WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical nitrate destruction

  1. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream

  2. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs

  3. Verification of Chemical Weapons Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  4. Hydrogen anode for nitrate waste destruction. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Kalu, E.E.; White, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes have been generated from nuclear materials production during the past fifty years. Processes are under evaluation to separate the high level radioactive species from the waste and store them permanently in the form of durable solids. The schemes proposed will separate the high level radioactive components, cesium-137 and strontium-90, into a small volume for incorporation into a glass wasteform. The remaining low-level radioactive waste contain species such as nitrites and nitrates that are capable of contaminating ground water. Electrochemical destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before permanent storage has been proposed. Not only will the electrochemical processing destroy these species, the volume of the waste could also be reduced. The use of a hydrogen gas-fed anode and an acid anolyte in an electrochemical cell used to destroy nitrate was demonstrated. A mixed Na 2 SO 4 /H 2 SO 4 anolyte was shown to favor the nitrate cell performance, and the generation of a higher hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte. The suggested scheme is an apparent method of sodium sulfate disposal and a possible means through which ammonia (to ammonium sulfate, fertilizer) and hydrogen gas could be recycled through the anode side of the reactor. This could result in a substantial savings in the operation of a nitrate destruction cell

  5. Destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides by hydrothermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Anderson, G.; Archuleta, F.; Atencio, J.; Breshears, D.; Brewer, R.; Eaton, H.; McFarland, R.; McInroy, R.; Reynolds, T.; Sedillo, M.; Wilmanns, E.; Buelow, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This work targets the remediation of the aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington via hydrothermal processing. The feasibility of destroying the nitrate, organic, and ferrocyanide components of the wastes under supercritical and near critical conditions (623 degree K to 873 degree K, 22.1 MPa to 103.4 MPa) is addressed. A novel method was developed for determining the solubility of nitrate salts in supercritical water solutions at pressures ranging from 24.8 MPa to 30.3 MPa (3600 psi to 4400 psi) and temperatures from 723 degree K to 798 degree K. Sodium nitrate solubilities ranged from 293 mg/kg at 24.8 MPa and 798 degree K to 1963 mg/kg at 30.3 MPa and 723 degree K. Solubility was found to vary directly with pressure, and inversely with temperature. An empirical relationship was developed for the estimation of sodium nitrate solubility at water densities between 0.08 and 0.16 kg/L and temperatures between 723 degree K and 798 degree K. A small volume batch reactor equipped with optical diagnostics was used to monitor the phase behavior of a diluted variant of a tank 101-SY simulant. Preliminary results suggest that a single phase is formed at 83 MPa at 773 degree K

  6. Electrochemical Destruction of Nitrates and Organics FY1995 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Production of nuclear materials within the DOE complex has yielded large volumes of high-level waste containing hazardous species such as nitrate, nitrite, chromium, and mercury. Processes being developed for the permanent disposal of these wastes are aimed at separating the bulk of the radioactivity, primarily 137-Cs and 90-Sr, into a small volume for incorporation into a vitrified wasteform, with the remainder being incorporated into a low-level wasteform

  7. Electrochemical destruction of organics and nitrates in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Lawrence, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has conducted an evaluation of electrochemical processing for use in radioactive tank waste cleanup activities. An electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) process was evaluated, with the main focus being the destruction of organic compounds (especially organic complexants of radionuclides) in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank wastes. A primary reason for destroying the organic species in the complexant concentrate tank waste is to decomplex/defunctionalize species that chelate radionuclides. the separations processes required to remove the radionuclides are much less efficient when chelators are present. A second objective, the destruction of nitrates and nitrites in the wastes, was also assessed. Organic compounds, nitrates, and nitrites may affect waste management and safety considerations, not only at Hanford but at other US Department of Energy sites that maintain high- level waste storage tanks

  8. Dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    The safe destruction and dismantling of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons is of fundamental importance to the security of all countries represented in this volume. Expertise in the field is not confined to one country or organisation: all can benefit from each other. There is an ever present danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: approximately two dozen countries have ongoing programmes to develop or acquire such weapons, and many are also gaining the capability to build air-surface delivery systems. But much can be done to prevent proliferation by reducing leakage of materials and know-how and by solving the problems of the destruction of surplus weapons systems, which has now come to be a key issue. In 13 sessions of the workshop attention was paid to (1) Dismantlement and Destruction of Chemical, Nuclear and Conventional Weapons; (2) Status of Implementation of Arms Control Treaties and Voluntary Commitments; (3) National Perspectives on Cooperation in Disarmament; (4) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Chemical Weapons; (5) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Nuclear Weapons; (6) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Conventional Weapons. Session; (7) Experience with Currently Employed Chemical Destruction Technologies; (8) Alternative Chemical Destruction Technologies; (9) Deactivation, Dismantlement and Destruction of Delivery Systems and Infrastructure for Nuclear Weapons; (10) Storage, Safeguarding and Disposition of Fissile Materials; (11) Technologies for Conversion and Civil Use of Demilitarized Materials; (12) International Organizations; and (13) Environmental Challenges Posed by Chemical and Nuclear Disarmament

  9. Recent canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Canadian chemical warfare agent destruction project (Swiftsure) was recently completed in which stockpiles of aged mustard, lewisite, nerve agents and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. The project scope, destruction technologies, environmental monitoring and public consultation programs are described.

  10. Chemical denitration of aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1987-11-01

    The Plant for Active Waste Liquids (PAWL) at CRNL will immobilize in glass the fission products in waste from Mo-99 production. The nitrate ions in the waste can be destroyed by heating, but also by chemical reaction with formic acid (HCOOH). Since chemical denitration has several advantages over thermal denitration it was studied in the course of vitrification process development. Two free radical mechanisms are examined here to explain kinetic data on chemical denitration of nitric acid solutions with formic acid. One mechanism is applicable at > 1 mol/L HNO 3 and involves the formate radical (HCOO . ). The second mechanism holds at 3 and involves the hyponitrous radical (HNO . ). Mass balances for various species were written based on the law of mass action applied to the equations describing the reaction mechanism. Analytical and numerical solutions were obtained and compared. Literature data on batch denitration were used to determine some of the rate constants while others were set arbitrarily. Observed stoichiometry and trends in reactant concentrations are predicted accurately for batch data. There are no literature data to compare with the prediction of negligible induction time

  11. Radiation, chemical and biological protection. Mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasek, D.; Svetlik, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this text-book mass destruction weapons and radiation, chemical and biological protection are reviewed. The text-book contains the following chapter: (1) Mass destruction weapons; (2) Matter and material; (3) Radioactive materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Biological resources; (6) Nuclear energetic equipment; Appendices; References.

  12. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda de Cancio, E.M.; Munoz, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author) [es

  13. Destructive electronics from electrochemical-mechanically triggered chemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Wang, Xu; Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Linghu, Changhong; Song, Jizhou; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The considerable need to enhance data and hardware security suggest one possible future for electronics where it is possible to destroy them and even make them disappear physically. This paper reports a type of destructive electronics which features fast transience from chemical dissolution on-demand triggered in an electrochemical-mechanical manner. The detailed materials, mechanics, and device construction of the destructive electronics are presented. Experiment and analysis of the triggered releasing and transience study of electronic materials, resistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors illustrate the key aspects of the destructive electronics. The reported destructive electronics is useful in a wide range of areas from security and defense, to medical applications (paper)

  14. Hydration-annealing of chemical radiation damage in calcium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.M.K.; James, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of hydration on the annealing of chemical radiation damage in anhydrous calcium nitrate has been investigated. Rehydration of the anhydrous irradiated nitrate induces direct recovery of the damage. The rehydrated salt is susceptible to thermal annealing but the extent of annealing is small compared to that in the anhydrous salt. The direct recovery of damage on rehydration is due to enhanced lattice mobility. The recovery process is unimolecular. (author)

  15. Radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The studies concerning the radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose, its ethers and some polysaccharides (xylan, starch, decstrans, chitin, chitosan and geparin) are discussed. Ionising irradiation causes the destruction of these compounds with the decay of pyranose ring, accompanied by the formation of compounds containing carbonyl or carboxyl groups, as well as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon oxide. The efficiency of radiation degradation increases with increasing the temperature and depends on the structure of polysaccharides and the nature of substituents. The mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and others polysaccharides is proposed. Prospects of the application of radiation-chemical methods of treatment of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture considered [ru

