and 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, measured SOD at eight stream sites in eastern Kansas to quantify SOD rates and variability with respect to season, land use, and bottom-sediment characteristics. Sediment oxygen demand rates (SODT) ranged from 0.01 to 3.15 grams per square meter per day at the ambient temperature of the measurements. The summer mean SOD rate was 3.0-times larger than the late fall mean rate, likely because of increased biological activity at warm water temperatures. Given the substantial amount of variability in SOD rates possible within sites, heterogeneity of substrate type is an important consideration when designing SOD studies and interpreting the results. Sediment oxygen demand in eastern Kansas streams was correlated with land use and streambed-sediment characteristics, though the strength of relations varied seasonally. The small number of study sites precluded a more detailed analysis. The effect of basin land use and streambed sediment characteristics on SOD is currently (2016) not well understood, and there may be many contributing factors including basin influences on water quality that affect biogeochemical cycles and the biological communities supported by the stream.


    Four analytical methods were compared for estimating concentrations of fuel contaminants in subsurface core samples. The methods were total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and a solvent extraction of fuel hydrocarbons combined with a gas chromatographic te...

  8. Role of H2O2 in the fluctuating patterns of COD (chemical oxygen demand) during the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using pilot scale triple frequency ultrasound cavitation reactor. (United States)

    Manickam, Sivakumar; Abidin, Norhaida binti Zainal; Parthasarathy, Shridharan; Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ng, Ern Huay; Tiong, Timm Joyce; Gomes, Rachel L; Ali, Asgar


    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME.

  9. Effect on nickel loading on hydrogen production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) destruction from glucose oxidation and gasification in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, E.A.; Chowdhury, M.B.I.; Nakhla, G.; Charpentier, P. [Western Ontario University, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering


    Hydrogen produced from biomass is considered to be an excellent alternative to the use of fossil fuels. Gasification and partial oxidation of glucose was performed in the presence of different metallic nickel (Ni) loadings on different catalyst supports in supercritical water at three temperature levels. For comparison, some experiments were conducted using high loading commercial catalyst Ni on silica-alumina. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a source of oxygen in the partial oxidation experiments. Oxygen to carbon stoichiometric ratios of 0.5 to 0.9 were examined to increase the hydrogen production via carbon monoxide production. The paper described the experimental and methods as well as results and discussion. Results showed that in the absence of catalyst, the optimum stoichiometric ratio was 0.8 of the amount of oxygen required for complete oxidation of glucose. It was concluded that enhancing hydrogen yield and selectivity from glucose by obtaining the desired catalytic property and the optimum process conditions and parameters would be an invaluable addition to the supercritical water oxidation technology. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Study on visible spectrophotometer and chemical oxygen demand detection system%可见分光光度计及化学需氧量检测系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    阐述了可见分光光度计在化学需氧量(COD)检测方向的研究方案,给出了可见分光光度计光路和电路两部分的研究方法。仪器光路采用了对称切尔尼特纳分光结构,并采用全息平面衍射闪耀光栅作为分光元件,使得检测光在光谱能量和光谱分辨率上都得到了提高。电路方面采用高速度高精度对数放大器 log114,使得电路检测精度和响应速度得到了提高。通过对COD标准液的标定测量,并与 HACH-DR61000紫外可见分光光度计进行对比,证明仪器在COD检测方面的系统性能和准确性稳定可靠。%This article expounds the research of the spectrophotometer used in determined the chemical oxygen demand (COD),discusses the research method of the optical system and electronic system.Optical system using symmetrical Czerny Turner system,and use the holographic plane diffraction grating as light splitting element,which improves the spectral energy and spectral resolution.Electronic systems using the high speed high accuracy logarithmic amplifier log114,improves the detecting precision and response speed.Use the COD standard solution calibration Instrument, Compared with HACH-DR6000,that proved the COD detection system’s performance and accuracy are stable and reliable.

  11. Watershed modeling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand using a hydrological simulation Fortran program. (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Kieffer, Janna M; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H; Hossain, Faisal


    Several inland water bodies in the St. Louis Bay watershed have been identified as being potentially impaired due to low level of dissolved oxygen (DO). In order to calculate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL), a standard watershed model supported by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF), was used to simulate water temperature, DO, and bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD). Both point and non-point sources of BOD were included in watershed modeling. The developed model was calibrated at two time periods: 1978 to 1986 and 2000 to 2001 with simulated DO closely matched the observed data and captured the seasonal variations. The model represented the general trend and average condition of observed BOD. Water temperature and BOD decay are the major factors that affect DO simulation, whereas nutrient processes, including nitrification, denitrification, and phytoplankton cycle, have slight impacts. The calibrated water quality model provides a representative linkage between the sources of BOD and in-stream DO\\BOD concentrations. The developed input parameters in this research could be extended to similar coastal watersheds for TMDL determination and Best Management Practice (BMP) evaluation.

  12. Formulations for aircraft and airfield deicing and anti-icing: aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand (United States)

    Ferguson, Lee; Corsi, Steven R.; Geis, Steven W.; Anderson, Graham; Joback, Kevin; Gold, Harris; Mericas, Dean; Cancilla, Devon A.


    The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) has sponsored research on environmental characteristics of aircraft and pavement deicers and anti-icers focusing primarily on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of formulated products and individual chemical components of formulations. This report presents a background of issues leading to this research, objectives of this document, and a description of the efforts and findings of this research.

  13. Methods for assessing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): a review. (United States)

    Jouanneau, S; Recoules, L; Durand, M J; Boukabache, A; Picot, V; Primault, Y; Lakel, A; Sengelin, M; Barillon, B; Thouand, G


    The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is one of the most widely used criteria for water quality assessment. It provides information about the ready biodegradable fraction of the organic load in water. However, this analytical method is time-consuming (generally 5 days, BOD5), and the results may vary according to the laboratory (20%), primarily due to fluctuations in the microbial diversity of the inoculum used. Work performed during the two last decades has resulted in several technologies that are less time-consuming and more reliable. This review is devoted to the analysis of the technical features of the principal methods described in the literature in order to compare their performances (measuring window, reliability, robustness) and to identify the pros and the cons of each method.

  14. Inhibitory effect of nitrobenzene on oxygen demand in lake sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhou; Xuying Wang; Hanchang Shi


    Nitrobenzene is an important raw material and product,which presents a heavy threat to the ecosystem.The potential impacts of nitrobenzene on sediment oxygen demand (SOD) were studied in lake sediment simulating reactors receiving relatively low inputs of nitrobenzene.Oxygen microprofiles were measured in these sediment reactors using microelectrodes.After an initial microprofile measurement as a control,nitrobenzene was added to the overlying water resulting in concentrations of 0,50,100,and 150 μg/L.Microprofiles were measured on day 1,2,4 and 7 following the addition of nitrobenzene.SODs were determined from the microprofiles using a reaction-diffusion model.Results showed that the SODs increased relative to the initial values measured in the pre-treatment period in reactors exposed to all nitrobenzene concentrations on day 1.However,the values decreased gradually on the following days,which eventually resulted in a 50% loss in SODs after 7 days of exposure to nitrobenzene in all reactors.In addition,the inhibition effect of nitrobenzene on SOD exhibited a weak relationship with its concentration.The microscopic observation and count of algae in the sediment showed that the exposure to nitrobenzene did not change the composition of algae greatly,however,it decreased the number of dominant algae species sharply after 7 days of exposure.These results suggested that nitrobenzene could significantly alter SOD in lakes,which could ultimately affect the pollutant recovery in aquatic-sediment systems.

  15. Analysis of nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand in effluent from a system of aerated lagoons followed by polishing pond. (United States)

    Khorsandi, Hassan; Alizadeh, Rahimeh; Tosinejad, Horiyeh; Porghaffar, Hadi


    In this descriptive-analytical study, nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand were assessed for effluent from a system of facultative partially mixed lagoons followed by the polishing pond using 120 grab samples over 1 year. Filtered and non-filtered samples of polishing pond effluent were tested in the presence and absence of a nitrification inhibitor. Effective factors, including 5-day biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll A, and temperature, were measured using standard methods for water and wastewater tests. The results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with SPSS version 16. Findings show that the annual mean of the total 5-day BOD in the effluent from the polishing pond consisted of 44.92% as the algal carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), 43.61% as the nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand (NBOD), and 11.47% as the soluble CBOD. According to this study, the annual mean ratios of algal COD and 5-day algal CBOD to TSS were 0.8 and 0.37, respectively. As the results demonstrate, undertaking quality evaluation of the final effluent from the lagoons without considering nitrogenous and algal oxygen demand would undermine effluent quality assessment and interpretation of the performance of the wastewater treatment plant.

  16. The Impact of Price on Chemical Fertilizer Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John K.Dagsvik


    Since 1998,the national policies on chemical fertilizer in China have been concentrated in limiting price plus subsidizing,abolishing agricultural tax,giving direct subsidies to farmers,and other aspects.In order to analyze the impact of national policies on the consumption of chemical fertilizer,this article selects the consumption of chemical fertilizer per unit,chemical fertilizer price index and farmers’net income in different provinces during the period 1998-2007 as variables,to conduct regression analysis of chemical fertilizer expenditure function,and calculate the price elasticity and income elasticity of chemical fertilizer demand in different provinces over the decade based on the regression results.The results show that at present the basic consumption of chemical fertilizer for agricultural development in China is 0.35 t/hm 2 ,and the consumption of chemical fertilizer is excessive in some provinces;the chemical fertilizer market has not been really established,and the price has little impact on demand.This indicates that the chemical fertilizer is essential for agricultural economic development,and it increases along with the increase of farmers’income; the intervention of the national policy in chemical fertilizer price is a fundamental reason for the rising demand for chemical fertilizer.This also to some extent indicates that the policy effect of merely using environmental taxes to change farmers’consumption of chemical fertilizer is limited;there is a need to transform the existing policies purely promoting agricultural economic development,toward giving different subsidies in accordance with whether the farmers’fertilization pattern is beneficial to the environment.

  17. Oxygen saturations of medical inpatients in a Malawian hospital: cross-sectional study of oxygen supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hywel-Gethin Tudur Evans


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB JA X-NONE Oxygen is a World Health Organisation listed essential drug yet provision of oxygen in developing countries often fails to meet demand.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for supplementary oxygen against oxygen delivery capacity at a large teaching hospital in Malawi.  A cross‐sectional study of all adult medical inpatients and assessment of oxygen provision over a 24‐hour period was conducted.    144 patients were included in the study, 14 of whom met local and international criteria for oxygen therapy (oxygen saturations of <90%.  Four were receiving oxygen.  Of the 8 oxygen concentrators available, only 4 were functional.  In conclusion, we identified a need for oxygen that was greater than the supply.

  18. Sedimentary microbial oxygen demand for laminar flow over a sediment bed of finite length. (United States)

    Higashino, Makoto; Stefan, Heinz G


    Dead organic material accumulated on the bed of a lake, reservoir or wetland often provides the substrate for substantial microbial activity as well as chemical processes that withdraw dissolved oxygen (DO) from the water column. A model to estimate the actual DO profile and the "sedimentary oxygen demand (SOD)" must specify the rate of microbial or chemical activity in the sediment as well as the diffusive supply of DO from the water column through the diffusive boundary layer into the sediment. Most previous experimental and field studies have considered this problem with the assumptions that the diffusive boundary layer is (a) turbulent and (b) fully developed. These assumptions require that (a) the flow velocity above the sediment bed is fast enough to produce turbulent mixing in the boundary layer, and (b) the sediment bed is long. In this paper a model for laminar flow and SOD over a sediment bed of finite length is presented and the results are compared with those for turbulent flow. Laminar flow near a sediment bed is encountered in quiescent water bodies such as lakes, reservoirs, river backwaters, wetlands and ponds under calm wind conditions. The diffusive oxygen transfer through the laminar diffusive boundary layer above the sediment surface can restrict the microbial or chemical oxygen uptake inside the sediment significantly. The developing laminar diffusive boundary layer above the sediment/water interface is modeled based on the analogy with heat transfer, and DO uptake inside the sediment is modeled by Michaelis-Menten microbial growth kinetics. The model predicts that the rate of SOD at the beginning of the reactive sediment bed is solely dependent on microbial density in the sediment regardless of flow velocity and type. The rate of SOD, and the DO penetration depth into the sediment decrease in stream-wise direction over the length of the sediment bed, as the diffusive boundary layer above the sediment/water interface thickens. With increasing

  19. Demonstration study of biofilm reactor based rapid biochemical oxygen demand determination of surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu Liu


    Full Text Available Application investigations of rapid biochemical oxygen demand (BOD online analyzer for surface water in Wuxi, China were carried out since 2013. The analyzer adopted a novel working principle, that is, the oxygen concentration of the sample to be tested was regarded as a reference, and the oxygen consumption by the biofilm reactor (BFR was calculated according to the difference between the reference and sample effluent from BFR. The BFR was fabricated via a cultivation process using naturally occurring microbial seeds from in site surface water. This analytical principle was first presented and clearly clarified, and the impact of microbial endogenous respiration to the measured values was also proposed and analyzed. The improved analyzers were equipped in three application sites with significant differences in BOD concentration, for the purpose of evaluating the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method. This study revealed that the online analyzer could continually operate over 30 days without human intervention and additional chemical reagent consumption. The obtained rapid BOD trend line showed that this analyzer could track the fluctuation of the biodegradable organic compound level timely and accurately. The innovative analytical method, as well as the outstanding adaptation and well accuracy rating, provided the highlights for wide applications in the future.

  20. Effects of arteriovenous fistulas on cardiac oxygen supply and demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W.J.W.; Zietse, R.; Wesseling, K.H.; Westerhof, N.


    Background. Arteriovenous (AV) fistulas used for hemodialysis access may affect cardiac load by increasing the preload while decreasing the afterload. In dogs, AV fistulas have also been shown to affect coronary perfusion negatively. We investigated the net effect of AV fistulas on cardiac oxygen su

  1. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew


    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  2. The effect of mayfly (Hexagenia spp.) burrowing activity on sediment oxygen demand in western Lake Erie (United States)

    Edwards, William J.; Soster, Frederick M.; Matisoff, Gerald; Schloesser, Donald W.


    Previous studies support the hypothesis that large numbers of infaunal burrow-irrigating organisms in the western basin of Lake Erie may increase significantly the sediment oxygen demand, thus enhancing the rate of hypolimnetic oxygen depletion. We conducted laboratory experiments to quantify burrow oxygen dynamics and increased oxygen demand resulting from burrow irrigation using two different year classes of Hexagenia spp. nymphs from western Lake Erie during summer, 2006. Using oxygen microelectrodes and hot film anemometry, we simultaneously determined oxygen concentrations and burrow water flow velocities. Burrow oxygen depletion rates ranged from 21.7 mg/nymph/mo for 15 mm nymphs at 23 °C to 240.7 mg/nymph/mo for 23 mm nymphs at 13 °C. Sealed microcosm experiments demonstrated that mayflies increase the rate of oxygen depletion by 2-5 times that of controls, depending on size of nymph and water temperature, with colder waters having greater impact. At natural population densities, nymph pumping activity increased total sediment oxygen demand 0.3-2.5 times compared to sediments with no mayflies and accounted for 22-71% of the total sediment oxygen demand. Extrapolating laboratory results to the natural system suggest that Hexagenia spp. populations may exert a significant control on oxygen depletion during intermittent stratification. This finding may help explain some of the fluctuations in Hexagenia spp. population densities in western Lake Erie and suggests that mayflies, by causing their own population collapse irrespective of other environmental conditions, may need longer term averages when used as a bio-indicator of the success of pollution-abatement programs in western Lake Erie and possibly throughout the Great Lakes.

  3. Oxygen demand of aircraft and airfield pavement deicers and alternative freezing point depressants (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Mericas, Dean; Bowman, George


    Aircraft and pavement deicing formulations and other potential freezing point depressants were tested for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Propylene glycol-based aircraft deicers exhibited greater BOD5 than ethylene glycol-based aircraft deicers, and ethylene glycol-based products had lower degradation rates than propylene glycol-based products. Sodium formate pavement deicers had lower COD than acetate-based pavement deicers. The BOD and COD results for acetate-based pavement deicers (PDMs) were consistently lower than those for aircraft deicers, but degradation rates were greater in the acetate-based PDM than in aircraft deicers. In a 40-day testing of aircraft and pavement deicers, BOD results at 20°C (standard) were consistently greater than the results from 5°C (low) tests. The degree of difference between standard and low temperature BOD results varied among tested products. Freshwater BOD test results were not substantially different from marine water tests at 20°C, but glycols degraded slower in marine water than in fresh water for low temperature tests. Acetate-based products had greater percentage degradation than glycols at both temperatures. An additive component of the sodium formate pavement deicer exhibited toxicity to the microorganisms, so BOD testing did not work properly for this formulation. BOD testing of alternative freezing point depressants worked well for some, there was little response for some, and for others there was a lag in response while microorganisms acclimated to the freezing point depressant as a food source. Where the traditional BOD5 test performed adequately, values ranged from 251 to 1,580 g/kg. Where the modified test performed adequately, values of BOD28 ranged from 242 to 1,540 g/kg.

  4. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg


    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  5. Ultimate biochemical oxygen demand in semi-intensively managed shrimp pond waters (United States)

    Three independent studies were conducted to quantified ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (UBOD) and the corresponding decomposition rate constant for production pond (average 21.5 ha each) waters and effluents on six semi-intensively managed marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in Honduras. S...

  6. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregg, A.K.; Hatay, M.; Haas, A.F.; Robinett, N.L.; Barott, K.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.; Thompson, F.; Meirelles, P.; Rohwer, F.


    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change i

  7. Relationship between Oxygen Chemical Potential and Steel Cleanliness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Soltanieh; Yousef Payandeh


    To investigate inclusion formation in each step during steel making process, several samples were taken in different steps of the production of steel at Mobarakeh Steel Co of Esfahan to measure the oxygen chemical potential of the molten steel in each stage. The chemical compositions of the inclusions in samples were investigated lby scanning electron microscope. The chemical composition of the slag was analyzed. With the use of thermodynamic calculations and chemical analysis of the melt, at the working temperature, the relationship between dissolved oxygen and other elements were determined. Finally, it was found that there is a close relationship between inclusions formed in each step with the oxygen partial pressure.

  8. Simulation of Temperature, Nutrients, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Dissolved Oxygen in the Catawba River, South Carolina, 1996-97 (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Sanders, Curtis L.; Bales, Jerad D.


    Time-series plots of dissolved-oxygen concentrations were determined for various simulated hydrologic and point-source loading conditions along a free-flowing section of the Catawba River from Lake Wylie Dam to the headwaters of Fishing Creek Reservoir in South Carolina. The U.S. Geological Survey one-dimensional dynamic-flow model, BRANCH, was used to simulate hydrodynamic data for the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model. Waterquality data were used to calibrate the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model and included concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll a, and biochemical oxygen demand in water samples collected during two synoptic sampling surveys at 10 sites along the main stem of the Catawba River and at 3 tributaries; and continuous water temperature and dissolved-oxygen concentrations measured at 5 locations along the main stem of the Catawba River. A sensitivity analysis of the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations to model coefficients and data inputs indicated that the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were most sensitive to watertemperature boundary data due to the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics and the solubility of dissolved oxygen. Of the model coefficients, the simulated dissolved-oxygen concentration was most sensitive to the biological oxidation rate of nitrite to nitrate. To demonstrate the utility of the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model for the Catawba River, the model was used to simulate several water-quality scenarios to evaluate the effect on the 24-hour mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations at selected sites for August 24, 1996, as simulated during the model calibration period of August 23 27, 1996. The first scenario included three loading conditions of the major effluent discharges along the main stem of the Catawba River (1) current load (as sampled in August 1996); (2) no load (all point-source loads were removed from the main stem of the Catawba River; loads from the main tributaries were not removed); and (3

  9. Non-steady response of BOD biosensor for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand in wastewater. (United States)

    Velling, Siiri; Mashirin, Alexey; Hellat, Karin; Tenno, Toomas


    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor for effective and expeditious BOD(7) estimations was constructed and the non-steady phase of the output signal was extensively studied. The modelling approach introduced allows response curve reconstruction and a curve fitting procedure of good quality, resulting in parameters indicating the relationship between response and organic substrate concentration and stability properties of the BOD biosensor. Also, the immobilization matrixes of different thicknesses were characterized to determine their suitability for bio-sensing measurements in non-stationary conditions, as well as for the determination of the mechanical durability of the BOD biosensor in time. The non-steady response of the experimental output of the BOD biosensor was fitted according to the developed model that enables to determine the stability of the biosensor output and dependency on biodegradable organic substrate concentration. The calibration range of the studied BOD biosensor in OECD synthetic wastewater was 15-110 mg O(2) L(-1). Repeatability tests showed relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.8% and 5.8% for the parameter τ(d), characterizing the transient output of the amperometric oxygen sensor in time, and τ(s), describing the dependency of the transient response of the BOD biosensor on organic substrate concentration, respectively. BOD biosensor experiments for the evaluation of the biochemical oxygen demand of easily degradable and refractory municipal wastewater showed good concurrence with traditional BOD(7) analysis.

  10. Explorations on Temperature, Oxygen, Nutrients and Habitat Demands of Fish Species Found in River Coruh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Akbulut


    Full Text Available For the protection of our natural resources, fish species being economic and ecological richness of the natural in the basin of the Çoruh to know their request is extremely a vital important issue. In this study, temperature and oxygen demand, food and habitat of 18 fish species in six families found in river Çoruh assessed and discussed with the literature and database. Limiting the impact of water temperature on the reproductive, growth and nutrition emphasized. The fish species in the basin spawn at temperatures between 14-30°C according to database. Three species belonging to a family feed with animal food floating in the water. The species belonging to the other families more feed mixed with plant and animal foods diet in the floor or near the ground. Importance of their environmental demands has clarified for conservation and sustainable use of these fish species inhabiting in Çoruh River.

  11. Removal Factor Analysis of Chemical Oxygen Demand by Bipolar Pulsed Discharge in Dye Waste Water with Plasma Treatment%双极性脉冲放电等离子体处理染料废水时化学需氧量去除效果相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若兵; 马文长; 张弦


    在双极性脉冲放电等离子体用于染料废水的降解过程中,废水化学需氧量(chemicaloxygendemand,COD)的变化是在更深层次上反映该技术对有机污染物的降解能力的重要指标。为此,重点研究了在气液固三相混合体双极性脉冲放电条件下典型染料废水COD的去除规律,测试了不同电压、气体流量、初始浓度等条件下染料废水COD的变化。实验结果表明:当负载电压较高时,染料废水的COD值会先升高然后不断降低;而负载电压较低时,COD值会在一定程度内缓慢上升;气体流量越高,COD的去除效果越好;废水初始浓度增加,COD的去除率略有下降;初始电导率增加,COD的去除率降低;对具有不同官能团的染料废水进行放电处理发现,双极性脉冲放电对于各种结构的染料均有良好的处理效果。%The removal rule of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the typical dye solution was investigated using a packed bed reactor by bipolar pulsed discharge in the air-water-solid mixture, and the value of COD in different conditions such as different voltages, air flow rates and initial concentrations was measured. Experimental results prove that the COD value of dye waste water will increase first and then decrease constantly at a high load voltage, while the COD value increase slowly to a certain extent at a low load voltage. The removal effect of COD is better when the air flow rate is higher and is worse when the initial concentration and conductivity of the dye waste water increase. It is found that the degradation effect on dyes with different functional groups is remarkable after the bipolar pulsed discharge treatment.

  12. Sediment Oxygen Demand in Cochin backwaters, a tropical estuarine system in the south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abhilash, K.R.; Raveendran, T.V.; LimnaMol, V.P.; Deepak, M.P.

    Eutrophication has often been one of the major problems encountered in estuaries and coastal waters. The oxic/anoxic status of an estuary can be effectively determined by measurement of the Sediment Oxygen Demand (SOD). An attempt is made...

  13. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.


    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  14. Atom interaction propensities of oxygenated chemical functions in crystal packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jelsch


    Full Text Available The crystal contacts of several families of hydrocarbon compounds substituted with one or several types of oxygenated chemical groups were analyzed statistically using the Hirshfeld surface methodology. The propensity of contacts to occur between two chemical types is described with the contact enrichment descriptor. The systematic large enrichment ratios of some interactions like the O—H...O hydrogen bonds suggests that these contacts are a driving force in the crystal packing formation. The same statement holds for the weaker C—H...O hydrogen bonds in ethers, esters and ketones, in the absence of polar H atoms. The over-represented contacts in crystals of oxygenated hydrocarbons are generally of two types: electrostatic attractions (hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. While Cl...O interactions are generally avoided, in a minority of chloro-oxygenated hydrocarbons, significant halogen bonding does occur. General tendencies can often be derived for many contact types, but outlier compounds are instructive as they display peculiar or rare features. The methodology also allows the detection of outliers which can be structures with errors. For instance, a significant number of hydroxylated molecules displaying over-represented non-favorable oxygen–oxygen contacts turned out to have wrongly oriented hydroxyl groups. Beyond crystal packings with a single molecule in the asymmetric unit, the behavior of water in monohydrate compounds and of crystals with Z′ = 2 (dimers are also investigated. It was found in several cases that, in the presence of several oxygenated chemical groups, cross-interactions between different chemical groups (e.g. water/alcohols; alcohols/phenols are often favored in the crystal packings. While some trends in accordance with common chemical principles are retrieved, some unexpected results can however appear. For example, in crystals of alcohol–phenol compounds, the strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds between

  15. Total, chemical, and biological oxygen consumption of the sediments in the Ziya River watershed, China. (United States)

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing


    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is a critical dissolved oxygen (DO) sink in many rivers. Understanding the relative contributions of the biological and chemical components of SOD would improve our knowledge of the potential environmental harm SOD could cause and allow appropriate management systems to be developed. A various inhibitors addition technique was conducted to measure the total, chemical, and biological SOD of sediment samples from 13 sites in the Ziya River watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. The results showed that the major component of SOD was chemical SOD due to iron predominate. The ferrous SOD accounted for 21.6-78.9 % of the total SOD and 33.26-96.79 % of the chemical SOD. Biological SOD represented 41.13 % of the overall SOD averagely. Sulfide SOD accounted for 1.78-45.71 % of the total SOD and it was the secondary predominate of the chemical SOD. Manganous SOD accounted for 1.2-16.6 % of the total SOD and it was insignificant at many sites. Only four kinds of benthos were collected in the Ziya River watershed, resulting from the low DO concentration in the sediment surface due to SOD. This study would be helpful for understanding and preventing the potential sediment oxygen depletion during river restoration.

  16. Improvement of the analysis of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Mediterranean seawater by seeding control. (United States)

    Simon, F Xavier; Penru, Ywann; Guastalli, Andrea R; Llorens, Joan; Baig, Sylvie


    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a useful parameter for assessing the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in water. At the same time, this parameter is used to evaluate the efficiency with which certain processes remove biodegradable natural organic matter (NOM). However, the values of BOD in seawater are very low (around 2 mgO(2)L(-1)) and the methods used for its analysis are poorly developed. The increasing attention given to seawater desalination in the Mediterranean environment, and related phenomena such as reverse osmosis membrane biofouling, have stimulated interest in seawater BOD close to the Spanish coast. In this study the BOD analysis protocol was refined by introduction of a new step in which a critical quantity of autochthonous microorganisms, measured as adenosine triphosphate, is added. For the samples analyzed, this improvement allowed us to obtain reliable and replicable BOD measurements, standardized with solutions of glucose-glutamic acid and acetate. After 7 days of analysis duration, more than 80% of ultimate BOD is achieved, which in the case of easily biodegradable compounds represents nearly a 60% of the theoretical oxygen demand. BOD(7) obtained from the Mediterranean Sea found to be 2.0±0.3 mgO(2)L(-1) but this value decreased with seawater storage time due to the rapid consumption of labile compounds. No significant differences were found between two samples points located on the Spanish coast, since their organic matter content was similar. Finally, the determination of seawater BOD without the use of inoculum may lead to an underestimation of BOD.

  17. Sediment oxygen demand in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96 (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart; Doyle, M.C.


    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) rates were measured by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel at 20 stream sites in the Tualatin River Basin from 1992 through 1996 as part of an investigation into the sources and sinks of dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River. During the low-flow summer periods of 1992 through 1994, 97 measurements were collected at 9 sites on the main stem of the river between river miles (RMs) 5.5 and 43.2. During the low-flow summer periods of 1995 and 1996, 28 measurements of SOD were collected at 11 sites on 8 tributaries of the Tualatin River. All SOD rates were measured with in-situ benthic chambers designed to monitor the loss of dissolved oxygen in a known volume of water circulating above a known area of minimally disturbed stream sediment. For main-stem Tualatin River sites, the observed SOD rate ranged from 0.6 to 4.4 grams of oxygen per square meter per day (g/m 2 d) with a median of 2.3 g/m 2 d. In the tributaries, the measured SOD rate ranged from 0.2 to 10.9 with a median of 3.6 g/m 2 d. These rates are in the range of those reported for other sites in Oregon and across the United States. Most of the variation in the measured SOD rates was likely due to heterogeneities in the bed sediment. Statistical comparisons show that the rates measured at the tributary sites are significantly larger than those measured in the main stem. Within the main stem, the rates measured at sites in the meander reach of the river were not significantly different from those measured in the reservoir reach. Similarly, no difference was found when the sites affected by the cycle of phytoplankton bloom and die-off were compared to those unaffected by phytoplankton. Only one site on the main stem, RM 5.5, was found to have an SOD rate that was significantly higher than that found at the other main-stem sites. Algal detritus may contribute to the elevated rate at that site, but other factors such as the rate of sediment accumulation could also account for the

  18. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Estimation of Biochemical Oxygen Demand Based on Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Absorption, and Fluorescence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kwak


    Full Text Available Determination of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 is the most commonly practiced test to assess the water quality of surface waters and the waste loading. However, BOD5 is not a good parameter for the control of water or wastewater treatment processes because of its long test period. It is very difficult to produce consistent and reliable BOD5 results without using careful laboratory quality control practices. This study was performed to develop software sensors to predict the BOD5 of river water and wastewater. The software sensors were based on the multiple regression analysis using the dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration, UV light absorbance at 254 nm, and synchronous fluorescence spectra. River water samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluents were collected at 1-hour interval to evaluate the feasibility of the software sensors. In short, the software sensors developed in this study could well predict the BOD5 of river water (r=0.78 and for the WWTP effluent (r=0.90.

  20. Development and characterization of microbial biosensors for evaluating low biochemical oxygen demand in rivers. (United States)

    Chee, Gab-Joo


    Five microorganisms were used to construct a biosensor for the evaluation of low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in rivers. Characterization and comparison of BOD biosensors were performed using two standard solutions: glucose and glutamic acid (GGA) and artificial wastewater (AWW). Pseudomonas putida SG10 demonstrated the best response when using AWW. Trichosporon cutaneum IFO10466, however, had an extremely poor response. When evaluating the biosensor response to each component of AWW, all of the microorganisms except T. cutaneum displayed the highest response to tannic acid. In a comparison of the two standard solutions for all the microorganisms, the biosensor responses of GGA were approximately three times higher than those of AWW were. In the BOD determination of environmental samples, the biosensor BOD values evaluated using AWW were slightly lower or equivalent to BOD5 values, whereas the biosensor BOD values evaluated using GGA were considerably lower. These results suggest that GGA is suitable for the detection of high BOD in industrial wastewaters and factory effluents, while AWW is suitable for the detection of low BOD in rivers.

  1. A Novel Biosensor for the Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the function of a novel biosensor used for the rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) which is developed by our research group based on suspended immobilized microbial cell system in a completely mixed determining chamber as a substitute of the traditional membrane system. Methods Activated sludge was immobilized by PVA gel and used as a bio-sensing element. The novel biosensor was used to measure the short time BOD value and the conventional cultivation method was used for BOD5 measurement. Results A linear relationship was observed for the difference between the current and the concentration of glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) solution below 200mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The optimal response of the sensor was obtained at pH 7.0 and 30℃. The sensor response was within 15 min and was reproducible within ±5% of the mean in a series of eight samples containing 75 mg/L BOD using standard GGA solution. The novel sensor response was found to be fairly constant over a period of 0days, with ±5% fluctuations. Conclusion A relatively good agreement is found between BOD estimated by the novel BOD biosensor and that determined by the conventional 5-day BOD method. This novel BOD biosensor has good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility.

  2. Influence of oxygen on the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism (United States)

    Barilla, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš V.; Pisaková, Hana; Simr, Pavel


    The simulation of the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism may be very helpful in studying the radiobiological effect of ionizing radiation when the water radical clusters formed by the densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particle may form DSBs damaging DNA molecules in living cells. It is possible to study not only the efficiency of individual radicals but also the influence of other species or radiomodifiers (mainly oxygen) being present in water medium during irradiation. The mathematical model based on Continuous Petri nets (proposed by us recently) will be described. It makes it possible to analyze two main processes running at the same time: chemical radical reactions and the diffusion of radical clusters formed during energy transfer. One may study the time change of radical concentrations due to the chemical reactions running during diffusion process. Some orientation results concerning the efficiency of individual radicals in DSB formation (in the case of Co60 radiation) will be presented; the influence of oxygen present in water medium during irradiation will be shown, too.

  3. Determination of Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Ziya River Watershed, China: Based on Laboratory Core Incubation and Microelectrode Measurements. (United States)

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao


    A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurement was performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19-1.41 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m²·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15-1.38 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m²·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R² = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water.

  4. Oxygen permeation and thermo-chemical stability of oxygen separation membrane materials for the oxyfuel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellett, Anna Judith


    The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, generally held to be one of the most significant contributors to global warming, is a major technological issue. CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (CCS) techniques applied to large stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants could efficiently contribute to the global carbon mitigation effort. The oxyfuel process, which consists in the burning of coal in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to produce a flue gas highly concentrated in CO{sub 2}, is a technology considered for zero CO{sub 2} emission coal-fired power plants. The production of this O{sub 2}-rich combustion gas from air can be carried out using high purity oxygen separation membranes. Some of the most promising materials for this application are mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) materials with perovskite and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} perovskite-related structures. The present work examines the selection of La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF58), La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (PSCF58) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF50) as membrane materials for the separation of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} in the framework of the oxyfuel process with flue gas recycling. Annealing experiments were carried out on pellets exposed to CO{sub 2}, water vapour, O{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in order to determine the thermo-chemical resistance to the atmospheres and the high temperature conditions present during membrane operation in a coal-fired power plant. The degradation of their microstructure was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in combination with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Also, the oxygen permeation fluxes of selected membranes were investigated as a function of temperature. The membrane materials selected were characterised using thermo-analytical techniques such as precision thermogravimetric

  5. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor. (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha


    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  6. 20-Kw nitrogen diluent chemical oxygen-iodine laser (United States)

    Yang, Tientsai T.; Bhowmik, Anup; Burde, David H.; Clark, Roy; Carroll, S.; Dickerson, Robert A.; Eblen, J.; Gylys, Vytas T.; Hsia, Y. C.; Humphreys, Richard H., Jr.; Moon, L. F.; Hurlock, Steve C.; Tomassian, A.


    A new Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) has been developed and demonstrated at chlorine flow rates up to 1 gmol/s. The laser employs a cross flow jet oxygen generator operating with no diluent. The generator product flow enters the laser cavity at Mach 1 and is accelerated by mixing with 5 gmol/s, Mach 5 nitrogen diluent in an ejector nozzle array. The nitrogen also serves as the carrier for iodine. Vortex mixing is achieved through the use of mixing tabs at the nitrogen nozzle exit. Mixing approach design and analysis, including CFD analysis, led to the preferred nozzle configuration. The selected mixing enhancement design was tested in cold flow and the results are in good agreement with the CFD predictions. Good mixing was achieved within the desired cavity flow length of 20 cm and pressure recovery about 90 Torr was measured at the cavity exit. Finally, the design was incorporated into the laser and power extraction as high as 20 kw was measured at the best operating condition of 0.9 gmol/s. Stable resonator mode footprints showed desieable intensity profiles, which none of the sugar scoop profiles characteristic of the conventional COIL designs.