  16. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolisis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (author) [es

  17. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs

  18. The pollution of water by nitrates of chemical fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halwani, Jalal

    1998-01-01

    The following article is a literature review that summarizes results from field studies devoted to chemical analysis of water in Lebanon. Agricultural practices and the use of fertilizers may affect surface waters, ground water and drinking water. Much attention has been given to their environmental consequences, especially those related to water pollution by Nitrates and human health. The Nitrate content should not exceed in drinking water more than 50 mg/l for adults and 25 mg/l for children and pregnant women. Studies suggest incorporation of quick remedial measures to combat pollution in marine environments

  19. [Prospects in getting accordance between chemical analytic control means and medical technical requirements to safety system concerning chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembovskiĭ, V R; Mogilenkova, L A; Savel'eva, E I

    2005-01-01

    The major unit monitoring chemical weapons destruction objects is a system of chemical analyticcontrol over the technologic process procedures and possibility of environment and workplace pollution withtoxicchemicals and their destruction products. At the same time, physical and chemical control means meet sanitary and hygienic requirements incompletely. To provide efficient control, internationally recognized approaches should be adapted to features of Russian system monitoring pollution of chemical weapons destruction objects with toxic chemicals.

  20. Medical experimentation concerning chemical and biological weapons for mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Erwin

    2003-04-01

    This article is the text of a speech originally presented at the Second World Conference on Medical Ethics at Gijon, Spain, on 2 October 2002 under the title "Medical Experimentation Concerning Chemical and Biological Weapons for Mass Destruction: Clinical Design for New Smallpox Vaccines: Ethical and Legal Aspects." Experimentation on vaccines such as smallpox is subject to the usual ethical rules such as the need for informed consent. However, the participants will not often be at risk of catching the disease but expose themselves by taking part in the experimentation. Professor Deutsch explores the implications of this, including the position of vulnerable groups such as children, those with mental handicaps, and those acting under orders such as the miliary, the policy and fire officers.

  1. Nitrate and Perchlorate Destruction and Potable Water Production Using Membrane Biofilm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    NDMA N-nitrosodimethylamine NDPA N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine ng/L nanograms per liter NO2- nitrite NO3- nitrate NTU nephelometric turbidity units...Nitrosamines including N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N- nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ), and N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA) were below their

  2. Recent Canadian experience in chemical warfare agent destruction: An overview. Suffield report No. 626

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews a project in which stockpiles of aged mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide), lewisite (2-chlorovinyl-dichloro arsine), nerve agents, and contaminated scrap metal were incinerated or chemically neutralized in a safe, environmentally responsible manner. Sections of the paper describe the public consultation program conducted prior to destruction operations, the environmental assessment of the destruction projects, the environmental protection plan implemented to eliminate or mitigate risks with respect to the installation and operation of the destruction equipment, the environmental monitoring procedures, the agent destruction operations, and the destruction process performance, including incinerator emissions.

  3. [Changes in functional state during occupational activities in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied functional state before and after the working shift in workers at objects for chemical weapons destruction, analyzed changes in central and peripheral hemodynamics parameters, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm, stabilographic and psychophysiologic values.

  4. Evidence for midwinter chemical ozone destruction over Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voemel, H. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoffmann, D.J.; Oltmans, S.J.; Harris, J.M. [NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Two ozone profiles on June 15 and June 19, obtained over McMurdo, Antartica, showed a strong depletion in stratospheric ozone, and a simultaneous profile of water vapor on June 19 showed the first clear signs of dehydration. The observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) beginning with the first sounding showing ozone depletion, the indication of rehydration layers, which could be a sign for recent dehydration, and trajectory calculations indicate that the observed low ozone was not the result of transport from lower latitudes. during this time the vortex was strongly distorted, transporting PSC processed air well into sunlit latitudes where photochemical ozone destruction may have occurred. The correlation of ozone depletion and dehydration indicates that water ice PSCs provided the dominant surface for chlorine activation. An analysis of the time when the observed air masses could have formed type II PSCs for the first time limits the time scale for the observed ozone destruction to about 4 days.

  5. Chemical and electrochemical behaviour of halides in nitrate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkalenko, D.A.; Kudrya, S.A.; Delimarskij, Yu.K.; Antropov, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of improving the positive electrode characteristics of medium temperature lithium-nitrate element by means of adding alkali metal halogenides into nitrate melt is considered. The experiments have been made at the temperature of 150 deg C in (K, Na, Li) NO 3 melts of eutectic composition. It has been found that only at temperatures higher than 250 deg C in nitrate melts containing Li + and Na + cations, an interaction of nitrate ions with the added iodides is possible. The interaction does not take place in case of chloride, bromide, and fluoride additions. The waves of halogenide oxidation and reduction of the corresponding halogens have been identified. The analysis of the obtained experimental data shows that halogenide addition into nitrate melt does not result in speed increase of cathodic reduction of nitrate ions or in formation of a new cathode process at more positive potentials. A conclusion is made that halogenide addition into electrolyte of lithium-nitrate current source is inexpedient

  6. U.S. assistance in the destruction of Russia's chemical weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Mostoller, Eric Charles

    2000-01-01

    The thesis examines the present status of Russia's chemical weapons destruction program, which is to be implemented according to the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It assesses the magnitude of the challenges in destroying the world's largest chemical weapons stockpile, which is located at seven sites in western Russia. It also evaluates the environmental and international security concerns posed by the conditions at these sites and the disastrous implications of a failure of this che...

  7. Identification of Chemical Agents (Mimics) Residues after Destructive Adsorption Using TPD and UV-vis-IR and Raman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation was purchased that helps characterize the chemical structures and chemical reactions that occur when nanocrystalline metal oxides carry out destructive adsorption of chemical agents mimics. The residues (adducts...

  8. Isotopic and chemical aspects of nitrate in the groundwater of the Springbok Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, T H.E.

    1985-10-01

    Increases in the concentration of nitrate in groundwater are becoming a world-wide problem and are commonly ascribe to one or more of three factors associated with modern farming methods: increased fertilization, increased animal waste and increased cultivation. A combined isotopic ( VN/ UN) and chemical study of the high nitrate groundwater in the basalts of the Springbok Flats (Transvaal, South Africa) indicates that the third factor is the only important source of nitrate. Nitrification of the 'black turf' soils, accelerated by the expansion of cultivation, has resulted in most of the shallow groundwater having nitrate concentrations higher than the 'maximum allowable' limit for domestic water supply and the concentrations are still increasing. Modification of farming practices has been suggested in some countries, as a means of controlling both the increase in groundwater nitrate and the attendant decrease in soil fertility.

  9. Isotopic and chemical aspects of nitrate in the groundwater of the Springbok Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of nitrate in groundwater are becoming a world-wide problem and are commonly ascribe to one or more of three factors associated with modern farming methods: increased fertilization, increased animal waste and increased cultivation. A combined isotopic ( 15 N/ 14 N) and chemical study of the high nitrate groundwater in the basalts of the Springbok Flats (Transvaal, South Africa) indicates that the third factor is the only important source of nitrate. Nitrification of the 'black turf' soils, accelerated by the expansion of cultivation, has resulted in most of the shallow groundwater having nitrate concentrations higher than the 'maximum allowable' limit for domestic water supply and the concentrations are still increasing. Modification of farming practices has been suggested in some countries, as a means of controlling both the increase in groundwater nitrate and the attendant decrease in soil fertility

  10. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  11. Annealing of chemical radiation damage in zirconium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahamood, Aysha; Chandunni, E.; Nair, S.M.K.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic study of the annealing of γ-irradiation damage in zirconium nitrate is presented. The annealing can be represented as a combination of a first order and a second order process. It is considered that the first order process is the combination of close correlated pairs of Osup(-) and NO fragments and the second order process involves the single reaction of random recombination of the fragments throughout the crystal. (auth.)

  12. Chemical resistance of valve packing and sealing materials to molten nitrate salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between a number of compression packings and sealing materials and molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate was evaluated at temperatures of 288 0 C (550 0 F), 400 0 C (750 0 F), and 565 0 C (1050 0 F). The types of packing materials tested included graphite, asbestos, PTFE, aramid, glass and ceramic fibers; perfluoroelastomers, and boron nitride. Several materials were chemically resistant to the molten salt at 288 0 C, but the compatibility of packings at 400 0 C and 565 0 C was not adequate. The chemical and physical phenomena affecting compatibility are discussed and recommendations concerning materials selection are made

  13. Evaluating Chemical Tracers in Suburban Groundwater as Indicators of Nitrate-Nitrogen Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitka, A.; DeVita, W. M.; McGinley, P.

    2015-12-01

    The CDC reports that over 15 million US households use private wells. These wells are vulnerable to contamination. One of the most common contaminants in private wells is nitrate. Nitrate has a health standard of 10 mg/L. This standard is set to prevent methemaglobinemia, or "blue baby" syndrome, in infants. In extreme cases it can affect breathing and heart function, and even lead to death. Elevated nitrate concentrations have also been associated with increased risk of thyroid disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Unlike municipal wells, there is no mandatory testing of private wells. It is the responsibility of users to have their well water tested. The objective of this research was to identify the most useful chemical tracers for determining sources of nitrate in private water supplies. Chemical characteristics, such as mobility in groundwater and water solubility, as well as frequency of use, were considered when choosing source indicators. Fourteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products unique to human use were chosen to identify wells impacted by septic waste. A bovine antibiotic and five pesticide metabolites were used to identify contamination from agricultural sources. Eighteen private wells were selected in a suburban area with septic systems and adjacent agricultural land. The wells were sampled five times and analyzed to provide a temporal profile of nitrate and the tracers. The artificial sweetener sucralose was found in >70% of private wells. Wells with sucralose detected had nitrate concentrations between 5-15 mg/L. The herbicide metabolite metolachlor ESA was detected in 50% of the wells. These wells typically had the highest nitrate concentrations, often >10 mg/L. The common use and frequent detection of these two compounds made them the most reliable indicators of nitrate sources evaluated in this study. This information will help well owners determine appropriate treatment and remediation options and could direct future

  14. Effect of USY zeolite chemical treatment with ammonium nitrate on its VGO hydrocracking performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo, J.L.; Hensen, Emiel; Giraldo, S.A.; Hoyos, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Chemically modified USY zeolites were obtained by ammonium nitrate (AN) treatment under hydrothermal conditions. AN treatment considerably enhanced the mesopore volume of the parent steam-treated zeolite. This treatment also caused the creation of extraframework species of weak acid nature.

  15. Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

  16. [In-hospital management of victims of chemical weapons of mass destruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Alessandro; Gargano, Flavio; Proietti, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    Emergency situations caused by chemical weapons of mass destruction add a new dimension of risk to those handling and treating casualties. The fundamental difference between a hazardous materials incident and conventional emergencies is the potential for risk from contamination to health care professionals, patients, equipment and facilities of the Emergency Department. Accurate and specific guidance is needed to describe the procedures to be followed by emergency medical personnel to safely care for a patient, as well as to protect equipment and people. This review is designed to familiarize readers with the concepts, terminology and key operational considerations that affect the in-hospital management of incidents by chemical weapons.

  17. [Anniversary of the medical department of the Federal Office for Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'menko, I E

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the process of formation and development of CW destruction management system and medical support of professional activities of personnel. Founders of Medical department of the Federal Directorate for Safe Storage and Destruction of Chemical Weapons are presented. Main principles and ways of working of medical department in specific conditions are covered.

  18. High-Resolution and Non-destructive Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Nitrate and Its Dynamics in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Leaves by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yu Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important component of the nitrogen cycle and is therefore present in all plants. However, excessive nitrogen fertilization results in a high nitrate content in vegetables, which is unhealthy for humans. Understanding the spatial distribution of nitrate in leaves is beneficial for improving nitrogen assimilation efficiency and reducing its content in vegetables. In this study, near-infrared (NIR hyperspectral imaging was used for the non-destructive and effective evaluation of nitrate content in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Leaf samples with different nitrate contents were collected under various fertilization conditions, and reference data were obtained using reflectometer apparatus RQflex 10. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that there was a high correlation between the reference data and NIR spectra (r2 = 0.74, root mean squared error of cross-validation = 710.16 mg/kg. Furthermore, the nitrate content in spinach leaves was successfully mapped at a high spatial resolution, clearly displaying its distribution in the petiole, vein, and blade. Finally, the mapping results demonstrated dynamic changes in the nitrate content in intact leaf samples under different storage conditions, showing the value of this non-destructive tool for future analyses of the nitrate content in vegetables.

  19. Destruction of chemical warfare surrogates using a portable atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škoro, Nikola; Puač, Nevena; Živković, Suzana; Krstić-Milošević, Dijana; Cvelbar, Uroš; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj.

    2018-01-01

    Today's reality is connected with mitigation of threats from the new chemical and biological warfare agents. A novel investigation of cold plasmas in contact with liquids presented in this paper demonstrated that the chemically reactive environment produced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is potentially capable of rapid destruction of chemical warfare agents in a broad spectrum. The decontamination of three different chemical warfare agent surrogates dissolved in liquid is investigated by using an easily transportable APPJ. The jet is powered by a kHz signal source connected to a low-voltage DC source and with He as working gas. The detailed investigation of electrical properties is performed for various plasmas at different distances from the sample. The measurements of plasma properties in situ are supported by the optical spectrometry measurements, whereas the high performance liquid chromatography measurements before and after the treatment of aqueous solutions of Malathion, Fenitrothion and Dimethyl Methylphosphonate. These solutions are used to evaluate destruction and its efficiency for specific neural agent simulants. The particular removal rates are found to be from 56% up to 96% during 10 min treatment. The data obtained provide basis to evaluate APPJ's efficiency at different operating conditions. The presented results are promising and could be improved with different operating conditions and optimization of the decontamination process.

  20. Procedure of Destructive Chemical Recovery of Precious Metals in Nitric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić, M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the nitric acid production process is the chemical reactor containing a platinum-based catalyst pack and an associated catchment system, which allows the ammonia oxidation reaction to take place efficiently. Under the severe operating conditions imposed by the high-pressure ammonia oxidation process, the catalyst gauzes experience progressive deterioration, as shown by the restricted surface of the catalyst wires, the loss of catalytic activity and the loss of catalytic materials. The higher the pressure of gaseous ammonia oxidation, the greater the loss of platinum group metals from the surface of the applied selective heterogeneous catalysts. Total losses for one batch over the whole period of using selective heterogeneous catalysts may account in the range from 20 to 40 % of the total installed quantity of precious metals. An important part of the platinum removed from the platinum-rhodium alloy wires can be recovered at the outlet of the reactor by means of palladium catchment gauzes. However, this catchment process, which is based on the great ability of palladium to alloy with platinum, is not 100 % effective and a fraction of the platinum and practically all of the rhodium lost by the catalyst wires, evades the catchment package and is then deposited in other parts of the plant, especially heat exchangers. From the above mentioned operating equipment, the retained mass of precious metals can be recovered by the technical procedure of non-destructive and destructive chemical solid-liquid extraction.Shown is the technical procedure of destructive chemical recovery of preheater and boiler for preheating and production of steam by applying sulfuric acid (w = 20 % and subsequent procedure of raffination of derived sludge, to the final recovery of precious metals. The technical procedure of destructive chemical recovery of precious metals from preheater and boiler for preheating and production of steam in nitric acid production is

  1. Application of infrared spectroscopy for study of chemical bonds in complexes of rare earth nitrates with alkylammonium nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, V.D.; Chudinov, Eh.G.