  7. Stackable Miniature Fuel Cells with On-Demand Fuel and Oxygen Supply


    Hur, Janet


    This dissertation summarizes our progress towards miniature fuel cells that could replace and outperform small batteries to meet various power demands. With increasing need of power being critical for portable electronics, the demand for better batteries continues to grow. Lithium-ion batteries dominate the market at the moment, but the current capacities on the order of 200 Wh/kg are approaching their inherent limits. Many researchers have being pursuing alternative power sources, forming a ...

  8. A New Approach for On-Demand Generation of Various Oxygen Tensions for In Vitro Hypoxia Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Li

    Full Text Available The development of in vitro disease models closely mimicking the functions of human disease has captured increasing attention in recent years. Oxygen tensions and gradients play essential roles in modulating biological systems in both physiologic and pathologic events. Thus, controlling oxygen tension is critical for mimicking physiologically relevant in vivo environments for cell, tissue and organ research. We present a new approach for on-demand generation of various oxygen tensions for in vitro hypoxia models. Proof-of-concept prototypes have been developed for conventional cell culture microplate by immobilizing a novel oxygen-consuming biomaterial on the 3D-printed insert. For the first time, rapid (~3.8 minutes to reach 0.5% O2 from 20.9% O2 and precisely controlled oxygen tensions/gradients (2.68 mmHg per 50 μm distance were generated by exposing the biocompatible biomaterial to the different depth of cell culture media. In addition, changing the position of 3D-printed inserts with immobilized biomaterials relative to the cultured cells resulted in controllable and rapid changes in oxygen tensions (<130 seconds. Compared to the current technologies, our approach allows enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and accuracy of the oxygen tensions. Additionally, it does not interfere with the testing environment while maintaining ease of use. The elegance of oxygen tension manipulation introduced by our new approach will drastically improve control and lower the technological barrier of entry for hypoxia studies. Since the biomaterials can be immobilized in any devices, including microfluidic devices and 3D-printed tissues or organs, it will serve as the basis for a new generation of experimental models previously impossible or very difficult to implement.

  9. Characterization of water quality and simulation of temperature, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen in the Wateree River, South Carolina, 1996-98 (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Conrads, Paul A.


    In May 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey entered into a cooperative agreement with the Kershaw County Water and Sewer Authority to characterize and simulate the water quality in the Wateree River, South Carolina. Longitudinal profiling of dissolved-oxygen concentrations during the spring and summer of 1996 revealed dissolved-oxygen minimums occurring upstream from the point-source discharges. The mean dissolved-oxygen decrease upstream from the effluent discharges was 2.0 milligrams per liter, and the decrease downstream from the effluent discharges was 0.2 milligram per liter. Several theories were investigated to obtain an improved understanding of the dissolved-oxygen dynamics in the upper Wateree River. Data suggest that the dissolved-oxygen concentration decrease is associated with elevated levels of oxygen-consuming nutrients and metals that are flowing into the Wateree River from Lake Wateree. Analysis of long-term streamflow and water-quality data collected at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations suggests that no strong correlation exists between streamflow and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Wateree River. However, a strong negative correlation does exist between dissolved-oxygen concentrations and water temperature. Analysis of data from six South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control monitoring stations for 1980.95 revealed decreasing trends in ammonia nitrogen at all stations where data were available and decreasing trends in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand at three river stations. The influence of various hydrologic and point-source loading conditions on dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Wateree River were determined by using results from water-quality simulations by the Branched Lagrangian Transport Model. The effects of five tributaries and four point-source discharges were included in the model. Data collected during two synoptic water-quality samplings on June 23.25 and August 11.13, 1997, were used to calibrate

  10. Influence of biological oxygen demand degradation patterns on water-quality modeling for rivers running through urban areas. (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Wang, Wei-Shen


    Water-quality modeling has been used as a support tool for water-resources management. The Streeter-Phelps (SP) equation is one often-used algorithm in river water-quality simulation because of its simplicity and ease in use. To characterize the river dissolved oxygen (DO) sag profile, it only considers that the first-order biological oxygen demand (BOD) degradation and atmospheric reaeration are the sink and source in a river, respectively. In the river water-quality calculation, the assumption may not always provide satisfactory simulation due to an inappropriate description of BOD degradation. In the study, various patterns of BOD degradation were combined with the oxygen reaeration to simulate the DO sag profile in a river. Different BOD degradation patterns used include the first-order decay, mixed second-order decay, and oxygen-inhibition decay. The results shows that the oxygen-inhibition SP equation calculates higher BOD and DO concentration, while the mixed second SP equation calculates the least among the three tested models. In river-water calculation of Keelung River, the SP and oxygen-inhibition SP equations calculate similar BOD and DO concentrations, and the mixed second SP equation calculates the least BOD and DO concentration. The pollution loading of BOD and atmospheric reaeration constant are the two important factors that have significant impacts on aqueous DO concentration. In the field application, it is suggested that the mixed second SP equation be employed in water-quality simulation when the monitoring data exhibits a faster trend in BOD decay. The oxygen-inhibition SP equation may calculate the water quality more accurately when BOD decay is slower.

  11. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles. (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W


    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  12. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  13. Seasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader, H. E.; Stedmon, C. A.; Kritzberg, E. S.


    on the same order of magnitude for all three catchments. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) was used as a proxy for the lability of carbon in the system. The range of BOD values was similar for all three catchments, however, the ratio of BOD to DOC (an indication of the labile fraction) in Ume river was four...... times higher than in the southern two catchments. Total annual BOD loading to the Baltic Sea was twice as high in the northern catchment than in the two southern catchments. Lower winter temperatures and preservation of organic matter in the northern catchment combined with an intense spring flood help...

  14. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  15. Discriminating between west-side sources of nutrients and organiccarbon contributing to algal growth and oxygen demand in the San JoaquinRiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Salt and Mud Slough tributaries as sources of oxygen demanding materials entering the San Joaquin River (SJR). Mud Slough and Salt Slough are the main drainage arteries of the Grasslands Watershed, a 370,000-acre area west of the SJR, covering portions of Merced and Fresno Counties. Although these tributaries of the SJR are typically classified as agricultural, they are also heavily influenced by Federal, State and private wetlands. The majority of the surface water used for both irrigation and wetland management in the Grassland Watershed is imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta through the Delta-Mendota Canal. In this study, they measured algal biomass (as chlorophyll a), organic carbon, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and other measures of water quality in drainage from both agricultural and wetland sources at key points in the Salt Slough and Mud Slough tributaries. This report includes the data collected between June 16th and October 4th, 2001. The objective of the study was to compare agricultural and wetland drainage in the Grasslands Watershed and to determine the relative importance of each return flow source to the concentration and mass loading of oxygen demanding materials entering the SJR. Additionally, they compared the quality of water exiting our study area to water entering our study area. This study has demonstrated that Salt and Mud Sloughs both contribute significant amounts of oxygen demand to the SJR. Together, these tributaries could account for 35% of the oxygen demand observed below their confluence with the SJR. This study has characterized the sources of oxygen demanding materials entering Mud Slough and evaluated the oxygen demand conditions in Salt Slough. Salt Slough was found to be the dominant source of oxygen demand load in the study area, because of the higher flows in this tributary. The origins of oxygen demand in Salt Slough still remain largely uninvestigated

  16. Oxygen vacancy promoted methane partial oxidation over iron oxide oxygen carriers in the chemical looping process. (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Lang; Guo, Mengqing; Xu, Mingyuan; Fan, Jonathan A; Fan, Liang-Shih


    We perform ab initio DFT+U calculations and experimental studies of the partial oxidation of methane to syngas on iron oxide oxygen carriers to elucidate the role of oxygen vacancies in oxygen carrier reactivity. In particular, we explore the effect of oxygen vacancy concentration on sequential processes of methane dehydrogenation, and oxidation with lattice oxygen. We find that when CH4 adsorbs onto Fe atop sites without neighboring oxygen vacancies, it dehydrogenates with CHx radicals remaining on the same site and evolves into CO2via the complete oxidation pathway. In the presence of oxygen vacancies, on the other hand, the formed methyl (CH3) prefers to migrate onto the vacancy site while the H from CH4 dehydrogenation remains on the original Fe atop site, and evolves into CO via the partial oxidation pathway. The oxygen vacancies created in the oxidation process can be healed by lattice oxygen diffusion from the subsurface to the surface vacancy sites, and it is found that the outward diffusion of lattice oxygen atoms is more favorable than the horizontal diffusion on the same layer. Based on the proposed mechanism and energy profile, we identify the rate-limiting steps of the partial oxidation and complete oxidation pathways. Also, we find that increasing the oxygen vacancy concentration not only lowers the barriers of CH4 dehydrogenation but also the cleavage energy of Fe-C bonds. However, the barrier of the rate-limiting step cannot further decrease when the oxygen vacancy concentration reaches 2.5%. The fundamental insight into the oxygen vacancy effect on CH4 oxidation with iron oxide oxygen carriers can help guide the design and development of more efficient oxygen carriers and CLPO processes.

  17. Evaluation of Oxygen Concentrators and Chemical Oxygen Generators at Altitude and Temperature Extremes (United States)


    producing similar results. Oxygen concentrators have also shown to be an effective and economical substitute for compressed oxygen cylinders in remote high... Fischer et al. [10] conducted a study in an altitude chamber with volunteers having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using five commercially...interest in employing this technology in areas where providing oxygen in cylinders or in liquid form is logistically difficult or economically

  18. Heart rate and oxygen demand of powered exoskeleton–assisted walking in persons with paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Asselin, MS


    Full Text Available Historically, persons with paralysis have limited options for overground ambulation. Recently, powered exoskeletons, which are systems that translate the user’s body movements to activate motors that move the lower limbs through a predetermined gait pattern, have become available. As part of an ongoing clinical study (NCT01454570, eight nonambulatory persons with paraplegia were trained to ambulate with a powered exoskeleton. Measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2 and heart rate (HR were recorded for 6 min each during each maneuver while sitting, standing, and walking. The average value of VO2 during walking (11.2 +/– 1.7 mL/kg/min was significantly higher than for sitting and standing (3.5 +/– 0.4 and 4.3 +/– 0.9 mL/kg/min, respectively; p < 0.001. The HR response during walking was significantly greater than that of either sitting or standing (118 +/– 21 vs 70 +/– 10 and 81 +/– 12 beats per minute, respectively; p < 0.001. Persons with paraplegia were able to ambulate efficiently using the powered exoskeleton for overground ambulation, providing the potential for functional gain and improved fitness.

  19. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasinski, Slawomir, E-mail:; Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena


    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold.

  20. The effects of graded changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension on coronary blood velocity independent of myocardial energy demand. (United States)

    Boulet, Lindsey M; Stembridge, Mike; Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Foster, Glen E


    In humans, coronary blood flow is tightly regulated by microvessels within the myocardium to match myocardial energy demand. However, evidence regarding inherent sensitivity of the microvessels to changes in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen is conflicting because of the accompanied changes in myocardial energy requirements. This study aimed to investigate the changes in coronary blood velocity while manipulating partial pressures of end-tidal CO2 (Petco2) and O2 (Peto2). It was hypothesized that an increase in Petco2 (hypercapnia) or decrease in Peto2 (hypoxia) would result in a significant increase in mean blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery (LADVmean) due to an increase in both blood gases and energy demand associated with the concomitant cardiovascular response. Cardiac energy demand was assessed through noninvasive measurement of the total left ventricular mechanical energy. Healthy subjects (n = 13) underwent a euoxic CO2 test (Petco2 = -8, -4, 0, +4, and +8 mmHg from baseline) and an isocapnic hypoxia test (Peto2 = 64, 52, and 45 mmHg). LADVmean was assessed using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Hypercapnia evoked a 34.6 ± 8.5% (mean ± SE; P < 0.01) increase in mean LADVmean, whereas hypoxia increased LADVmean by 51.4 ± 8.8% (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regressions revealed that both mechanical energy and changes in arterial blood gases are important contributors to the observed changes in LADVmean (P < 0.01). In summary, regulation of the coronary vasculature in humans is mediated by metabolic changes within the heart and an inherent sensitivity to arterial blood gases.

  1. Active packaged lamb with oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachet: physical-chemical and microbiological stability during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Trindade


    Full Text Available Lamb meat has been commercialized in Brazil almost exclusively as a frozen product due to the longer shelf life provided by freezing when compared to refrigeration. However, as a result of the current trend of increased demand for convenience products, a need has emerged for further studies to facilitate the marketing of refrigerated lamb cuts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of active packaging technology in extending the shelf life of lamb loins (Longissimus lumborum stored under refrigeration (1±1 ° C when compared to the traditional vacuum packaging. For this purpose, two kinds of sachets were employed: oxygen scavenger sachet and oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachet. Experiments were conducted in three treatments: 1 Vacuum (Control, 2 Vacuum + oxygen scavenger sachet and 3 Vacuum + oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachet. Microbiological (counts of anaerobic psychrotrophs, coliform at 45 ° C, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria and physical-chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, objective color, pH value, water loss from cooking and shear force analyses were carried out weekly for a total storage period of 28 days. The experiment was performed three times for all treatments. Results showed that the lamb meat remained stable with respect to the majority of the evaluated physical and chemical indexes and remained within the standards established by Brazilian legislation for pathogenic microorganisms throughout the storage period in all three packaging systems. However, all treatments presented elevated counts of anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria, reaching values above 10(7 CFU/g at 28 days of storage. Thus, under the conditions tested, neither the oxygen scavenger sachet nor the dual function sachet (oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter were able to extend the shelf life of refrigerated lamb loin when added to this

  2. Increase in water column denitrification during the deglaciation controlled by oxygen demand in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martinez


    Full Text Available Here we present organic export production and isotopic nitrogen results over the last 30 000 years from one core localized off Costa Rica (ODP Site 1242 on the leading edge of the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Marine export production reveals glacial-interglacial variations with low organic matter (total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents during warm intervals, twice more during cold episodes and double peaked maximum during the deglaciation, between ~15.5–18.5 and 11–13 ka BP. When this new export production record is compared with four nearby cores localized within the Eastern Pacific along the Equatorial divergence, a good agreement between all the cores is observed, with the major feature being a maximum of export during the early deglaciation. As for export production, water-column denitrification represented by sedimentary δ15N records along the Eastern tropical North and South Pacific between 15° N and 36° S is coherent as well over the last deglaciation period. The whole isotopic nitrogen profiles indicate that denitrification increased abruptly at 19 ka BP to a maximum during the early deglaciation, confirming a typical Antarctic timing. It is proposed that the increase in export production and then in subsurface oxygen demand lead to an intensification of water-column denitrification within the oxygen minimum zones in the easternmost Pacific at the time of the last deglaciation. The triggering mechanism would have been primarily linked to an increase in preformed nutrients contents feeding the Equatorial Undercurrent driven by the resumption of overturning in the Southern Ocean and the return of nutrients from the deep ocean to the sea-surface. An increase in equatorial wind-driven upwelling of sub-surface nutrient-rich waters could have played the role of an amplifier.

  3. Why Do Lithium-Oxygen Batteries Fail: Parasitic Chemical Reactions and Their Synergistic Effect. (United States)

    Yao, Xiahui; Dong, Qi; Cheng, Qingmei; Wang, Dunwei


    As an electrochemical energy-storage technology with the highest theoretical capacity, lithium-oxygen batteries face critical challenges in terms of poor stabilities and low charge/discharge round-trip efficiencies. It is generally recognized that these issues are connected to the parasitic chemical reactions at the anode, electrolyte, and cathode. While the detailed mechanisms of these reactions have been studied separately, the possible synergistic effects between these reactions remain poorly understood. To fill in the knowledge gap, this Minireview examines literature reports on the parasitic chemical reactions and finds the reactive oxygen species a key chemical mediator that participates in or facilitates nearly all parasitic chemical reactions. Given the ubiquitous presence of oxygen in all test cells, this finding is important. It offers new insights into how to stabilize various components of lithium-oxygen batteries for high-performance operations and how to eventually materialize the full potentials of this promising technology.

  4. Syngas Generation from Methane Using a Chemical-Looping Concept: A Review of Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongzhai Li


    Full Text Available Conversion of methane to syngas using a chemical-looping concept is a novel method for syngas generation. This process is based on the transfer of gaseous oxygen source to fuel (e.g., methane by means of a cycling process using solid oxides as oxygen carriers to avoid direct contact between fuel and gaseous oxygen. Syngas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and solid oxides (oxygen carriers, and then the reduced oxygen carriers can be regenerated by a gaseous oxidant, such as air or water. The oxygen carrier is recycled between the two steps, and the syngas with a ratio of H2/CO = 2.0 can be obtained successively. Air is used instead of pure oxygen allowing considerable cost savings, and the separation of fuel from the gaseous oxidant avoids the risk of explosion and the dilution of product gas with nitrogen. The design and elaboration of suitable oxygen carriers is a key issue to optimize this method. As one of the most interesting oxygen storage materials, ceria-based and perovskite oxides were paid much attention for this process. This paper briefly introduced the recent research progresses on the oxygen carriers used in the chemical-looping selective oxidation of methane (CLSOM to syngas.

  5. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  6. In situ chemical and structural investigations of the oxidation of Ge(001) substrates by atomic oxygen (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Bhuiyan, Md. Nurul Kabir; Tallarida, Grazia; Fanciulli, Marco


    The exposure of Ge(001) substrates to atomic oxygen was studied in situ to establish the stability of the germanium oxide. After preparing chemically clean and atomically flat Ge(001) surfaces, the Ge samples were exposed to atomic oxygen in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 400°C. The chemical composition of the so-formed oxides was studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while the structure was observed by reflection high energy electron diffraction. At low substrate temperatures the atomic oxygen is efficiently chemisorbed and suboxides coexist with the dioxide, which in turn is remarkably promoted in the high temperature range.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Contrera


    Full Text Available Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR. The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a second stage of operation, the AnSBBR presented efficiency above 70%, in terms of COD removal, utilizing landfill leachate without water dilution, with an inlet COD of about 11,000 mg.L-1, a TVA/COD ratio of approximately 0.6 and reaction time equal to 7 days. To evaluate the landfill leachate biodegradability variation over time, temporal profiles of concentration were performed in the AnSBBR. The landfill leachate anaerobic biodegradability was verified to have a direct and strong relationship to the TVA/COD ratio. For a TVA/CODTotal ratio lower than 0.20, the biodegradability was considered low, for ratios between 0.20 and 0.40 it was considered medium, and above 0.40 it was considered high.

  8. Penentuan Kadar COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Pada Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit, Pabrik Karet Dan Domestik




    Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar COD pada limbah cair pabrik kelapa sawit, industri karet, dan domestik dengan metode titrimetri. Dari hasil analisa COD diperoleh kadar limbah kelapa sawit sebesar 206,33mg/l, limbah industri karet sebesar 31,74 mg/l, dan limbah domestik sebesar 162,68 mg/l. dimana menurut Standart baku mutu yang telah ditetapkan oleh Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Nomor: Kep-51/MENLH/10/1995, kadar maksimum COD dalam air limbah industri kelapa sawit sebesar 350 mg/l, dalam indust...



    Contrera,R. C.; K. C. da Cruz Silva; G. H. Ribeiro Silva; D. M. Morita; Zaiat,M.; V. Schalch


    Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil) in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a ...

  10. Myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio in aortic stenosis: hemodynamic and echocardiographic evaluation of patients with and without angina pectoris. (United States)

    Nadell, R; DePace, N L; Ren, J F; Hakki, A H; Iskandrian, A S; Morganroth, J


    Angina pectoris is a common symptom in patients with aortic stenosis without coronary artery disease. To investigate the correlates of angina pectoris, echocardiographic and hemodynamic data from 44 patients with aortic stenosis and no coronary artery disease (mean age 56 +/- 10 years) were analyzed. Twenty-three patients had no angina pectoris and 21 patients had angina pectoris. The ratio of the diastolic pressure-time index (area between the aortic and left ventricular pressure curves during diastole) to the systolic pressure-time index (area under the left ventricular pressure curve during systole), an index of the oxygen supply/demand ratio, was not different in patients with or without angina pectoris. There were no differences between patients with and without angina pectoris in echocardiographically determined wall thickness, chamber size, systolic and diastolic wall stress and left ventricular mass; in electrocardiographically defined voltage; and in hemodynamically defined aortic valve area, transaortic gradient and stroke work index. Thus, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements at rest are not significantly different in the presence or absence of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis. Dynamic data appear to be essential for evaluation of the mechanisms of angina pectoris in patients with aortic stenosis.

  11. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents. (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R


    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p BOD₅ and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed.

  12. Semi-specific Microbacterium phyllosphaerae-based microbial sensor for biochemical oxygen demand measurements in dairy wastewater. (United States)

    Kibena, Elo; Raud, Merlin; Jõgi, Eerik; Kikas, Timo


    Although the long incubation time of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) measurements has been addressed by the use of microbial biosensors, the resulting sensor-BOD values gained from the measurements with specific industrial wastewaters still underestimates the BOD value of such samples. This research aims to provide fast and more accurate BOD measurements in the dairy wastewater samples. Unlike municipal wastewater, wastewater from the dairy industry contains many substrates that are not easily accessible to a majority of microorganisms. Therefore, a bacterial culture, Microbacterium phyllosphaerae, isolated from dairy wastewater was used to construct a semi-specific microbial biosensor. A universal microbial biosensor based on Pseudomonas fluorescens, which has a wide substrate spectrum but is nonspecific to dairy wastewater, was used as a comparison. BOD biosensors were calibrated with OECD synthetic wastewater, and experiments with different synthetic and actual wastewater samples were carried out. Results show that the semi-specific M. phyllosphaerae-based microbial biosensor is more sensitive towards wastewaters that contain milk derivates and butter whey than the P. fluorescens-based biosensor. Although the M. phyllosphaerae biosensor underestimates the BOD7 value of actual dairy wastewaters by 25-32%, this bacterial culture is more suitable for BOD monitoring in dairy wastewater than P. fluorescens, which underestimated the same samples by 46-61%.

  13. Limited Influence of Oxygen on the Evolution of Chemical Diversity in Metabolic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takemoto


    Full Text Available Oxygen is thought to promote species and biomolecule diversity. Previous studies have suggested that oxygen expands metabolic networks by acquiring metabolites with different chemical properties (higher hydrophobicity, for example. However, such conclusions are typically based on biased evaluation, and are therefore non-conclusive. Thus, we re-investigated the effect of oxygen on metabolic evolution using a phylogenetic comparative method and metadata analysis to reduce the bias as much as possible. Notably, we found no difference in metabolic network expansion between aerobes and anaerobes when evaluating phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we showed that previous studies have overestimated or underestimated the degrees of differences in the chemical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity between oxic and anoxic metabolites in metabolic networks of unicellular organisms; however, such overestimation was not observed when considering the metabolic networks of multicellular organisms. These findings indicate that the contribution of oxygen to increased chemical diversity in metabolic networks is lower than previously thought; rather, phylogenetic signals and cell-cell communication result in increased chemical diversity. However, this conclusion does not contradict the effect of oxygen on metabolic evolution; instead, it provides a deeper understanding of how oxygen contributes to metabolic evolution despite several limitations in data analysis methods.

  14. Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals – Part 1: Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Peltzer


    Full Text Available Ocean warming will reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations which can pose challenges to marine life. Oxygen limits are traditionally reported simply as a static concentration thresholds with no temperature, pressure or flow rate dependency. Here we treat the oceanic oxygen supply potential for heterotrophic consumption as a dynamic molecular exchange problem analogous to familiar gas exchange processes at the sea surface. A combination of the purely physico-chemical oceanic properties temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen concentration defines the ability of the ocean to supply oxygen to any given animal. This general oceanic oxygen supply potential is modulated by animal specific properties such as the diffusive boundary layer thickness to define and limit maximal oxygen supply rates. Here we combine all these properties into formal, mechanistic equations defining novel oceanic properties that subsume various relevant classical oceanographic parameters to better visualize, map, comprehend, and predict the impact of ocean deoxygenation on aerobic life. By explicitly including temperature and hydrostatic pressure into our quantities, various ocean regions ranging from the cold deep-sea to warm, coastal seas can be compared. We define purely physico-chemical quantities to describe the oceanic oxygen supply potential, but also quantities that contain organism-specific properties which in a most generalized way describe general concepts and dependencies. We apply these novel quantities to example oceanic profiles around the world and find that temperature and pressure dependencies of diffusion and partial pressure create zones of greatest physical constriction on oxygen supply typically at around 1000 m depth, which coincides with oxygen concentration minimum zones. In these zones, which comprise the bulk of the world ocean, ocean warming and deoxygenation have a clear negative effect for aerobic life. In some shallow and warm waters the

  15. Chemical expansion affected oxygen vacancy stability in different oxide structures from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.


    We study the chemical expansion for neutral and charged oxygen vacancies in fluorite, rocksalt, perovskite and pyrochlores materials using first principles calculations. We show that the neutral oxygen vacancy leads to lattice expansion whereas the charged vacancy leads to lattice contraction. In addition, we show that there is a window of strain within which an oxygen vacancy is stable; beyond that range, the vacancy can become unstable. Using CeO2|ZrO2 interface structure as an example, we show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies can be manipulated via strain, and the vacancies can be preferentially stabilized. These results could serve as guiding principles in predicting oxygen vacancy stability in strained systems and in the design of vacancy stabilized materials.

  16. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  17. Redox energetics of novel perovskite-type oxygen carriers for chemical looping reforming



    The present work focuses on the redox energetics of novel perovskite-type oxygen carriers for chemical looping reforming. The aim of this study is to increase the level of knowledge on the redox characteristics of materials for possible applications as the oxygen carriers for the chemical looping processes. Here we focus on the perovskite-type oxides (ABO3) with lanthanum on the A-site and first row transition metals on the B-site since first row transition metals normally have more than ...

  18. The effect of chamber mixing velocity on bias in measurement of sediment oxygen demand rates in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Doyle, Micelis C.; Rounds, Stewart


    Three sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measurement chambers were deployed in the Tualatin River near Tigard, Oregon, at river mile 10 in August 2000. SOD rates were calculated for three different circulation velocities during each chamber deployment. The SOD rate at each velocity was calculated from a graph of dissolved oxygen concentration versus elapsed time. An acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure stream discharge and near-bottom water velocities in the Tualatin at river mile 10 and at two upstream locations. Measured river and chamber velocities were similar, indicating that results from the chambers were representative of instream effects.

  19. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Growth on Graphene via Chemical Activation with Atomic Oxygen (United States)

    Johns, James E.; Alaboson, Justice M. P.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Ryder, Christopher R.; Schatz, George C.


    Chemically interfacing the inert basal plane of graphene with other materials has limited the development of graphene-based catalysts, composite materials, and devices. Here, we overcome this limitation by chemically activating epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) using atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen produces epoxide groups on graphene, which act as reactive nucleation sites for zinc oxide nanoparticle growth using the atomic layer deposition precursor diethyl zinc. In particular, exposure of epoxidized graphene to diethyl zinc abstracts oxygen, creating mobile species which diffuse on the surface to form metal oxide clusters. This mechanism is corroborated with a combination of scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory, and can likely be generalized to a wide variety of related surface reactions on graphene. PMID:24206242

  20. Reverse engineering of oxygen transport in the lung: adaptation to changing demands and resources through space-filling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hou

    Full Text Available The space-filling fractal network in the human lung creates a remarkable distribution system for gas exchange. Landmark studies have illuminated how the fractal network guarantees minimum energy dissipation, slows air down with minimum hardware, maximizes the gas- exchange surface area, and creates respiratory flexibility between rest and exercise. In this paper, we investigate how the fractal architecture affects oxygen transport and exchange under varying physiological conditions, with respect to performance metrics not previously studied.We present a renormalization treatment of the diffusion-reaction equation which describes how oxygen concentrations drop in the airways as oxygen crosses the alveolar membrane system. The treatment predicts oxygen currents across the lung at different levels of exercise which agree with measured values within a few percent. The results exhibit wide-ranging adaptation to changing process parameters, including maximum oxygen uptake rate at minimum alveolar membrane permeability, the ability to rapidly switch from a low oxygen uptake rate at rest to high rates at exercise, and the ability to maintain a constant oxygen uptake rate in the event of a change in permeability or surface area. We show that alternative, less than space-filling architectures perform sub-optimally and that optimal performance of the space-filling architecture results from a competition between underexploration and overexploration of the surface by oxygen molecules.

  1. Reverse engineering of oxygen transport in the lung: adaptation to changing demands and resources through space-filling networks. (United States)

    Hou, Chen; Gheorghiu, Stefan; Huxley, Virginia H; Pfeifer, Peter


    The space-filling fractal network in the human lung creates a remarkable distribution system for gas exchange. Landmark studies have illuminated how the fractal network guarantees minimum energy dissipation, slows air down with minimum hardware, maximizes the gas- exchange surface area, and creates respiratory flexibility between rest and exercise. In this paper, we investigate how the fractal architecture affects oxygen transport and exchange under varying physiological conditions, with respect to performance metrics not previously studied.We present a renormalization treatment of the diffusion-reaction equation which describes how oxygen concentrations drop in the airways as oxygen crosses the alveolar membrane system. The treatment predicts oxygen currents across the lung at different levels of exercise which agree with measured values within a few percent. The results exhibit wide-ranging adaptation to changing process parameters, including maximum oxygen uptake rate at minimum alveolar membrane permeability, the ability to rapidly switch from a low oxygen uptake rate at rest to high rates at exercise, and the ability to maintain a constant oxygen uptake rate in the event of a change in permeability or surface area. We show that alternative, less than space-filling architectures perform sub-optimally and that optimal performance of the space-filling architecture results from a competition between underexploration and overexploration of the surface by oxygen molecules.

  2. Metal ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a metal ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The metal ferrite oxygen carrier comprises MFe.sub.xO.sub.y on an inert support, where MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is a chemical composition and M is one of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof. For example, MFe.sub.xO.sub.y may be one of MgFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, SrFe.sub.2O.sub.4, BaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CoFe.sub.2O.sub.4, MnFeO.sub.3, and combinations thereof. The MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is supported on an inert support. The inert support disperses the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y oxides to avoid agglomeration and improve performance stability. In an embodiment, the inert support comprises from about 5 wt. % to about 60 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier and the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y comprises at least 30 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier. The metal ferrite oxygen carriers disclosed display improved reduction rates over Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and improved oxidation rates over CuO.

  3. Chemical homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen abundances of B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanz T.


    Full Text Available We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994. We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O = 8.78 and a small dispersion of ±0.05, dex which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994: A(O = 8.72 ± 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion association compares well with other results for the oxygen abundance in the solar neighborhood.

  4. Innovative technology to meet the demands of the white biotechnology revolution of chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John


    by which a technological revolution termed "white biotechnology" for production of commodity chemicals has proved its credibility. Obviously, the rapid advances in biology has been crucial for the development of industrial biotechnology towards a position where even its cheap products such as bio-fuels can...... of sophisticated models, supported by accurate data obtained in experimental equipment that did not exist a few years ago. The need to update the chemical engineering education to meet the needs of the bio-industry is also evident. Much of the progress of the bio-industry has up to now been based on fundamental...

  5. Oxidation Kinetics of Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Carbide in Wet Oxygen (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.


    The oxidation kinetics of chemically vapor-deposited SiC in dry oxygen and wet oxygen (P(sub H2O) = 0.1 atm) at temperatures between 1200 C and 1400 C were monitored using thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that in a clean environment, 10% water vapor enhanced the oxidation kinetics of SiC only very slightly compared to rates found in dry oxygen. Oxidation kinetics were examined in terms of the Deal and Grove model for oxidation of silicon. It was found that in an environment containing even small amounts of impurities, such as high-purity Al2O3 reaction tubes containing 200 ppm Na, water vapor enhanced the transport of these impurities to the oxidation sample. Oxidation rates increased under these conditions presumably because of the formation of less protective sodium alumino-silicate scales.

  6. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.


    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  7. Chemical Homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen Abundances of B Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, K; Lanz, T


    We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994). We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O)=8.78 and a small dispersion of +/- 0.05 dex, which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994): A(O) = 8.72 +/- 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion asso...

  8. Renal Doppler Resistive Index as a Marker of Oxygen Supply and Demand Mismatch in Postoperative Cardiac Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corradi


    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Renal Doppler resistive index (RDRI is a noninvasive index considered to reflect renal vascular perfusion. The aim of this study was to identify the independent hemodynamic determinants of RDRI in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery. Methods. RDRI was determined in 61 patients by color and pulse Doppler ultrasonography of the interlobar renal arteries. Intermittent thermodilution cardiac output measurements were obtained and blood samples taken from the tip of pulmonary artery catheter to measure hemodynamics and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2. Results. By univariate analysis, RDRI was significantly correlated with SvO2, oxygen extraction ratio, left ventricular stroke work index, and cardiac index, but not heart rate, central venous pressure, mean artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, oxygen consumption index, arterial lactate concentration, and age. However, by multivariate analysis RDRI was significantly correlated with SvO2 only. Conclusions. The present data suggests that, in mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac surgery, RDRI increases proportionally to the decrease in SvO2, thus reflecting an early vascular response to tissue hypoxia.

  9. Mathematical modeling of chemical composition modification and etching of polymers under the atomic oxygen influence (United States)

    Chirskaia, Natalia; Novikov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina


    Atomic oxygen (AO) of the upper atmosphere is one of the most important space factors that can cause degradation of spacecraft surface. In our previous mathematical model the Monte Carlo method and the "large particles" approximation were used for simulating processes of polymer etching under the influence of AO [1]. The interaction of enlarged AO particles with the polymer was described in terms of probabilities of reactions such as etching of polymer and specular and diffuse scattering of the AO particles on polymer. The effects of atomic oxygen on protected polymers and microfiller containing composites were simulated. The simulation results were in quite good agreement with the results of laboratory experiments on magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator of the oxygen plasma of SINP MSU [2]. In this paper we present a new model that describes the reactions of AO interactions with polymeric materials in more detail. Reactions of formation and further emission of chemical compounds such as CO, CO _{2}, H _{2}O, etc. cause the modification of the chemical composition of the polymer and change the probabilities of its consequent interaction with the AO. The simulation results are compared with the results of previous simulation and with the results of laboratory experiments. The reasons for the differences between the results of natural experiments on spacecraft, laboratory experiments and simulations are discussed. N. Chirskaya, M. Samokhina, Computer modeling of polymer structures degradation under the atomic oxygen exposure, WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers: Part III - Physics, Matfyzpress Prague, 2012, pp. 30-35. E. Voronina, L. Novikov, V. Chernik, N. Chirskaya, K. Vernigorov, G. Bondarenko, and A. Gaidar, Mathematical and experimental simulation of impact of atomic oxygen of the earth's upper atmosphere on nanostructures and polymer composites, Inorganic Materials: Applied Research, 2012, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 95-101.

  10. Numerical investigation of the role of clustering during oxygen-carrier regeneration in Chemical Looping Combustion (United States)

    Goyal, Himanshu; Pepiot, Perrine


    In the air-reactor of a dual-bed Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) system, the spent oxygen-carrier, in the form of metal or reduced metal oxide, is oxidized with air, typically in a high velocity riser reactor. Such a configuration provides challenging modeling issues, as the granular flow is characterized by a highly fluctuating solid volume fraction due to the formation of dense clusters. This may strongly affect the solid residence time in the air-reactor, and therefore, the extent of the oxygen-carrier regeneration and ultimately, the overall reactivity of the carrier in the fuel reactor. Here, we investigate how clustering impacts gas-solid chemical reactions in the reactor using a detailed Lagrange-Euler computational framework. The simulations account for both mass and heat transfer between the gas phase and the metal oxide particles, and the evolution of oxygen content of the metal oxide particles, or equivalently, their degree of oxidation. Two particle models of different complexity are considered. Results are analyzed to quantify the relative importance on the regeneration process of the reactor hydrodynamics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1638837.

  11. Semi-gas kinetics model for performance modeling of flowing chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhi; HU Limin; SHEN Yiqing


    A semi-gas kinetics (SGK) model for performance analyses of flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is presented. In this model, the oxygen-iodine reaction gas flow is treated as a continuous medium, and the effect of thermal motions of particles of different laser energy levels on the performances of the COIL is included and the velocity distribution function equations are solved by using the double-parameter perturbational method. For a premixed flow, effects of different chemical reaction systems, different gain saturation models and temperature, pressure, yield of excited oxygen, iodine concentration and frequency-shift on the performances of the COIL are computed, and the calculated output power agrees well with the experimental data. The results indicate that the power extraction of the SGK model considering 21 reactions is close to those when only the reversible pumping reaction is considered, while different gain saturation models and adjustable parameters greatly affect the output power, the optimal threshold gain range, and the length of power extraction.