    1974-01-01

    The IR absorption spectra for the tri-n-octylamine, methyl-di-n-octylamine, their nitrates and complexes with the rare element nitrates are obtained. The IR spectra analysis of the complexes has suggested that the degree of covalent character bond of a nitrate with a metal grows with the atomic number of the element. Based on the comparison of the obtained data with those available in literature for various rare-earth complexes a conclusion is made that the bond character of a metal with nitrate groups is influenced by all ligands constituting the inner coordinating sphere. As the donor capacity of a ligand grows the covalent character of the metal-nitrate bond is enhanced. The replacement of the outer-sphere cations (trioctylammonium or methyldioctylammonium) only slightly affects the bond character of a metal with the nitrate group. The distribution coefficients in the rare-earth series are shown to decrease as the electrostatic part in the metal-nitrate declines. The phenomenon is attributed to the competition between nitrate and water for the metal bond as concurrently with the intensification of metal-nitrate covalent bond in the organic phase the strength of metal hydrates in aqueous phase grows much faster. (author)

  2. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  3. Detection of methyl-, dimethyl- and diethylamine using a nitrate-based chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, T.; Smith, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    New particle formation is one of the main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) contributing approximately half of the global CCN budget. The initial steps of nucleation have been studied for decades and it is widely accepted that in most places nucleation requires presence of sulphuric acid (SA) and cluster-stabilizing vapours. Recent results from the CLOUD chamber show that only a few pptv levels of dimethylamine (DMA) with SA forms stable clusters at boundary layer conditions. Ambient sulphuric acid is typically measured using nitrate-based chemical ionization mass spectrometers. Unfortunately, because of higher volatilities and stickiness of amines to surfaces, amine measurement techniques suffer from memory effects and high detection limits. Recently it was discovered that DMA can be detected by utilizing nitrate ionization, simultaneously with sulphuric acid measurements. Here we present results of detecting methylamine, dimethylamine and diethylamine using nitrate-based chemical ionization. We conducted a series of measurements with a home-built transverse chemical ionization inlet and a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-HToF). Amine vapour was produced using permeation tubes. Three stages of dilution were applied at roughly one order-of-magnitude dilution per stage. The diluted flow of selected amine was then introduced to a sample flow rate of 7 slpm, thus achieving a final amine concentration of 10 pptv. All selected amines were detected as clusters with HNO3NO3- and showed linear response with increasing concentrations (0.5-minute integration time). Zero measurements were performed using clean nitrogen gas right after injection of a selected amine. Memory effects were only observed when using high amine concentrations (ppbv levels). Our results indicate that a variety of amines can be detected using nitrate-based chemical ionization mass spectrometers. However, more experiments are required to see if this presented method will be

  4. Characterization of nitrated sugar alcohols by atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrinskaya, Alla; Kelley, Jude A; Kunz, Roderick R

    2017-02-28

    The nitrated sugar alcohols mannitol hexanitrate (MHN), sorbitol hexanitrate (SHN) and xylitol pentanitrate (XPN) are in the same class of compounds as the powerful military-grade explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and the homemade explosive erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) but, unlike for PETN and ETN, ways to detect MHN, SHN and XPN by mass spectrometry (MS) have not been fully investigated. Atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was used to detect ions characteristic of nitrated sugar alcohols. APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-TOF MS) and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS) were used for confirmation of each ion assignment. In addition, the use of the chemical ionization reagent dichloromethane was investigated to improve sensitivity and selectivity for detection of MHN, SHN and XPN. All the nitrated sugar alcohols studied followed similar fragmentation pathways in the APCI source. MHN, SHN and XPN were detectable as fragment ions formed by the loss of NO 2 , HNO 2 , NO 3 , and CH 2 NO 2 groups, and in the presence of dichloromethane chlorinated adduct ions were observed. It was determined that in MS/MS mode, chlorinated adducts of MHN and SHN had the lowest limits of detection (LODs), while for XPN the lowest LOD was for the [XPN-NO 2 ] - fragment ion. Partially nitrated analogs of each of the three compounds were also present in the starting materials, and ions attributable to these compounds versus those formed from in-source fragmentation of MHN, SHN, and XPN were distinguished and assigned using liquid chromatography APCI-MS and ESI-MS. The APCI-MS technique provides a selective and sensitive method for the detection of nitrated sugar alcohols. The methods disclosed here will benefit the area of explosives trace detection for counterterrorism and forensics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of liquid-phase oxidation for the destruction of potential chemical terrorism agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Li, K.; Kuang, W.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Potaraju, S.; Velicogna, D.; Obenauf, A. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are designed to protect crops and livestock against insects, fungi or nuisance plants, the toxicity of these compounds is not limited to target species. Organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides all target the nervous systems of insects. This paper assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced oxidation process using peroxycarboxylic acids for the liquid-phase destruction of toxic industrial chemicals, considered to be potential agents of chemical terrorism. Peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and peroxypropionic acid (PPA) were tested as decontamination agents on organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The processes were reviewed in relation to the terms of percent agent destruction over time, with a target of 90 per cent destruction within 30 minutes. Effectiveness was also assessed on the accumulation of toxic by-products. A background of the pesticides was presented, as well as details of their various applications. The molecular structures of the compounds were also provided. Oxidation extraction procedures, materials and methods were also presented, as well as analytical techniques, method detection limits and issues concerning reproducibility. The pH profile of PAA and PPA as a function of the concentration in acid was studied in order to determine which was more likely to be corrosive. It was concluded that peroxycarboxylic acids are effective decontamination agents for organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides. PAA and PPA are equally effective in degrading the examined pesticides, however, greater amounts of toxic by-products are found with PPA than with PAA. Neither PAA nor PPA were able to degrade lindane, and more lindane was found in the treated samples than in the controls. It was noted that time profiles for lower concentrations of peroxycarboxylic acids and pH profiles are currently being developed. It was suggested that further research in this area included degradation experiments on various types of

  6. Analytical technique to address terrorist threats by chemical weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick M.

    1997-01-01

    Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.

  7. Assessment of chromatographic methods for the chemical stability of a new miconazole nitrate cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar; Calzadilla Aguiar, Wendy; Rodriguez Bencomo, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    To assess the chromatographic methods for the chemical stability of a new 2 % miconazol nitrate cream. arious degradation conditions were firstly used in the raw material miconazole nitrate in order to obtain the possible degradation products of this drug and to evaluate them by thin layer chromatography-based method, which was validated to identify the degradation products in the new cream. The performance of the official method based on high resolution liquid chromatography and reported in British Pharmacopoeia 2010 was evaluated, and its selectivity against the possible degradation products were also analyzed. Both chromatographic methods were applied to the analysis of cream samples from the three pilot batches under heat stress for 30 days

  8. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  9. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  10. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  11. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  12. Some Technical Questions of Destruction of Chemical Artillery Arms for Object in Kizner (Udmurtia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.

    2007-01-01

    On object in settlement Kizner (Udmurtia) contains more than 2 million of artillery shells with POS. The beginning of construction of object according to new variant of the Program of the CWD in the Russian Federation, accepted at the end of 2005, is supposed in 2007. The ending of works will be in 2012. The general approaches to neutralization of chemical artillery arms in the Russian technologies of the CWD are considered. The analysis of some problem technological moments is carried out. It is marked, that the technology includes 3 stages of processing of shells, that demands the control of safety of realization of operations at all stages, and also the control of quantity of process able arms. Prospective technology of neutralization of reactionary masses for object in Kizner causes the certain doubts since results in formation of a plenty of oxides of nitrogen. From the carried out analysis it is possible to make a conclusion, that some technical questions of destruction of chemical artillery arms can result to that works on the CWD in the Russian Federation can be not completed in 2012. (author)

  13. Some Technical Questions of Destruction of Chemical Artillery Arms for Object in Kizner (Udmurtia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V [Institute of Applied Mechanics UrB of the Russian Academy of Science, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    On object in settlement Kizner (Udmurtia) contains more than 2 million of artillery shells with POS. The beginning of construction of object according to new variant of the Program of the CWD in the Russian Federation, accepted at the end of 2005, is supposed in 2007. The ending of works will be in 2012. The general approaches to neutralization of chemical artillery arms in the Russian technologies of the CWD are considered. The analysis of some problem technological moments is carried out. It is marked, that the technology includes 3 stages of processing of shells, that demands the control of safety of realization of operations at all stages, and also the control of quantity of process able arms. Prospective technology of neutralization of reactionary masses for object in Kizner causes the certain doubts since results in formation of a plenty of oxides of nitrogen. From the carried out analysis it is possible to make a conclusion, that some technical questions of destruction of chemical artillery arms can result to that works on the CWD in the Russian Federation can be not completed in 2012. (author)

  14. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  15. Autonomous bio-chemical decontaminator (ABCD) against weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinthe, Berg P.

    2006-05-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the use of such elements pose an eminent asymmetric threat with disastrous consequences to the national security of any nation. In particular, the use of biochemical warfare agents against civilians and unprotected troops in international conflicts or by terrorists against civilians is considered as a very peculiar threat. Accordingly, taking a quarantine-before-inhalation approach to biochemical warfare, the author introduces the notion of autonomous biochemical decontamination against WMD. In the unfortunate event of a biochemical attack, the apparatus proposed herein is intended to automatically detect, identify, and more importantly neutralize a biochemical threat. Along with warnings concerning a cyber-WMD nexus, various sections cover discussions on human senses and computer sensors, corroborating evidence related to detection and neutralization of chemical toxins, and cyber-assisted olfaction in stand alone, peer-to-peer, and network settings. In essence, the apparatus can be used in aviation and mass transit security to initiate mass decontamination by dispersing a decontaminant aerosol or to protect the public water supply against a potential bioterrorist attack. Future effort may involve a system-on-chip (SoC) embodiment of this apparatus that allows a safer environment for the emerging phenomenon of cyber-assisted olfaction and morph cell phones into ubiquitous sensors/decontaminators. Although this paper covers mechanisms and protocols to avail a neutralizing substance, further research will need to explore the substance's various pharmacological profiles and potential side effects.

  16. Characterization of organic nitrate constituents of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of limonene using high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faxon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase nitrate radical (NO3⚫ initiated oxidation of limonene can produce organic nitrate species with varying physical properties. Low-volatility products can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and organic nitrates may serve as a NOx reservoir, which could be especially important in regions with high biogenic emissions. This work presents the measurement results from flow reactor studies on the reaction of NO3⚫ with limonene using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS combined with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO. Major condensed-phase species were compared to those in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM limonene mechanism, and many non-listed species were identified. The volatility properties of the most prevalent organic nitrates in the produced SOA were determined. Analysis of multiple experiments resulted in the identification of several dominant species (including C10H15NO6, C10H17NO6, C8H11NO6, C10H17NO7, and C9H13NO7 that occurred in the SOA under all conditions considered. Additionally, the formation of dimers was consistently observed and these species resided almost completely in the particle phase. The identities of these species are discussed, and formation mechanisms are proposed. Cluster analysis of the desorption temperatures corresponding to the analyzed particle-phase species yielded at least five distinct groupings based on a combination of molecular weight and desorption profile. Overall, the results indicate that the oxidation of limonene by NO3⚫ produces a complex mixture of highly oxygenated monomer and dimer products that contribute to SOA formation.

  17. Characterization of organic nitrate constituents of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of limonene using high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxon, Cameron; Hammes, Julia; Le Breton, Michael; Kant Pathak, Ravi; Hallquist, Mattias

    2018-04-01

    The gas-phase nitrate radical (NO3⚫) initiated oxidation of limonene can produce organic nitrate species with varying physical properties. Low-volatility products can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic nitrates may serve as a NOx reservoir, which could be especially important in regions with high biogenic emissions. This work presents the measurement results from flow reactor studies on the reaction of NO3⚫ with limonene using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) combined with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). Major condensed-phase species were compared to those in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) limonene mechanism, and many non-listed species were identified. The volatility properties of the most prevalent organic nitrates in the produced SOA were determined. Analysis of multiple experiments resulted in the identification of several dominant species (including C10H15NO6, C10H17NO6, C8H11NO6, C10H17NO7, and C9H13NO7) that occurred in the SOA under all conditions considered. Additionally, the formation of dimers was consistently observed and these species resided almost completely in the particle phase. The identities of these species are discussed, and formation mechanisms are proposed. Cluster analysis of the desorption temperatures corresponding to the analyzed particle-phase species yielded at least five distinct groupings based on a combination of molecular weight and desorption profile. Overall, the results indicate that the oxidation of limonene by NO3⚫ produces a complex mixture of highly oxygenated monomer and dimer products that contribute to SOA formation.

  18. Chemical effects induced by dissolving γ-irradiated alkali halides in aqueous nitrate, permanganate and chromate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Bapat, L.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Dissolution of γ-irradiated alkali halides in aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate, potassium permanganate and potassium chromate at neutral pH induces chemical changes leading to the formation of NO 2 - in nitrate, Mn(IV) and Cr(III) species in permanganate and chromate solutions, respectively. Further, the studies on nitrate and permanganate systems show that the amount of NO 2 - and Mn(IV) formed grows by increasing the dose of γ-irradiation of the salt and the amount of irradiated salt. Moreover, the extent of chemical changes effected by irradiated chlorides has been found to be more than that of bromides. The mesh size of the irradiated salt and the presence of scavengers like I - and methanol in the system, affects the yield of NO 2 - . (author)

  19. Abiotic pyrite reactivity versus nitrate, selenate and selenite using chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiadis, I.; Betelu, S.; Gaucher, E.; Tournassat, C.; Chainet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work is part of ReCosy European project (www.recosy.eu), whose main objectives are the sound understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release/retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to performance assessment/safety case. Redox is one of the main factor affecting speciation and mobility of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Thus, it is of a great importance to investigate the redox reactivity of the host radioactive waste formations, particularly when exposed to redox perturbations. Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx), a clay rock known as an anoxic and reducing system, was selected in France as the most suitable location to store nuclear waste. Iron (II) sulfide, mostly constituted of pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron (II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter are considered to account almost entirely for the total reducing capacity of the rock. We report here the redox reactivity of pyrite upon exposure to nitrate (N(V)), selenate (Se(VI)) and selenite (Se(IV)) that possibly occur in the nuclear storage. Both, chemical and electrochemical kinetic approaches were simultaneously conducted such as to (i) determine the kinetics parameters of the reactions and (ii) understand the kinetic mechanisms. In order to reach similar conditions that are encountered in the storage system, all experiments were realised in NaCl 0.1 M, near neutral pH solutions, and an abiotic glove box (O 2 less than 10 -8 M). Chemical approach has consisted to set in contact pyrite in grains with solutions containing respectively nitrate, selenate and selenite. Reactants and products chemical analyses, conducted at different contact times, allowed us to assess the kinetics of oxidant reduction. Electrochemical approach has consisted in the continuous or semi-continuous analysis of large surface pyrite electrodes immersed in solutions with or without oxidant (nitrate

  20. Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Ralf

    2006-09-01

    The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest.

  1. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite; Dosimetria quimica de la radiacion aplicacion del sistema nitrato-nitrito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormo Ferrero, M J

    1977-07-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs.

  2. Chemical aspects of gadolinium nitrate as soluble nuclear poison in Savannah River Plant reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    The aqueous solution chemistry of gadolinium nitrate was studied to identify conditions that interfere with successful cleanup of gadolinium in Savannah River Plant reactor systems. Injecting a gadolinium nitrate solution into the D 2 O coolant-moderator constitutes a supplementary mode of reactor shutdown. The resulting approximately 0.001M gadolinium nitrate solution is then deionized by recirculation through mixed-bed ion exchange resins before reactor operation is resumed

  3. Effects of 1-Alkyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nitrate on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Microbial Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongtong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhiqiang; Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), also called room temperature ILs, are widely applied in many fields on the basis of their unique physical and chemical properties. However, numerous ILs may be released into and gradually accumulate in the environment due to their extensive use and absolute solubility. The effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C n mim]NO 3 , n = 4, 6, 8) on soil pH, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen were examined at the doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg on days 10, 20, 30, and 40. The results demonstrated that the soil pH decreased and the conductivity increased with increasing IL doses. No significant differences were observed in the soil cation-exchange capacity. All three of the tested ILs decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Additionally, there were few differences among the ILs with different alkyl chain lengths on the tested indicators except for the microbial biomass nitrogen. The present study addressed a gap in the literature regarding the effects of the aforementioned ILs with different alkyl side chains on the physicochemical properties of soil, and the results could provide the basic data for future studies on their toxicity to soil organisms, such as earthworms and soil microbes.