  12. Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Huang, H B; Aisyah, L; Ashman, P J; Leung, Y C; Kwong, C W


    Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800°C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800°C. A reaction temperature of 950°C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis.

  13. Oxygen reduction reaction over silver particles with various morphologies and surface chemical states (United States)

    Ohyama, Junya; Okata, Yui; Watabe, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Makoto; Nakamura, Ayaka; Arikawa, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Ueda, Wataru; Satsuma, Atsushi


    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline solution was carried out using Ag powders having various particle morphologies and surface chemical states (Size: ca. 40-110 nm in crystalline size. Shape: spherical, worm like, and angular. Surface: smooth with easily reduced AgOx, defective with AgOx, and Ag2CO3 surface layer). The various Ag powders were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and stripping voltammetry of underpotential-deposited lead. Defective and oxidized surfaces enhanced the Ag active surface area during the ORR. The ORR activity was affected by the morphology and surface chemical state: Ag particles with defective and angular surfaces showed smaller electron exchange number between three and four but showed higher specific activity compared to Ag particles with smooth surfaces.

  14. Evaluation of the use of different coals in chemical looping combustion using a bauxite waste as oxygen carrier


    Mendiara, Teresa; García Labiano, Francisco; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Abad Secades, Alberto; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Adánez Elorza, Juan


    The interest in the use of solid fuels such as coal in Chemical Looping Combustion is growing because of the benefits of the direct use of coal in this technology on the reduction of the costs linked to carbon dioxide capture. In CLC, the oxygen needed for the combustion is supplied by a solid oxygen carrier therefore avoiding the direct contact between fuel and air. Focusing on the use of solid fuels in the In-Situ Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion (iG-CLC), the oxygen ...

  15. Oxygen abundance in local disk and bulge: chemical evolution with a strictly universal IMF (United States)

    Caimmi, R.; Milanese, E.


    This paper has two parts: one about observational constraints related to the empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD), and the other about inhomogeneous models of chemical evolution, in particular the theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD). In the first part, the EDOD is deduced from subsamples related to two different samples involving (i) N=532 solar neighbourhood (SN) stars within the range, -1.5Prochaska et al. in Astron. J. 120:2513, 2000); (3) the fit to thin disk data implies an oxygen abundance range similar to its thick disk counterpart, with the extension of conclusion (2) to the thin disk, and the evolution of the thick + thin disk as a whole (Haywood in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 388:1175, 2008) cannot be excluded; (4) leaving outside the outer halo, a fit to the data related to different environments is provided by models with a strictly universal IMF but different probabilities of a region being active, which implies different global efficiencies of the star formation rate; (5) a special case of stellar migration across the disk can be described by models with enhanced star formation, where a fraction of currently observed SN stars were born in situ and a comparable fraction is due to the net effect of stellar migration, according to recent results based on high-resolution N-body + smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations (Ro\\vskar et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 684:L79, 2008).

  16. Nanocomposite oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of sulfur-contaminated synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahul D. Solunke; Goetz Veser [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC, which combine the high reactivity of metals with the high-temperature stability of ceramics. In the present study, we investigate the effect of H{sub 2}S in a typical coal-derived syngas on the stability and redox kinetics of Ni- and Cu-based nanostructured oxygen carriers. Both carriers show excellent structural stability and only mildly changed redox kinetics upon exposure to H{sub 2}S, despite a significant degree of sulfide formation. Surprisingly, partial sulfidation of the support results in a strong increase in oxygen carrier capacity in both cases because of the addition of a sulfide-sulfate cycle. Overall, the carriers show great potential for use in CLC of high-sulfur fuels. 21 refs., 13 figs. 1 tab.

  17. Gill morphometrics of the thresher sharks (Genus Alopias): Correlation of gill dimensions with aerobic demand and environmental oxygen. (United States)

    Wootton, Thomas P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C


    Gill morphometrics of the three thresher shark species (genus Alopias) were determined to examine how metabolism and habitat correlate with respiratory specialization for increased gas exchange. Thresher sharks have large gill surface areas, short water-blood barrier distances, and thin lamellae. Their large gill areas are derived from long total filament lengths and large lamellae, a morphometric configuration documented for other active elasmobranchs (i.e., lamnid sharks, Lamnidae) that augments respiratory surface area while limiting increases in branchial resistance to ventilatory flow. The bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus, which can experience prolonged exposure to hypoxia during diel vertical migrations, has the largest gill surface area documented for any elasmobranch species studied to date. The pelagic thresher shark, A. pelagicus, a warm-water epi-pelagic species, has a gill surface area comparable to that of the common thresher shark, A. vulpinus, despite the latter's expected higher aerobic requirements associated with regional endothermy. In addition, A. vulpinus has a significantly longer water-blood barrier distance than A. pelagicus and A. superciliosus, which likely reflects its cold, well-oxygenated habitat relative to the two other Alopias species. In fast-swimming fishes (such as A. vulpinus and A. pelagicus) cranial streamlining may impose morphological constraints on gill size. However, such constraints may be relaxed in hypoxia-dwelling species (such as A. superciliosus) that are likely less dependent on streamlining and can therefore accommodate larger branchial chambers and gills.

  18. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul


    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  19. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, a handy tool for the practice of environmental model estimation : illustration with biochemical oxygen demand data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Torre


    Full Text Available Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii data are rare or imprecise; (iii facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships are questionable. In this paper, we focus on the first two points. A powerful and easy-to-use statistical method, the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, allows the quantification of the uncertainty attached to any model response. This stochastic simulation technique is able to reproduce the statistical joint distribution of the whole parameter set of any model. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is described and illustrated on a typical environmental model: the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. The aim is to provide a helpful guideline for further, and ultimately more complex, models. As a first illustration, the MH-method is also applied to a simple regression example to demonstrate to the practitioner the ability of the algorithm to produce valid results.

  20. Sodium-Oxygen Batteries: A Comparative Review from Chemical and Electrochemical Fundamentals to Future Perspective. (United States)

    Yadegari, Hossein; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xueliang


    Alkali metal-oxygen (Li-O2 , Na-O2 ) batteries have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their high theoretical energy densities, comparable to gasoline, making them attractive candidates for application in electrical vehicles. However, the limited cycling life and low energy efficiency (high charging overpotential) of these cells hinder their commercialization. The Li-O2 battery system has been extensively studied in this regard during the past decade. Compared to the numerous reports of Li-O2 batteries, the research on Na-O2 batteries is still in its infancy. Although, Na-O2 batteries show a number of attractive properties such as low charging overpotential and high round-trip energy efficiency, their cycling life is currently limited to a few tens of cycles. Therefore, understanding the chemistry behind Na-O2 cells is critical towards enhancing their performance and advancing their development. Chemical and electrochemical reactions of Na-O2 batteries are reviewed and compared with those of Li-O2 batteries in the present review, as well as recent works on the chemical composition and morphology of the discharge products in these batteries. Furthermore, the determining kinetics factors for controlling the chemical composition of the discharge products in Na-O2 cells are discussed and the potential research directions toward improving Na-O2 cells are proposed.

  1. A pressure recovery system for chemical oxygen-iodine laser based on an active diffuser (United States)

    Malkov, V. M.; Kiselev, I. A.; Orlov, A. E.; Shatalov, I. V.


    An open-type pressure recovery system (PRS) for chemical oxygen-iodine laser was designed and fabricated. As a first stage, an active diffuser was used in which the ejecting gas supply was organized through nozzles disposed around the channel periphery. The second stage was a supersonic ejector. Numerical simulation data for the viscous turbulent flow with heat release through the diffuser gas-dynamic channel, and also data obtained by testing the active diffuser in operation on a model facility equipped with a vacuum chamber, are reported. The obtained data were used to develop a full-scale setup with exhaust of laser gas into the atmosphere; this has allowed us to optimize the performance characteristics of the setup and substantially improve its mass-dimensional characteristics. Special attention was paid to parameter matching and synchronization of laser start with the operation of PRS components.

  2. Plasma chemical and electrical modelling of a negative DC corona in pure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, C [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de FIsica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)


    A complex plasma chemical and electrical model of a negative stationary wire-to-cylinder corona discharge in pure oxygen is presented. The corona discharge is assumed to have axial and azimuthal symmetry. The experimental current-voltage characteristic is required as input data, but there are no other adjustable or empirical parameters. The experimental validation of the results of the model comes from its prediction of the ozone concentration. The role played by different reactions and species is analysed in detail using the results of the simulation. The effect of the gas temperature and of the decomposition of ozone at the electrodes is also investigated. The agreement between the model and the experiments is excellent when the effect of ozone decomposition at the electrodes is taken into account.

  3. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water (United States)

    Takeuchi, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yasuoka, K.


    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  4. On the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances and the evolution of the "green pea" galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo O; Vílchez, J M


    We have investigated the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact star-forming galaxies with redshifts between $\\sim$0.11-0.35, popularly referred to as "green peas". Direct and strong-line methods sensitive to the N/O ratio applied to their SDSS spectra reveals that these systems are genuine metal-poor galaxies, with mean oxygen abundances 20% solar. At a given metallicity these galaxies display systematically large N/O ratios compared to normal galaxies, which can explain the strong difference between our metallicities measurements and previous ones. While their N/O ratios follow the relation with stellar mass of local star-forming galaxies in the SDSS, we find that the mass--metallicity relation of the "green peas" is offset $\\ga$0.3 dex to lower metallicities. We argue that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss, driven by supernova winds, may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties, namely high specific star formati...

  5. Can Galactic chemical evolution explain the oxygen isotopic variations in the Solar System?

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Ireland, Trevor R; Maddison, Sarah T


    A number of objects in primitive meteorites have oxygen isotopic compositions that place them on a distinct, mass-independent fractionation line with a slope of one on a three-isotope plot. The most popular model for describing how this fractionation arose assumes that CO self-shielding produced 16O-rich CO and 16O-poor H2O, where the H2O subsequently combined with interstellar dust to form relatively 16O-poor solids within the Solar Nebula. Another model for creating the different reservoirs of 16O-rich gas and 16O-poor solids suggests that these reservoirs were produced by Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) if the Solar System dust component was somewhat younger than the gas component and both components were lying on the line of slope one in the O three-isotope plot. We argue that GCE is not the cause of mass-independent fractionation of the oxygen isotopes in the Solar System. The GCE scenario is in contradiction with observations of the 18O/17O ratios in nearby molecular clouds and young stellar objects. ...

  6. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J


    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  7. Chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen in thoria-urania mixed oxide (United States)

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji


    The chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen ( D˜) in sintered samples of ( Th1- yUy) O2+ x ( y = 0.2 and 0.4) were measured by means of thermogravimetry in the temperature range 1282 ⩽ T ⩽ 1373 K. The defect diffusion coefficients ( Dd) were also calculated from the chemical diffusion coefficients obtained in this study. The activation energies of D˜ or Dd for the two samples ( Th1- yUy) O2+ xwithy = 0.2 and 0.4 were observed to be nearly the same, irrespective of the y value. These activation energies also nearly coincided with those of UO 2+x reported previously, suggesting the presence of a similar diffusion mechanism to that found in UO 2+x. The magnitude of both diffusion coefficients D˜ and Dd of ( Th1- yUy) O2+ x increased with increasing uranium content and approached that of UO 2+x. The increase of Dd of ( Th1- yUy) O2+ x with y value was considered to be due to the increase of both the vibrational frequency of lattice and the entropy change of migration produced by the substitution of a U ion for a Th ion.

  8. [Relation between oxygen uptake rate and biosorption of activated sludge against chemical substance]. (United States)

    Mihara, Yuichi; Inoue, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Katsushi


    In this study, the elucidation of the toxicity mechanism was undertaken regarding the IC(50) of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) with relevance to the biosorption as a toxicity evaluation of chemical substances for activated sludge (AS). At the IC(50) oflinear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), alkyl ethoxy sulfonate (AES), alpha-olefine sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), formaldehyde (FA), benzalkonium chloride (BZaC), benzethonium chloride (BZeC), rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and fuchsine (Fuc) in which the IC(50) belonged to the 100-1000 mg/l group, when it was compared with CV and MG. In ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (PrOH), nile blue (NB), evans blue (EB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), paraquat (PQ), chlorophyllin (Chl) and auramine (Aur), the IC(50) was large, and the biosorption of AS was weak at 0-15%. The biosorption of MG for AS followed the adsorption isotherm equation Y=0.002X(0.511) of Freundrich. The correlation coefficient was gamma=0.998 (n=8), and a very high correlation was obtained. In the qualitative OUR curve by AS pretreated with MG or CV which belonged to the IC(50) small group, the inhibition of remarkable OUR was observed. Therefore, the findings of the present investigation suggest that the inhibition of the OUR for AS by the tested chemical substances was markedly affected by the biosorption.

  9. 复杂水体中五日生化需氧量测定的硝化抑制%Inhibition to Nitriifcstion in Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand After Five Days in Complex Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娟; 胡晓乐; 陆喜红


    Nitration reaction was inhibited by allyl thiourea. Biochemical oxygen demand after five days is oxygen amount consumed by the decomposition of organic pollutants in biochemistry process. Nitration reaction caused the estimated value significantly increased and even caused chemical oxygen demand more than biochemical oxygen demand. Through adding 0.1% allyl thiourea into dilution water, the method made B/C value of water sample come back to the normal value between 0.2 and 0.7. The results of the blank sample and the standard sample met the requirement of the national standard method. This method was effectively eliminating interference, simple operation, and reducing the risk of the test to select dilution ratio. It has no significant effects on water without interference, and also can simplify the determining procedure of large batches of compositional complicated water samples.%利用丙烯基硫脲对有机污染物硝化过程进行抑制。五日生化需氧量反映的是有机污染物生物氧化过程中碳化阶段的耗氧量,而硝化阶段会导致测定结果显著偏高。未知水样基体复杂,很难判断是否存在会引起硝化作用的硝化细菌,往往导致测定结果偏高甚至出现生化需氧量大于化学需氧量(即B/C值大于1)的不合理现象。向每升稀释水中加入0.1%的丙烯基硫脲硝化抑制剂,对基体复杂样品进行稀释后测定,使得样品的B/C值回到理论正常值(0.2~0.7)的范围内,对空白样品和标准样品的实验结果均满足国标方法的质控保证及要求。生化需氧量测定时间长而难以进行复测,该方法有效地排除了干扰,操作简便,降低了生化需氧量测定过程中稀释倍数选择不合适的风险,减小了工作量,提高了准确度。该方法对正常水样的测定结果不产生显著影响,适用于大批量复杂水体样品的测定。

  10. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract


    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Thomas Berkemeier; Haijie Tong; Arangio, Andrea M.; Kurt Lucas; Ulrich Pöschl; Manabu Shiraiwa


    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) con...

  11. Comparison of three optimized digestion methods for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand: Closed microwaves, open microwaves and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Hidalgo, Montserrat [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail:


    In the present work, experimental design was used for the fast optimization of three kinds of sample digestion procedures with the final aim of obtaining the COD value of wastewater samples. The digestion methods evaluated were 'closed microwave-assisted' (CMWD), 'open microwave-assisted' (OMWD) and 'ultrasound-assisted' (USD). Classical digestion was used as reference method. The optimum values for the different variables studied in each method were: 90 psi pressure, 475 W power and 4 min irradiation time (CMWD); 150 deg. C temperature and 4 min irradiation time (OMWD); 90% of maximum nominal power (180 W), 0.9 s (s{sup -1}) cycles and 1 min irradiation time (USD). In all cases, interference concentration that produces a deviation of 10% in COD values is 13.4, 23.4, 21.1 and 2819 mg/L for S{sup 2-}, Fe{sup 2+}, NO{sub 2} {sup -} and Cl{sup -}, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the proposed digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and COD recoveries for 10 real wastewater samples were ranged between 88 and 104% of the values obtained with the classical (open reflux) method used as reference, with R.S.D. lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the use of ultrasound energy for COD determination seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional open reflux and microwave-assisted digestion methods used for the same purpose since the instrumentation is simpler, cheaper and safer and the digestion step faster than the ones used for the same purpose.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Tofu industrial wastewater has high COD and TSS level, which it cause an environmental pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease the value of COD and TSS of tofu industrial wastewater before discharge into the water body. Decreasing of COD and TSS values can be carried out using an electrochemical method. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of potential, electrode distance, pH, and time to decrease of COD and TSS value of the tofu industrial wastewater. The experiment has been performed by electrolysis tofu industrial wastewater using PbO2 as anode and Pb as cathode. The result of the research showed that under the optimum conditions of 12 V voltage, 1 cm electrode distance, pH 1, and electrolysis time of 120 minutes, decreasing COD and TSS of 96.33% and 87.87% respectively

  13. Research into Uncertainty in Measurement of Seawater Chemical Oxygen Demand by Potassium Iodide-Alkaline Potassium Permanganate Determination Method.


    Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Changsong


    Using the glucose and L-glutamic-acid to prepare the standard substance according to the ratio of 1:1, and the artificial seawater and the standard substance to prepare a series of standard solutions, the distribution pattern of uncertainty in measurement of seawater COD is obtained based on the measured results of the series of standard solutions by the potassium iodide-alkaline potassium permanganate determination method. The distribution pattern is as follows: Uncertainty in measurement is...

  14. Kinetics of para-nitrophenol and chemical oxygen demand removal from synthetic wastewater in an anaerobic migrating blanket reactor. (United States)

    Kuşçu, Ozlem Selçuk; Sponza, Delia Teresa


    A laboratory scale anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was operated at different HRTs (1-10.38 days) in order to determine the para-nitrophenol (p-NP) and COD removal kinetic constants. The reactor was fed with 40 mg L(-1)p-NP and 3000 mg L(-1) glucose-COD. Modified Stover-Kincannon and Grau second-order kinetic models were applied to the experimental data. The predicted p-NP and COD concentrations were calculated using the kinetic constants. It was found that these data were in better agreement with the observed ones in the modified Stover-Kincannon compared to Grau second-order model. The kinetic constants calculated according to Stover-Kincannon model are as follows: the saturation value constant (K(B)) and maximum utilization rate constants (R(max)) were found as 31.55 g CODL(-1)day(-1), 29.49 g CODL(-1)day(-1) for COD removal and 0.428 g p-NPL(-1)day(-1), 0.407 g p-NPL(-1)day(-1) for p-NP removal, respectively (R(2)=1). The values of (a) and (b) were found to be 0.096 day and 1.071 (dimensionless) with high correlation coefficients of R(2)=0.85 for COD removal. Kinetic constants for specific gas production rate were evaluated using modified Stover-Kincannon, Van der Meer and Heerrtjes and Chen and Hasminoto models. It was shown that Stover-Kincannon model is more appropriate for calculating the effluent COD, p-NP concentrations in AMBR compared to the other models. The maximum specific biogas production rate, G(max), and proportionality constant, G(B), were found to be 1666.7 mL L(-1) day(-1) and 2.83 (dimensionless), respectively in modified Stover-Kincannon gas model. The bacteria had low Haldane inhibition constants (K(ID)=14 and 23 mg L(-1)) for p-NP concentrations higher than 40 mg L(-1) while the half velocity constant (K(s)) increased from 10 to 60 and 118 mg L(-1) with increasing p-NP concentrations from 40 to 85 and 125 mg L(-1).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Building 28, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Liffman, Kurt [CSIRO/MSE, P.O. Box 56, Highett, VIC 3190 (Australia); Ireland, Trevor R. [Planetary Science Institute and Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Maddison, Sarah T., E-mail: [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, H39, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)


    A number of objects in primitive meteorites have oxygen isotopic compositions that place them on a distinct, mass-independent fractionation line with a slope of one on a three-isotope plot. The most popular model for describing how this fractionation arose assumes that CO self-shielding produced {sup 16}O-rich CO and {sup 16}O-poor H{sub 2}O, where the H{sub 2}O subsequently combined with interstellar dust to form relatively {sup 16}O-poor solids within the solar nebula. Another model for creating the different reservoirs of {sup 16}O-rich gas and {sup 16}O-poor solids suggests that these reservoirs were produced by Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) if the solar system dust component was somewhat younger than the gas component and both components were lying on the line of slope one in the O three-isotope plot. We argue that GCE is not the cause of mass-independent fractionation of the oxygen isotopes in the solar system. The GCE scenario is in contradiction with observations of the {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratios in nearby molecular clouds and young stellar objects. It is very unlikely for GCE to produce a line of slope one when considering the effect of incomplete mixing of stellar ejecta in the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the assumption that the solar system dust was younger than the gas requires unusual timescales or the existence of an important stardust component that is not theoretically expected to occur nor has been identified to date.

  16. Particulate Formation from a Copper Oxide-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture (United States)

    Attrition behavior and particle loss of a copper oxide-based oxygen carrier from a methane chemical looping combustion (CLC) process was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The aerodynamic diameters of most elutriated particulates, after passing through a horizontal settling...

  17. A comparative study of technologies for the continuous measurements of the biochemical demand for oxygen and toxicity of water; Estudio comparativo de tecnologias de medicion en continuo de la demanda bioquimica de oxigeno y de la toxicidad en aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Caballero Arnau, T.; Rodriguez Albalat, G.; Rosa de la Garcia, S.; Jimenez Bono, M.; Millan Navarro, C.; prats, R.; Serramia, A.; Miguel, S. de


    The Prevention and Integrated Control of Contamination Act (Ley de Prevencion y control Integrado de la Contaminacion) was passed by the Spanish parliament on 13 June. the basic purpose of this law is to prevent, reduce and control contamination of the atmosphere, water and soil caused by the most contaminating industrial activities. Public sector bodies and private companies in Spanish have been invited by the European Union to adopt new technologies in their production processes with a view to cutting down emissions, minimising or re-using waste, and pre-treating or purifying effluents. I t is therefore extremely appropriate to make available information on new tools of analysis that allow users to take preventive measures to reduce the impact their activity may have on the environment. A fundamental parameter in monitoring water is the Biological Demand for Oxygen (BOD). Various different chemical, physical and biological techniques have been developed to solve the problem of continuously monitoring the BOD and toxicity of water. This study carried out a comparative analysis of these techniques, describing the advantages and disadvantages of applying them to water quality control. At the present time it can be said that the BOD microbiosensor. Multisens 304 is the best available technology for monitoring this parameter. The articles tells us why. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Influence of Matrices on Oxygen Sensing of Three Sensing Films with Chemically Conjugated Platinum Porphyrin Probes and Preliminary Application for Monitoring of Oxygen Consumption of Escherichia coli (E. coli)


    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R.; Gao, Weimin; Youngbull, Cody; Holl, Mark R.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.


    Oxygen sensing films were synthesized by a chemical conjugation of functional platinum porphyrin probes in silica gel, polystyrene (PS), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) matrices. Responses of the sensing films to gaseous oxygen and dissolved oxygen were studied and the influence of the matrices on the sensing behaviors was investigated. Silica gel films had the highest fluorescence intensity ratio from deoxygenated to oxygenated environments and the fastest response time to oxyg...

  19. Predicting dissolved oxygen concentration using kernel regression modeling approaches with nonlinear hydro-chemical data. (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali


    Kernel function-based regression models were constructed and applied to a nonlinear hydro-chemical dataset pertaining to surface water for predicting the dissolved oxygen levels. Initial features were selected using nonlinear approach. Nonlinearity in the data was tested using BDS statistics, which revealed the data with nonlinear structure. Kernel ridge regression, kernel principal component regression, kernel partial least squares regression, and support vector regression models were developed using the Gaussian kernel function and their generalization and predictive abilities were compared in terms of several statistical parameters. Model parameters were optimized using the cross-validation procedure. The proposed kernel regression methods successfully captured the nonlinear features of the original data by transforming it to a high dimensional feature space using the kernel function. Performance of all the kernel-based modeling methods used here were comparable both in terms of predictive and generalization abilities. Values of the performance criteria parameters suggested for the adequacy of the constructed models to fit the nonlinear data and their good predictive capabilities.

  20. Effect of Gasifying Medium on the Coal Chemical Looping Gasification with CaSO4 as Oxygen Carrier☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhuo Liu; Weihua Jia; Qingjie Guo; Hojung Ryu


    The chemical looping gasification uses an oxygen carrier for solid fuel gasification by supplying insufficient lattice oxygen. The effect of gasifying medium on the coal chemical looping gasification with CaSO4 as oxygen carrier is investigated in this paper. The thermodynamical analysis indicates that the addition of steam and CO2 into the system can reduce the reaction temperature, at which the concentration of syngas reaches its maximum value. Experimental result in thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor shows that the mixture sample goes through three stages, drying stage, pyrolysis stage and chemical looping gasification stage, with the temper-ature for three different gaseous media. The peak fitting and isoconversional methods are used to determine the reaction mechanism of the complex reactions in the chemical looping gasification process. It demonstrates that the gasifying medium (steam or CO2) boosts the chemical looping process by reducing the activation energy in the overall reaction and gasification reactions of coal char. However, the mechanism using steam as the gasifying medium differs from that using CO2. With steam as the gasifying medium, parallel reactions occur in the begin-ning stage, followed by a limiting stage shifting from a kinetic to a diffusion regime. It is opposite to the reaction mechanism with CO2 as the gasifying medium.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peizheng Zhou


    There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx}1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peizheng Zhou


    There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx} 1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.

  3. Oxygenated Organic Chemicals in the Pacific Troposphere: Distribution, Sources and Chemistry (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Chatfield, R.; Czech, E.; Fried, A.; Evans, M.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.


    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organic chemicals (Oxorgs) were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (0.1-12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measuremen ts included acetone, methylethyl ketone (MEK), methanol, ethanol, ace taldehyde, propionaldehyde, PANS, and organic nitrates. Complementary measurements of formaldehyde, organic peroxides, and tracers were al so available. Ox-orgs were abundant in the clean troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Their mixing ratios were typically highest in the lower troposphere and declined toward s the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere. Their total a bundance (Ox-orgs) significantly exceeded that of NMHC (C2-C8 NMHC). A comparison of these data with observations collected some seven yea rs earlier (Feb.-March, 1994), did not reveal any significant changes . Throughout the troposphere mixing ratios of Ox-orgs were strongly c orrelated with each other as well as with tracers of fossil and bioma sshiof'uel combustion. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected Oxorgs with respect to CH3Cl and CO in twelve sampled plumes, origi nating from fires, is used to assess their primary and secondary sour ces from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also ind icates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir ther eby limiting ozone formation. The Harvard 3-D photochemical model, th at uses state of the art chemistry and source information, is used to compare simulated and observed mixing ratios of selected species. A 1 -D model is used to explore the chemistry of aldehydes. These results will be presented.

  4. Raman spectra investigation of the defects of chemical vapor deposited multilayer graphene and modified by oxygen plasma treatment (United States)

    Li, Zongyao; Xu, Yu; Cao, Bing; Qi, Lin; He, Shunyu; Wang, Chinhua; Zhang, Jicai; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke


    Graphene, a two dimensional material, can be modified its properties by defects engineering. Here, we present Raman spectra studies of the multilayer graphene (MLG) fabricated by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition over copper foil, and report that the defects of MLG can be controlled by adjusting methane concentration. Moreover, MLG can be changed from metallic to semiconductoring properties by using oxygen plasma treatment, and we investigate the defects evolution of the graphene after exposing to oxygen plasma by Raman spectra. Our results indicate that the amount of defects in graphene can be changed by regulating the methane concentration and oxygen plasma exposure times, but the primary type of defect in MLG is still boundary-like defect. It is valuable for understanding the physics of defects evolution through artificially generated defects, and such defect engineering will greatly open up the future application of the novel material.

  5. Highly vibrationally excited CO generated in a low-temperature chemical reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen (United States)

    Jans, E.; Frederickson, K.; Yurkovich, M.; Musci, B.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.


    A chemical flow reactor is used to study the vibrational population distribution of CO produced by a reaction between carbon vapor generated in an arc discharge and molecular oxygen. The results demonstrate formation of highly vibrationally excited CO, up to vibrational level v = 14, at low temperatures, T = 400-450 K, with population inversion at v = 4-7, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of reaction enthalpy. The results show feasibility of development of a new CO chemical laser using carbon vapor and oxygen as reactants.

  6. Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition of WO{sub 3−x} thin films of various oxygen contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, Z. Silvester, E-mail: [Section Nanophotonics – Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Geus, John W. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Schropp, Ruud E.I. [Section Nanophotonics – Physics of Devices, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We present the synthesis of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3−x}) thin films consisting of layers of varying oxygen content. Configurations of layered thin films comprised of W, W/WO{sub 3−x}, WO{sub 3}/W and WO{sub 3}/W/WO{sub 3−x} are obtained in a single continuous hot-wire chemical vapor deposition process using only ambient air and hydrogen. The air oxidizes resistively heated tungsten filaments and produces the tungsten oxide species, which deposit on a substrate and are subsequently reduced by the hydrogen. The reduction of tungsten oxides to oxides of lower oxygen content (suboxides) depends on the local water vapor pressure and temperature. In this work, the substrate temperature is either below 250 °C or is kept at 750 °C. A number of films are synthesized using a combined air/hydrogen flow at various total process pressures. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry is employed to measure the number of tungsten and oxygen atoms deposited, revealing the average atomic compositions and the oxygen profiles of the films. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy is performed to measure the physical thicknesses and display the internal morphologies of the films. The chemical structure and crystallinity are investigated with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. - Highlights: • Synthesis of tungsten oxide thin films of controllable oxygen content. • Partial reduction of WO{sub 3−x} thin films during deposition. • Deposition of layered films with configurations of W, W/WO{sub 3−x}, WO{sub 3}/W/WO{sub 3−x}. • Synthesis of WO{sub 3−x} films with atomic oxygen-to-tungsten ratios between 0.3 and 3.

  7. A quantum-chemical study of oxygen-vacancy defects in PbTiO{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stashans, Arvids [Laboratorio de Fisica, Escuela de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador)]. E-mail:; Serrano, Sheyla [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica de Materia Condensada, Corporacion de Fisica Fundamental y Aplicada, Apartado 17-12-637, Quito (Ecuador); Escuela de Ingenierias, Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Campus Sur, Rumichaca s/n y Moran Valverde, Apartado 17-12-536, Quito (Ecuador); Medina, Paul [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica de Materia Condensada, Corporacion de Fisica Fundamental y Aplicada, Apartado 17-12-637, Quito (Ecuador)


    Investigation of an oxygen vacancy and F center in the cubic and tetragonal lattices of PbTiO{sub 3} crystals is done by means of quantum-chemical simulations. Displacements of defect-surrounding atoms, electronic and optical properties, lattice relaxation energies and some new effects due to the defects presence are reported and analyzed. A comparison with similar studies is made and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the obtained results.

  8. Análise da demanda por defensivos pela fruticultura brasileira 1997-2000 Fruit tree demand for chemicals 1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Marzabal Neves


    Full Text Available Este estudo estima a demanda relativa por defensivos pela fruticultura brasileira, principalmente para banana, laranja, maçã, melão e uva, por dispêndio total e volume de princípio ativo por hectare, para o período de 1997 a 2000. Efetua, também, uma análise comparativa destas demandas com as obtidas para as principais culturas brasileiras (soja, milho, cana-de-açúcar e café, as quais são predominantes em termos de área cultivada e dominantes, em termos absolutos, nos dispêndios totais e volumes demandados por princípio ativo em defensivos no Brasil. Determina, ainda, em termos absolutos, a participação da fruticultura nos dispêndios totais e no consumo de princípio ativo, especialmente em acaricidas e fungicidas. Conclui sobre a importância da estimativa da demanda relativa para a fruticultura, que supera significativamente as principais culturas comerciais do País, fornecendo indicadores para o comportamento de mercado para as diferentes classes de defensivos pela fruticultura brasileira.This study estimates for the Brazilian fruit trees, mainly banana, orange, apple, melon and grape, the relative demand for chemicals, considering total expenses and quantity demanded for active principle per hectare, from 1997 to 2000. It is also established a comparative analysis among this demand with ones made by the main Brazilian crops (soybean, maize, sugar cane and coffee, that are predominating in terms of grown area and dominating, in absolute terms, of chemicals total expenses and consume of active principle volume in Brazil. Yet, determines, in absolute terms, the importance of fruit trees in chemicals total expenses and active principle consume, especially acaricides and fungicides. It concludes, about the importance of estimated relative demand for fruit trees, that it is higher than the ones by the mainly commercial crops in the country, offering indicators for the demand and market behavior to chemicals different classes by

  9. Feasibility study of sulfates as oxygen carriers for chemical looping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kale


    Full Text Available The operational feasibility temperature range of chemical looping combustion (CLC and chemical looping reforming (CLR of the fuels methane, propane, iso-octane and ethanol was explored using the common sulphates

  10. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu


    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  11. High-pressure gravity-independent singlet oxygen generator, laser nozzle, and iodine injection system for the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (United States)

    Emanuel, George


    A novel approach is outlined for a singlet oxygen generator (SOG), a laser minimum length nozzle (MLN), and an iodine injector system for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). A unified approach, referred to as a SOG/MLN/I2 system, is partly based on past experimental work. For instance, the SOG concept stems from sparger technology and a KSY fesibility experiment. A MLN with a curved sonic line is used for the laser nozzle, and slender struts are used for the injection, in the downstream direction, of iodine/helium vapor. The heated struts are located downstream of the nozzle's throat. The engineering logic behind the approach is discussed; it has a diversity of potential system benefits relative to current technology. These include a compact, scalable laser that can operate in space. The SOG operates at a significantly higher pressure with a high O2(1Δ) yield. In addition, basic hydrogen peroxide reconditioning is not required, a water vapor removal system is not required, and diluent may be unnecessary, although useful for pressure recovery. The impact on a COIL system in terms of power, efficiency, and pressure recovery is briefly assessed.

  12. Application of Fe2O3/Al2O3 Composite Particles as Oxygen Carrier of Chemical Looping Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang He; Hua Wang; Yongnian Dai


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of carbonaceous compounds has been proposed, in the past decade, as an efficient method for CO2 capture without cost of extra energy penalties. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier that transfers oxygen from combustion air to fuels.The combustion is carried out in a two-step process: in the fuel reactor, the fuel is oxidized by a metal oxide, and in the air reactor, the reduced metal is oxidized back to the original phase. The use of iron oxide as an oxygen carrier has been investigated in this article. Particles composed of 80 wt% Fe2O3,together with Al2O3 as binder, have been prepared by impregnation methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that Fe2O3 does not interact with the Al2O3 binder after multi-cycles. The reactivity of the oxygen carrier particles has been studied in twenty-cycle reduction-oxidation tests in a thermal gravimetrical analysis (TGA) reactor. The components in the outlet gas have been analyzed. It has been observed that about 85% of CH4 converted to CO2 and H2O during most of the reduction periods. The oxygen carrier has kept quite a high reactivity in the twenty-cycle reactions. In the first twenty reaction cycles, the reaction rates became slightly higher with the number of cyclic reactions increasing, which was confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test results. The SEM analysis revealed that the pore size inside the particle had been enlarged by the thermal stress during the reaction, which was favorable for diffusion of the gaseous reactants into the particles. The experimental results suggested that the Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier was a promising candidate for a CLC system.

  13. Impact of Dissolved Oxygen during UV-Irradiation on the Chemical Composition and Function of CHO Cell Culture Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Meunier

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV irradiation is advantageous as a sterilization technique in the biopharmaceutical industry since it is capable of targeting non-enveloped viruses that are typically challenging to destroy, as well as smaller viruses that can be difficult to remove via conventional separation techniques. In this work, we investigated the influence of oxygen in the media during UV irradiation and characterized the effect on chemical composition using NMR and LC-MS, as well as the ability of the irradiated media to support cell culture. Chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary cell growth media was irradiated at high fluences in a continuous-flow UV reactor. UV-irradiation caused the depletion of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, pyruvate, riboflavin, tryptophan, and tyrosine; and accumulation of acetate, formate, kynurenine, lumichrome, and sarcosine. Pyridoxamine was the only compound to undergo complete degradation within the fluences considered; complete depletion of pyridoxamine was observed at 200 mJ/cm2. Although in both oxygen- and nitrogen-saturated media, the cell culture performance was affected at fluences above 200 mJ/cm2, there was less of an impact on cell culture performance in the nitrogen-saturated media. Based on these results, minimization of oxygen in cell culture media prior to UV treatment is recommended to minimize the negative impact on sensitive media.