  4. Study of novel mechano-chemical activation process of red mud to optimize nitrate removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighardashi, A; Gharibi, H R; Raygan, Sh; Akbarzadeh, A

    2016-01-01

    Red mud (RM) is the industrial waste of alumina production and causes serious environmental risks. In this paper, a novel activation procedure for RM (mechano-chemical processing) is proposed in order to improve the nitrate adsorption from water. High-energy milling and acidification were selected as mechanical and chemical activation methods, respectively. Synthesized samples of adsorbent were produced considering two parameters of activation: acid concentrations and acidification time in two selected milling times. Optimization of the activation process was based on nitrate removal from a stock solution. Experimental data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis methods to verify and discover the accuracy and probable errors. Best conditions (acceptable removal percentage > 75) were 17.6% w/w for acid concentrate and 19.9 minutes for acidification time in 8 hours for milling time. A direct relationship between increase in nitrate removal and increasing the acid concentration and acidification time was observed. The adsorption isotherms were studied and compared with other nitrate adsorbents. Characterization tests (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, surface area analysis and scanning electron microscopy) were conducted for both raw and activated adsorbents. Results showed noticeable superiority in characteristics after activation: higher specific area and porosity, lower particle size and lower agglomeration in structure.

  5. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wen [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Baoyu, E-mail: bygao@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao [Jinan Water and Wastewater Monitoring Center, 250033 Jinan (China)

    2016-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Scheme of mechanism for HCl and NaCl regeneration of MAB-CS. - Highlights: • Magnetic amine-crosslinked bio-adsorbent was prepared for nitrate uptake. • The characters of adsorbent were determined by VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. • This novel bio-adsorbent could achieve rapid separation from effluents. • Chemical regeneration of the saturated magnetic bio-adsorbent was conducted. • The adsorption followed the pseudo second order model and Langmuir model. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0∼9.0, and the presence of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R{sup 2} = 0.997–0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R{sup 2} = 0.953–0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118∼147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  6. Nitrate leaching as a confounding factor in chemical recovery from acidification in UK upland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.J.; Evans, C.D.; Helliwell, R.C.; Monteith, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Over the period 1988-2002, data from 18 of the 22 lakes and streams in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWMN) show clear trends of declining excess sulphate concentrations in response to reductions in sulphur deposition, but fewer trends in increasing pH or alkalinity. There has been no significant decline in the deposition of total nitrogen over the same period, and no sites show a trend in nitrate concentration. Peak nitrate concentrations have already surpassed excess sulphate on occasion in half of the AWMN sites. Furthermore, current understanding of terrestrial N saturation processes suggests that nitrate leaching from soils may increase, even under a constant N deposition load. Best-case projections indicate that nitrate will overtake sulphate as the major excess acid anion in many sites within 10 years, while worst-case predictions with steady-state models suggest that in the longer-term, nitrate could become the dominant excess acid anion in most of the UK. - With declining excess sulphate, nitrate will become the dominant agent of continued anthropogenic acidification in many UK upland waters within a decade

  7. Destruction and waste treatment methods used in a chemical agent disposal project. Memorandum report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.; Fedor, V.; Kinderwater, T.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and methods used to thermally decontaminate scrap metal and destroy stockpiles of nerve agents, mustard and lewisite chemical warfare agents. Mustard was destroyed by direct incineration whereas the nerve agents and lewisite were chemically neutralized. The arsenic waste from the lewisite neutralization process was chemically-fixated in concrete for final disposal by landfilling. The scrap metal was incinerated and rendered suitable for recycling into metal feedstock.

  8. U.S. Assistance in the Destruction of Russia's Chemical Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mostoller, Eric

    2000-01-01

    .... It also evaluates the environmental and international security concerns posed by the conditions at these sites and the disastrous implications of a failure of this chemical demilitarization program...

  9. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  10. N-propyl nitrate vibrational spectrum analysis using DFT B3LYP quantum-chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhullina, R. M.; Hrapkovsky, G. M.; Shaikhullina, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of a molecular structure, conformation and related vibrational spectra of the n- propyl nitrate C3H7NO3 was carried out by means of density functional theory (DFT) by employing the Gaussian 03 package. The molecular geometries were fully optimized by using the Becker's three-parameter hybrid exchange functional combined with the Lee–Yang–Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) and using the 6-31G(d) basis set. By scanning the dihedral angles around C-O and C-C bonds, five energetically most favorable conformers of n-propyl nitrate - TG, TT, GT, GG and G´G forms were found. Vibrational spectra of the most energetically favorable conformers were calculated. The comparative analysis of calculated and experimental spectra is carried out, the spectral features of the conformational state of n-propyl nitrate and the spectral effects of formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds are established.

  11. Heterogeneous chemical reaction of chlorine nitrate and water on sulfuric-acid surfaces at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of H2SO4 as a catalyst for aerosol production of chlorine compounds in the chemistry of the antarctic stratosphere was investigated in laboratory trials. The experiments involved the gas surface collision rate of a molecule on a given surface during its residence time in a Knudsen cell in molecular flow conditions. Chlorine nitrate gas was made to flow through a chamber exposed to a container holding a 95.6 pct H2SO4 solution. Gas leaving the cell was scanned with a mass spectrometer. A sticking coefficient of 0.00032 was found for the chlorine nitrate, a value five times that previously reported.

  12. Chemical perspectives on alkali and earth alkaline nitrate and nitrite salts for concentrated solar power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph G. [Sandia National Labsoratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Molten salts have been widely considered as the leading candidate heat transfer fluids (HTF) used in high temperature, concentrated solar power plants. Specifically, nitrate and nitrite based salts have been investigated as a HTF and even deployed in pilot plants generating up to 19.9 MW of electricity at operating temperatures above 500 C. New plant designs requiring higher operating temperatures for better efficiencies are pushing the stability limit of HTF. This paper presents an overview of the thermophysical properties of nitrate and nitrite salts and discusses thermodynamic and kinetic stability limitations as they relate to concentrated solar power generation. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of Organic Nitrate Formation in Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol using High-Resolution Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxon, Cameron; Hammes, Julia; Peng, Jianfei; Hallquist, Mattias; Pathak, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    Previous work has shown that organic nitrates (RONO2) are prevalent in the boundary layer, and can contribute significantly to secondary organic aerosol formation. Monoterpenes, including limonene, have been shown to be precursors for the formation of these organic nitrates. Limonene has two double bonds, either of which may be oxidized by NO3 or O3. This leads to the generation of products that can subsequently condense or partition into the particle phase, producing secondary organic aerosol. In order to further elucidate the particle and gas phase product distribution of organic nitrates forming from the reactions of limonene and the nitrate radical (NO3), a series of experiments were performed in the Gothenburg Flow Reactor for Oxidation Studies at Low Temperatures (G-FROST), described by previous work. N2O5 was used as the source for NO3 and NO2, and a characterized diffusion source was used to introduce limonene into the flow reactor. All experiments were conducted in the absence of light, and the concentration of limonene was increased step-wise throughout each experiment to modify the ratio of N2O5to limonene. The experiments were conducted such that both limonene- and N2O5-limited regimes were present. Gas and particle phase products were measured using an iodide High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO, and particle size and SOA mass concentrations were derived using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). CIMS measurement techniques have previously been employed for the measurement of organic nitrate products of such compounds using multiple reagent ions. The use of this instrumentation allowed for the identification of chemical formulas for gas and particle phase species. The findings from the experiments will be presented in terms of the relative gas-particle partitioning of major products and the effects of N2O5/limonene ratios on product distributions. Additionally, a

  14. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  15. Destruction of Chemical Weapons: Evaluation of the Donovan Contained Detonation Chamber (CDC) Poelkapelle, Belgium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeBisschop, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    The Royal Military Academy (RMA) of Belgium was requested by the Belgium Minister of Defense to study alternatives to destroy WWI chemical munitions in an environmentally safe manner (RMA Study F0016...

  16. Biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction: updated clinical therapeutic countermeasures since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettineo, Christopher; Aitchison, Robert; Leikin, Scott M; Vogel, Stephen N; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide updated treatment options for bioterrorism agents. This updated synopsis includes recent clinical cases and treatment recommendations that have arisen in the last 5 years. The decontamination, treatment, and disposition of these biologic and chemical agents are presented alphabetically by agent type: biologic, chemical, and radiologic/nuclear. The information provided outlines only new treatment options since 2003.

  17. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  18. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janoš, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.janos@ujep.cz [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Henych, Jiří [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Pelant, Ondřej; Pilařová, Věra; Vrtoch, Luboš [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kormunda, Martin [Faculty of Sciences, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, České Mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Mazanec, Karel [Military Research Institute, Veslařská 230, 637 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Four synthetic routes were compared to prepare the nanoceria-based reactive sorbents. • The sorbents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis destroy efficiently the soman and VX nerve agents. • Toxic organophosphates are converted to less-dangerous products completely within a few minutes. • Surface non-stoichiometry and −OH groups promote the destruction by the S{sub N}2 mechanism. - Abstract: Four different synthetic routes were used to prepare active forms of cerium oxide that are capable of destroying toxic organophosphates: a sol–gel process (via a citrate precursor), homogeneous hydrolysis and a precipitation/calcination procedure (via carbonate and oxalate precursors). The samples prepared via homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and the samples prepared via precipitation with ammonium bicarbonate (with subsequent calcination at 500 °C in both cases) exhibited the highest degradation efficiencies towards the extremely dangerous nerve agents soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) and the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl. These samples were able to destroy more than 90% of the toxic compounds in less than 10 min. The high degradation efficiency of cerium oxide is related to its complex surface chemistry (presence of surface −OH groups and surface non-stoichiometry) and to its nanocrystalline nature, which promotes the formation of crystal defects on which the decomposition of organophosphates proceeds through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism that is not dissimilar to the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphates by phosphotriesterase.

  19. Project Swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Special publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Project Swiftsure describes a three-year project at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield to safely destroy stockpiles of mustard lewisite, nerve agents and decontaminate scrap material which was stored on the DRES Experimental Proving Ground. Using both in-house and contracted resources, the agent waste was destroyed by chemical neutralization or incineration. With the exception of the arsenic byproducts from the lewisite neutralization process, all secondary waste generated by chemical neutralization was incinerated. Mustard in different forms was thermally destroyed using a transportable incinerator of commercial design. Extensive environmental monitoring and public consultation programs were conducted during the project. Results of the monitoring programs verified that the chemical warfare agents were destroyed in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. jg p.329.

  20. Combined friction force microscopy and quantum chemical investigation of the tribotronic response at the propylammonium nitrate-graphite interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Atkin, R; Page, A J

    2015-06-28

    The energetic origins of the variation in friction with potential at the propylammonium nitrate-graphite interface are revealed using friction force microscopy (FFM) in combination with quantum chemical simulations. For boundary layer lubrication, as the FFM tip slides energy is dissipated via (1) boundary layer ions and (2) expulsion of near-surface ion layers from the space between the surface and advancing tip. Simulations reveal how changing the surface potential changes the ion composition of the boundary and near surface layer, which controls energy dissipation through both pathways, and thus the friction.

  1. Aerogel nanoscale magnesium oxides as a destructive sorbent for toxic chemical agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Maříková, Monika; Šubrt, Jan; Oplustil, F.; Olšanská, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2004), s. 16-33 ISSN 1644-3624 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : nanostructures * organometallic compounds * chemical synthesis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.171, year: 2004

  2. 2007 Joint Chemical Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Conference and Exhibition - Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint Warning and Reporting Network JSLIST CB Protected Shelter Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program Joint Effects...military can operate in any environment, unconstrained by chemical or biological weapons. 21 SHIELD SUSTAIN Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint...28070625_JCBRN_Conference_Reeves UNCLASSIFIED Decontamination Vision Strippable Barriers Self-Decontaminating Fabrics/Coatings Reduce Logistics Burden

  3. Elemental chemical characterization of coins of currently national circulating by X-ray fluorescence non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, Paula; Calcina, Esly

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent counterfeit bills and coins is proposed in this paper to identify the elemental chemical composition; for now, the current official currencies circulating in our country, by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique and non-destructive methods, the goal is to compare with the false and establish the differences that could help identify them immediately taking advantage of the fast response of this technique. Have been identified the elements Al in the coins of 5 cents, Cu and Zn for 10 and 20 cents, Ni, Cu and Zn for 50 cents and a Un Nuevo Sol and Cr, Cu and Zn 2 coins 5 Nuevos Soles. 57 Peruvian coins of different production years and a counterfeit coin of 5 Nuevos Soles have been analyzed, finding Cu and Zn in central part and Fe in circulating edge ring, looking for this one the absence of Ni and Cr, which in the official currency was found. (authors).

  4. The Army and chemical weapons destruction: Implementation in a changing context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, W.H.; Gereben, A.; Cerveny, L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destroy the nation's stockpile of chemical weapons. The estimate was that this task could be accomplished by 1994 at a cost of $1.7 billion. By 1998, only a portion of the stockpile has been destroyed, the deadline extended to 2007 and the estimated cost had risen to approximately $16 billion. This paper discusses the factors underlying cost escalation and missed deadlines. It examines the diffusion of control over the implementation process surrounding the chemical weapons demilitarization (Chem Demil) program in the US. Focusing on the role of the Army and its difficulties in adjusting strategies in the face of political change from the Cold War to the post-Cold War setting, it analyzes the course of implementation through three converging streams of political activity. What differentiates the federal, intergovernmental, and international streams are the nature and number of actors, and the type of pressures with which the Army must deal

  5. Role of dopant in annealing of chemical radiation damage in potassium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, B.M.; Bhatta, D.

    1984-01-01

    The role of cationic vacancy in th annealing of gamma-irradiated potassium nitrate has been investigated using Ba 2+ as a dopant. Isothermal annealing data show that the pure potassium nitrate is immune to annealing above and below the temperature of crystal transition 127degC (Rhombic↔tTrigonal), while the doped crystals undergo recovery by a combination of one first order and one second order process above the phase change and by a second order process below this temperature. The recovery process above 127degC is initially fast (upto 1 hr) but subsequently it slows down to a pseudo-plateau. The proportion of damage which recombines by first and second order processes is 40.6 and 59.4 respectively. (author)

  6. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel via nitrate-citrate combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi, Ali; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Sarpoolaky, Hosein; Willert-Porada, Monika; Gerdes, Thorsten; Simon, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) was synthesized using metal nitrates, citric acid and ammonium solutions. The precursor and the calcined powders at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combustion mechanism was also studied by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) which coupled to STA. The generated heat through the combustion of the mixture of ammonium nitrate and citrate based complexes decreased the synthesis temperature of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. The synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 spinel at 900 deg. C has faced shape with crystallite size in the range of 18-24 nm

  7. Evaluation Of Plutonium Oxide Destructive Chemical Analyses For Validity Of Original 3013 Container Binning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcclard, J.; Kessinger, G.

    2010-01-01

    The surveillance program for 3013 containers is based, in part, on the separation of containers into various bins related to potential container failure mechanisms. The containers are assigned to bins based on moisture content and pre-storage estimates of content chemistry. While moisture content is measured during the packaging of each container, chemistry estimates are made by using a combination of process knowledge, packaging data and prompt gamma analyses to establish the moisture and chloride/fluoride content of the materials. Packages with high moisture and chloride/fluoride contents receive more detailed surveillances than packages with less chloride/fluoride and/or moisture. Moisture verification measurements and chemical analyses performed during the surveillance program provided an opportunity to validate the binning process. Validation results demonstrated that the binning effort was generally successful in placing the containers in the appropriate bin for surveillance and analysis.

  8. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and acetaminophen oxidation using the continuous-flow chemical-less VUV process as an integrated advanced oxidation and reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza, E-mail: moussavi@modares.ac.ir; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous advanced oxidation and reduction processes were explored in VUV system. • Complete reduction of nitrate to N{sub 2} was achieved at the presence of acetaminophen. • Complete degradation of acetaminophen was achieved at the presence of nitrate. • Over 95% of acetaminophen was mineralized in the VUV photoreactor. • VUV is a chemical-less advanced process for treating water emerging contaminants. - Abstract: This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the continuous-flow VUV photoreactor as a novel chemical-less advanced process for simultaneously oxidizing acetaminophen (ACT) as a model of pharmaceuticals and reducing nitrate in a single reactor. Solution pH was an important parameter affecting the performance of VUV; the highest ACT oxidation and nitrate reduction attained at solution pH between 6 and 8. The ACT was oxidized mainly by HO· while the aqueous electrons were the main working agents in the reduction of nitrate. The performance of VUV photoreactor improved with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT); the complete degradation of ACT and ∼99% reduction of nitrate with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity achieved at HRT of 80 min. The VUV effluent concentrations of nitrite and ammonium at HRT of 80 min were below the drinking water standards. The real water sample contaminated with the ACT and nitrate was efficiently treated in the VUV photoreactor. Therefore, the VUV photoreactor is a chemical-less advanced process in which both advanced oxidation and advanced reduction reactions are accomplished. This unique feature possesses VUV photoreactor as a promising method of treating water contaminated with both pharmaceutical and nitrate.