  14. Experimental Investigation of CaMnO3−δ Based Oxygen Carriers Used in Continuous Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallberg


    Full Text Available Three materials of perovskite structure, CaMn1−xMxO3−δ (M = Mg or Mg and Ti, have been examined as oxygen carriers in continuous operation of chemical-looping combustion (CLC in a circulating fluidized bed system with the designed fuel power 300 W. Natural gas was used as fuel. All three materials were capable of completely converting the fuel to carbon dioxide and water at 900°C. All materials also showed the ability to release gas phase oxygen when fluidized by inert gas at elevated temperature (700–950°C; that is, they were suitable for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU. Both fuel conversion and oxygen release improved with temperature. All three materials also showed good mechanical integrity, as the fraction of fines collected during experiments was small. These results indicate that the materials are promising oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion.

  15. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  16. Validation of chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU using Cu-based oxygen carrier and comparative study of Cu, Mn and Co based oxygen carriers using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ramesh K. Agarwal


    Full Text Available The chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU has been demonstrated to be an effective technological pathway for high-efficiency low-cost carbon dioxide capture when particulate coal serves as the fuel. In this paper, complete process-level modeling of CLOU process conducted in ASPEN Plus is presented. The heat content of fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. It is shown that the established model provides results which are in excellent agreement with the experiments for the overall power output of the CLOU process. Finally the effect of varying the air flow rate and three different types of coal as the solid fuel on energy output is investigated, and the performance of three – Copper (Cu, Manganese (Mn and Cobalt (Co based oxygen carriers in CLOU process is compared. It is shown that there exists an optimal air flow rate to obtain the maximum power output for a given coal feeding rate and coal type. The effect of three different oxygen carriers on energy output is also investigated using the optimal air flow rate. Among the three oxygen carriers - CuO, Mn2O3, and Co3O4; Mn2O3 shows the best performance on power output. The results presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of various quantities such as the air flow rate and oxygen carrier (and its type required to achieve near optimal energy output from a CLOU process based power plant.

  17. 78 FR 1765 - Requirements for Chemical Oxygen Generators Installed on Transport Category Airplanes (United States)


    ... appropriate; and (6) Consider the pros and cons of different implementation options and recommend a schedule(s... recommendations. D. New Technology Irrespective of the method chosen to provide supplemental oxygen, there may be... developments in system technology have made a more direct approach feasible for meeting the...

  18. Effects of the Spectral Line Broadened Model on the Performance of a Flowing Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高智; 胡利民


    A new gain saturation model of chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) is deduced from the conservation equations of the population number of upper and lower lasing levels. The present model is compared with both the Voigt profile function model and its low-pressure limit model. The differences between the Voigt profile function model or its low-pressure limit model and the model presented here are pointed out, such as the length of power extraction, the optimal range of the threshold gain. These differences are useful for the optimization of COIL adjustable parameters.

  19. Energy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehfest, E. et al.


    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peizheng Zhou


    This report summarizes the work completed under DOE's Support of Advanced Fuel Research program, Contract No. DE-FG26-99FT40681. The contract period was October 2000 through September 2002. This R&D program investigated the modification of the mechanical strength of catalyst extrudates using Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) carbon-coated catalyst technology so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. Exothermic chemical reactions benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. The carbon-coated extrudates prepared using these procedures had sufficient attrition resistance and surface area for use in ebullated bed operation. The low cost of carbon coating makes the carbon-coated catalysts highly competitive in the market of catalyst extrudates.

  1. Synthesis of thermal and chemical resistant oxygen barrier starch with reinforcement of nano silicon carbide. (United States)

    Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K


    Starch/silicon carbide (starch/SiC) bionanocomposites were synthesized by solution method using different wt% of silicon carbide with starch matrix. The interaction between starch and silicon carbide was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of the bionanocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Thermal property of starch/SiC bionanocomposites was measured and a significant enhancement of thermal resistance was noticed. The oxygen barrier property of the composites was studied and a substantial reduction in permeability was observed as compared to the virgin starch. The reduction of oxygen permeability with enhancement of thermal stability of prepared bionanocomposites may enable the materials suitable for thermal resistant packaging and adhesive applications.

  2. The mystery of gold's chemical activity: local bonding, morphology and reactivity of atomic oxygen. (United States)

    Baker, Thomas A; Liu, Xiaoying; Friend, Cynthia M


    Recently, gold has been intensely studied as a catalyst for key synthetic reactions. Gold is an attractive catalyst because, surprisingly, it is highly active and very selective for partial oxidation processes suggesting promise for energy-efficient "green" chemistry. The underlying origin of the high activity of Au is a controversial subject since metallic gold is commonly thought to be inert. Herein, we establish that one origin of the high activity for gold catalysis is the extremely reactive nature of atomic oxygen bound in 3-fold coordination sites on metallic gold. This is the predominant form of O at low concentrations on the surface, which is a strong indication that it is most relevant to catalytic conditions. Atomic oxygen bound to metallic Au in 3-fold sites has high activity for CO oxidation, oxidation of olefins, and oxidative transformations of alcohols and amines. Among the factors identified as important in Au-O interaction are the morphology of the surface, the local binding site of oxygen, and the degree of order of the oxygen overlayer. In this Perspective, we present an overview of both theory and experiments that identify the reactive forms of O and their associated charge density distributions and bond strengths. We also analyze and model the release of Au atoms induced by O binding to the surface. This rough surface also has the potential for O(2) dissociation, which is a critical step if Au is to be activated catalytically. We further show the strong parallels between product distributions and reactivity for O-covered Au at low pressure (ultrahigh vacuum) and for nanoporous Au catalysts operating at atmospheric pressure as evidence that atomic O is the active species under working catalytic conditions when metallic Au is present. We briefly discuss the possible contributions of oxidants that may contain intact O-O bonds and of the Au-metal oxide support interface in Au catalysis. Finally, the challenges and future directions for fully

  3. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth: Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers. (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht


    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  4. Chemical Analysis of a "Miller-Type" Complex Prebiotic Broth. Part I: Chemical Diversity, Oxygen and Nitrogen Based Polymers (United States)

    Wollrab, Eva; Scherer, Sabrina; Aubriet, Frédéric; Carré, Vincent; Carlomagno, Teresa; Codutti, Luca; Ott, Albrecht


    In a famous experiment Stanley Miller showed that a large number of organic substances can emerge from sparking a mixture of methane, ammonia and hydrogen in the presence of water (Miller, Science 117:528-529, 1953). Among these substances Miller identified different amino acids, and he concluded that prebiotic events may well have produced many of Life's molecular building blocks. There have been many variants of the original experiment since, including different gas mixtures (Miller, J Am Chem Soc 77:2351-2361, 1955; Oró Nature 197:862-867, 1963; Schlesinger and Miller, J Mol Evol 19:376-382, 1983; Miyakawa et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:14,628-14,631, 2002). Recently some of Miller's remaining original samples were analyzed with modern equipment (Johnson et al. Science 322:404-404, 2008; Parker et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:5526-5531, 2011) and a total of 23 racemic amino acids were identified. To give an overview of the chemical variety of a possible prebiotic broth, here we analyze a "Miller type" experiment using state of the art mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We identify substances of a wide range of saturation, which can be hydrophilic, hydrophobic or amphiphilic in nature. Often the molecules contain heteroatoms, with amines and amides being prominent classes of molecule. In some samples we detect ethylene glycol based polymers. Their formation in water requires the presence of a catalyst. Contrary to expectations, we cannot identify any preferred reaction product. The capacity to spontaneously produce this extremely high degree of molecular variety in a very simple experiment is a remarkable feature of organic chemistry and possibly prerequisite for Life to emerge. It remains a future task to uncover how dedicated, organized chemical reaction pathways may have arisen from this degree of complexity.

  5. Performance of Ni-based, Fe-based and Co-based Oxygen Carriers in Chemical-Looping Hydrogen Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Hao; Zhang Xiwen; Fang Xiangchen; Yuan Honggang


    Ni-based, Fe-based and Co-based oxygen carriers with perovskite oxides used as the supports were prepared by citric acid complexation method. The oxygen carriers were characterized by thermal analysis, H2-temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray diffraction methods. Performance tests were evaluated through Chemical-Looping Hydrogen Genera-tion in a ifxed-bed reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. The characterization results showed that all samples were composed of metal oxides and perovskite oxides. Performance results indicated that CH4 conversion over the oxygen car-riers decreased in the following order:NiO/LaNiO3>Co2O3/LaCoO3>Fe2O3/LaFeO3. The ability of NiO/LaNiO3 and Fe2O3/LaFeO3 to decompose water was stronger than that of Co2O3/LaCoO3 as evidenced by our experiments. H2 amounting to 80 mL upon reacting on methane in every cycle could be completely oxidized by NiO/LaNiO3 at 900℃in the period from the third cycle to the eighth cycle.

  6. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.


    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m-2) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m-2, Eonset = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile Amazonian anthrosoils. (United States)

    Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A


    Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change.

  8. Chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with evaporated films of copper, part 4 (United States)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Williams, J. R.


    Evaporated copper films were exposed to an atomic oxygen flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm per sec at temperatures in the range 285 to 375 F (140 to 191 C) for time intervals between 2 and 50 minutes. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layers formed and the ratio of the number of copper to oxygen atoms in the layers. Oxide film thicknesses ranged from 50 to 3000 A (0.005 to 0.3 microns, or equivalently, 5 x 10(exp -9) to 3 x 10(exp -7); it was determined that the primary oxide phase was Cu2O. The growth law was found to be parabolic (L(t) varies as t(exp 1/2)), in which the oxide thickness L(t) increases as the square root of the exposure time t. The analysis of the data is consistent with either of the two parabolic growth laws. (The thin-film parabolic growth law is based on the assumption that the process is diffusion controlled, with the space charge within the growing oxide layer being negligible. The thick-film parabolic growth law is also based on a diffusion controlled process, but space-charge neutrality prevails locally within very thick oxides.) In the absence of a voltage measurement across the growing oxide, a distinction between the two mechanisms cannot be made, nor can growth by the diffusion of neutral atomic oxygen be entirely ruled out. The activation energy for the reaction is on the order of 1.1 eV (1.76 x 10(exp -19) joule, or equivalently, 25.3 kcal/mole).

  9. The imbalance between oxygen demand and supply as a potential mechanism in the pathophysiology of heart failure : The role of microvascular growth and abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, RA; Pinto, YM; van Veldhuisen, DJ


    In heart failure., a deficient oxygen supply often is a primary cause for myocardial dysfunction. The reverse however, may also be true; the changes that occur in the failing heart may predispose for the existence of tissue hypoxia, which further affects the function of the heart. Specifically, myoc

  10. Pulse Operation of Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser by Pulsed Gas Discharge with the Assistance of Spark Pre-ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-Fu; YU Hai-Jun; DUO Li-Ping; JIN Yu-Qi; WANG Jian; SANG Feng-Ting; FANG Ben-Jie; WANG De-Zhen


    The continuous wavelength chemical oxygen-iodine laser can be turned into pulse operation mode in order to obtain high energy and high pulse power. We propose an approach to produce iodine atoms instantaneously by pulsed gas discharge with the assistance of spark pre-ionization to achieve the pulsed goal. The influence of spark pre-ionization on discharge homogeneity is discussed. Voltage-current characteristics are shown and discussed in existence of the pre-ionization capacitor and peaking capacitor. The spark pre-ionization and peaking capacitor are very helpful in obtaining a stable and homogeneous discharge. The lasing is achieved at the total pressure of 2.2-2.9 kPa and single pulse energy is up to 180m J, the corresponding specific output energy is 1.0 J/L.

  11. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (United States)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang


    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  12. Oxygen Barrier Coating Deposited by Novel Plasma-enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Juan; Benter, M.; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef


    We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source. This confi......We report the use of a novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber with coaxial electrode geometry for the SiOx deposition. This novel plasma setup exploits the diffusion of electrons through the inner most electrode to the interior samples space as the major energy source....... This configuration enables a gentle treatment of sensitive materials like low-density polyethylene foils and biodegradable materials. SiOx coatings deposited in the novel setup were compared with other state of the art plasma coatings and were found to possess equally good or better barrier properties. The barrier...... effect of single-layer coatings deposited under different reaction conditions was studied. The coating thickness and the carbon content in the coatings were found to be the critical parameters for the barrier property. The novel barrier coating was applied on different polymeric materials...

  13. Evaluation of intramuscular butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine and nasal oxygen insufflation for the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. (United States)

    Mich, Patrice M; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Davis, Tracy R; Lance, William R; Miller, Michael W


    Chemical immobilization of wildlife often includes opioids or cyclohexamines. These substances are problematic as a result of their required storage, handling, and record-keeping protocols. A potentially useful alternative sedation protocol includes a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM: 0.43 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.36 mg/kg azaperone, 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine). One risk of wildlife immobilization with any drug combination is hypoxemia. This may be of particular importance when using an alpha 2 agonist such as medetomidine because of its powerful vasoconstrictive effect. In this prospective study, the BAM combination was evaluated for chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer. Additionally, selected physiologic parameters associated with BAM immobilization, including oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas measurement, with and without nasal insufflation of oxygen at a relatively low flow of 3 L/min, were evaluated. The BAM combination resulted in a predictable onset of sedation, with a mean induction time to lateral recumbency of 9.8 +/- 3.6 min. All deer recovered smoothly within a range of 5-20 min after reversal with intramuscular administration of naltrexone, atipamazole, and tolazoline (NAT). Clinically relevant decreases in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were observed in animals not receiving supplemental oxygen, while both parameters significantly improved for oxygen-supplemented deer. Pulse oximetry with this protocol was an unreliable indicator of oxygen saturation. In this study, altitude, recumbency, hypoventilation, butorphanol- and medetomidine-specific effects, as well as the potential for alpha 2 agonist-induced pulmonary changes all may have contributed to the development of hypoxemia. Overall, capture of white-tailed deer with the BAM/NAT protocol resulted in excellent chemical immobilization and reversal. Because the BAM combination caused significant hypoxemia

  14. Demand forecasting


    Gregor, Belčec


    Companies operate in an increasingly challenging environment that requires them to continuously improve all areas of the business process. Demand forecasting is one area in manufacturing companies where we can hope to gain great advantages. Improvements in forecasting can result in cost savings throughout the supply chain, improve the reliability of information and the quality of the service for our customers. In the company Danfoss Trata, d. o. o. we did not have a system for demand forecast...

  15. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4.

  16. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen


    The objective of this paper is to systematically investigate the influences of different preparation methods on the properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxygen carrier in chemical looping hydrogen production (CLH). The solid state (SS), coprecipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT), and sol-gel (SG...

  17. Effects of extra oxygen on the structure and superconductivity of La2-xCaxCuO4+y prepared by chemical oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rial, C.; Moran, E.; Alario Franco, M.A.


    The insertion of an excess of oxygen within the structure of La2-xCaxCuO4 (x less than or equal to 0.12) by means of room temperature chemical oxidation modifies the physical properties and the crystal structure of these cuprates. The superconducting features of the starting La2-xCaxCuO4 samples......(c)s. This decrease of T-c is connected with the ability of these compounds to incorporate extra oxygen, which decreases as the Ca-doping increases and is controlled by a structural limit. The behavior of the La2-xCaxCuO4 materials under the oxidation process and the changes induced by the interstitial oxygen...... and the differences concerning the insertion of oxygen and the modifications induced in La2-xMxCuO4+y (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) are presented and discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  18. Demanding Satisfaction (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan


    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  19. Role of oxygen and nitrogen in n-type microcrystalline silicon carbide grown by hot wire chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Pomaska, Manuel; Mock, Jan; Köhler, Florian; Zastrow, Uwe; Perani, Martina; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Cavalcoli, Daniela; Carius, Reinhard; Finger, Friedhelm; Ding, Kaining


    N-type microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H(n)) deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition provides advantageous opto-electronic properties for window layer material in silicon-based thin-film solar cells and silicon heterojunction solar cells. So far, it is known that the dark conductivity (σd) increases with the increase in the crystallinity of μc-SiC:H(n)films. However, due to the fact that no active doping source is used, the mechanism of electrical transport in these films is still under debate. It is suggested that unintentional doping by atmospheric oxygen (O) or nitrogen (N) contamination plays an important role in the electrical transport. To investigate the impact of O and N, we incorporated O and N in μc-SiC:H(n) films and compared the influence on the microstructural, electronic, and optical properties. We discovered that, in addition to increasing the crystallinity, it is also possible to increase the σd by several orders of magnitude by increasing the O-concentration or the N-concentration in the films. Combining a high concentration of O and N, along with a high crystallinity in the film, we optimized the σd to a maximum of 5 S/cm.

  20. Simple fabrication of hydrophilic nanochannels using the chemical bonding between activated ultrathin PDMS layer and cover glass by oxygen plasma. (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Cui, Yidan; Lee, Min Jung; Nam, Seong-Won; Oh, Doori; Kang, Seong Ho; Kim, Youn Sang; Park, Sungsu


    This study describes a simple and low cost method for fabricating enclosed transparent hydrophilic nanochannels by coating low-viscosity PDMS (monoglycidyl ether-terminated polydimethylsiloxane) as an adhesion layer onto the surface of the nanotrenches that are molded with a urethane-based UV-curable polymer, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA 63). In detail, the nanotrenches made of NOA 63 were replicated from a Si master mold and coated with 6 nm thick layer of PDMS. These nanotrenches underwent an oxygen plasma treatment and finally were bound to a cover glass by chemical bonding between silanol and hydroxyl groups. Hydrophobic recovery that is observed in the bulk PDMS was not observed in the thin film of PDMS on the mold and the PDMS-coated nanochannel maintained its surface hydrophilicity for at least one month. The potentials of the nanochannels for bioapplications were demonstrated by stretching λ-DNA (48,502 bp) in the channels. Therefore, this fabrication approach provides a practical solution for the simple fabrication of the nanochannels for bioapplications.

  1. Zn/O ratio and oxygen chemical state of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hai-Bo; Zheng Xin-Liang; Wu Si-Cheng; Liu Zhi-Gang; Yao He-Bao


    ZnO nanocrystalline films are prepared on Si substrates at different temperatures by using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).It is observed that when the growth temperature is low,the stoichiometric ratio between Zn and O atoms has a large deviation from the ideal ratio of 1:1.The ZnO grains in the film have small sizes and are not well crystallized,resulting in a poor photoluminescence (PL) property.When the temperature is increased to an appropriate value,the Zn/O ratio becomes optimized,and most of Zn and O atoms are combined into Zn-O bonds.Then the film has good crystal quality and good PL property.If the temperature is fairly high,the interfacial mutual diffusion of atoms between the substrate and the epitaxial film appears,and the desorption process of the oxygen atoms is enhanced.However,it has no effect on the film property.The film still has the best crystal quality and PL property.

  2. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus


    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 通气程度对颅脑损伤患者脑氧供需平衡的影响%Effect of hyperventilation on cerebral oxygen supply-demand balance in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明华; 许映娜


    BACKGROUND: Inadequate hyperventilation may trigger cerebrovascular contraction and lead to lowered cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply-demand imbalance.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of hyperventilation on oxygen saturation in the internal jugular vein, difference in oxygen and lactic acid contents between the cerebral arteries and veins in patients with serious traumatic brain injury.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, First Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University.PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen patients who received emergency operations in the First Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University between January and July 2002.METHODS: Patients with traumatic brain injury underwent operation under general anesthesia, and the PaCO2 was maintained at 30 mm Hg for 15 minutes by regulating the respiration rate, followed by decrease to 25 mm Hg, maintained for 15 minutes before restoration to 30 mm Hg for 15 minutes. The fractional concentration of inspired oxygen was adjusted to maintain blood PaO2 at around 100-150 mm Hg, and the blood sample was collected from the artery and internal jugular vein 15 minutes after adjustment of PaCO2 for blood gas analysis. The PaO2 was then increased to 200-250 mm Hg by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired oxygen, and the PaCO2 was adjusted from 30 to 25 and then back to 30 mm Hg in the described manner, and the oxygen saturation in the internal jugular vein, difference in oxygen and lactic acid contents between the arteries and the veins were measured.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Influence of blood PaO2 and PaCO2 on oxygen saturation in the internal jugular vein, difference in oxygen and lactic acid contents between the arteries and the veins.RESULTS: Sixteen patients met the diagnostic criteria and completed data collection. The arterial PaCO2 decreased from 30 to 25 mm Hg when arterial blood oxygen pressure increased from 100-150 to 200-250 mm Hg, which leads to obvious decrease of oxygen saturation

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary


    Fatima Kies; Ahmed Kerkouf


    A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids) in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Chel...

  5. Examination of Perovskite Structure CaMnO3-δ with MgO Addition as Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling Using Methane and Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazheng Jing


    Full Text Available Perovskite structure oxygen carriers with the general formula CaMnxMg1-xO3-δ were spray-dried and examined in a batch fluidized bed reactor. The CLOU behavior, reactivity towards methane, and syngas were investigated at temperature 900°C to 1050°C. All particles showed CLOU behavior at these temperatures. For experiments with methane, a bed mass corresponding to 57 kg/MW was used in the reactor, and the average CH4 to CO2 conversion was above 97% for most materials. Full syngas conversion was achieved for all materials utilizing a bed mass corresponding to 178 kg/MW. SEM/EDX and XRD confirmed the presence of MgO in the fresh and used samples, indicating that the Mg cation is not incorporated into the perovskite structure and the active compound is likely pure CaMnO3-δ. The very high reactivity with fuel gases, comparable to that of baseline oxygen carriers of NiO, makes these perovskite particles highly interesting for commercial CLC application. Contrary to NiO, oxygen carriers based on CaMnO3-δ have no thermodynamic limitations for methane oxidation to CO2 and H2O, not to mention that the materials are environmentally friendly and can utilize much cheaper raw materials for production. The physical properties, crystalline phases, and morphology information were also determined in this work.

  6. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  7. Consumer Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo


    to farms that supply fresh manure to the digestion process, partly to crop farms in need of organic fertilizers. Environmental and agricultural benefits include savings for farmers as a consequence of improved fertilizer efficiency and thereby reduction  of needs of chemical fertilizers. A side effect...

  8. Chemical conversion of self-assembled hexadecyl monolayers with active oxygen species generated by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation in an atmospheric environment. (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed I A; Ichii, Takashi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Sugimura, Hiroyuki


    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ = 172 nm) irradiation of alkyl self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in the presence of dry air alters their surface properties. In this work, UV photochemically prepared hexadecyl (HD)-SAMs on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates were irradiated by VUV light in dry air, which generated active oxygen species upon excitation of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. These active oxygen species converted the terminal methyl groups of the SAMs to polar functional groups, which were examined quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and chemical labeling. At the first stage of VUV irradiation, the surface of SAMs was functionalized, and the ratios of the generated polar functional groups markedly increased. With the elongation of the irradiation period, the SAMs gradually degraded, and the total polar group percentages gradually decreased. The difference between the oxygenated carbon components derived by the deconvolution of the XPS carbon (C1s) spectrum and the chemical labeling of polar groups revealed enormous quantities of ethereal and ester groups that cannot react with the labeling reagents but are included in the C1s spectral envelope. These modifications were reflected on morphological structures of SAMs, which were gradually distorted until a complete amorphous structure was obtained after the complete elimination of HD-SAMs.

  9. Optimization and application of atmospheric pressure chemical and photoionization hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for speciation of oxygen-containing compounds. (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Jin, Jang Mi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan


    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the feasibility of optimized positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) for structural assignment of diverse oxygen-containing compounds. The important parameters for optimization of HDX MS were characterized. The optimized techniques employed in the positive and negative modes showed satisfactory HDX product ions for the model compounds when dichloromethane and toluene were employed as a co-solvent in APCI- and APPI-HDX, respectively. The evaluation of the mass spectra obtained from 38 oxygen-containing compounds demonstrated that the extent of the HDX of the ions was structure-dependent. The combination of information provided by different ionization techniques could be used for better speciation of oxygen-containing compounds. For example, (+) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with alcohol, ketone, or aldehyde substituents, while (-) APPI-HDX is sensitive to compounds with carboxylic functional groups. In addition, the compounds with alcohol can be distinguished from other compounds by the presence of exchanged peaks. The combined information was applied to study chemical compositions of degraded oils. The HDX pattern, double bond equivalent (DBE) distribution, and previously reported oxidation products were combined to predict structures of the compounds produced from oxidation of oil. Overall, this study shows that APCI- and APPI-HDX MS are useful experimental techniques that can be applied for the structural analysis of oxygen-containing compounds.

  10. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.


    to test the performance achievable in the participants laboratories, so we carried out a second PT of COD determination in samples considered ‘‘difficult’’ to analyze (i.e. solid samples and liquid samples with high concentrations of suspended solids). The results obtained (based on acceptable z...

  11. Analytical determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in samples considered to be difficult to analyse: solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    of a general standard method and high quality certified reference materials (CRMs), currently the traceability of the COD determination in such samples is not easy to check. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used to test the performance that the participant’s laboratories can achieve. Two...

  12. Relationships between chemical oxygen demand (COD) components and toxicity in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor/aerobic completely stirred reactor system treating Kemicetine. (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Demirden, Pinar


    In this study the interactions between toxicity removals and Kemicetine, COD removals, intermediate products of Kemicetine and COD components (CODs originating from slowly degradable organics, readily degradable organics, inert microbial products and from the inert compounds) were investigated in a sequential anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system with a real pharmaceutical wastewater. The total COD and Kemicetine removal efficiencies were 98% and 100%, respectively, in the sequential ABR/CSTR systems. 2-Amino-1 (p-nitrophenil)-1,3 propanediol, l-p-amino phenyl, p-amino phenol and phenol were detected in the ABR as the main readily degradable inter-metabolites. In the anaerobic ABR reactor, the Kemicetin was converted to corresponding inter-metabolites and a substantial part of the COD was removed. In the aerobic CSTR reactor the inter-metabolites produced in the anaerobic reactor were completely removed and the COD remaining from the anerobic reactor was biodegraded. It was found that the COD originating from the readily degradable organics did not limit the anaerobic degradation process, while the CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and from the inert microbial products significantly decreased the anaerobic ABR reactor performance. The acute toxicity test results indicated that the toxicity decreased from the influent to the effluent of the aerobic CSTR reactor. The ANOVA test statistics showed that there was a strong linear correlation between acute toxicity, CODs originating from the slowly degradable organics and inert microbial products. A weak correlation between acute toxicity and CODs originating from the inert compounds was detected.

  13. Effect of pentachlorophenol and chemical oxygen demand mass concentrations in influent on operational behaviors of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; He, Ruo; Liu, Xin-Wen; Long, Yan


    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor that was seeded with anaerobic sludge acclimated to chlorophenols was used to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic biotreatment of synthetic wastewater containing pentachlorophenol (PCP) with additional sucrose as carbon source. Two sets of UASB reactors were operated at one time. But the seeded sludge for the two reactors was different and Reactor I was seeded with the sludge that was acclimated to PCP completely for half a year, and Reactor II was seeded with the mixed sludge that was acclimated for half a year to PCP, 4-CP, 3-CP or 2-CP, respectively. The degradation of PCP and the operation fee treating the wastewater are affected by the concentration of MEDS (microorganism easily degradable substrate). So the confirmation of the suitable ratio of [COD] and [PCP] was the key factor of treating the wastewater containing PCP economically and efficiently. During the experiment, the synthetic wastewater with 180.0 mg L(-1) PCP and 1250-10000 mg L(-1) COD could be treated steadily in the experimental Reactor I. The removal efficiency of PCP was more than 99.5% and the removal efficiency of COD was up to 90%. [PCP] (concentration of PCP) in effluent was less than 0.5 mg L(-1). [PCP] in influent could affect proper [COD] (concentration of COD) range in influent that was required for maintenance of steady running of the experimental reactor with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 20 to 22 h. [PCP] in influent would directly affect the necessary [COD] in influent when the UASB reactor ran normally and treated the wastewater containing PCP. When [PCP] was 100.4, 151.6 and 180.8 mg L(-1) in influent, respectively, [COD] in influent had to be controlled about 1250-7500, 2500-5000 and 5000 mg L(-1) to maintain the UASB reactor steady running normally and contemporarily ensure that [COD] and [PCP] in effluent were less than 300 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively. With the increase of [PCP] in influent, the range of variation of [COD] in influent endured by the UASB reactor was decreasing. The ratios of [COD] and [PCP] in influent could affect removal efficiency of PCP and COD, the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in effluent, biogas quantity and methane content in biogas. [PCP] in influent was linearly or semi-logarithmically correlated to [COD] in effluent when [COD] in influent was 5750+/-250 mg L(-1), and so was the relationship between [COD] in influent and [PCP] in effluent when [PCP] in influent was 100.4 or 151.6 mg L(-1), less than the maximum permissible [PCP]. The sources of seeded sludge, the way of sludge acclimation and the characteristics of anaerobic sludge could all affect the UASB reactor capacity treating PCP. When [PCP] were less than 180.8 mg L(-1) for Reactor I and 151.6 mg L(-1) for Reactor II, the variation of [PCP] in influent had little effect on the UASB reactor volume gas production rate and substrate gas production rate. And [VFA] and pH value in effluent were affected a little. Volume biogas production rate and substrate biogas production rate of the UASB reactor were only affected by [COD] and loading rate in influent. But when [PCP] was more than 151.6 mg L(-1) for Reactor II, the biogas production fell quickly and was over 3 days later. [VFA] in effluent from Reactor II increased up to 2198.1 mg L(-1) quickly and the pH value fell to less than 7. Reactor II could not run normally. The component of VFA accumulated quickly was mainly acetate (above 50%). With [PCP] increased from 7.9 to 180.8 mg L(-1) gradually in influent, the methane content in biogas from Reactor II decreased from 70% to 60%, but the reactor could still run normally. Then as for Reactor II, the content of methane have fallen from 75% to 45% or so quickly. And Reactor II could not run steadily. So the conclusion could be drown that too high [PCP] in influent for UASB reactor mainly inhibited the activity of methane-producing bacteria cultures utilizing the acetate.

  14. Chemical-looping gasification of biomass in a 10k Wth interconnected fluidized bed reactor using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUSEYIN Sozen; WEI Guo-qiang; LI Hai-bin; HE Fang; HUANG Zhen


    The aim of this research is to design and operate a 10 kW hot chemical-looping gasification ( CLG) unit using Fe2 O3/Al2 O3 as an oxygen carrier and saw dust as a fuel. The effect of the operation temperature on gas composition in the air reactor and the fuel reactor, and the carbon conversion of biomass to CO2 and CO in the fuel reactor have been experimentally studied. A total 60 h run has been obtained with the same batch of oxygen carrier of iron oxide supported with alumina. The results show that CO and H2 concentrations are increased with increasing temperature in the fuel reactor. It is also found that with increasing fuel reactor temperature, both the amount of residual char in the fuel reactor and CO2 concentration of the exit gas from the air reactor are degreased. Carbon conversion rate and gasification efficiency are increased by increasing temperature and H2 production at 870 ℃reaches the highest rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET-surface area tests have been used to characterize fresh and reacted oxygen carrier particles. The results display that the oxygen carrier activity is not declined and the specific surface area of the oxygen carrier particles is not decreased significantly.

  15. Preparation and analysis of zirconia oxygen sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-an; XIAO Jian-zhong; XIA Feng


    Thimble zirconia oxygen sensors were prepared with yttria stabilized zirconia(YSZ). The surfaces of the electrode,electrolyte and their interface were observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM). The sensor was examined with engine bench test to evaluate the essential performance. The results show that the oxygen sensor has good performance,which can meet the demand of practical applications. Chemical equilibrium theory was introduced to explain electromotive force of the sensors and the influence of temperature on the signals. The educed theoretical model of electromotive force agrees well with testing results.

  16. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias


    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected.

  17. Shelf Life of Oxygen Moisture Bottle after Chemical Disinfection%氧气湿化瓶消毒后保存期的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少英; 李碧坚; 何丽媚


      目的通过对氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后保存期进行研究,以明确其保存有效期。方法将240个氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后分别保存于5个临床科室,保存时间180 d,每月进行细菌学监测。结果氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后保存30、60、90、120、150、180 d细菌监测结果均≤20 CFU/件,未检出致病菌,合格率100%。结论氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后用保鲜袋单独包装,做好保存环境管理,其保存期最少6个月。%Objective To explore the shelf life of oxygen moisture bottle after chemical disinfection and to make clear its validity. Methods A total of 240 oxygen moisture bottles after chemical disinfection had been stored in clinical departments for 180 days and bacteriological monitoring was carried out every month. Results Bacteria monitoring 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after chemical disinfection showed there was 20 or less cfu/per piece and no pathogenic bacteria was found, with a qualification rate of 100%. Conclusion Once oxygen moisture bottle is packaged by plastic bag individually and stored in friendly environment, the shelf life of it after chemical disinfection could last for at least 6 months.

  18. 化学循环重整甲烷制合成气LaB03钙钛矿型氧载体研究%LaBO3 Oxygen Carrier for Synthesis Gas Generation by Chemical-Looping Reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代小平; 余长春


    Chemical Looping Reforming(CLR) is a new technology that can be used for syngas production(CO+H2),which demands less energy than normal endothermic steam methane reforming(SMR) processes.CLR for syngas production avoids separation problems since the gasses are taken out separately from fuel reactor and air reactor.One key issue with the CLR concept that is being widely studied is the oxidation-reduction performance of potential oxygen-carrier materials.Two compound oxides(La-Cr-O and La-Ni-O) were prepared by sol-gel method,and characterized by XRD,BET,FT-IR,H2-TPR and CH4-TPSR.The catalytic performance of the prepared samples for CLR of CH4 to syngas was investigated.The results indicated that LaNiO3 should provide the oxygen species for the total oxidation and partial oxidation with CH4,whereas cracking reaction of CH4 to H2 is favourable on LaCrO3 oxide.Among them,LaNiO3 oxide has higher oxygen amount and continuous oxygen supply for CLR for CH4 to syngas with H2/CO=1.45 in continuous flow reaction.The CH4 conversion and CO selectivity are 23.4% and 86.9%.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了不同B位可变价离子的La-B-O复合氧载体(B=Cr、Ni),采用XRD、BET、FT-IR、H2-TPR及CH4-TPSR等进行了表征,并用于化学循环重整(CLR)CH4反应中.结果表明,LaNiO3氧化物更易于与CH4发生深度氧化和选择氧化,LaCrO3氧化物则利于CH4裂解,其氧物种氧化CH4的能力较弱.在连续流动CLR反应中,LaNiO3具有较高的供氧量和持续供氧能力,能将CH4选择氧化为H2/CO=1.45的合成气,其CH4转化率和CO选择性分别达到23.4%和86.9%,且其结构保持了较高的稳定性.

  19. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the Liquid Droplet Radiator (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Coles, Carolyn E.


    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed depolymerization of the fluid molecule.

  20. Effects of Chemical versus Electrochemical Delithiation on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction Activity of Nickel-Rich Layered LiMO2. (United States)

    Augustyn, Veronica; Manthiram, Arumugam


    Nickel-rich layered LiMO2 (M = transition metal) oxides doped with iron exhibit high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in alkaline electrolytes. The LiMO2 oxides offer the possibility of investigating the influence of the number of d electrons on OER by tuning the oxidation state of M via chemical or electrochemical delithiation. Accordingly, we investigate here the electrocatalytic behavior of LiNi0.7Co0.3O2 and LiNi0.7Co0.2Fe0.1O2 before and after chemical delithiation. In addition to varying the oxidation state of the transition-metal ions, we find that chemical delithiation also affects the local chemical environment and morphology. The electrochemical response differs depending on whether the delithiation occurred ex situ chemically or in situ during the electrocatalysis. The results point to the important role of in situ transformation in LiMO2 in alkaline electrolytes during electrocatalytic cycling.

  1. Discovery of Carbon/Oxygen depleted Blue Straggler Stars in 47 Tucanae: the chemical signature of a mass-transfer formation process

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Gratton, R; Piotto, G; Lanzoni, B; Carretta, E; Rood, R T; Sills, A; Pecci, F F; Möhler, S; Beccari, G; Lucatello, S; Compagni, N


    We use high-resolution spectra obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope to measure surface abundance patterns of 43 Blue Stragglers stars (BSS) in 47 Tuc. We discovered that a sub-population of BSS shows a significant depletion of Carbon and Oxygen with respect to the dominant population. This evidence would suggest the presence of CNO burning products on the BSS surface coming from a deeply peeled parent star, as expected in the case of mass-transfer process. This is the first detection of a chemical signature clearly pointing to a specific BSS formation process in a globular cluster.

  2. The Interconversion of Electrical and Chemical Energy: The Electrolysis of Water and the Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell. (United States)

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others


    Discusses some of the drawbacks of using a demonstration of the electrolysis of water to illustrate the interconversion between electrical and chemical energy. Illustrates a simple apparatus allowing demonstration of this concept while overcoming these drawbacks. (CW)


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. The Effect of Sintering Oxygen Partial Pressure on a SmBiO3 Buffer Layer for Coated Conductors via Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhu


    Full Text Available The application of high-temperature YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO superconducting material is a considerable prospect for the growing energy shortages. Here, SmBiO3 (SBO films were deposited on (100-orientated yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ simple crystal substrates via the chemical solution deposition (CSD approach for coated conductors, and the effects of sintering oxygen partial pressure on SBO films were studied. The crystalline structures and surface morphologies of SBO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscope (AFM. The optimized growth temperature, the intensity ratios of the SBO (200 peak to the SBO (111 peak, and the crystallinities of SBO films increased with the sintering oxygen partial pressure. The SEM and AFM images displayed a smooth and well-distributed surface in the argon atmosphere. The subsequent YBCO films with superconducting transition temperatures (Tc = 89.5 K, 90.2 K, and 86.2 K and critical current densities (Jc = 0.88 MA/cm2, 1.69 MA/cm2, and 0.09 MA/cm2; 77 K, self-field were deposited to further check the qualities of the SBO layer. These results indicated that sintering oxygen partial pressure had an effect on the epitaxial growth of the SBO buffer layer and YBCO superconducting properties. The experimental results may be a usable reference for the epitaxial growth of YBCO-coated conductors and other oxides.

  5. Oral Administration of the Japanese Traditional Medicine Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Metabolites in Rat Plasma: Identification of Chemical Constituents Contributing to Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Matsubara


    Full Text Available Insufficient detoxification and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS induce cellular and tissue damage, and generated reactive oxygen metabolites become exacerbating factors of dermatitis. Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin (KBGY is a traditional Japanese medicine prescribed to treat dermatitis such as acne vulgaris. Our aim was to verify the antioxidant properties of KBGY, and identify its active constituents by blood pharmacokinetic techniques. Chemical constituents were quantified in extracts of KBGY, crude components, and the plasma of rats treated with a single oral administration of KBGY. Twenty-three KBGY compounds were detected in plasma, including gallic acid, prunasin, paeoniflorin, and azelaic acid, which have been reported to be effective for inflammation. KBGY decreased level of the diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs in plasma. ROS-scavenging and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO generation assays revealed that gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, (+-catechin, and lariciresinol possess strong antioxidant activities. Gallic acid was active at a similar concentration to the maximum plasma concentration, therefore, our findings indicate that gallic acid is an important active constituent contributing to the antioxidant effects of KBGY. KBGY and its active constituents may improve redox imbalances induced by oxidative stress as an optional treatment for skin diseases.

  6. Rapid Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand(BOD) in Wastewater with Ferrocene (Fc) Grafted Mediator Microbial Sensor%接枝二茂铁介体微生物传感器对污水BOD的快速测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 李轶


    采用接枝二茂铁为介体的微生物传感器测量污水的BOD.将二茂铁(ferrocene,Fc)通过缩合反应接枝到大分子介孔材料SBA-15的表面用作微生物生化反应传递电子的介体,与活性污泥提取的微生物混合,并用聚乙烯醇(PVA)进行固定化,以此制备成微生物敏感膜,并与玻碳电极耦合,构建三电极传感系统,用于快速测量污水水样的BOD.结果表明,传感器的线性范围为2~300 mg/L,连续测量20个样品的精密度为4.2%,能连续工作35 d.并讨论了pH,温度和重金属对传感器响应的影响.通过对实际水样的测试表明,测得的BOD与BOD5的具有良好的相关性.%A novel biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) detecting method employing a ferrocene(Fc) grafted SBA-1S mediator immobilized in PVA matrix was developed. Fc was combined with SBA-15 via ion-association and the product was labeled as SBA-15-Fc, which was employed for a modified glassy carbon electrode. In a three-electrode system, a linear relationship between the anodic current responses and glucose/glutamate(GGA) concentration was 2~300 mg/L. Single sensor (measuring 20 samples) reproducibility were less than 4.2 %, and the sensor can works for 35 days continuously. The effects of pH, temperature and heavy metal on the BOD responses were studied. Comparaiion of detecting the BOD and BOD; of real samples showed a good correlation

  7. Microbial sensor for measurement of biochemical oxygen demand based on ferrocene-grafted mediator%基于接枝二茂铁介体的BOD微生物传感器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 李轶


    开发出以接枝二茂铁为介体的微生物传感器测量BOD,将二茂铁(ferrocene,Fc)通过缩合反应接枝到大分子介孔材料SBA-15的表面,作为微生物生化反应传递电子的介体,与活性污泥微生物 混合固定化于聚乙烯醇(PVA)里,制备成微生物敏感膜,并与玻碳电极耦合,构建三电极传感系统,用于快速测量水样的BOD质量浓度.结果表明,传感器测量的质量浓度线性范围为2~ 300 mg/L,连续测量20个样品的精密度为4.2%,能连续工作35 d.讨论pH、温度和重金属对传感器响应的影响.实际水样的测试结果表明,由微生物传感器测得的BOD与BOD5的具有良好的相关度.%A novel microbial sensor using a ferrocene (Fc)-grafted SBA-15 mediator immobilized in a PVA matrix was developed for measurement of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Fc was grafted onto the SBA-15 surface via ion-association and the product was labeled as SBA-15-Fc, and applied to a modified glassy carbon electrode for measuring BOD rapidly in the three-electrode system. The results showed a linear relationship between the anodic current responses and glucose/glutamate (GGA) concentration ranging from 2 mg/L to 300 mg/L. The reproducibility of a single sensor measuring 20 samples was less than 4.2%, and the sensor could continuously work for 35 days. The effects of pH, temperature, and heavy metal on the BOD response were studied. The detection results of real samples show that the BOD measured by the microbial sensor was in good correlation with that obtained with the BOD5 method.

  8. Sulfide removal by moderate oxygenation of anaerobic sludge environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Zee, F.P.; Villaverde, S.; Polanco, F. [Valladolid Univ., Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Garcia, P.A.


    Treating wastewater through anaerobic bioreactors results in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The sulfide can be removed from the biogas by introducing air directly into the anaerobic bioreactor system. This study presents the results of batch experiments that provided a better insight into the fate of sulfur compounds and oxygen during microaerobic sulfide oxidation in granular sludge. It was shown that sulfide could be removed rapidly upon introduction of low amounts of oxygen to the sulfide-amended batch vials with granular sludge treating vinasse. Initially, the sulfide was oxidized to elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and polysulfide. Significant production of sulfate did not occur. The introduction of oxygen, however, could result in the growth of aerobic organic-chemical oxygen demand-oxidizing bacteria that compete with sulfide oxidation for oxygen. 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. Pulmonary hematological parameters, energetic flight demands and their correlation with oxygen diffusion capacity in the lungs Parámetros hematológicos pulmonares, demandas energéticas del vuelo y su correlación la capacidad de difusión de oxígeno en los pulmones



    Hematological parameters of birds and mammals seem to respond to environmental requirements, such as hypoxia at high altitude and the energetic demands of locomotion and flight. In this work we hypothesize that lung capillary hematocrit and red blood size may be influenced by the energetic requirements of flight. Also, we propose that hematological parameters should vary together with the morphological parameters that determine oxygen diffusion capacity. We analyzed the red blood cell size an...

  10. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J


    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  11. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha


    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO.), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO. (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma.

  12. Studies on the preparation of active oxygen-deficient copper ferrite and its application for hydrogen production through thermal chemical water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bo; ZHANG Ping; ZHANG Lei; CHEN Jing; XU JingMing


    Hydrogen generation through thermal chemical water splitting technology has recently received in-creasingly international interest in the nuclear hydrogen production field. Besides the main known sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle developed by the General Atomics Company and the UT3 cycle (iron, calcium, and bromine) developed at the University of Tokyo, the thermal cycle based on metal oxide two-step water splitting methods is also receiving research and development attention worldwide. In this work, copper ferrite was prepared by the co-precipitation method and oxygen-deficient copper ferrite was synthesized through first and second calcination steps for the application of hydrogen production by a two-step water splitting process. The crystal structure, properties, chemical composition and δwere investigated in detail by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), gas chro-matography (GC), and so on. The experimental two-step thermal chemical cycle reactor for hydrogen generation was designed and developed in this lab. The hydrogen generation process of water splitting through CuFe2O4-δ and the cycle performance of copper ferrite regeneration were firstly studied and discussed.

  13. Studies on the preparation of active oxygen-deficient copper ferrite and its application for hydrogen production through thermal chemical water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hydrogen generation through thermal chemical water splitting technology has recently received in- creasingly international interest in the nuclear hydrogen production field. Besides the main known sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle developed by the General Atomics Company and the UT3 cycle (iron, calcium, and bromine) developed at the University of Tokyo, the thermal cycle based on metal oxide two-step water splitting methods is also receiving research and development attention worldwide. In this work, copper ferrite was prepared by the co-precipitation method and oxygen-deficient copper ferrite was synthesized through first and second calcination steps for the application of hydrogen production by a two-step water splitting process. The crystal structure, properties, chemical composition and δ were investigated in detail by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), gas chro- matography (GC), and so on. The experimental two-step thermal chemical cycle reactor for hydrogen generation was designed and developed in this lab. The hydrogen generation process of water splitting through CuFe2O4-δ and the cycle performance of copper ferrite regeneration were firstly studied and discussed.

  14. Determination of zinc speciation in basic oxygen furnace flying dust by chemical extractions and X-ray spectroscopy. (United States)

    Sammut, M L; Rose, J; Masion, A; Fiani, E; Depoux, M; Ziebel, A; Hazemann, J L; Proux, O; Borschneck, D; Noack, Y


    There is a growing concern regarding the environmental and public health risks associated with airborne particulate matter (PM). The basic oxygen furnace is one of the most important atmospheric dust sources of the steel manufacturing process. It emits dust enriched in heavy metal such as Zn, which is assumed to contribute to the toxic potential of atmospheric PM. Dust collected before and after the filtration system was analyzed to determine Zn speciation. To this end, a variety of analytical tools were used and a sequential extraction protocol has been specifically developed for iron and steel dust. The Zn speciation results obtained by EXAFS and sequential extraction were in excellent agreement. Before filtration, the speciation of Zn in BOF was 43% ZnFe(2)O(4), 23% ZnCO(3) and 16% ZnO. The same species were detected after filtration with different proportions. BOF dust after filtration contains more soluble Zn phases which may play a role in the toxic effects of the emissions.

  15. Oxygen Abundances in Nearby FGK Stars and the Galactic Chemical Evolution of the Local Disk and Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, I; Lambert, D L


    Atmospheric parameters and oxygen abundances of 825 nearby FGK stars are derived using high-quality spectra and a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. We assign a kinematic probability for the stars to be thin-disk (P1), thick-disk (P2), and halo (P3) members. We confirm previous findings of enhanced [O/Fe] in thick-disk (P2>0.5) relative to thin-disk (P1>0.5) stars with [Fe/H]-0.2. Nevertheless, we find that the kinematic membership criterion fails at separating perfectly the stars in the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane, even when a very restrictive kinematic separation is employed. Stars with "intermediate" kinematics (P10.5) show a large star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe]-[Fe/H], but most of it is due to stars with Galactocentric rotational velocity V-200 km/s follow an [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation with almost no star-to-star scatter. Early mergers with satellite galaxies explain most of our observations, but the significant fraction of disk stars with "ambiguous" kinematics and abundances suggests that scattering ...

  16. Chemical and microstructural study of the oxygen passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Mg and MgH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, O. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University of Seville), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas ' Isla de la Cartuja' , Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University of Seville), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas ' Isla de la Cartuja' , Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Lopez-Cartes, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University of Seville), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas ' Isla de la Cartuja' , Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Dornheim, M. [Department of Materials Research, Institute for Materials Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht GmbH, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Klassen, T. [Department of Materials Research, Institute for Materials Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht GmbH, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bormann, R. [Department of Materials Research, Institute for Materials Research, GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht GmbH, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Fernandez, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University of Seville), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas ' Isla de la Cartuja' , Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Nanocrystalline Mg and MgH{sub 2} samples have been prepared by high-energy ball milling and gas phase condensation methods. Starting from these materials in their 'as received' state without air exposure, a study of the oxygen and air passivation behaviour was carried out by 'in situ' analysis of the samples by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The binding energy and photoemission Auger parameters have been determined for metallic magnesium as well as for magnesium hydride, oxide and hydroxide species. Values of the MgH{sub 2} material were reported for the first time. The study clearly shows the formation of an oxide passivation layer of ca. 3-4 nm in thickness for all the nanocrystalline magnesium samples handled under controlled inert gas atmospheres. A hydroxide like amorphous layer is formed at the topmost surface layers of the nanocrystalline Mg and MgH{sub 2} samples. The implication of these studies for H{sub 2} storage and transport applications of nanocrystalline magnesium is discussed.

  17. Measurements of tropospheric HO2 and RO2 by oxygen dilution modulation and chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Olson


    Full Text Available An improved method for the measurement of hydroperoxy radicals (HO2 and organic peroxy radicals (RO2, where R is any organic group has been developed that combines two previous chemical conversion/chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS peroxy radical measurement techniques. Applicable to both ground-based and aircraft platforms, the method provides good separation between HO2 and RO2 and frequent measurement capability with observations of both HO2 and HO2 + RO2 amounts each minute. This allows for analyses of measured [HO2]/[HO2 + RO2] ratios on timescales relevant to tropospheric photochemistry. By varying both [NO] and [O2] simultaneously in the chemical conversion region of the PeRCIMS (Peroxy Radical CIMS inlet, the method exploits the changing conversion efficiency of RO2 to HO2 under different inlet [NO]/[O2] to selectively observe either primarily HO2 or the sum of HO2 and RO2. Two modes of operation have been established for ambient measurements: in the first half of the minute, RO2 radicals are measured at close to 100% efficiency along with HO2 radicals (low [NO]/[O2] = 2.53 × 10−5 and in the second half of the minute, HO2 is detected while the majority of ambient RO2 radicals are measured with approximately 15% efficiency (high [NO]/[O2] = 6.80 × 10−4. The method has been tested extensively in the laboratory under various conditions and for a variety of organic peroxy radicals relevant to the atmosphere and the results of these tests are presented. The modified PeRCIMS instrument has been deployed successfully using the current measurement technique on a number of aircraft campaigns, including on the NSF/NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE-Mex and NASA INTEX-B field campaigns in the spring of 2006. A brief comparison of the peroxy radical measurements during these campaigns to a photochemical box model confirms that the PeRCIMS is able to successfully separate and measure HO2 and RO2 under the majority of tropospheric conditions.

  18. Measurements of tropospheric HO2 and RO2 by oxygen dilution modulation and chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Olson


    Full Text Available An improved method for the measurement of hydroperoxy radicals (HO2 and organic peroxy radicals (RO2, where R is any organic group has been developed that combines two previous chemical conversion/chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS peroxy radical measurement techniques. Applicable to both ground-based and aircraft platforms, the method provides good separation between HO2 and RO2 and frequent measurement capability with observations of both HO2 and HO2+RO2 amounts each minute. This allows for analyses of measured [HO2]/[HO2+RO2] ratios on timescales relevant to tropospheric photochemistry. By varying both [NO] and [O2] simultaneously in the chemical conversion region of the PeRCIMS (Peroxy Radical CIMS inlet, the method exploits the changing conversion efficiency of RO2 to HO2 under different inlet [NO]/[O2] to selectively observe either primarily HO2 or the sum of HO2 and RO2. Two modes of operation have been established for ambient measurements: in the first half of the minute, RO2 radicals are measured at close to 100% efficiency along with HO2 radicals (low [NO]/[O2] = 2.53×10−5 and in the second half of the minute, HO2 is detected while the majority of ambient RO2 radicals are measured with low efficiency, approximately 15% (high [NO]/[O2] = 6.80×10−4. The method has been tested extensively in the laboratory under various conditions and for a variety of organic peroxy radicals relevant to the atmosphere and the results of these tests are presented. The modified PeRCIMS instrument has been deployed successfully using the new measurement technique on a number of aircraft campaigns, including on the NSF/NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE-Mex and NASA INTEX-B field campaigns in the spring of 2006. A brief comparison of the peroxy radical measurements during these campaigns to a photochemical box model indicates good agreement under tropospheric conditions where NOx (NO+NO2 concentrations are lower than 0.5 ppbV (parts per billion by

  19. Measurements of tropospheric HO2 and RO2 by oxygen dilution modulation and chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Olson


    Full Text Available An improved method for the measurement of hydroperoxy radicals (HO2 and organic peroxy radicals (RO2, where R is any organic group has been developed that combines two previous chemical conversion/chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS peroxy radical measurement techniques. Applicable to both ground-based and aircraft platforms, the method provides good separation between HO2 and RO2, and frequent measurement capability with observations of both HO2 and HO2 + RO2 amounts each minute. These improvements allow for analyses of measured [HO2]/[HO2 + RO2] ratios on timescales relevant to tropospheric photochemistry. By varying both [NO] and [O2] simultaneously in the chemical conversion region of the PeRCIMS (Peroxy Radical CIMS inlet, the method exploits the changing conversion efficiency of RO2 to HO2 under different inlet [NO]/[O2] to selectively observe either primarily HO2 or the sum of HO2 and RO2. Two modes of operation have been established for ambient measurements: in the first half of the minute, RO2 radicals are measured at close to 100% efficiency along with HO2 radicals (low [NO]/[O2] = 2.53 × 10−5 and in the second half of the minute, HO2 is detected while the majority of ambient RO2 radicals are measured with low efficiency, approximately 15% (high [NO]/[O2] = 6.80 × 10−4. The method has been tested extensively in the laboratory under various conditions and for a variety of organic peroxy radicals relevant to the atmosphere and the results of these tests are presented. The modified PeRCIMS instrument has been deployed successfully using the new measurement technique on a number of aircraft campaigns, including on the NSF/NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE-Mex and NASA INTEX-B field campaigns in the spring of 2006. A brief comparison of the peroxy radical measurements during these campaigns to a photochemical box model indicates good agreement under tropospheric conditions where NOx (NO + NO2 concentrations are lower than 0.5 ppb

  20. 动物性食品化学品投入与市场需求诱导关联性探析%Analysis on the Relative of Animal Food Chemical Investment and the Market Demand Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Security problem of animal food and its product was virtually the chemical investment question; It would bring problems to the physical and psychological health of residents and the quality of future people. Starts from the market demand and the incentive of food security problem drived by present marketing concept was analyzed, then it indicated that the company ethnic risk growed from the benefit pursuit satisfied the market demand mechanism.%动物性食品及其制品的安全问题实质是化学品投入问题,它给居民身心健康及未来人类素质带来较大的问题.从市场需求入手,分析了现行营销观念驱动下食品安全问题的诱因,揭示了企业道德风险产生于市场需求机制满足的利益追求.

  1. Dose-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production from particulate matter exposure: comparison to oxidative potential and chemical composition (United States)

    Tuet, Wing Y.; Fok, Shierly; Verma, Vishal; Tagle Rodriguez, Marlen S.; Grosberg, Anna; Champion, Julie A.; Ng, Nga L.


    Elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations have been associated with cardiopulmonary risks. In this study, alveolar macrophages and ventricular myocytes were exposed to PM extracts from 104 ambient filters collected in multiple rural and urban sites in the greater Atlanta area. PM-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) were measured to investigate the effect of chemical composition and determine whether chemical assays are representative of cellular responses. For summer samples, the area under the ROS/RNS dose-response curve per volume of air (AUCvolume) was significantly correlated with dithiothreitol (DTT) activity, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), brown carbon, titanium, and iron, while a relatively flat response was observed for winter samples. EC50 was also correlated with max response for all filters investigated, which suggests that certain PM constituents may be involved in cellular protective pathways. Although few metal correlations were observed, exposure to laboratory-prepared metal solutions induced ROS/RNS production, indicating that a lack of correlation does not necessarily translate to a lack of response. Collectively, these results suggest that complex interactions may occur between PM species. Furthermore, the strong correlation between organic species and ROS/RNS response highlights a need to understand the contribution of organic aerosols, especially photochemically driven secondary organic aerosols (SOA), to PM-induced health effects.

  2. Carbon and oxygen abundances from recombination lines in low-metallicity star-forming galaxies. Implications for chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban, C; Carigi, L; Peimbert, M; Bresolin, F; López-Sánchez, A R; Mesa-Delgado, A


    We present deep echelle spectrophotometry of the brightest emission-line knots of the star-forming galaxies He 2-10, Mkn 1271, NGC 3125, NGC 5408, POX 4, SDSS J1253-0312, Tol 1457-262, Tol 1924-416 and the HII region Hubble V in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The data have been taken with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the 3100-10420 $\\AA$ range. We determine electron densities and temperatures of the ionized gas from several emission-line intensity ratios for all the objects. We derive the ionic abundances of C$^{2+}$ and/or O$^{2+}$ from faint pure recombination lines (RLs) in several of the objects, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios. We have explored the chemical evolution at low metallicities analysing the C/O vs. O/H, C/O vs. N/O and C/N vs. O/H relations for Galactic and extragalactic HII regions and comparing with results for halo stars and DLAs. We find that HII regions in star-forming dwarf galaxies occupy a different locus in the C/O...

  3. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  4. Physical demands during folk dancing. (United States)

    Wigaeus, E; Kilbom, A


    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the aerobic demands during one of the most popular and demanding Swedish folk dances the "hambo". Six men and six women, ranging in age from 22 to 32, participated. Their physical work capacity was investigated on a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, using two to three submaximal and one maximal loads. All subjects were moderately well-trained and their average maximal oxygen uptake on the treadmill were 2.5 and 3.7 l/min (42.8 and 53.2 ml/kg . min-1) for women and men, respectively. When dancing the "hambo" the heart rate was telemetered, and the Douglas bag technique was used for measurements of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen uptake. The physical demand during "hambo" dancing was high in all subjects. Oxygen uptake was 38.5 and 37.3 ml/kg . min-1 and heart rate 179 and 172 in women and men, respectively. Women used 90% and men 70% of their maximal aerobic power obtained on the treadmill. The pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient of the female subjects were lower when dancing as compared to running, possibly because of voluntary restriction of the movements of the thoracic cage. Some popular Scandinavian folk dances are performed at a speed and with an activity pattern resembling the "hambo", while others are performed at a slower pace. The exercise intensity used in "hambo" is more than sufficient to induce training effects in the average individual provided that the dancing is performed at the frequency and for length of time usually recommended for physical training. For older or less fit people dances with a slow pace can be used for training purposes.

  5. Modelación numérica de la hidrodinámica, del oxígeno disuelto y la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno en sistemas con vegetación Numerical modeling of hydrodynamics, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand in systems with vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo González-López


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre la implementación de un modelo numérico para simular la hidrodinámica y el transporte de contaminantes en sistemas donde existe vegetación, tanto sumergida como emergente. Dicho modelo se basa en las ecuaciones de aguas someras para el cálculo de las velocidades del flujo, haciendo énfasis en la evaluación del esfuerzo cortante de arrastre de las plantas y en la turbulencia; así como en la ecuación de advección-difusión-reacción para la simulación del transporte de sustancias disueltas. En este trabajo se presenta el cálculo del transporte de la Demanda Bioquímica de Oxígeno y del Oxígeno Disuelto. El objetivo principal es reproducir las funciones de filtrado de contaminación y reaereación que cumplen las plantas en cuerpos de agua, como los humedales. En los resultados obtenidos del campo de velocidades se aprecia el cambio de comportamiento por la restricción al flujo que impone la vegetación. Las concentraciones de DBO y OD varían debido al tiempo de residencia y a la reaereación producida por el intercambio atmosférico y la respiración de las plantas. Se concluye que el modelo representa de manera óptima el comportamiento del transporte de sustancias disueltas en flujos con presencia de vegetación y que se puede aplicar a la gran variedad de ecosistemas, siendo capaz de predecir la ruta y destino de la contaminación.This work deals with the implementation of a numerical model to simulate hydrodynamics and transport of pollutants in flows where submerged vegetation is present. The model is based on the Shallow-Water Equations to calculate the mean velocities, emphasizing calculations of the shear stress produced by both the vegetation and turbulence. The Advection-Diffusion-Reaction Equation is used to calculate the transport of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand and the Dissolved Oxygen. The main objective is to simulate the transport of these substances and the pollution filtering and

  6. Technical Note: Performance of Chemical Ionization Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS for the measurement of atmospherically significant oxygenated volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Wyche


    Full Text Available The performance of a new chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS utilising the environment chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber- Forschungzentrum Jülich, Germany is described. The work took place as part of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition and Change the European NeTwork for excellence supported oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC measurement intercomparison during January 2005. The experiment entailed the measurement of 14 different atmospherically significant OVOCs at various mixing ratios in the approximate range 10.0–0.6 ppbV. The CIR-TOF-MS operated throughout the exercise with the hydronium ion (H3O+ as the primary chemical ionization (CI reagent in order to facilitate proton transfer to the analyte OVOCs. The results presented show that the CIR time-of-flight mass spectrometer is capable of detecting a wide range of atmospheric OVOCs at mixing ratios of around 10 ppbV in "real-time" (i.e. detection on the one-minute time scale, with sub-ppbV measurement also achieved following an increase in averaging time to tens of minutes. It is shown that in general OVOC measurement is made with high accuracy and precision, with integration time, mixing ratio and compound dependent values as good as 4–13% and 3–15% respectively. It is demonstrated that CIR-TOF-MS has rapid multi-channel response at the required sensitivity, accuracy and precision for atmospheric OVOC measurement.

  7. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of volatile oil extracted from Brassica rapa cv. "yukina" used in Japanese traditional food. (United States)

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Takagi, Ayumi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo


    The chemical composition of the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts of Brassica rapa cv. "yukina" was analyzed using GC-MS, GC-PFPD, and GC-O. A total of 50 compounds were identified. The most prominent constituents were (E)-1,5-heptadiene (40.27%), 3-methyl-3-butenenitrile (25.97%) and 3-phenylpropanenitrile (12.41%). With regard to aroma compounds, 12 compounds were identified by GC-O analysis. The main aroma-active compounds were dimethyl tetrasulfide (sulphury-cabbage, FD = 64), 3-phenylpropanenitrile (nutty, FD = 64), 3-methylindole (pungent, FD = 64), and methional (potato, FD = 32). The antioxidant activity of the aroma-active compounds of the oil was determined using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. The ORAC values were found to be 785 ± 67 trolox equivalents (μmol TE/g) for B. rapa cv. "yukina" oil. The results obtained showed that the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts is a good dietary source of antioxidants.

  8. Hydrogen-oxygen flame acceleration and transition to detonation in channels with no-slip walls for a detailed chemical reaction model. (United States)

    Ivanov, M F; Kiverin, A D; Liberman, M A


    The features of flame acceleration in channels with wall friction and the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) are investigated theoretically and using high resolution numerical simulations of two-dimensional reactive Navier-Stokes equations, including the effects of viscosity, thermal conduction, molecular diffusion, and a detailed chemical reaction mechanism for hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixture. It is shown that in a wide channel, from the beginning, the flame velocity increases exponentially for a short time and then flame acceleration decreases, ending up with the abrupt increase of the combustion wave velocity and the actual transition to detonation. In a thin channel with a width smaller than the critical value, the exponential increase of the flame velocity is not bounded and ends up with the transition to detonation. The transition to detonation occurs due to the pressure pulse, which is formed at the tip of the accelerating flame. The amplitude of the pressure pulse grows exponentially due to a positive feedback coupling between the pressure pulse and the heat released in the reaction. Finally, large amplitude pressure pulse steepens into a strong shock coupled with the reaction zone forming the overdriven detonation. The evolution from a temperature gradient to a detonation via the Zeldovich gradient mechanism and its applicability to the deflagration-to-detonation transition is investigated for combustible materials whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics. The results of the high resolution simulations are fully consistent with experimental observations of the flame acceleration and DDT.

  9. A primordial origin for molecular oxygen in comets: A chemical kinetics study of the formation and survival of O$_2$ ice from clouds to disks

    CERN Document Server

    Taquet, Vianney; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F


    Molecular oxygen has been confirmed as the fourth most abundant molecule in cometary material O$_2$/H$_2$O $\\sim 4$ %) and is thought to have a primordial nature, i.e., coming from the interstellar cloud from which our solar system was formed. However, interstellar O$_2$ gas is notoriously difficult to detect and has only been observed in one potential precursor of a solar-like system. Here, the chemical and physical origin of O$_2$ in comets is investigated using sophisticated astrochemical models. Three origins are considered: i) in dark clouds, ii) during forming protostellar disks, and iii) during luminosity outbursts in disks. The dark cloud models show that reproduction of the observed abundance of O$_2$ and related species in comet 67P/C-G requires a low H/O ratio facilitated by a high total density ($\\geq 10^5$ cm$^{-3}$), and a moderate cosmic ray ionisation rate ($\\leq 10^{-16}$ s$^{-1}$) while a temperature of 20 K, slightly higher than the typical temperatures found in dark clouds, also enhances t...

  10. Application of high resolution Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-ToFMS to study SOA composition: focus on formation of oxygenated species via aqueous phase processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aljawhary


    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the capabilities of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA composition with a high resolution (HR time-of-flight mass analyzer (aerosol-CI-ToFMS. In particular, by studying aqueous oxidation of Water Soluble Organic Compounds (WSOC extracted from α-pinene ozonolysis SOA, we assess the capabilities of three common CIMS reagent ions: (a protonated water clusters (H2OnH+, (b acetate CH3C(OO− and (c iodide water clusters I(H2On− to monitor SOA composition. As well, we report the relative sensitivity of these reagent ions to a wide range of common organic aerosol constituents. We find that (H2OnH+ is more selective to the detection of less oxidized species, so that the range of O/C and OSC (carbon oxidation state in the SOA spectra is considerably lower than those measured using CH3C(OO− and I(H2On−. Specifically, (H2OnH+ ionizes organic compounds with OSC ≤ 1.3, whereas CH3C(OO− and I(H2On− both ionize highly oxygenated organics with OSC up to 4 with I(H2On− being more selective towards multi-functional organic compounds. In the bulk O/C and H/C space, i.e. in a Van Krevelen plot, there is a remarkable agreement in both absolute magnitude and oxidation trajectory between CI-ToFMS data and those from a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS. This indicates that the CI-ToFMS data captures much of the chemical change occurring in the particle and that gas phase species, which are not detected by the HR-AMS, do not dominate the overall ion signal. Finally, the data illustrate the capability of aerosol-CI-ToFMS to monitor specific chemical change, including the fragmentation and functionalization reactions that occur during organic oxidation, and the oxidative conversion of dimeric SOA species into monomers. Overall, aerosol-CI-ToFMS is a valuable, selective complement to some common SOA characterization methods, such as AMS and spectroscopic techniques. Both

  11. Chemical Characterization and Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species by PM2.5 during Summer in North China Plain of China (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Li, X.; Kuang, X.; Yan, C.; Guo, X.; Paulson, S. E.


    Ambient particulate matter (PM) could cause adverse health effects by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide (·O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (·OH). A number of studies have shown that transition metals, quinones, as well as other unknown organics in particles, may contribute to ROS formation. North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most populated and polluted areas in the world, where Beijing, the capital of China, is located. NCP have been suffering from severe air pollution, and health effects of fine PM have drawn great attentions of both the government and the public. To study the chemical characterization and ROS generation of PM, airborne PM2.5 was collected at two sites, with one urban site on the campus of Peking University in Beijing and one suburban site in Wangdu, Hebei Province, which is located in the south of Beijing and was significantly influenced by biomass burning during the study period. Previous studies have shown that Beijing can be more influenced by regional transport when the prevailing wind is from the south. PM2.5 samples were collected on 47 mm Teflon filter and Quartz filter using the four-channel low-volume sampler, and organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), soluble ions and trace metals have been analyzed. The formation of ·OH induced by PM2.5 was also measured to characterize the chemical generation of ROS from ambient particles in a cell-free solution. Preliminary analysis showed that during biomass burning periods, OC and EC concentrations in Wangdu were significantly higher than that in Beijing. The average concentration of WSOC in Beijing was comparable to that in Wangdu, while during biomass burning period, that in Wangdu was much higher than that in Beijing. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major contributing sources of PM2.5. More detailed information about chemical compositions, sources and ROS generation of

  12. The Influence of Micropore Oxygen Aeration on the Pond Water Quality Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jiang Chen


    Full Text Available In order to know the effects of micropore oxygen aeration on the water quality and economic output, take each 3 of micropore oxygen aeration (experimental pond and impeller oxygenation (control pond to make the comparison, indexs of two different aeration methods water were detected from May, 2012 to October, 2012. Such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite, phytoplankton, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn. Results showed that, (1 the indexes of the dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand(CODMn and nitrite of the experimental pond are all superior to that of the control pond, of which the concentration of the dissolved oxygen of the experimental pond is 8.37 mg/L which is higher than that of the control pond (5.7 mg/L. And, (CODMn in the experimental pond is 7.54 mg/L, lower than that in the control pond (10.19 mg/L. The difference between the control pond and the experimental pond was statistically significant (p<0.01. The ammonia nitrogen of the experimental pond is 0.1 mg/L, obviously lower than the control pond (0.16 mg/L. Besides, the nitrite is 0.13 mg/L in the experimental pond, lower than that of the control pond (0.21 mg/L. (2 Compared with the control pond, the experimental pond has quite higher general abundance of algae, with about 5.69×108 ind/L. Yet, there is no obvious difference between them. (3 Compared to the impeller oxygenation, the micropore oxygen aeration technology can be better to increase the dissolved oxygen in the aquaculture pond and improve the water quality. However, there is no significant influence to the phytoplankton abundance and diversity.

  13. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane. (United States)

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M


    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  14. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  15. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth


    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  18. A primordial origin for molecular oxygen in comets: A chemical kinetics study of the formation and survival of O2 ice from clouds to disks (United States)

    Taquet, V.; Furuya, K.; Walsh, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    Molecular oxygen has been confirmed as the fourth most abundant molecule in cometary material (O2/H2O ˜4 %) and is thought to have a primordial nature, i.e., coming from the interstellar cloud from which our solar system was formed. However, interstellar O2 gas is notoriously difficult to detect and has only been observed in one potential precursor of a solar-like system. Here, the chemical and physical origin of O2 in comets is investigated using sophisticated astrochemical models. Three origins are considered: i) in dark clouds, ii) during forming protostellar disks, and iii) during luminosity outbursts in disks. The dark cloud models show that reproduction of the observed abundance of O2 and related species in comet 67P/C-G requires a low H/O ratio facilitated by a high total density (≥105 cm-3), and a moderate cosmic ray ionisation rate (≤10-16 s-1) while a temperature of 20 K, slightly higher than the typical temperatures found in dark clouds, also enhances the production of O2. Disk models show that O2 can only be formed in the gas phase in intermediate disk layers, and cannot explain the strong correlation between O2 and H2O in comet 67P/C-G together with the weak correlation between other volatiles and H2O. However, primordial O2 ice can survive transport into the comet-forming regions of disks. Taken together, these models favour a dark cloud (or "primordial") origin for O2 in comets, albeit for dark clouds which are warmer and denser than those usually considered as solar system progenitors.

  19. A primordial origin for molecular oxygen in comets: a chemical kinetics study of the formation and survival of O2ice from clouds to discs (United States)

    Taquet, V.; Furuya, K.; Walsh, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.


    Molecular oxygen has been confirmed as the fourth most abundant molecule in cometary material O$_2$/H$_2$O $\\sim 4$ %) and is thought to have a primordial nature, i.e., coming from the interstellar cloud from which our solar system was formed. However, interstellar O$_2$ gas is notoriously difficult to detect and has only been observed in one potential precursor of a solar-like system. Here, the chemical and physical origin of O$_2$ in comets is investigated using sophisticated astrochemical models. Three origins are considered: i) in dark clouds, ii) during forming protostellar disks, and iii) during luminosity outbursts in disks. The dark cloud models show that reproduction of the observed abundance of O$_2$ and related species in comet 67P/C-G requires a low H/O ratio facilitated by a high total density ($\\geq 10^5$ cm$^{-3}$), and a moderate cosmic ray ionisation rate ($\\leq 10^{-16}$ s$^{-1}$) while a temperature of 20 K, slightly higher than the typical temperatures found in dark clouds, also enhances the production of O$_2$. Disk models show that O$_2$ can only be formed in the gas phase in intermediate disk layers, and cannot explain the strong correlation between O$_2$ and H$_2$O in comet 67P/C-G together with the weak correlation between other volatiles and H$_2$O. However, primordial O$_2$ ice can survive transport into the comet-forming regions of disks. Taken together, these models favour a dark cloud (or "primordial") origin for O$_2$ in comets, albeit for dark clouds which are warmer and denser than those usually considered as solar system progenitors.

  20. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari;


    This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  1. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia


    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  2. Using oxygen at home (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  3. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.


    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  4. Intelligent energy demand forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Wei-Chiang


    This book offers approaches and methods to calculate optimal electric energy allocation, using evolutionary algorithms and intelligent analytical tools to improve the accuracy of demand forecasting. Focuses on improving the drawbacks of existing algorithms.

  5. Domestic Demand Will Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China can invigorate its economy by expanding domestic demand and boosting consumption chinese bankers are preparing to set up finance companies that provide consumer loans in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

  6. Impact of Energy Demands (United States)

    Cambel, Ali B.


    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  7. Oxygen levels versus chemical pollutants: do they have similar influence on macrofaunal assemblages? A case study in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra-Garcia, J.M. [Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Fisiologia y Zoologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)]. E-mail:; Garcia-Gomez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Biologia Marina, Departamento de Fisiologia y Zoologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)


    Generally, harbours are polluted zones characterised by low values of hydrodynamism and oxygen in the water column and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, has an unusual structure; it is located between two bays connected by a channel, which increases the water movement and exchange in the harbour, maintaining moderate oxygen levels in the water-sediment interface. Nevertheless, high concentration of organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals were measured in sediments from this harbour. Under these unusual conditions (high levels of pollution but total saturation of oxygen in the water column) we studied the responses of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities using uni and multivariate analyses. The number of species was similar inside and outside the harbour but the species composition differed between internal and external stations; oxygen levels seem to control the 'quantity' of species whereas pollutants control the 'quality' of them. - A high diversity of benthic animals was found in a polluted harbour where high oxygen levels occurred.

  8. [Apneic oxygenation]. (United States)

    Alekseev, A V; Vyzhigina, M A; Parshin, V D; Fedorov, D S


    Recent technological advances in thoracic and tracheal surgery make the anaesthesiologist use different respiratory techniques during the operation. Apneic oxygenation is a one of alternative techniques. This method is relatively easy in use, does not require special expensive equipment and is the only possible technique in several clinical situations when other respiratory methods are undesirable or cannot be used. However there is no enough information about apneic oxygenation in Russian. This article reviews publications about apneic oxygenation. The review deals with experiments on diffusion respiration in animals, physiological changes during apneic oxygenation in man and defines clinical cases when apneic oxygenation can be used.

  9. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances) (United States)


    son acheminement vers le convertisseur embarque, ainsi que la plus grande fiabilite de 1’OBOGS compare aux systemes ä oxygene liquide traditionnels...Standardisation Coordination Committee. Minimum Physiological Requirements for Aircrew Demand Breathing Systems. Air Standard 61/101/6A, Washington DC ...Washington DC 1981. 5. Ernsting J, and Stewart WK, Introduction to Oxygen Deprivation at Reduced Barometric Pressure in: Gilles JA, Ed., A Textbook of

  10. Influence of oxygen pressure on critical current density and magnetic flux pinning structures in YBa2Cu3O7-x fabricated by chemical solution deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Fa-Zhu; Gu Hong-Wei; Zhang Teng; Dai Shao-Tao; Xiao Li-Ye


    This paper studies the effect of oxygen partial pressure on the fabrication of YBa2Cu3O7-x films on (00/) LaAlO3 substrates by metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). As the oxygen partial pressure increases to 1500 Pa, a great increase in the superconducting properties is observed at high magnetic fields parallel to the YBCO c axis. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscope images show that a high density of stacking faults in the size range of 10-15 nm may act as flux pinning centres to enhance the critical current density of the YBCO films

  11. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete


    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  12. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina


    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  13. Travel Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology


    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  14. Investigation of the Performance of Low-Cost Calcium-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal%廉价钙基载氧体煤化学链燃烧试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文平; 肖睿; 杨一超; 张帅


    化学链燃烧技术逐渐发展成为一项非常有前景的实现CO2高效低能耗分离捕集技术.在小型固定床上研究了廉价钙基载氧体的还原/氧化反应特性以及持续循环能力,讨论了温度、压力、煤/载氧体质量比对钙基载氧体反应特性的影响.试验结果表明,温度和压力的升高能显著增强煤气化产物与CaSO4之间的反应,导致CO2收率和碳转化率相应增加.在煤/载氧体高质量比情况下,由于实际反应过程中存在平行反应、载氧体颗粒内部传质阻力等因素,造成载氧体的失活和载氧能力下降.故为得到高的CO2收率和碳转化率,煤/载氧体质量比应控制在0.14以下.%Chemical-looping combustion(CLC) will be a very promising technology due to its high efficiency and low-cost for CO2 separation.In this paper,the reduction/oxidation characteristic as well as the cyclic performance of low-cost calcium-based oxygen carrier was investigated in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor.The effect of temperature,operating pressure and coal/oxygen carrier mass ratio on the performance of calcium-based oxygen carrier were discussed.The results showed that increasing temperature and pressure can obviously enhance the reaction of calcium-based oxygen carrier with coal gasification products,which can lead to higher CO2 yield and carbon conversion.Such factors as the parallel reactions and the resistance of internal mass transfer in the oxygen carrier particles in practical reaction lead to inactivation of the oxygen carrier and the decrease of the oxygen carring ability.The coal/oxygen carrier mass ratio should be limited to 0.14 to get higher CO2 yield and carbon conversion.

  15. Aircraft Oxygen Generation (United States)


    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  16. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  17. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O


    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  19. Electronic structure of an oxygen vacancy in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the results of Ab Initio quantum-chemical calculations and photoluminescence experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovarov, V. A. [Ural State Technical University (Russian Federation); Aliev, V. Sh.; Perevalov, T. V., E-mail:; Gritsenko, V. A., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Eliseev, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    The electronic structure of an oxygen vacancy in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is calculated. The calculation predicts an absorption peak at an energy of 6.4 and 6.3 eV in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are measured using synchrotron radiation. The presence of a luminescence band at 2.9 eV and a peak at 6.2 eV in the luminescence excitation spectrum indicates the presence of oxygen vacancies in amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. 利用微波消解-无银催化法检测水中化学需氧量%Detection of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) in water with silver-free catalyst by microwave digestion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛文平; 刘文伟; 黄德智; 元世勇


    研究了采用微波消解-无银催化测定CODCr的新方法,并探讨了该方法测定CODCr时样品消解条件对检测结果的影响;实验还采用硫酸锰、硫酸镍、硫酸铜、硫酸镁、硫酸铁分别作催化剂,微波加热快速消解后测定CODCr,同时与国家标准方法测定结果进行比较,确定了最佳催化剂、最佳投加量和消解时间.对比结果表明:当试样体积为5 mL时,O.250 mol/L K2 Cr2O7的用量为5 mL,硫酸锰催化剂用量为3 mg,微波消解时间仅为3 min,检测结果最佳.该方法具有快速准确、节约试剂、降低耗电成本等优点.%This paper studied a new method for determining CODcr with silver-free catalyst by microwave digestion method and discussed the influences of digestion conditions on the detection results.This experiment used manganese sulfate, nickel sulfate, cupric sulfate, magnesium sulfate and ferric sulfate as catalyst respectively, and determined CODcr after microwave fast digestion.By comparing the obtained CODcr value with that determined by the national standard method, the optimal catalyst, dosage and digestion time was determined.Comparative results showed that: when the volume of the sample was 5 mL, the volume of 0.250 mol/L K2Cr2O7 was 5 mL, the amount of manganese sulfate catalyst was 3 mg and the microwave digestion time was 3 min, the results were the best.The method was quick, accurate, low consumption of reagent and power.

  1. 液相臭氧氧化法测定海水化学耗氧量%Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Seawater Based on the Technique of Aqueous-Phase Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳保辉; 庄峙厦; 王小如; Frank S.C.Lee



  2. Demonstrate a Low Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aircraft Deicing Fluid (United States)


    standard deviation of 0.007. For comparison, density of previously tested epoxy and bismaleimide ( BMI ) composites was 1.52 g/cm3 and 1.54 g/cm3...standard deviation of 4.22. Average fiber content for previously tested epoxy and BMI composite materials was 70.1% and 65.0%, respectively. EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act ESTCP Environmental Security Technology

  3. Demonstrate a Low Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aircraft Deicing Fluid (United States)


    and hazardous proprietary additive materials such as corrosion inhibitors . Specifically, the test objectives were as follows: 1. Illustrate...concentrations of deicing fluids are known to cause acute aquatic toxicological effects, due mainly to additives (e.g., to improve corrosion inhibition... coats the aircraft surface in a smooth and consistent manner with no foam. Fluid has good wetting characteristics and exhibits no pitting

  4. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films (United States)

    Hu, S.; Seidel, J.


    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  5. Demand surge following earthquakes (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.


    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  6. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO


    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  7. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  8. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  9. Laboratory column studies for evaluating a barrier system for providing oxygen and substrate for TCE biodegradation. (United States)

    Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Su, M C


    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to develop a biobarrier system containing oxygen-organic releasing material to enhance the aerobic cometabolism of TCE in situ. The oxygen-organic material, which contains calcium peroxide and peat, is able to release oxygen and primary substrates continuously upon contact with water. Batch experiments were conducted to design and identify the components of the oxygen-organic releasing material, and evaluate the oxygen and organic substrate (presented as COD equivalent) release from the designed oxygen-organic material. The observed oxygen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) release rates were approximately 0.0246 and 0.052 mg/d/g of material, respectively. A laboratory-scale column experiment was then conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed system for the bioremediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater. This system was performed using a series of continuous-flow glass columns including a soil column, an oxygen-organic material column, followed by two consecutive soil columns. Aerobic acclimated sludges were inoculated in all three soil columns to provide microbial consortia for TCE biodegradation. Simulated TCE-contaminated groundwater with a flow rate of 0.25 l/day was pumped into this system. Effluent samples from each column were analyzed for TCE and other indicating parameters (e.g., pH, dissolved oxygen). Results show that the decreases in TCE concentrations were observed over a 4-month operating period. Up to 99% of TCE removal efficiency was obtained in this passive system. Results indicate that the continuously released oxygen and organic substrates from the oxygen-organic materials enhanced TCE biotransformation. Thus, the biobarrier treatment scheme has the potential to be developed into an environmentally and economically acceptable remediation technology.

  10. Appreciating Oxygen (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.


    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  11. Synthesis Gas Production by Chemical-Looping Reforming of Methane Using Lattice Oxygen%基于晶格氧的甲烷化学链重整制合成气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 何方; 赵坤; 郑安庆; 李海滨; 赵增立


    Chemical looping reforming (CLR) of methane to obtain synthesis gas using lattice oxygen of oxygen carriers instead of molecular oxygen is a novel technology for producing synthesis gas from methane, which has higher economic benefits and environmental benign. CLR has several advantages, such as, saving oxygen generation equipment, capable of self-heating, suitable hydrogen/carbon ratio, useful by-products and realizing industrialization easily, so, it has been growing interest for researchers at home and aboard. Firstly, the basic concept and characteristics of CLR are introduced, which is partial oxidation of methane through controlling the value of lattice oxygen/fuel, thus, the synthesis gas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and oxygen carriers, and the reduced oxygen carriers are re-oxidized by air or H20 to restore its lattice oxygen. Direct contact between fuel and combustion air is avoided in the CLR. Instead, an oxygen carrier performs the task of bringing 02 from the air to the fuel. In particular, it is summarized for the research progress of monometallic and composite metal oxygen carriers. And the same time, several kinds of typical representative reactor in CLR are discussed, among which interconnected fluidized bed reactor will be most effective for CLR to realize industrialization in the future. Finally, the expand application of CLR and the trends coupled with other technology are prospected.%利用氧载体中的晶格氧代替分子氧进行的甲烷化学链重整制合成气,是一种新颖的甲烷制合成气技术,具有较高经济效益和环境效应。它具有省却纯氧设备、能自热、合适的氢碳比、有用的副产物以及过程易于工业化等优点,因此受到国内外研究者的普遍关注。本文介绍了化学链重整技术的基本原理及其特点;重点总结了用于甲烷化学链重整的单金属氧载体和复合金属氧载体的研究进展;同时,探讨了几种具有

  12. Meeting increased demand. (United States)

    Blair, Andrew


    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  13. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry


    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  14. Density functional theory investigation of hydrogen bonding effects on the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen electric field gradient and chemical shielding tensors of anhydrous chitosan crystalline structure. (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D; Elmi, Fatemeh; Hadipour, Nasser L


    A systematic computational investigation was carried out to characterize the 17O, 14N and 2H electric field gradient, EFG, as well as 17O, 15N, 13C and 1H chemical shielding tensors in the anhydrous chitosan crystalline structure. To include the hydrogen-bonding effects in the calculations, the most probable interacting molecules with the target molecule in the crystalline phase were considered through a hexameric cluster. The computations were performed with the B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) standard basis sets using the Gaussian 98 suite of programs. Calculated EFG and chemical shielding tensors were used to evaluate the 17O, 14N and 2H nuclear quadrupole resonance, NQR, and 17O, 15N, 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, parameters in the hexameric cluster, which are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The difference between the calculated NQR and NMR parameters of the monomer and hexamer cluster shows how much hydrogen bonding interactions affect the EFG and chemical shielding tensors of each nucleus. These results indicate that both O(3)-H(33)...O(5-3) and N-H(22)...O(6-4) hydrogen bonding have a major influence on NQR and NMR parameters. Also, the quantum chemical calculations indicate that the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions play an essential role in determining the relative orientation of EFG and chemical shielding principal components in the molecular frame axes.

  15. Synthesis gas production using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier over circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoping; YU Changchun; LI Ranjia; WU Qiong; HAO Zhengping


    A novel process for synthesis gas production over Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier was reported. First, oxygen in the air was chemically fixed and converted to lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over regenerator, and then methane was selectively oxidized to synthesis gas with lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over riser reactor. The results from simulation reaction of CFB by sequential redox reaction on a fixed bed reactor using lanthanum-based perovskite LaFeO3 and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 oxides prepared by sol-gel, suggested that the depleted oxygen species could be regenerated, and methane could be oxidized to synthesis gas by lattice oxygen with high selectivity. The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over CFB using lattice oxygen of the oxygen storage materials instead of gaseous oxygen should be possibly applicable.

  16. Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... oxygen at very high altitudes (like in the mountains or in an airplane) even if you do ... Med Vol 171. P1-P2, 2005 ATS Patient Education Series © 2016 American Thoracic Society www. thoracic. org ...

  17. Relationship between cellular uptake rate and chemical behavior of diammine/diaminocyclohexane platinum (II) complexes with oxygen-ligating anionic groups. (United States)

    Zou, J; Yang, X D; An, F; Wang, K


    The uptake kinetics of the platinum (II) complexes of the formula Pt(NH3)2X, Pt(dach)X by human erythrocyte in the plasma isotonic buffer was studied. The results showed that across-membrane transport of all the platinum complexes studied follows a first-order kinetic process. The uptake rate constants decrease with the change of oxygen-ligating anionic group in the sequence: sulfato > selenato > anion of squaric acid > oxalato > anion of demethylcantharic acid > malonato and increase with increasing lipophilicity of carrier group. The relationship between uptake rate and reactivity of these complexes was established. The stereochemistry of dach isomers was shown without effect on the reactivity and the sequence.

  18. Electrical conductivity and oxygen exchange kinetics of La2NiO4+delta thin films grown by chemical vapor deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, G.; Burriel, M.; Bonanos, Nikolaos


    Epitaxial c-axis oriented La2NiO4+delta films were deposited onto SrTiO3 and NdGaO3 substrates by the pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Experimental conditions were optimized in order to accurately control the composition, thickness, and texture of the layers. X...... by the electrical conductivity relaxation technique, from which the surface exchange coefficient was determined. (C) 2008 The Electrochemical Society....

  19. Blood Oxygen Conservation in Diving Sea Lions: How Low Does Oxygen Really Go? (United States)


    Does Oxygen Really Go? Paul J. Ponganis Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine Scripps Institution of Oceanography 8655 Discovery Way...demands of exercise for energy conservation at depth. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 2739-2748.

  20. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic


    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør


    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  1. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig


    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  2. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T


    AIM: The purpose of this study, by exploring client perspectives, was to achieve a better understanding of how people with schizophrenia experience an occupational therapy intervention designed to enable them to carry out meaningful occupations in the early phases of recovery. METHOD: A qualitative......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION......: The study provided unique insight into how participants experienced a client-centred partnership with an occupational therapist in the early phases of recovery. The intervention was feasible and supported the participants' recovery process....

  3. Physical demands in worklife. (United States)

    Astrand, I


    Industrial occupations which are physically strenuous in the traditional sense of the word have decreased in number. They have partly been replaced by "light," repetitive, monotonous work tasks performed in a sitting position. The number of heavy work tasks within the service sector has increased. Specialization has been intensified. The individual's capacity for strenuous work is still of importance to successful work performance. Many studies show that an optional choice of work pace in physically demanding occupational work results in an adaptation of pace or intensity until the worker is utilizing 40-50% of her or his capacity. When the work rate is constrained, the relative strain of the individual varies inversely with the physical work capacity. The frequency of musculoskeletal disorders has concurrently increased with the implementation of industrial mechanization. New, wise, ergonomic moves are needed to stop this development.

  4. Imaging oxygen metabolism with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Marie; Laustsen, Christoffer


    Every tissue in the body critically depends on meeting its energetic demands with sufficient oxygen supply. Oxygen supply/demand imbalances underlie the diseases that inflict the greatest socioeconomic burden globally. The purpose of this review is to examine how hyperpolarized contrast media, used...... in combination with MR data acquisition methods, may advance our ability to assess oxygen metabolism non-invasively and thus improve management of clinical disease. We first introduce the concept of hyperpolarization and how hyperpolarized contrast media have been practically implemented to achieve translational...... and clinical research. We will then analyze how incorporating hyperpolarized contrast media could enable realization of unmet technical needs in clinical practice. We will focus on imaging cardiac and renal oxygen metabolism, as both organs have unique physiological demands to satisfy their requirements...

  5. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand


    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.


    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  6. In situ reactive oxygen species production for tertiary wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Guitaya, Léa; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François


    The goal of this research was to develop a new approach for tertiary water treatment, particularly disinfection and removal of refractory organic compounds, without adding any chemical. Hydrogen peroxide can indeed be produced from dissolved oxygen owing to electrochemical processes. Using various current intensities (1.0 to 4.0 A), it was possible to in situ produce relatively high concentration of H2O2 with a specific production rate of 0.05 × 10(-5) M/min/A. Likewise, by using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy method, it was shown that other reactive oxygen species (ROS) including HO(*) radical and O3 could be simultaneously formed during electrolysis. The ROS concentration passed from 0.45 × 10(-5) M after 20 min of electrolysis to a concentration of 2.87 × 10(-5) M after 100 min of electrolysis. The disinfection and the organic matter removal were relatively high during the tertiary treatment of municipal and domestic wastewaters. More than 90 % of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand) can be removed, whereas 99 % of faecal coliform abatement can be reached. Likewise, the process was also effective in removing turbidity (more than 90 % of turbidity was removed) so that the effluent became more and more transparent.

  7. Chemical and structural changes in Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} (Ln=La, Pr or Nd) lanthanide nickelates as a function of oxygen partial pressure at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flura, Aurélien; Dru, Sophie; Nicollet, Clément; Vibhu, Vaibhav; Fourcade, Sébastien; Lebraud, Eric; Rougier, Aline; Bassat, Jean-Marc; Grenier, Jean-Claude, E-mail:


    The chemical stability of lanthanide nickelates Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} (Ln=La, Pr or Nd) has been studied in the temperature range 25–1300 °C, either in air or at low pO{sub 2} (down to 10{sup −4} atm). Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) measurements coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization have shown that all compounds retain their K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure in these conditions, while remaining over-stoichiometric in oxygen up to 1000 °C. Only Nd{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} starts to decompose into Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO above 1000 °C, at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. In addition, a careful analysis of the lanthanide nickelates structural features has been performed by in situ XRD, as a function of temperature and pO{sub 2}. For all compounds, a structural transition has been always observed in the temperature range 200–400 °C, in air or at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. In addition, their cell volume did not vary upon the variation of the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, these materials do not exhibit a chemical expansion in these conditions, which is beneficial for a fuel cell application as cathode layers. Additional dilatometry measurements have revealed that a temperature as high as 950 °C for Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} or 1100 °C for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} and Nd{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} has to be reached in order to begin the sintering of the material particles, which is of primary importance to obtain an efficient electronic/ionic conduction in the corresponding designed cathode layers. Besides, excellent matching was found between the thermal expansion coefficients of lanthanide nickelates and SOFC electrolytes such as 8wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) or Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} (GDC), at least from 400 °C up to 1400 °C in air or up to 1200 °C at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. - Graphical abstract: This study reports the good chemical stability of oxygen overstoichiometric Ln2NiO4+δ(Ln = La, Pr or Nd) at high temperatures

  8. Participatory Demand-supply Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.


    Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. CHONG


    Full Text Available The oxygen-enriched air is highly demanded for various industrial applications such as medical, chemical and enhanced combustion processes. The conventional oxygen/nitrogen production is either cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption (PSA. Both of these techniques possess the production capability of 20 to 300 tonnes of oxygen per day and oxygen purity of more than 95%. However, these techniques are energy intensive. Alternatively, membrane technology is an emerging technology in gas separation as it requires low energy consumption and relatively moderate production volume, if compared to the conventional gas production techniques. These advantages have spurred much interest from industries and academics to speed up the commercial viability of the O2/N2 separation via membrane technology. In this review, the conventional and membrane technologies in O2/N2 separation, as well as recent development of membrane fabrication techniques and materials are reviewed. The latest membrane performance in O2/N2 separation is also tabulated and discussed.

  10. 酸性高锰酸钾法测定化学需氧量的方法及技巧%The method and skill of measuring chemical oxygen consumption with acid kali permanganate method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It pointed out that Acid Kali Permanganate method was common method to measure chemical oxygen consumption (COD) in water. Several methods of measuring COD were compared and analyzed experirnentally, combined with working experience, and some operating sug-gestions were proposed, so as to make measured result error reduce to minimum.%指出酸性高锰酸钾法测定化学需氧量是饮用水中COD测定的常用方法,就该测定的几种方法进行了对比试验和分析,结合工作经验,提出了一些操作建议,从而使得测定结果的相对误差减小.

  11. 基于水泥修饰的赤铁矿载氧体污泥化学链燃烧特性研究%Chemical looping combustion of sewage sludge with oxygen carrier of cement-modified hematite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛欣; 沈来宏; 肖军; 蒋守席; 顾海明


    采用水泥修饰赤铁矿来提高载氧体的反应活性。实验在1 kWth串行流化床上进行,研究了添加水泥对污泥化学链燃烧特性的影响,考察其长期运行的物化性能。结果表明,在实验工况下,赤铁矿添加水泥后,出口的未燃气体浓度明显下降。燃料反应器温度低于870℃时,水泥的添加使污泥的碳转化率和燃烧效率显著升高。在10 h长期运行后,一部分污泥灰沉积在载氧体表面。虽然在反应过程中部分的Fe2 O3被深度还原,但在长期运行中未出现流化问题和烧结现象。%Chemical looping combustion ( CLC) for sewage sludge has a relatively low efficiency using hematite as oxygen carrier. The experiments on improving the reactivity of hematite with cement modified for CLC of sewage sludge in a 1 kWth continuous CLC unit were carried out. Compared to hematite oxygen carrier, the concentrations of unconverted combustible gas rapidly decrease when the cement-hematite is used. Moreover, both carbon conversion and combustion efficiency increase when the cement is added. Although some ash particles deposit on the surface of oxygen carrier and a part of Fe2 O3 is reduced to FeO, there are no defluidization and sintering problems.

  12. Pressure-induced electrical and structural anomalies in Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3} thin films grown at various oxygen pressures by chemical solution route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F M; Galhiane, M S; Santos, L S; Rissato, S R [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), PO Box 473, 17033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Pontes, D S L; Longo, E [Chemistry Institute, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), PO Box 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leite, E R [LIEC-CMDMC, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar, Via Washington Luiz, km 235, CP-676, CEP-13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Chiquito, A J; Pizani, P S [Department of Physics, UFSCar-Via Washington Luiz, km 235, CEP-13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Jardim, R F [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escote, M T [Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Catequese, 242, CEP 09090-400, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Lead calcium titanate (Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3} or PCT) thin films have been thermally treated under different oxygen pressures, 10, 40 and 80 bar, by using the so-called chemical solution deposition method. The structural, morphological, dielectric and ferroelectric properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction, FT-infrared and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and polarization-electric-field hysteresis loop measurements. By annealing at a controlled pressure of around 10 and 40 bar, well-crystallized PCT thin films were successfully prepared. For the sample submitted to 80 bar, the x-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed-infrared and Raman data indicated deviation from the tetragonal symmetry. The most interesting feature in the Raman spectra is the occurrence of intense vibrational modes at frequencies of around 747 and 820 cm{sup -1}, whose presence depends strongly on the amount of the pyrochlore phase. In addition, the Raman spectrum indicates the presence of symmetry-breaking disorder, which would be expected for an amorphous (disorder) and mixed pyrochlore-perovskite phase. During the high-pressure annealing process, the crystallinity and the grain size of the annealed film decreased. This process effectively suppressed both the dielectric and ferroelectric behaviour. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurements performed on these PCT films exhibited a clear decrease in the remanent polarization with increasing oxygen pressure.

  13. Pulmonary hematological parameters, energetic flight demands and their correlation with oxygen diffusion capacity in the lungs Parámetros hematológicos pulmonares, demandas energéticas del vuelo y su correlación la capacidad de difusión de oxígeno en los pulmones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Hematological parameters of birds and mammals seem to respond to environmental requirements, such as hypoxia at high altitude and the energetic demands of locomotion and flight. In this work we hypothesize that lung capillary hematocrit and red blood size may be influenced by the energetic requirements of flight. Also, we propose that hematological parameters should vary together with the morphological parameters that determine oxygen diffusion capacity. We analyzed the red blood cell size and the local characteristics of the pulmonary capillary hematocrit correlating these with the pulmonary factors that determines the oxygen diffusion capacity. We deal with seven species, non-flying and flying birds and mammals, with different energetic requirements. The capillary hematocrit was not different in each taxon, but the red blood cell size was smaller in flying mammals and birds than non-flying ones. Correlation of erythrocyte size with the diffusing characteristics of the lungs produced a non-phylogenetic clustering with a group constituting by the bats Tadarida brasiliensis y Myotis chiloensis, and the bird Z. auriculata; revealing similar functional response in unrelated species. Finally, in mammals, a negative correlation between the red blood cell size and the mass-specific oxygen diffusion capacity was obtained. These results suggest that the direction of the hematological and pulmonary adjustments is governed mainly by the requirements of flight independent of phylogenetic origin of the species studiedLos parámetros hematológicos y pulmonares parecen responder a las exigencias ambientales como la hipoxia y la alta altitud y a los requerimientos energéticos de la locomoción. En este trabajo sometemos a prueba la hipótesis que el hematocrito del capilar pulmonar y el tamaño del glóbulo rojo pueden ser influidos por los requerimientos energéticos del vuelo. También proponemos que los parámetros hematológicos varían en conjunto con

  14. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.


    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  15. The chemical composition of TS 01, the most oxygen-deficient planetary nebula. AGB nucleosynthesis in a metal-poor binary star

    CERN Document Server

    Stasinska, G; Tovmassian, G; Rauch, T; Richer, M G; Pena, M; Szczerba, R; Decressin, T; Charbonnel, C; Yungelson, L; Napiwotzki, R; Simon-Diaz, S; Jamet, L


    The planetary nebula TS 01 (also called PN G 135.9+55.9 or SBS 1150+599A), with its record-holding low oxygen abundance and its double degenerate close binary core (period 3.9 h), is an exceptional object located in the Galactic halo. We have secured observational data in a complete wavelength range in order to pin down the abundances of half a dozen elements in the nebula. The abundances are obtained via detailed photoionization modelling taking into account all the observational constraints (including geometry and aperture effects) using the pseudo-3D photoionization code Cloudy_3D. The spectral energy distribution of the ionizing radiation is taken from appropriate model atmospheres. Both stellar components contribute to the ionization: the ``cool'' one provides the bulk of hydrogen ionization, and the ``hot'' one is responsible for the presence of the most highly charged ions, which explains why previous attempts to model the nebula experienced difficulties. The nebular abundances of C, N, O, and Ne are f...

  16. 水泥改性铁矿石载氧体的煤化学链燃烧实验研究%Experiments on Chemical-looping Combustion of Coal With Cement-Decorated Iron Ore as Oxygen Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      对天然铁矿石混合水泥进行改性,在流化床上进行了煤化学链燃烧试验研究,考察改性后载氧体的氧化−还原反应性能。结果表明,水泥能够有效地促进水气变换反应的进行,使得煤气化产物中 CO 份额减小、H2份额增大。改性后载氧体比表面积和孔容积显著增大,反应活性得到提高,燃料反应器出口气体中仅存在微量CO、H2,其浓度远低于纯铁矿石为载氧体的实验结果。在20次循环试验中,水泥改性铁矿石能大幅提高 CO2体积份额;对不同循环后载氧体的扫描电镜表征显示,水泥能够有效阻止载氧体颗粒表面的晶粒在高温下的液相接触,降低载氧体颗粒氧化再生过程中单位体积的热量释放强度,缓解烧结现象的发生,维持载氧体颗粒多孔的结构特性。%Experiments on chemical looping combustion of coal were conducted in a fluidized bed using cement-decorated iron ore as oxygen carrier. The reactivity of the oxygen carrier during redox experiments was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of cement effectively promotes the water-gas shift reaction, leading to the decrease of CO fraction and the increase of H2 fraction in coal gasification products. After decorated the oxygen carrier gets its specific surface area and pore volume increased significantly, and reactivity improved as a result. Further, the concentrations of CO and H2 in the flue gas of the fuel reactor are far lower than that of the experiments for pure iron ore. The volume fractions of CO2 for cement-decorated iron ore increase greatly during 20 cycles. Characterization of reduced oxygen carrier with scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicates that cement can prevent the surface grains of the oxygen carrier from gathering in the liquid phase under high temperature, and reduce the heat density released in a unit volume of the oxygen carrier particle in the oxidization process

  17. Do large predatory fish track ocean oxygenation? (United States)

    Dahl, Tais W; Hammarlund, Emma U


    The Devonian appearance of 1-10 meter long armored fish (placoderms) coincides with geochemical evidence recording a transition into fully oxygenated oceans.1 A comparison of extant fish shows that the large individuals are less tolerant to hypoxia than their smaller cousins. This leads us to hypothesize that Early Paleozoic O(2) saturation levels were too low to support >1 meter size marine, predatory fish. According to a simple model, both oxygen uptake and oxygen demand scale positively with size, but the demand exceeds supply for the largest fish with an active, predatory life style. Therefore, the largest individuals may lead us to a lower limit on oceanic O(2) concentrations. Our presented model suggests 2-10 meter long predators require >30-50% PAL while smaller fish would survive at oxygen pressure acted as an evolutionary barrier for fish to grow much above ∼1 meter before the Devonian oxygenation.

  18. Information Demand Pattern for Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Stamer


    Full Text Available Modern organizations face the challenge of having to manage an increasing amount of information. The resulting information overload leads more and more to problems in decision making with potentially negative economic consequences. Decision-makers and knowledge intensive workers are especially affected. To address this problem, information demand patterns were proposed which capture organizational knowledge about the information demand of single roles. This work extends the concept of information demand patterns from single roles to teams. Using the knowledge intensive field of project management, the paper shows how to apply the concept of information demand patterns for a whole team. The contributions of this work are (1 the methodical approach to develop information demand patterns for teams, (2 an actual information demand pattern for a steering committee in the context of project management, (3 reflections on the differences between role patterns and team patterns.

  19. Physiological demands of a simulated BMX competition. (United States)

    Louis, J; Billaut, F; Bernad, T; Vettoretti, F; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J


    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands of Supercross BMX in elite athletes. Firstly athletes underwent an incremental cycling test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and power at ventilatory thresholds. In a second phase, athletes performed alone a simulated competition, consisting of 6 cycling races separated by 30 min of passive recovery on an actual BMX track. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate, anion gap and base excess (BE) were measured. Results indicated that a simulated BMX performed by elite athletes induces a high solicitation of both aerobic (mean peak VO2 (VO2peak): 94.3±1.2% VO2max) and anaerobic glycolysis (mean blood lactate: 14.5±4. 5 mmol x L(-1) during every race. Furthermore, the repetition of the 6 cycling races separated by 30 min of recovery led to a significant impairment of the acid-base balance from the third to the sixth race (mean decrease in BE: -18.8±7.5%, pBMX performance. These results suggest that both oxygen-dependent and -independent fuel substrate pathways are important determinants of BMX performance.

  20. Supplement and Consumption of Dissolved Oxygen and Their Seasonal Variations in Shrimp Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙耀; 张淑芳; 陈聚法; 宋云利


    On the basis of the research of DO budget or kinetics in shrimp pond, the main influence process of DO and its seasonal variations are quantitatively described through redividing the budget process and modifying the quantitative method of the process. The percentages of oxygen demand of various processes in the total oxygen demand are different in shrimp cultivation seasons. It is showed that the dissolved oxygen demand of mini-organisms is the major affected factor of DO in this environment and approximately accounts for 64.1~74.1% of the total oxygen demand. In the early period of shrimp culture, the dissolved oxygen demand of allotrophic bacteria degrading organic matters is much lower than that of phytoplankton respiration. But in the midterrn and later period, it is about 50% of the total oxygen demand because of the higher water temperature and more serious self-pollution. The dissolved oxygen demand of sediment is lower and just 19.1~28.8%, while the percentage of shrimp oxygen demand is lower. The effect of phytoplankton on DO in shrimp culturing water has dualism. One is the oxygen producing process of photosynthesis and the other is the oxygen consumption process of respiration. It is estimated that the dissolved oxygen demand of phytoplankton respiration is approximately one-fifth of the oxygen produced by photosynthesis under normal illumination conditions. The dissolved oxygen demand of al lotrophic bacteria degrading organic matters and the total oxygen demand of sediment increase 4 times and 1.7 times respectively from the early period to the midterm and later period.Obviously, the DO of culturing water can be also greatly improved by controlling the selfpollution of organic matters during shrimp culture.

  1. An integrated communications demand model (United States)

    Doubleday, C. F.


    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  2. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)


    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  3. The Maillard reaction of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate: chemical changes and inhibiting effects of reactive oxygen species in human HepG2 cells. (United States)

    Zha, Fengchao; Wei, Binbin; Chen, Shengjun; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying


    Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered.

  4. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  5. Passive migration barriers using slow release oxygen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, R.D. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Odencrantz, J. [TRI-S Environmental Corp., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others


    This paper describes passive barriers for controlling downgradient plume migration in contaminated aquifers. Numerous field studies using migration barriers to control benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes are briefly summarized. The barriers consist of a patented oxygen release compound placed in a row of wells transecting a BTEX plume. Oxygen is slowly released to the saturated zone, thus enhancing natural biodegradation. Migration is controlled by matching the oxygen release rate to the flux and oxygen demand of the dissolved contaminants.

  6. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  7. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.


    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand i...




  9. Technical Workers in Great Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Labor and Social Security Ministry conducted a survey on 81 labor markets across China in the second quarter of this year, the results of which showed that the demand for technical workers, especially those of middle and senior titles, far outnumbers the supply.The survey shows that the demand/supply

  10. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)


    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerout

  11. 七氟醚-瑞芬太尼麻醉对缺血型烟雾病脑血管重建术患者脑氧供需平衡的影响%Effects of sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia on the balance between cerebral oxygen supply and demand during cerebral revascularization for ischemic moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁发; 崔伟华; 何颖; 焦希平; 王嵘; 张东; 韩如泉


    目的 评价七氟醚-瑞芬太尼麻醉对缺血型烟雾病脑血管重建术患者脑氧供需平衡的影响.方法 择期行颞浅动脉-大脑中动脉分支吻合术的缺血型烟雾病患者40例,性别不限,年龄19~ 59岁,BMI 19~ 25 kg/m2,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,Suzuki分期≥3.采用随机数字表法,将患者随机分为2组(n=20):异丙酚-瑞芬太尼组(PR组)和七氟醚-瑞芬太尼组(SR组).麻醉诱导:靶控输注异丙酚,血浆靶浓度5 μg/ml,静脉注射芬太尼3 μg/kg和罗库溴铵0.6 mg/kg.气管插管后行机械通气,麻醉维持:SR组吸入七氟醚(呼气末浓度1.0% ~ 1.7%),PR组TCI异丙酚,血浆靶浓度3~4 μg/ml,2组均TCI瑞芬太尼,血浆靶浓度3.5 ng/ml,维持BIS值40 ~ 60,间断静脉注射罗库溴铵0.3 mg/kg.分别于麻醉诱导前(T0)、血管阻断前10 min (T1)、血管阻断后10 min (T2)、血管吻合-开放后10 min (T3)时记录局部脑氧饱和度(rSO2).结果 与T0时比较,PR组T3时术侧rSO2升高,SR组T1-3时术侧和非术侧rSO2升高(P<0.05或0.01);与PR组比较,SR组T1时术侧rSO2升高(P<0.05),非术侧rSO2差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对于缺血型烟雾病脑血管重建术患者,七氟醚复合瑞芬太尼麻醉可维持良好的脑氧供需平衡状态,且与异丙酚复合瑞芬太尼麻醉的效果相似.%Objective To evaluate the effects of sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia on the balance between cerebral oxygen supply and demand during cerebral revascularization for ischemic moyamoya disease by monitoring regional cerebral O2 saturation (rSO2) with near infrared spectroscopy.Methods Forty patients of both sexes aged 19-59 yr with a body mass index of 19-25 kg/m2 undergoing superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n =20 each):propofol-remifentanil group (group PR) and sevoflurane-remifentanil group (group SR).Radial artery was cannulated for direct BP monitoring and blood sampling

  12. Reversible Oxygenation of Oxygen Transport Proteins. (United States)

    Drain, C. M.; Corden, Barry B.


    Describes a lecture demonstration which illustrates changes in the visible spectra of oxygen transport proteins upon reversible oxygen binding. Provides a comparison of the physical characteristics of oxygen storage and transport proteins. Reviews essentials for preparation of the materials. (ML)

  13. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?



    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  14. Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Masakazu; Arai, Hidehiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Aizawa, Masaki; Shimooka, Toshio; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Shimizu, Ken; Sugiyama, Masashi.


    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively below 30 mg/l. Irradiation of high energy electron beams can convert nondegradable organics in water into substances which are biodegradable. However, sufficient dissolved oxygen in water is needed to induce oxidation effectively. In the present study, the treatment of supernatant was studied using an apparatus which can be irradiated by high intensity electron beams in flow system under supersaturation with oxygen by pressurization up to 3 atms. The dependence of oxygen concentration on the reduction in absorbance at 230 nm of azo dye (Acid Red 265) aqueous solution was examined, and it was clarified that sufficient oxygen was supplied in the solution up to about 14 kGy under 3 atms of oxygen. Radiation treatment of supernatant which came from the leather works was carried out using the above apparatus. However, as this supernatant contained high concentration of nitrite, the nitrite was removed by limited aeration activated sludge method. By this pretreatment, COD was reduced from 200 mg/l to 53 mg/l. Then, the biodegradability of supernatant irradiated under supersaturation with oxygen was examined. The final COD of the supernatant was reduced below 30 mg/l by the combined method of irradiation of 7 kGy and biological treatment. (author).

  15. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... before your first hyperbaric oxygen therapy session. During hyperbaric oxygen therapy Hyperbaric oxygen therapy typically is performed ... and the therapy unit throughout your treatment. After hyperbaric oxygen therapy You may feel somewhat tired or ...

  16. Fault analysis of chemical oxygen iodine laser based on fault tree%基于故障树的氧碘化学激光器故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政; 曹益平; 沈志康; 关小伟


    The paper establishes a fault tree model for chemical oxygen iodine laser(COIL) considering power abnormity as its peak affair of fault, and then makes down-way qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis with the minimum cut-set theory. It is indicated that the reliability of iodine supply subsystem is minimum, followed by the chlorine supply subsystem, in the seven subsystems of COIL. The probability at which the power of COIL is abnormal is 3. 99%, that is, the reliability of laser is 96.01%.%为方便快捷地查找出氧碘化学激光器故障发生的原因,以氧碘化学激光器常见故障为例,建立了其功率失常的故障树模型,用最小割集理论按下行法对模型进行了定性分析和定量分析.分析表明:氧碘化学激光器7个子系统中,碘供给子系统的可靠性最低,氯气供给子系统次之,这与实际情况相符.计算出的氧碘化学激光器出光不正常发生概率为3.99%,其可靠度为96.01%.

  17. Demand, Energy, and Power Factor (United States)


    demand, but first, let’s talk some more about why electrical demand charges occur. Electric Load Leveling: 5 ** show flip chart of daily utility load (see...and cost savings for energy are available as a result of lowering demand. 3 ’~ show flip chart of block structure (see copy at end of script) Shown... flip chart (see copy at end of script) This is a graphical representation of real, apparent and reactive power in3 an AC circuit. Real power is the power

  18. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar


    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders...... by Danish electricity distribution company SEAS-NVE....

  19. Pulsations of massive ZZ Ceti stars with carbon/oxygen and oxygen/neon cores

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Althaus, L G; Isern, J


    We explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of massive white dwarf stars with hydrogen-rich envelopes and oxygen/neon and carbon/oxygen cores. To this end, we compute the cooling of massive white dwarf models for both core compositions taking into account the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars and the chemical evolution caused by time-dependent element diffusion. In particular, for the oxygen/neon models, we adopt the chemical profile resulting from repeated carbon-burning shell flashes expected in very massive white dwarf progenitors. For carbon/oxygen white dwarfs we consider the chemical profiles resulting from phase separation upon crystallization. For both compositions we also take into account the effects of crystallization on the oscillation eigenmodes. We find that the pulsational properties of oxygen/neon white dwarfs are notably different from those made of carbon/oxygen, thus making asteroseismological techniques a promising way to distinguish between both types of stars and, hence, t...

  20. Saving Electricity and Demand Response (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  1. Temperature Effect on Energy Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    We provide various estimates of temperature effect for accommodating seasonality in energy demand, particularly natural gas demand. We exploit temperature response and monthly temperature distribution to estimate the temperature effect on natural gas demand. Both local and global smoothed temperature responses are estimated from empirical relationship between hourly temperature and hourly energy consumption data during the sample period (1990 - 1996). Monthly temperature distribution estimates are obtained by kernel density estimation from temperature dispersion within a month. We integrate temperature response and monthly temperature density over all the temperatures in the sample period to estimate temperature effect on energy demand. Then, estimates of temperature effect are compared between global and local smoothing methods. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.


    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  3. Micro Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) (United States)


    correlation of Sieder and Tate [44] for laminar flow (Reynolds number NRe < 2100) through a cylindrical pipe, assuming constant coolant viscosity: w D...and the Effect of Manufacturing Tolerances and Channel Blockage. Chem. Eng. J. 2004; 101:379-390. 44. Sieder , E.N. and G.E. Tate. Heat Transfer and

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  5. The metabolic demands of kayaking: a review. (United States)

    Michael, Jacob S; Rooney, Kieron B; Smith, Richard


    Flat water kayaking is characterised by exceptional demands on upper body performance.When examining the oxygen consumption, it is notable that although a high value is attainable, they are not quite as high as other sporting events such as road cycling, rowing or running where lower body is dominant.Elite kayakers demonstrate superior aerobic and anaerobic quantities and have reported maximal oxygen consumptions of around 58 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (4.7 L·min(-1)) and lactate values of around 12 mM during laboratory and on water testing.

  6. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols. (United States)

    Takken, T; Ribbink, A; Heneweer, H; Moolenaar, H; Wittink, H


    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess workload demand in police officers from the Utrecht police department in the Netherlands, during patrol by mountain bike. Maximum oxygen intake, maximum heart rate (HRmax), ventilatory threshold (VT)1 and VT2 were determined with a maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. Heart rates were registered throughout three shifts in 20 subjects using a heart rate monitor. Exercise intensity was divided into three phases: phase I (between 40% of HRmax and VT1); phase II (between VT and the respiratory compensation point (RCP)); and phase III (>RCP). The total TRIMP score was obtained by summating the results of the three phases. Average daily workload demands of 355 TRIMPs per day and 1777 TRIMPs per week were measured. Workload demand approached and in some cases exceeded the upper limit of 2000 TRIMPs per week threshold level for physiological stress demands in professional male cyclists.

  7. Energy supply and demand in California (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.


    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques


    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  11. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones II: Blood-oxygen binding (United States)

    Seibel, Brad A.


    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active squid that migrates across a strong oxygen and temperature gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Here we analyze the oxygen-binding properties of the squid's respiratory protein (hemocyanin, Hc) that facilitate such activity. A high Hc-oxygen affinity, strong temperature dependence, and pronounced pH sensitivity (P50=0.009T2.03, pH 7.4; Bohr coefficient=ΔlogP50/ΔpH=-1.55+0.034T) of oxygen binding facilitate night-time foraging in the upper water column, and support suppressed oxygen demand in hypoxic waters at greater depths. Expanding hypoxia may act to alter the species habitable depth range. This analysis supports the contention that ocean acidification could limit oxygen carrying capacity in squids at warmer temperature leading to reduced activity levels or altered distribution.

  12. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    manager education and business association membership are associated with whether a firm is credit constrained or not. Using our preferred measure of credit constraint suggests that around 43 per cent of the firms surveyed are constrained, and these enterprises would almost triple their debt burden......This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  13. Demand inducement as cheap talk. (United States)

    Calcott, P


    The doctor-patient interaction is analysed in a game of cheap talk. Causes and consequences of imperfect agency are examined. One form of imperfect agency, supplier-induced demand, is a feature of neologism proof equilibria with some parameter values but not with others. The model is used to evaluate two tests that have been used to test for the existence of supplier-induced demand. The analysis suggests that the two tests, which compare the medical utilization of informed and uninformed consumers, are not valid.

  14. Energy-Related Small Molecule Activation Reactions: Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution Reactions Catalyzed by Porphyrin- and Corrole-Based Systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lai, Wenzhen; Cao, Rui


    Globally increasing energy demands and environmental concerns related to the use of fossil fuels have stimulated extensive research to identify new energy systems and economies that are sustainable, clean, low cost, and environmentally benign. Hydrogen generation from solar-driven water splitting is a promising strategy to store solar energy in chemical bonds. The subsequent combustion of hydrogen in fuel cells produces electric energy, and the only exhaust is water. These two reactions compose an ideal process to provide clean and sustainable energy. In such a process, a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) during water splitting, and an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a fuel cell cathodic reaction are key steps that affect the efficiency of the overall energy conversion. Catalysts play key roles in this process by improving the kinetics of these reactions. Porphyrin-based and corrole-based systems are versatile and can efficiently catalyze the ORR, OER, and HER. Because of the significance of energy-related small molecule activation, this review covers recent progress in hydrogen evolution, oxygen evolution, and oxygen reduction reactions catalyzed by porphyrins and corroles.

  15. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.


    conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...

  16. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads. (United States)


    ... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  17. Hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) removal from biologically treated landfill leachate by powder-activated carbon (PAC), granular-activated carbon (GAC) and biomimetic fat cell (BFC). (United States)

    Liyan, Song; Youcai, Zhao; Weimin, Sun; Ziyang, Lou


    Biological pretreatment efficiently remove organic matter from landfill leachate, but further removal of refractory hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) is hard even with advanced treatment. In this work, three-stage-aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of fresh leachate produced in Shanghai laogang landfill, from 8603 to 451 mg L(-1) and 1368 to 30 mg L(-1), respectively. In downstream treatment, 3 g L(-1) powder-activated carbon (PAC), granular-activated carbon (GAC) and biomimetic fat cell (BFC) removed 89.2, 73.4 and 81.1% HOCs, but only 24.6, 19.1 and 8.9% COD, respectively. Through the specific HOCs accumulation characteristics of BFC, about 11.2% HOCs with low molecular weight (effluent exhibited a wide molecular weight distribution (34-514,646 Da). These constitutes are derived from both autochthonous and allochthonous matters as well as biological activities.

  18. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone


    . The study focuses on the development on the most important markets for Danish pork. The countries are Denmark, Japan, UK, Germany, Italy, France, USA, Russia and South Korea. The primary purpose is to identify market demands of importance to the Danish pork sector in order to maintain and strengthen its...

  19. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups (United States)


    and the rounds in the boxes weigh 35 lb, which is lighter than equipment handled in the other physically demanding job tasks already identified...and standards. Ergonomics . 53: 858-871. 40 Appendix A: Questionnaires Completed by Volunteers prior to each Focus Group Interview 1 2 3 4a 4b 5

  20. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor


    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive deman

  1. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  2. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  3. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn


    In 2004, Garrett Cullity made a significant contribution to the literature on what the world’s relatively affluent owe to the world’s relatively poor through the publishing of The Moral Demands of Affluence. In this discussion note, I draw attention to a logical problem in Cullity’s master argument...

  4. Managed care demands flexibility, creativity. (United States)


    The definition of hospice care is changing as home care providers come under managed care regulations. Hospice care for AIDS patients is demanding, requiring extra time from home care providers. The managed care cost-cutting measures require creativitity and patience. The Visiting Nurses and Hospice of San Francisco (VNH) has held seminars to help providers adapt to managed care.

  5. Employer Demands from Business Graduates (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  6. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael


    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...

  7. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  8. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.


    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  9. Dynamic energy-demand models. A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Feng [Department of Economics, Goeteborg University, Gothenburg (Sweden)


    This paper compares two second-generation dynamic energy demand models, a translog (TL) and a general Leontief (GL), in the study of price elasticities and factor substitutions of nine Swedish manufacturing industries: food, textiles, wood, paper, printing, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, base metals and machinery. Several model specifications are tested with likelihood ratio test. There is a disagreement on short-run adjustments; the TL model accepts putty-putty production technology of immediate adjustments, implying equal short- and long-run price elasticities of factors, while the GL model rejects immediate adjustments, giving out short-run elasticities quite different from the long-run. The two models also disagree in substitutability in many cases. 21 refs.

  10. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg


    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  12. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero


    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  13. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson


    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  14. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries (United States)

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.


    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage.

  15. DataBase on Demand (United States)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.


    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  16. DataBase on demand

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Ruben Gaspar; Coterillo Coz, I


    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  17. Managing Demands for Social Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Cecilie

    In recent years numerous calls have been made to enhance the social responsibility of biotechnology from both social scientists (e.g. Nowotny et. al. 2001) and political institutions (e.g. Royal Society 2004; U.S. Congress 2003; EEA 2002). The demands vary in form and content: From state incentives...... pressure on the biotech research organizations that find themselves in a jumble of demands to engage themselves with society. Mccarthy and Kelty, for instance, quote a nano-technologist for saying that he is afraid of “too much responsibility” (2010: 407). Based on a laboratory ethnography, this paper...... general public’ or ‘the troops’. The other lab has many diffuse ‘side-activities’ with bio-hackers, government and policy groups, but partly seems to engage in order to stay ahead of policy-makers and protect their core activity, which they find to be ‘basic research’. The paper finally argues...

  18. Energy demand modeling for Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobur Khodjaev


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to energy demand forecasting in Uzbekistan. Studies show that in spite of the abundant reserves of hydrocarbons, low energy efficiency can have an adverse impact on energy security in Uzbekistan in the future. Oil and gas are the main primary energy source and they ensure energy security of Uzbekistan. Energy demand forecasting is essential in order to develop an effective energy policy. Such forecast can be useful to plan oil and gas production volumes, to identify priorities for the industrial modernization and to create favorable conditions for sustainable economic development in the future. Author proposes model based on translog function for developing medium-and long-term development programs in energy sector and the modernization and technological re-equipment of industry.

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report

  20. Disruptive innovation: the demand side. (United States)

    Havighurst, Clark C


    The notion of disruptive innovation provides a welcome framework for considering the prospects for low-cost alternatives in American medicine. Such innovations as have been seen, however, are largely the result of demand by patients paying their own bills because they have high-deductible coverage or are uninsured. Many other cost-saving innovations are discouraged by financing systems that are themselves largely immune to competition from disruptive innovators.

  1. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm


    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  2. Fish demand and supply projections


    Sverdrup-Jensen, S.


    It has been predicted that the global demand for fish for human consumption will increase by more than 50% over the next 15 years. The FAO has projected that the increase in supply will originate primarily from marine fisheries, aquaculture and to a lesser extent from inland fisheries, but with a commensurate price increase. However, there are constraints to increased production in both marine and inland fisheries, such as overfishing, overexploitation limited potential increase and environme...

  3. Effect of Dissolved Oxygen on Operation of EGSB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-li; L(U) Bing-nan; LI Qing-wei


    An expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was adopted to study the dissolved oxygen (DO) effect on the operation. With the chemical oxygen demand (COD) 800-1800mg/L, pH6.0-7.3, volume loading rate (VLR) 5.4-11.5kg COD/(m3·d), the operational behaviors of EGSB reactor was researched. And the max DO concentration which influenced steady operation of EGSB reactor was determined by contrasting the changes due to different concentrations of the influent DO. With the COD 1200-2000mg/L, VLR 7.2-12.0kg COD/(m3·d), the operational characteristic of EGSB reactor was researched by aerating the recycle effluent. The results was: when the DO concentration of influent was under 3.0mg/L, the removal efficiency of COD was 82%-90% and the operation of the EGSB reactor was steady; when the DO concentration of influent was over 3.0mg/L, the oxidationreduction potential (ORP) fluctuated greatly and the operation of the EGSB reactor was instable; the acidified wastewater of saccharide whose pH value was 5.1-6.5 could be treated by aerating the recycle effluent and the efficiency of COD was up to 85%-92%.

  4. Investigating Comparative Advantages of Advance Demand Information in Presence of Heterogeneous Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers to that there are di......The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers...

  5. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system. (United States)

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd


    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  6. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  7. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay


    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  8. Brisk Demand of Neopentyl Glycol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Neopentyl glycol (NPG) is an important chemical raw material. It is mainly used to produce saturated polyester resin for powder coatings,unsaturated polyester resin, polyester polyols, esters for synthetic lubricants, plasticizers and alkyd resins.

  9. CaSO4氧载体煤基合成气化学链燃烧模拟研究%Simulated investigation of chemical looping combustion with coal-derived syngas and CaSO4 oxygen carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保文; 晏蓉; 郑瑛; 赵海波; 郑楚光


    Compared to metal oxides, CaSO4 adopted as oxygen carrier (OC) in chemical looping combustion (CLC) presents several advantages such as low cost, easy availability and superior oxygen transfer capacity, whilst the SO2 emission and solid sulfur deposit in the process could be a big concern. In this study, thermodynamic simulations were conducted to investigate the sulfur distribution in a CLC system with CaSO4 as OC and syngas derived from coal as the fuel. Several findings were attained: (i) On the main products and reaction pathways in the fuel reactor (FR), at the low temperature of 100 ℃ ~400 ℃, the main sulfur species and carbon deposit were H2S and CaCO3 via the methanation of CO with H2 coupled with the shift reaction of CO with H2O(g) and the ensuing thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Then at 400 ℃ ~915 ℃, CaS and CO2 were the main products through the reaction of CaSO4 with H2 or CO, and both products increased with increasing FR temperature. Furthermore, at the FR temperature higher than 915 ℃, due to the initiation of the solid side reaction between CaS and CaSO4, the percentage of CaS declined. In contrary, the percentages of CaO, H2 and CO increased possibly due to the consumption of part of CaSO4 in the side reaction and thus not enough lattice oxygen available. In the air reactor( AR), the oxidization of CaS by air into CaSO4 was always dominant. Besides at ΦAR below 0.8, both the solid side reaction of CaSO4 with CaS and the oxidization of CaS into CaO were simultaneously in effect. (ii) In the FR, the optimized condition was suggested as at around 915 ℃, atmospheric condition and carefully controlled ΦFR around unity. (iii) In the AR, sufficient supply of air was important for the oxidization of CaS, and ΦAR ≥ 1 would ensure the full oxidization of CaS into CaSO4 and prevent the emission of SO2 and formation of CaO as well. Overall, this study provided the most suitable conditions of using CaSO4 as OC in CLC of syngas with

  10. Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites (United States)

    Clayton, R. N.


    Oxygen isotope abundance variations in meteorites are very useful in elucidating chemical and physical processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system (Clayton, 1993). On Earth, the mean abundances of the three stable isotopes are 16O: 99.76%, 17O: 0.039%, and 18O: 0.202%. It is conventional to express variations in abundances of the isotopes in terms of isotopic ratios, relative to an arbitrary standard, called SMOW (for standard mean ocean water), as follows:The isotopic composition of any sample can then be represented by one point on a "three-isotope plot," a graph of δ17O versus δ18O. It will be seen that such plots are invaluable in interpreting meteoritic data. Figure 1 shows schematically the effect of various processes on an initial composition at the center of the diagram. Almost all terrestrial materials lie along a "fractionation" trend; most meteoritic materials lie near a line of "16O addition" (or subtraction). (4K)Figure 1. Schematic representation of various isotopic processes shown on an oxygen three-isotope plot. Almost all terrestrial materials plot along a line of "fractionation"; most primitive meteoritic materials plot near a line of "16O addition." The three isotopes of oxygen are produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, but by different nuclear processes in different stellar environments. The principal isotope, 16O, is a primary isotope (capable of being produced from hydrogen and helium alone), formed in massive stars (>10 solar masses), and ejected by supernova explosions. The two rare isotopes are secondary nuclei (produced in stars from nuclei formed in an earlier generation of stars), with 17O coming primarily from low- and intermediate-mass stars (shielding in the UV photodissociation of CO (van Dishoeck and Black, 1988). This process results from the large differences in abundance between C16O, on the one hand, and C17O and C18O on the other. Photolysis of CO occurs by absorption of stellar UV radiation in the

  11. Artificial oxygen transport protein (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie


    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  12. Study on Customer Demands for Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; YANG Mingzhong; LI Yibing; LI Jun


    In order to improve the satisfaction degree of customers' individual demands for products and reduce the risk of the product innovation, the characteristics of customer demands for product innovation are analyzed, and the type and content of customer demands are discussed. Then the framework of customer demands acquisition for product innovation is established. Finally, the prototype system of customer demands information acquisition and product customization for product innovation which takes mobile phone as the example is developed successfully.

  13. Oxygen supply in aquatic ectotherms: partial pressure and solubility together explain biodiversity and size patterns. (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bilton, David T; Calosi, Piero; Spicer, John I


    Aquatic ectotherms face the continuous challenge of capturing sufficient oxygen from their environment as the diffusion rate of oxygen in water is 3 x 10(5) times lower than in air. Despite the recognized importance of oxygen in shaping aquatic communities, consensus on what drives environmental oxygen availability is lacking. Physiologists emphasize oxygen partial pressure, while ecologists emphasize oxygen solubility, traditionally expressing oxygen in terms of concentrations. To resolve the question of whether partial pressure or solubility limits oxygen supply in nature, we return to first principles and derive an index of oxygen supply from Fick's classic first law of diffusion. This oxygen supply index (OSI) incorporates both partial pressure and solubility. Our OSI successfully explains published patterns in body size and species across environmental clines linked to differences in oxygen partial pressure (altitude, organic pollution) or oxygen solubility (temperature and salinity). Moreover, the OSI was more accurately and consistently related to these ecological patterns than other measures of oxygen (oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen concentration, biochemical oxygen demand concentrations) and similarly outperformed temperature and altitude, which covaried with these environmental clines. Intriguingly, by incorporating gas diffusion rates, it becomes clear that actually more oxygen is available to an organism in warmer habitats where lower oxygen concentrations would suggest the reverse. Under our model, the observed reductions in aerobic performance in warmer habitats do not arise from lower oxygen concentrations, but instead through organismal oxygen demand exceeding supply. This reappraisal of how organismal thermal physiology and oxygen demands together shape aerobic performance in aquatic ectotherms and the new insight of how these components change with temperature have broad implications for predicting the responses of aquatic communities to

  14. Oxygen sensing and signaling. (United States)

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco


    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway.

  15. Oxygen nitrogen and ozone: application in wastewater treatment and environment protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Julio A.G. [Oxigenio do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Oxygen`s versatility as an oxidant and as a combustion atmosphere provides clean solutions to different industries. Oxygen also finds excellent application for the regeneration of eutrophic surface waters where high biochemical oxygen demand loading demands extra available oxygen for life support. When even stronger oxidizing properties are needed, ozone may act as a supplement. Nitrogen, on the other hand, has excellent cooling capacity, resulting in practical application in solvent recapture, enabling processes to meet emission standards while allowing solvent recycle for reuse. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E


    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  17. Studies on the sea surface microlayer. II. The layer of sudden change of physical and chemical properties. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbin; Liu, Liansheng; Liu, Chunying; Cai, Weijun


    Seawater samples of the sea surface microlayer were obtained from the ocean, coastal waters, and laboratory imitation experiments adopting glass plate, rotating drum, screen, and funnel samplers. The result was that surface microlayer samples of thickness 50 microm could be taken, not by the popular screen and funnel techniques, but by glass plate or rotating drum techniques. The layer of sudden change of physical and chemical properties in the surface microlayer was found at 50 microm below the sea-air interface. These physical and chemical properties included tens of physical and chemical parameters, such as concentrations of organic matter, nutrients, and dissolved trace metals, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand chlorophyll-a, surface tensions, and pH. Therefore, it was suggested that the layer of sudden change of physical and chemical properties in surface seawater should serve as a basis for defining the sea surface microlayer should, and be regarded as the practical operational thickness of the sea surface microlayer. The apparent sampling thickness of the sea surface microlayer from surface seawater should be 50+/-10 microm.

  18. Comparative quantification of oxygen release by wetland plants: electrode technique and oxygen consumption model. (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Liu, Jufeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cong; Fan, Jinlin; Xu, Xiaoli


    Understanding oxygen release by plants is important to the design of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lab-scale systems planted with Phragmites australis were studied to evaluate the amount of oxygen release by plants using electrode techniques and oxygen consumption model. Oxygen release rate (0.14 g O2/m(2)/day) measured using electrode techniques was much lower than that (3.94-25.20 gO2/m(2)/day) calculated using the oxygen consumption model. The results revealed that oxygen release by plants was significantly influenced by the oxygen demand for the degradation of pollutants, and the oxygen release rate increased with the rising of the concentration of degradable materials in the solution. The summary of the methods in qualifying oxygen release by wetland plants demonstrated that variations existed among different measuring methods and even in the same measuring approach. The results would be helpful for understanding the contribution of plants in constructed wetlands toward actual wastewater treatment.

  19. Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen (United States)

    Chapra, S.C.; Runkel, R.L.


    The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.

  20. Boron PLA for oxygen sensing & hypoxia imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Fraser


    Full Text Available Oxygen is essential for many forms of life and its depletion in the body and the environment can lead to deleterious effects. Low oxygen conditions, even anoxia, are associated with eutrophication of lakes and rivers, wherein an over abundance of nutrients often caused by pollution result in excessive plant growth and decay, threatening water quality, ecosystem balance, and aquatic life. In the body, low oxygen conditions or hypoxia may be generalized, as can occur at high altitude or during strenuous exercise, or localized in particular tissues, when there is a mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. Hypoxia is present in many important diseases as well. Low oxygen levels in tumors are often associated with biochemical changes, increased invasiveness, cancer progression, and resistance to radiation and chemotherapies. Vascular blockage in strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral artery disease, which is common in diabetes, are other situations where oxygen levels can drop precipitously and cause great damage to affected tissues. Clearly, innovative sensing technologies that provide new insight into these many oxygen dependent processes can impact global society in significant ways.

  1. Water Quality Assessment Using Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals of Gobind Sagar Lake, Himachal Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma


    Full Text Available Today the environment has become harmful for the health of living organisms due to excessive pollution and contamination of natural resources. The present investigation has been carried out with the objective to assess the water quality of the Gobind Sagar Lake, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India using physico-chemical parameters with heavy metals of the lake. For this study, three sampling sites were identified and samples from different sites were collected in summer season and important parameters [Water Temperature , pH, Total Hardness, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS] with heavy metals [ Lead (P, Copper (Co, Iron (Fe, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and Manganese (Mn, Chromium (Cr were analyzed. The results revealed that the different conditions of Gobind Sagar Lake in different sampling stations showed fluctuations in some physico-chemical parameters and also in heavy metals. These result depicted that water of lake was polluted in the form of nutrient enrichment which is due to agricultural activities and its runoff in and around catchment area of the lake. There are other many ways that things can end up in the lake as the free style way of disposal of industrial and domestic effluents etc. Results of studies on heavy metals in pollution are well documented revealing the toxic effects of these metals on aquatic organisms.

  2. Living with the extreme demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo Eskelinen


    Full Text Available Most of the ethical literature on extreme poverty suggests, that some, if not most, of the incomes of the residents of rich countries ought to be donated to the global poor. Yet complying with this ethical demand becomes increasingly more difficult as the changes in lifestyle in the (postindustrial north demand ever more consumption in order to obtain the necessities for survival in such societies. In this article, I will discuss Peter Singer's famous arguments for the ethical duty to donate one's possessions, and elaborate the conception of needs prevalent in both Singer's theory and the theories of many of his critics. My argument is that we have to recognise a category of needs called 'social necessities' that are neither luxuries nor basic needs. This leads to two main conclusions: first, the space for ethical deliberation on whether to donate to life-saving purposes is socially conditioned; and second, ethical strategies of redistribution ought to be accompanied with institutional changes, which also concern the conditions in wealthy countries.

  3. Positional demands of professional rugby. (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas


    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson


    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  5. Estimating Aggregate Demand in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha EMARA


    Full Text Available Abstract. This econometric study seeks to determine the most important factors of aggregate demand in Egypt so as to provide insight into how this developing nation can grow economically in the coming years. The Ordinary Least Squares estimation method was used in order to estimate nominal GDP for the time period 1975 to 2009. Based on the results the real interest rate, the inflation rate, the growth rate of government expenditure, and the growth rate of the money supply are the most statistically and economically significant factors of the growth rate of nominal GDP for the coming year. A one percent change in the growth rate of the previous year government expenditure is predicted to cause the growth rate of the current year nominal GDP to increase by 54%.The role of government expenditures on public sector wage expansion is discussed in this study as to shed light on this factor’s significant influence on income inequality post-1975 in Egypt, which will continue to impact nominal GDP and social conditions for the developing nation in the coming years.Keywords. GDP, Aggregate Demand, Egypt.JEL. E25, O40, Q11.

  6. Rule of oxygen transmission in dump leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to the chemical equations, the flux and concentration of oxygen required during bacterial leaching sulfuric mineral were investigated; the rule of air bubble transmitted in granular was researched in the Dump Leaching Plant of Dexing Copper Mine. The results show that lack of oxygen in dump leaching is the critical factor of restricting leaching reaction. Pyrite is the primary oxygen-consuming mineral in bioleaching. When its content is too high, it needs a great deal of oxygen for reaction and competes for the finite oxygen with objective minerals, and thus the leaching velocity decreases greatly. The average size of ore particles and diameter of bubbles are the key parameters affecting the mass transfer coefficient. Reverse analysis was adopted, and it shows that 44.8 m3 air per unit ore can meet the requirement of production if the molar ratio of pyrite to chalcopyrite is 10.

  7. Kinetics of Chemical Looping Hydrogen Generation Using FeaO4 as Oxygen Carrier%基于Fe3O4的化学链制氢动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小燕; 向文国; 田文栋; 徐祥; 徐燕骥; 肖云汉


    针对Fe3O4化学链制氢和CO2分离过程,研究了Fe3O4在CO气氛下还原以及铁在水蒸气下氧化的动力学特性.用Coats-Redfen单升温速率积分法、Ozawa组合升温速率法和lnln恒温分析法对反应机理进行了探讨,并计算了动力学参数.热重数据计算结果表明:在CO和N2体积分数分别为5%和95%时,还原反应属于一级反应,750~900℃时反应活化能为112 kJ/mol;在CO、CO2和N2体积分数分别为42.9%、14.3%和42.8%时,还原反应可用Jander扩散模型描述,750 ~ 950℃时反应活化能为49.828 kJ/mol;经Ozawa法验证,加入CO2后的还原反应活化能明显降低.铁与水蒸气的氧化反应接近二维核生长模型,反应活化能较低,为29.633 kJ/mol,且随着温度升高,反应速率常数增大.%Kinetics of chemical looping hydrogen generation (CLHG) with inherent separation of CO2 using Fe3O4 as the oxygen carrier have been studied through reducing Fe3O4 by CO and oxidizing Fe by steam vapor. Coats-Redfen equation, Ozawa equation and InIn equation were successfully applied to describe the different processes. It was found that the reduction of Fe3O4 by volume fraction of CO and N2 is 5% and 95% (within 750-900 ℃ range) could be interpreted theoretically as the first order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 112 Kj/mol.When the reaction gas changed into volume fraction of CO, CO2 and N2 are 42.9%, 14.3% and 42.8%, the mechanism of the reduction process turned out to be diffusion controlled, which was described by Jander equation, and the activation energy remarkably dropped to 49.828 Kj/mol, which was validated by Ozawa equation. Oxidation process of Fe by steam vapor could be interpreted as the 2D crystals' nucleation. The activation energy of the oxidation process was 29.633 Kj/mol, and the frequency factor improved as the temperature increased.

  8. Transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskite oxides as promising functional materials for oxygen sensor (United States)

    Misra, Sunasira


    Modern industries employ several gases as process fluids. Leakage of these gases in the operating area could lead to undesirable consequences. Even in chemical industries, which use large quantities of inert gases in confined areas, accidental leakage of these process gases would result in the reduction of oxygen partial pressure in atmospheric air. For instance, large amounts of gaseous nitrogen and argon are used in pharmaceutical industries, gas filling/bottling plants, operating area of Fast Breeder reactors, etc. Fall of concentration of oxygen in air below 17% could lead to life risk (Asphyxiation) of the working personnel that has to be checked well in advance. Further, when the leaking gas is of explosive nature, its damage potential would be very high if its concentration level in air increases beyond its lower explosive limit. Surveillance of the ambient within these industries at the critical areas and also in the environment around them for oxygen therefore becomes highly essential. Sensitive and selective gas sensors made of advanced materials are required to meet this demand of monitoring environmental pollution. The perovskite class of oxides (ABO3) is chemically stable even at high temperatures and can tolerate large levels of dopants without phase transformations. The electronic properties of this parent functional material can be tailored by adding appropriate dopants that exhibit different valence states. Aliovalent transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskites are good mixed ionic and electronic conductors and potential candidates for sensing oxygen at percentage level exploiting their oxygen pressure dependent electrical conductivity. This paper presents the preparation, study of electrical conductivity and oxygen-sensing characteristics of iron and cobalt substituted SrTiO3.

  9. Demand for TEDA Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jing


    @@ Triethylene diamine (TEDA) is an important intermediate and organic chemical raw material. It is used as catalyst for PU (polyurethane) foam production, catalyst for ethylene polymerization and also in the production of coatings and plastics. Its derivatives can be used in the production of petroleum additives, corrosion inhibitors and emulsifiers.

  10. Demand for Epichlorohydrin Increases Stably

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is an important organic raw material. It is mainly used to produce epoxy resins and is also used in the production of synthetic glycerin, chlorohydrin rubber, wet strength agents for paper, glycidolethers, ion exchange resins, watertreatment chemicals and flame-retarding agents.

  11. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets (United States)


    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  12. Prospects for European labour demand. (United States)

    Lindley, R M


    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  13. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L


    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  14. Demands Set Upon Modern Cartographic Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Frangeš


    Full Text Available Scientific cartography has the task to develop and research new methods of cartographic visualization. General demands are set upon modern cartographic visualization, which encompasses digital cartography and computer graphics: legibility, clearness, accuracy, plainness and aesthetics. In this paper, it is explained in detail what demands should be met in order to satisfy the general demands set. In order to satisfy the demand of legibility, one should respect conditions of minimal sizes, appropriate graphical density and better differentiation of known features. Demand of clearness needs to be met by fulfilling conditions of simplicity, contrasting quality and layer arrangement of cartographic representation. Accuracy, as the demand on cartographic visualization, can be divided into positioning accuracy and accuracy signs. For fulfilling the demand of plainness, the conditions of symbolism, traditionalism and hierarchic organization should be met. Demand of aesthetics will be met if the conditions of beauty and harmony are fulfilled.

  15. Global nitrogen fertilizer supply and demand outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michel; Prud'homme


    This paper presents a brief overview of the world nitrogen fertilizer demand, high-lights trends in the global and regional developments of production capacity and provides a medium-term perspective of the global nitrogen supply/demand balance.

  16. The trade-offs and effect of carrier size and oxygen-loading on gaseous toluene removal performance of a three-phase circulating-bed biofilm reactor. (United States)

    Sang, B-I; Yoo, E-S; Kim, B J; Rittmann, B E


    We conducted a series of steady-state and short-term experiments on a three-phase circulating-bed biofilm reactor (CBBR) for removing toluene from gas streams. The goal was to investigate the effect of macroporous-carrier size (1-mm cubes versus 4-mm cubes) on CBBR performance over a wide range of oxygen loading. We hypothesized that the smaller biomass accumulation with 1-mm carriers would minimize dissolved-oxygen (DO) limitation and improve toluene removal, particularly when the DO loading is constrained. The CBBR with 1-mm carriers overcame the performance limitation observed with the CBBR with 4-mm carriers: i.e., oxygen depletion inside the biofilm. The 1-mm carriers consistently gave superior removal of toluene and chemical oxygen-demand, and the advantage was greatest for the lowest oxygen loading and the greatest toluene loading. The 1-mm carriers achieved superior performance because they minimized the negative effects of oxygen depletion, while continuing to provide protection from excess biomass detachment and inhibition from toluene.

  17. Chahla Chafiq, Demande au Miroir


    Guilyardi, Catherine


    Le regard est omniprésent dans le premier roman en français de Chahla Chafiq, écrivain et sociologue iranienne exilée en France depuis 1983, reconnue pour ses travaux sur l’islamisme. Le personnage central de Demande au miroir, Guita Salim, regarde la vie de sa fenêtre. « Entre la fenêtre et le voir, il y a toujours un écart », écrit Forough Farrokhzâd, poétesse persane qui illumina les années 1950-1960, dont la poésie traverse ce roman. Adolescente, dans une ruelle de Téhéran, la jeune héroï...



    Irina CHIRITA; Ioana ZAHEU


    The present paper is trying to correlate what Demand and Offer mean, from the economical point of view, which in the end tends towards the demand and offer of the accountant information. The objective of the demand and offer of accountant information is to promo te an efficient financial communication, objective that might be reached through the confrontation of the informational offer with the user’s demand. The information given by the enterprises are the basis of numerous economical and po...

  19. Study on Customer Demands for Product Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhiyong; YANG Mingzhong; LI Yibing; LI Jun


    In order to improve the satisfaction degree of customers' individual demands on products and reduce the risk of the product innovation, the characteristics of customer demands for product innovation are analyzed, and their type and content are discussed. Then the framework of customer demands acquisition for product innovation is established. Finally, the prototype system of customer demands information acquisition and product customization for product innovation which takes mobile phone as the example is developed successfully.

  20. Cache County Water Demand/Supply Model


    Hughes, Trevor C.; Norby, Gregory J.; Thyagarajan, Laxman


    This report descibes a municipal water demand forecasting model for use in areas of mixed rural and urban housing types. A series of residential demand functions were derived which forecast water demand based on the ype and density of housing and season. Micro sampling techniques were used to correlate water use data and explanatory variable data for low, medium, and high density housing. The demand functions were...

  1. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David


    in terms of distributed energy storage and flexible load. This paper examines how optimising the charging cycles of an electriccar using DSM (DemandSideManagement) based on a number of criteria could be used to achieve financial savings, increased demand on renewable energy, reduce demand on thermal...... generation plant, and reduce peak load demand. The results demonstrate that significant gains can be achieved using currently available market data which highlights the point that DSM can be implemented without any further technological advents....

  2. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (United States)

    ... page: // Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  4. Home Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Home Oxygen Therapy More and more people are using oxygen therapy ... April 12, 2012 Revised: © 2017 American Association for Respiratory Care

  5. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.


    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  6. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis (United States)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.


    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  7. Estimating oxygen needs for childhood pneumonia in developing country health systems: a new model for expecting the unexpected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly D Bradley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for the reliable and cost-effective supply of a health service commodity such as medical oxygen requires an understanding of the dynamic need or 'demand' for the commodity over time. In developing country health systems, however, collecting longitudinal clinical data for forecasting purposes is very difficult. Furthermore, approaches to estimating demand for supplies based on annual averages can underestimate demand some of the time by missing temporal variability. METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate variable demand for a health service commodity using the important example of medical oxygen for childhood pneumonia. The model is based on five key factors affecting oxygen demand: annual pneumonia admission rate, hypoxaemia prevalence, degree of seasonality, treatment duration, and oxygen flow rate. These parameters were varied over a wide range of values to generate simulation results for different settings. Total oxygen volume, peak patient load, and hours spent above average-based demand estimates were computed for both low and high seasons. FINDINGS: Oxygen demand estimates based on annual average values of demand factors can often severely underestimate actual demand. For scenarios with high hypoxaemia prevalence and degree of seasonality, demand can exceed average levels up to 68% of the time. Even for typical scenarios, demand may exceed three times the average level for several hours per day. Peak patient load is sensitive to hypoxaemia prevalence, whereas time spent at such peak loads is strongly influenced by degree of seasonality. CONCLUSION: A theoretical study is presented whereby a simulation approach to estimating oxygen demand is used to better capture temporal variability compared to standard average-based approaches. This approach provides better grounds for health service planning, including decision-making around technologies for oxygen delivery. Beyond oxygen, this approach

  8. EDITORIAL: Photonic materials on demand Photonic materials on demand (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay; Padilla, Willie J.; Brener, Igal


    As David Payne famously said, 'we never have a photonic material that we want...'. This has changed with the proliferation of nanotechnology. Metamaterials—artificial media structured on a sub-wavelength scale—offer a radical paradigm for the engineering of optical properties. Some remarkable advances have been possible with metamaterials. These include, for instance, negative-index media that refract light in the opposite direction from that of conventional materials, chiral materials that rotate the polarization state of light hundreds of thousands of times more strongly than natural optical crystals, and structured thin films with remarkably strong dispersion that can slow light in much the same way as resonant atomic systems with electromagnetically induced transparency. The research agenda is now shifting towards achieving tunable and switchable functionalities with metamaterials [1] where the goal is, paraphrasing Dave Payne, 'to have on demand the photonic material that we want'. The papers in this Journal of Optics special issue explore and review the different approaches to both switching and tuning of metamaterial properties through exploiting effects such as phase conjugation, intense photo-excitation and photoconductivity, the use of electro-optical effects in conductive oxides, the exploitation global quantum coherency and resonantly coupled classical resonator and quantum structures, hybridization with gain media and the manipulation with shapes and constitution of the complex metamolecules and metamaterial reliefs by design, or using MEMS actuation. References [1] Zheludev N I and Kivshar Y 2012 From metamaterials to metadevices Nature Mater.11 917

  9. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Imran


    Full Text Available Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO42, aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO42, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7. The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The quantity of various pollutants present in waste water was reduced after treatment. The optimized dose and pH for maximum decrease in EC and TDS were 5g/L and 7, respectively. The maximum reduction in the amount of sulphates and chlorides present in tannery wastewater was observed at dosage of 0.5g/L and pH 7. A dosage of 5g/L and pH 7 was also found most favorable for maximum reduction in values of COD, phenolphtalein and total alkalinity. The chromium concentrations in tannery wastewater before and after treatment were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A reduction in chromium concentration was observed after treatment. The promising results of the present study demonstrate that immobilization of chemical coagulants can make them more effective for wastewater treatment.

  10. Tryptophan oxygenation: mechanistic considerations. (United States)

    Naismith, James H


    From a protein structural viewpoint, tryptophan is often considered an inert structural amino acid, playing a role as a hydrophobic anchor in membrane proteins or as part of the hydrophobic core of soluble proteins. However, tryptophan is the only polyaromatic amino acid and, from a chemical viewpoint, possesses unique reactivity owing to the electron-richness of the indole system. This reactivity is seen in the area of natural products and metabolites which have exquisite modifications of the indole ring system. Enzymes have evolved multiple strategies to break or modify the indole ring; one particular class is the IDO/TDO (indoleamine/tryptophan dioxygenase) superfamily. A new member of this family, PrnB, on the surface catalyses a very different reaction, but actually shares much of the early chemistry with the tryptophan dioxygenases. Studies on PrnB have contributed to our understanding of the wider superfamily. In the present mini-review, recent developments in our understanding of how the TDO class of enzymes use activated molecular oxygen to break the indole ring are discussed.

  11. Control of Oxygen Concentration by Using a Carbonaceous Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Jadan


    Full Text Available The control of oxygen concentration in gas flow may be used in chemical industry, heat power engineering, ecology, automobile construction and other industrial branches. This control is realized over a broad range of oxygen concentrations. The control of the oxygen concentration is based on passing of gas flow through a measuring cavity of radio spectrometer and measurement of a magnetic resonance signal. A change in the magnetic resonance signal of a dispersed carbonaceous substance, placed into the cavity, indicates to the changes in oxygen concentrations. The dispersed anthracite and thermal treatment cellulose substance in the oxygen-free medium are proposed to use as a carbonaceous substance.

  12. Physical controls of oxygen fluxes at pelagic and benthic oxyclines in a lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreling, Julika; Bravidor, Jenny; McGinnis, Daniel F.;


    from the epilimnion; chemical oxygen consumption associated with the upward flux of reduced substances is negligible. Our findings indicate that under such conditions, dissolved oxygen consumption and therewith mineralization within the oxycline can be comparable with the corresponding rates occurring...

  13. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar


    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.

  14. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses. (United States)

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J


    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  15. Development of a model to determine oxygen consumption when crawling. (United States)

    Pollard, J P; Heberger, J R; Dempsey, P G

    During a mine disaster or emergency, underground air can quickly become contaminated. In these circumstances, all underground mine workers are taught to don breathable air supply units at the first sign of an emergency. However, no contemporary oxygen consumption data is available for the purposes of designing breathing air supply equipment specifically for mine escape. Further, it would be useful to quantify the oxygen requirements of breathing air supply users for various escape scenarios. To address this need, 14 participants crawled a distance of 305 m each while their breath-by-breath oxygen consumption measurements were taken. Using these data, linear regression models were developed to determine peak and average oxygen consumption rates as well as total oxygen consumption. These models can be used by manufacturers of breathing air supply equipment to aid in the design of devices that would be capable of producing sufficient on-demand oxygen to allow miners to perform self-escape.

  16. BATMAN: MOS Spectroscopy on Demand (United States)

    Molinari, E.; Zamkotsian, F.; Moschetti, M.; Spano, P.; Boschin, W.; Cosentino, R.; Ghedina, A.; González, M.; Pérez, H.; Lanzoni, P.; Ramarijaona, H.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Cirami, R.


    Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. Current object selection systems are limited and/or difficult to implement in next generation MOS for space and ground-based telescopes. A promising solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays, which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. TNG is hosting a novelty project for real-time, on-demand MOS masks based on MOEMS programmable slits. We are developing a 2048×1080 Digital-Micromirror-Device-based (DMD) MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope, called BATMAN. It is a two-arm instrument designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. With a field of view of 6.8×3.6 arcmin and a plate scale of 0.2 arcsec per micromirror, this astronomical setup can be used to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. The wavelength range is in the visible and the spectral resolution is R=560 for a 1 arcsec object, and the two arms will have 2k × 4k CCD detectors. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. We plan to have BATMAN first light by mid-2016.

  17. Zooplankton diversity and physico-chemical conditions in three perennial ponds of Virudhunagar district, Tamilnadu. (United States)

    Rajagopal, T; Thangamani, A; Sevarkodiyone, S P; Sekar, M; Archunan, G


    Plankton diversity and physico-chemical parameters are an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for irrigation and drinking purposes. In this study we tried to assess the zooplankton species richness, diversity and evenness and to predict the state of three perennial ponds according to physico-chemical parameters. A total of 47 taxa were recorded: 24 rotifers, 9 copepods, 8 cladocerans, 4 ostracods and 2 protozoans. More number of zooplankton species were recorded in Chinnapperkovil pond (47 species) followed by Nallanchettipatti (39 species) and Kadabamkulam pond (24 species). Among the rotifers, Branchionus sp. is abundant. Diaphanosoma sp. predominant among the cladocerans. Among copepods, numerical superiority was found in the case of Mesocyclopes sp. Cypris sp. repeated abundance among ostracoda. Present study revealed that zooplankton species richness (R1 and R2) was comparatively higher (R1: 4.39; R2: 2.13) in Chinnapperkovil pond. The species diversity was higher in the Chinnapperkovil pond (H': 2.53; N1: 15.05; N2: 15.75) as compared to other ponds. The water samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity alkalinity salinity, phosphate, hardness, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand. Higher value of physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton diversity were recorded in Chinnapperkovil pond as compared to other ponds. The zooplankton population shows positive significant correlation with physico-chemical parameters like, temperature, alkalinity phosphate, hardness and biological oxygen demand, whereas negatively correlated with rainfall and salinity. The study revealed that the presence of certain species like, Monostyla sp., Keratella sp., Lapadella sp., Leydigia sp., Moinodaphnia sp., Diaptomus sp., Diaphanosoma sp., Mesocyclopes sp., Cypris sp. and Brachionus sp. is considered to be biological indicator for eutrophication.

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina


    future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  19. [Oxygen in the field hospitals: current experience in the military health service]. (United States)

    Rouvier, B; Dupeyron, C; Carpentier, J P; Evrard, P


    A fifty per cent oxygen ratio locks quite sufficient for putting at sleep war wounded patient. After the present time, every french field surgical structures are equipped with oxygen extractors. Furthermore, those teams have at heir disposal for several years, oxygen generators, working with sodium chlorate candels. Those one can fill oxygen cylinders (3.5 l at 90 or 150 bars), providing pure oxygen, which will ever be essential under exceptional conditions. During war period, the supply difficulties demand to have at disposal two different production capabilities for oxygen administration.

  20. Optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits. (United States)

    Ozkan, Fahri; Tuna, M Cihat; Baylar, Ahmet; Ozturk, Mualla


    Oxygen is an important component of water quality and its ability to sustain life. Water aeration is the process of introducing air into a body of water to increase its oxygen saturation. Water aeration can be accomplished in a variety of ways, for instance, closed-conduit aeration. High-speed flow in a closed conduit involves air-water mixture flow. The air flow results from the subatmospheric pressure downstream of the gate. The air entrained by the high-speed flow is supplied by the air vent. The air entrained into the flow in the form of a large number of bubbles accelerates oxygen transfer and hence also increases aeration efficiency. In the present work, the optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits was studied experimentally. Results showed that aeration efficiency increased with the air-demand ratio to a certain point and then aeration efficiency did not change with a further increase of the air-demand ratio. Thus, there was an optimum value for the air-demand ratio, depending on the Froude number, which provides maximum aeration efficiency. Furthermore, a design formula for aeration efficiency was presented relating aeration efficiency to the air-demand ratio and Froude number.

  1. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule...

  2. Economic Analysis of Water Demand in Greenhouses of Khash Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahraki


    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to investigate the way of affecting of water in production of cucumber. From aspect of econometrics, mutual relationships of production function and expenses have been analysed in which Translog cost function has been used. This function has been estimated using the conditional input demand functions, the shefard theorem, chemical fertilizer, animal fertilizer, labour force, seed, and pesticide in the framework of a system of equations by taking advantage of the irrelevant regression method. Applied inputs is for 151 cucumber Beneficiaries in Khash in farming year of 2011-12 that insider and crossing tendency of input demand for this product has been investigated through collecting questionnaires and using obtained coefficients. The results show that the translog cost model is a good fit compared to the data of research. According to the reviews, demand for water has a minor Insidersuccession tendency more than one which shows possible stretch of demand function rather than the price of the inputs. Hence, appropriate pricing policies can be used to take a positive step in preventing the extreme usage of this input and directing beneficiaries for optimum use of these inputs.

  3. Optical detection of singlet oxygen from single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, John; Skovsen, Esben; Lambert, John D. C.;


    The lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, singlet molecular oxygen, O2(a 1g), is a reactive species involved in many chemical and biological processes. To better understand the roles played by singlet oxygen in biological systems, particularly at the sub-cellular level, optical too...... for mechanistic studies of intra- and inter-cellular signaling and events that ultimately lead to photo-induced cell death....

  4. [Decrease of singlet oxygen chemiluminescence by the presence of carnosine]. (United States)

    Svachko, A G; Formaziuk, V E; Sergienko, V I


    To test antiradical medicines effect the chemical production of singlet oxygen (NaClO + H2O2) was investigated. The quantity singlet oxygen chemiluminescence was decreased in the presence of Japanese Catalin and Chine Baineiting, antirheumatic Voltaren and less strong Finish Catachrome and Carnosine. American Quinax does not possess such an effect. One of the possible starting mechanisms causing different diseases (atherosclerosis, cataract etc.) is destruction of biomembranes by active forms of oxygen.

  5. Demand forecast model based on CRM (United States)

    Cai, Yuancui; Chen, Lichao


    With interiorizing day by day management thought that regarding customer as the centre, forecasting customer demand becomes more and more important. In the demand forecast of customer relationship management, the traditional forecast methods have very great limitation because much uncertainty of the demand, these all require new modeling to meet the demands of development. In this paper, the notion is that forecasting the demand according to characteristics of the potential customer, then modeling by it. The model first depicts customer adopting uniform multiple indexes. Secondly, the model acquires characteristic customers on the basis of data warehouse and the technology of data mining. The last, there get the most similar characteristic customer by their comparing and forecast the demands of new customer by the most similar characteristic customer.

  6. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand...... induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations....../implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting...

  7. Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda


    This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

  8. Chemical Emergencies (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  9. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan


    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  10. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia


    Abbas Valadkhani


    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  11. Income distribution trends and future food demand. (United States)

    Cirera, Xavier; Masset, Edoardo


    This paper surveys the theoretical literature on the relationship between income distribution and food demand, and identifies main gaps of current food modelling techniques that affect the accuracy of food demand projections. At the heart of the relationship between income distribution and food demand is Engel's law. Engel's law establishes that as income increases, households' demand for food increases less than proportionally. A consequence of this law is that the particular shape of the distribution of income across individuals and countries affects the rate of growth of food demand. Our review of the literature suggests that existing models of food demand fail to incorporate the required Engel flexibility when (i) aggregating different food budget shares among households; and (ii) changing budget shares as income grows. We perform simple simulations to predict growth in food demand under alternative income distribution scenarios taking into account nonlinearity of food demand. Results suggest that (i) distributional effects are to be expected from changes in between-countries inequality, rather than within-country inequality; and (ii) simulations of an optimistic and a pessimistic scenario of income inequality suggest that world food demand in 2050 would be 2.7 per cent higher and 5.4 per cent lower than distributional-neutral growth, respectively.

  12. Solid state oxygen sensor (United States)

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.


    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  13. Measuring tissue oxygenation (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  14. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  15. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand (United States)

    Sznopek, John L.


    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  16. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor. (United States)

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina


    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control.

  17. Disaggregation of the demand for hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); R.C.J.A. van Vliet (René)


    textabstractIn this article we want to confront some of the results of the theoretical literature on aggregation with the empirical consequences of aggregation in the context of the analysis of demand for hospital care. There has been an evolution in the estimation of hospital demand functions from

  18. Teaching Aggregate Demand and Supply Models (United States)

    Wells, Graeme


    The author analyzes the inflation-targeting model that underlies recent textbook expositions of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply approach used in introductory courses in macroeconomics. He shows how numerical simulations of a model with inflation inertia can be used as a tool to help students understand adjustments in response to demand and…

  19. Intermittent demand : Linking forecasting to inventory obsolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, Ruud H.; Syntetos, Aris A.; Babai, M. Zied


    The standard method to forecast intermittent demand is that by Croston. This method is available in ERP-type solutions such as SAP and specialised forecasting software packages (e.g. Forecast Pro), and often applied in practice. It uses exponential smoothing to separately update the estimated demand

  20. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad


    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...

  1. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten


    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  2. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna


    with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...

  3. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods P

  4. Information management - Assessing the demand for information (United States)

    Rogers, William H.


    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  5. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman


    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...


    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.


  7. Lighting Systems Control for Demand Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husen, S.A.; Pandharipande, A.; Tolhuizen, L.M.G.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, M.


    Lighting is a major part of energy consumption in buildings. Lighting systems will thus be one of the important component systems of a smart grid for dynamic load management services like demand response.In the scenario considered in this paper, under a demand response request, lighting systems in a

  8. The Demand for Rental Homes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten


    development, and gives some indications of the future demand for rental housing in Denmark. The results indicate a future stagnant rental demand kept up by an increasing share of persons of old age and young persons undergoing education, and thus a rising homeownership rate. It is believed that the structural...

  9. A Novel Technique to Enhance Demand Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    In this study, a new pricing approach is proposed to increase demand responsiveness. The proposed approach considers two well-known demand side management techniques, namely peak shaving and valley filling. This is done by incentivising consumers by magnifying price difference between peak and off...

  10. Energy infrastructure: Mapping future electricity demand (United States)

    Janetos, Anthony C.


    Electricity distribution system planners rely on estimations of future energy demand to build adequate supply, but these are complicated to achieve. An approach that combines spatially resolved projections of population movement and climate change offers a method for building better demand maps to mid-century.

  11. Disruption of biofilms from sewage pipes under physical and chemical conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charbel Mahfoud; Antoine El Samrani; Rita Mouawad; Walid Hleihel; Rim El Khatib; Bruno S. Lartiges; Naim Ouaini


    Biofilms grown inside two sewage collecting pipes located in industrial and residential areas are studied. Bacterial biomass inside three layers of biofilms was evaluated. Biofilm cohesion under different mixing rate and ionic strength was also investigated. Effects of physical and chemical parameters in the biofilms were evaluated by monitoring turbidity, chemical and biochemical oxygen demands. Extracted organic matter from biofilms was partitioned to polar, aromatic and saturated fractions using activated silica column chromatography. Results revealed that bacterial biomass growth depending on biofilm thickness and stratification. The most loaded stratum in bacterial biomass was the sewage-biofilm interface stratum that represented 51% of the total bacterial biomass. Stirring rate and ionic strength of mono and bivalent salts showed a major influence in biofilm disruption. The stirring time enhanced the exchange dynamic and matter capture between biofilm fragments at the critical stirring rate 90 r/min. Sodium chloride showed the dispersing effect on biofilms in suspension, and decreased the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) beyond the physiological salt concentration.

  12. Oxygen therapy - infants (United States)

    ... may not work well and may die. Your baby may not grow properly. Many of the developing organs, including the brain and heart, may be injured. Too much oxygen can also cause injury. Breathing too much oxygen can damage the lung. ...

  13. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene


    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the histor...

  14. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry. (United States)

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H


    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults.

  16. Water quality improvement of a lagoon containing mixed chemical industrial wastewater by micro-electrolysis-contact oxidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-fei ZHOU; Mao LIU; Qiong WU


    A lagoon in the New Binhai District, a high-speed developing area, Tianjin, China, has long been receiving the mixed chemical industrial wastewater from a chemical industrial park. This lagoon contained complex hazardous substances such as heavy metals and accumulative pollutants which stayed over time with a poor biodegradability. According to the characteristics of wastewater in the lagoon, the micro-electrolysis process was applied to improve the biodegradability before the bioprocess treatment. By the orthogonal experimental study of main factors influencing the efficiency of the treatment method, the best control parameters were obtained, including pH=2.0, a volume ratio of Fe and reaction wastewater of 0.03750, a volume ratio of Fe and the granular activated carbon (GAC) of 2.0, a mixing speed of 200 r/min, and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.5 h. In the meantime, the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was up to 64.6%, and NH4-N and Pb in the influent were partly removed. After the micro-electrolysis process, the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD (B/C ratio) was greater than 0.6, thus providing a favorable basis for bioprocess treatment.

  17. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column. (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh


    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  18. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  19. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris


    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  20. Statistical analysis of the influence of major tributaries to the eco-chemical status of the Danube River. (United States)

    Ilijević, Konstantin; Obradović, Marko; Jevremović, Vesna; Gržetić, Ivan


    We have assembled and assessed the statistical procedure which is capable to objectively explore influence of the Danube's major tributaries (the Rivers Tisa, Sava, and Velika Morava) to its eco-chemical status. Procedure contains several tests for measurement of central tendencies: one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Various nuisance factors, (outliers, departures from normality, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity) which are present in large data bases, affect the objectivity of central tendency tests; therefore, it was important not only to estimate their robustness, but also to apply proper procedures for detection of the nuisance factors (Grubbs', generalized ESD-extreme Studentized deviate, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, turning point, Wald-Wolfowitz runs, Kendall rank, and Levene's tests) and to mitigate their influence (outlier exclusion, Box-Cox, and logarithmic transformations). The analysis of selected eco-chemical parameters: biological oxygen demand-5, chemical oxygen demand, UV extinction at 254 nm, dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, suspended matter, total phosphorus, phosphates, nitrates, ammonia, pH, total alkalinity, m-2p alkalinity, CO2, and temperature, was performed for 15 years period. The Tisa was the most polluted tributary, but its pollution load was not substantial enough to exceed the Danube self-purification potential. The City of Belgrade was also identified as serious pollution source. Assessment of assembled statistical procedure, which was based on the real environmental data, indicates that proposed tests are sufficiently robust to the observed level of nuisance factors with the exception of pronounced seasonality.

  1. Oxygen starvation analysis during air feeding faults in PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, Mathias [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DRT/LITEN, 17, rue des Martyrs -38000 Grenoble (France); University of Franche-Comte, FEMTO-ST ENISYS/FCLAB Laboratory, rue Thierry Mieg, bat. F -90010 Belfort (France); Poirot-Crouvezier, Jean-Philippe [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DRT/LITEN, 17, rue des Martyrs -38000 Grenoble (France); Hissel, Daniel; Pera, Marie-Cecile [University of Franche-Comte, FEMTO-ST ENISYS/FCLAB Laboratory, rue Thierry Mieg, bat. F -90010 Belfort (France)


    A new analysis of performance degradation during oxygen starvation of PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) is proposed in this paper. Oxygen starvation happens for several reasons like compressor delay, fault during peak power demand or water management issues. The consequences on fuel cell performance degradation are not still well understood. This paper proposes a complete study with experimental tests and modeling. Impacts on performance were investigated under oxygen starvation and effects on the local conditions in the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) were measured and modeled. In particular, current density measurements during oxygen starvation have been made with a specific bi-cell stack. Voltage oscillations were also found. Durability test have been realized on a PEMFC stack. Samples from the degraded MEA were analyzed by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). Degradation mechanisms are proposed and the local conditions during oxygen starvation are identified. (author)

  2. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison


    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at


    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  4. Rhenium/Oxygen Interactions at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Myers, Dwight; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Humphrey, Donald


    The oxidation of pure rhenium is examined from 600-1400 C in oxygen/argon mixtures. Linear weight loss kinetics are observed. Gas pressures, flow rates, and temperatures are methodically varied to determine the rate controlling steps. The reaction at 600 and 800 C appears to be controlled by a chemical reaction step at the surface; whereas the higher temperature reactions appear to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of oxygen to the rhenium surface. Attack of the rhenium appears to be along grain boundaries and crystallographic planes.



    Marsh, John M.


    Three methods of calculating the derived elasticity of demand for Choice slaughter beef are used: (a) a traditional marketing margin approach, (b) a modified marketing margin approach, and (c) an econometric, inverse demand model approach. The first method is more restrictive than the second but both tend to overestimate beef price flexibility and revenue changes. The econometric model, though an incomplete demand system, yields demand elasticities that are more consistent with marketing flex...

  6. Demand System Analysis of the South Korean Beef Market with the Free Trade Demand Model


    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn


    In this study a demand system analysis for beef in South Korea is constructed. A free trade demand system was used in which the economic welfare of market participants are maximized. Recognizing implicit discrimination about non-locally sourced beef products, this study deduces market demand equations with respect to consumer preference in order to identify the marginal effect of change consumer preference has on market demand.

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India (United States)

    Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.


    The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  8. Chemical Power for Microscopic Robots in Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, Tad


    The power available to microscopic robots (nanorobots) that oxidize bloodstream glucose while aggregated in circumferential rings on capillary walls is evaluated with a numerical model using axial symmetry and time-averaged release of oxygen from passing red blood cells. Robots about one micron in size can produce up to several tens of picowatts, in steady-state, if they fully use oxygen reaching their surface from the blood plasma. Robots with pumps and tanks for onboard oxygen storage could collect oxygen to support burst power demands two to three orders of magnitude larger. We evaluate effects of oxygen depletion and local heating on surrounding tissue. These results give the power constraints when robots rely entirely on ambient available oxygen and identify aspects of the robot design significantly affecting available power. More generally, our numerical model provides an approach to evaluating robot design choices for nanomedicine treatments in and near capillaries.

  9. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada. (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim


    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  10. Oxygen foreshock of Mars (United States)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Frahm, R. A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Holmström, M.; Barabash, S.


    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment's Ion Mass Analyser (IMA). On 21 September 2008, MEX/IMA detected foreshock-like discrete distributions of oxygen ions at around 1 keV in the solar wind attached to the bow shock and this distribution was observed continuously up to more than 2000 km from the bow shock. Foreshock-like protons are also observed but at a shifted location from the oxygen by about 1000 km, at a slightly higher energy, and flowing in a slightly different direction than the oxygen ions. Both protons and oxygen ions are flowing anti-sunward at different angles with respect to the solar wind direction. This is the first time that a substantial amount of planetary oxygen is observed upstream of the bow shock. Although rare, this is not the only IMA observation of foreshock-like oxygen: oxygen ions are sometimes observed for a short period of time (<5 min) inside the foreshock region. These observations suggest a new escape channel for planetary ions through the acceleration in the bow shock-magnetosheath region.

  11. Photo-oxidation: Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W.W.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Ruardij, P.


    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  12. Photo-oxidation : Major sink of oxygen in the ocean surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieskes, W. W. C.; Laane, R. W. P. M.; Ruardij, P.


    Evidence is presented that the oxygen demand associated with photochemical processes in the surface layer of oceans and seas worldwide is of the same order of magnitude as the amount of oxygen released by photosynthesis of the world's marine phytoplankton. Both estimates are of necessity quite rough

  13. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology: in greater demand than ever. (United States)

    Scheringer, Martin


    Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology have been losing support, resources, and recognition at universities for many years. What are the possible causes of this process? A first problem may be that the need for research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology is no longer seen because chemical pollution problems are considered as largely solved. Second, environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology may be seen as fields dominated by routine work and where there are not many interesting research questions left. A third part of the problem may be that other environmental impacts such as climate change are given higher priority than chemical pollution problems. Here, several cases are presented that illustrate the great demand for innovative research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology. It is crucial that environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology are rooted in academic science and are provided with sufficient equipment, resources, and prospects for development.

  14. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...

  15. The demand for dairy products in Malawi


    Akaichi, Faiçal; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar


    In this paper a multi-stage almost ideal demand system with censoring was estimated to assess Malawians’ demand for six dairy products (viz. fresh milk, powdered milk, margarine and butter, chambiko, yogurt and cheese). We found that the consumption of dairy products depended on whether the household was rural or urban, the region of the country (viz. North, Centre, South) and the household poverty status. The results also show that the demand for fresh and powdered milk, butter and margari...

  16. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos


    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  17. Flocculation and dewaterability of chemically enhanced primary treatment sludge by bioaugmentation with filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C


    In this study, filamentous fungal strains isolated from sewage sludge bioleached with iron-oxidizing bacteria were evaluated their effectiveness in improving the flocculation and dewaterability of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge. Augmentation of the pre-grown mycelial biomass in the CEPT sludge had no significant changes in sludge pH but, improved sludge dewaterability, as evidenced from the decrease in capillary suction time. Improvement on sludge flocculation and dewaterability depended on the fungal strains, and a pellet forming Penicillium sp. was more effective than the fungal isolates producing filamentous form of mycelial biomass due to entrapment of sludge solids onto mycelial pellets. Fungal treatment also reduced the chemical oxygen demand of the CEPT sludge by 35-76%. Supplementation metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Fe(3+)) to fungal pre-augmented sludge rapidly improved the sludge dewaterability. This study indicates that augmentation of selective fungal biomass can be a potential method for CEPT sludge flocculation and dewaterability.

  18. Using Low-Cost Iron-Based Materials as Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion Utilisation de matériaux bon marché à base de fer comme transporteur d’oxygène dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerndal E.


    Full Text Available In chemical looping combustion with solid fuels, the oxygen-carrier lifetime is expected to be shorter than with gaseous fuels. Therefore, it is particularly important to use low-cost oxygen carriers in solid fuel applications. Apart from being cheap, these oxygen carriers should be able to convert the CO and H2 produced from the solid fuel gasification and be sufficiently hard to withstand fragmentation. Several low-cost iron-based materials displayed high conversion of syngas and high mechanical strength and can be used for further development of the technology. These materials include oxide scales from Sandvik and Scana and an iron ore from LKAB. All tested oxygen carriers showed higher gas conversion than a reference sample, the mineral ilmenite. Generally, softer oxygen carriers were more porous and appeared to have a higher reactivity towards syngas. When compared with ilmenite, the conversion of CO was higher for all oxygen carriers and the conversion of H2 was higher when tested for longer reduction times. The oxygen carrier Sandvik 2 displayed the highest conversion of syngas and was therefore selected for solid fuel experiments. The conversion rate of solid fuels was higher with Sandvik 2 than with the reference sample, ilmenite. Pour appliquer la combustion en boucle chimique à des charges solides, il est important d’utiliser des matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène bon marché. En effet, la durée de vie du transporteur d’oxygène risque d’être plus courte sur charge solide que sur charge gazeuse. Ces matériaux doivent également bien convertir le monoxyde de carbone et l’hydrogène résultant de la gasification, tout en étant suffisamment durs pour résister à la fragmentation. Plusieurs matériaux ont montré un potentiel de conversion élevé sur le gaz de synthèse ainsi qu’une résistance mécanique élevée, ce qui permet d’envisager leur utilisation lors des développements futurs de la technologie. Parmi ces

  19. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  20. On-Demand Special Use Airspace Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We design and develop a Decision Support Tool (DST) that supports On-Demand Special Use Airspace (SUA) scheduling and flight plan optimization around SUA between...