  9. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and acetaminophen oxidation using the continuous-flow chemical-less VUV process as an integrated advanced oxidation and reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous advanced oxidation and reduction processes were explored in VUV system. • Complete reduction of nitrate to N_2 was achieved at the presence of acetaminophen. • Complete degradation of acetaminophen was achieved at the presence of nitrate. • Over 95% of acetaminophen was mineralized in the VUV photoreactor. • VUV is a chemical-less advanced process for treating water emerging contaminants. - Abstract: This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the continuous-flow VUV photoreactor as a novel chemical-less advanced process for simultaneously oxidizing acetaminophen (ACT) as a model of pharmaceuticals and reducing nitrate in a single reactor. Solution pH was an important parameter affecting the performance of VUV; the highest ACT oxidation and nitrate reduction attained at solution pH between 6 and 8. The ACT was oxidized mainly by HO· while the aqueous electrons were the main working agents in the reduction of nitrate. The performance of VUV photoreactor improved with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT); the complete degradation of ACT and ∼99% reduction of nitrate with 100% N_2 selectivity achieved at HRT of 80 min. The VUV effluent concentrations of nitrite and ammonium at HRT of 80 min were below the drinking water standards. The real water sample contaminated with the ACT and nitrate was efficiently treated in the VUV photoreactor. Therefore, the VUV photoreactor is a chemical-less advanced process in which both advanced oxidation and advanced reduction reactions are accomplished. This unique feature possesses VUV photoreactor as a promising method of treating water contaminated with both pharmaceutical and nitrate.

  10. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and acetaminophen oxidation using the continuous-flow chemical-less VUV process as an integrated advanced oxidation and reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-11-15

    This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the continuous-flow VUV photoreactor as a novel chemical-less advanced process for simultaneously oxidizing acetaminophen (ACT) as a model of pharmaceuticals and reducing nitrate in a single reactor. Solution pH was an important parameter affecting the performance of VUV; the highest ACT oxidation and nitrate reduction attained at solution pH between 6 and 8. The ACT was oxidized mainly by HO while the aqueous electrons were the main working agents in the reduction of nitrate. The performance of VUV photoreactor improved with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT); the complete degradation of ACT and ∼99% reduction of nitrate with 100% N2 selectivity achieved at HRT of 80min. The VUV effluent concentrations of nitrite and ammonium at HRT of 80min were below the drinking water standards. The real water sample contaminated with the ACT and nitrate was efficiently treated in the VUV photoreactor. Therefore, the VUV photoreactor is a chemical-less advanced process in which both advanced oxidation and advanced reduction reactions are accomplished. This unique feature possesses VUV photoreactor as a promising method of treating water contaminated with both pharmaceutical and nitrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Residence time, chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater and surface water of a small agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain, Bucks Branch, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, John W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater and surface water throughout the Nation, and water-resource managers need more detailed small-scale watershed research to guide conservation efforts aimed at improving water quality. Concentrations of nitrate in Bucks Branch are among the highest in the state of Delaware and a scientific investigation was performed to provide water-quality information to assist with the management of agriculture and water resources. A combination of major-ion chemistry, nitrogen isotopic composition and age-dating techniques was used to estimate the residence time and provide a chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater in the surficial aquifer of the Bucks Branch watershed in Sussex County, Delaware. The land use was more than 90 percent agricultural and most nitrogen inputs were from manure and fertilizer. The apparent median age of sampled groundwater is 18 years and the estimated residence time of groundwater contributing to the streamflow for the entire Bucks Branch watershed at the outlet is approximately 19 years. Concentrations of nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 60 percent of groundwater samples and 42 percent of surface-water samples. The overall geochemistry in the Bucks Branch watershed indicates that agriculture is the predominant source of nitrate contamination and the observed patterns in major-ion chemistry are similar to those observed in other studies on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. The pattern of enrichment in nitrogen and oxygen isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in groundwater and surface water indicates there is some loss of nitrate through denitrification, but this process is not sufficient to remove all of the nitrate from groundwater discharging to streams, and concentrations of nitrate in streams remain elevated.

  12. [Chemical destruction of the prostate by Prostalyser-1 and Prostalyser-2 solutions: an experimental study in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioshvili, T I; Chokhonelidze, G Z; Shulaia, Ts A; Kazaishvili, E D; Gogoladze, T V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was elaboration of a new minimally invasive but effective alternative method of BPH treatment. The experiments were carried out on 46 male dogs divided into two equal groups. 10 ml of Prostalyser-1 solution (natrii chloridi 9.5 g, dimethylsulfoxidi 0.5 g, aquae destill. Ad 1000.0 g) was given in a single injection into the prostates of the first group of animals. The same volume of Prostalyser-2 solution (spiritus ethilicus 96% - 76.5 g, DMSO 0.5 g, aq.destill ad 100.0 g)--into the prostates of the other group, respectively. The temperature of the solutions was +80 degrees C. Within the first 2 months, essential disorders were observed in the cellular Na-pump, membrane permeability system, there were lobular and diffusive necroses in prostatic alveolar epithelium and a decrease of the prostate weight by 68-66%. This condition of the prostate persisted for 4-6 months. Prostalyser-1 and Prostalyser-2 solutions can be recommended as very prospective substances for chemical destruction of the prostate in case of BPH.

  13. Water quality, sources of nitrate, and chemical loadings in the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, April 2015–March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2017-12-22

    Located in south-central Texas, the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds have long been characterized by elevated nitrate concentrations. From April 2015 through March 2016, an assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, to characterize nitrate concentrations and to document possible sources of elevated nitrate in these two watersheds. Water-quality samples were collected from stream, spring, and groundwater sites distributed across the two watersheds, along with precipitation samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples from the Plum Creek watershed, to characterize endmember concentrations and isotopic compositions from April 2015 through March 2016. Stream, spring, and groundwater samples from both watersheds were collected during four synoptic sampling events to characterize spatial and temporal variations in water quality and chemical loadings. Water-quality and -quantity data from the WWTPs and stream discharge data also were considered. Samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of water and nitrate.The dominant land use in both watersheds is agriculture (cultivated crops, rangeland, and grassland and pasture). The upper part of the Plum Creek watershed is more highly urbanized and has five major WWTPs; numerous smaller permitted wastewater outfalls are concentrated in the upper and central parts of the Plum Creek watershed. The Geronimo Creek watershed, in contrast, has no WWTPs upstream from or near the sampling sites.Results indicate that water quality in the Geronimo Creek watershed, which was evaluated only during base-flow conditions, is dominated by groundwater, which discharges to the stream by numerous springs at various locations. Nitrate isotope values for most Geronimo Creek samples were similar, which indicates that they likely have a common source (or

  14. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  15. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  16. Characterization of Nitrated Sugar Alcohols by Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Chemical, Microsystem, and Nanoscale Technology Group MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 jude.kelley@ll.mit.edu RATIONALE: The...formed by the loss of NO2, HNO2, NO3, and CH2NO2 groups , and in the presence of dichloromethane chlorinated adduct ions were observed. It was determined...explosives trace detection, such as electrospray ionization ( ESI ) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) along

  17. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the effects of potassium nitrate were higher than sodium nitrate, which was due to the positive effects of potassium on the enzyme activity, sugars transport, water and nutrient transport, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. In conclusion, potassium nitrate has better effect on the nitrate assimilatory ...

  18. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry

  19. Identification of organic nitrates in the NO3 radical initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Bruns, Emily A; Ezell, Michael J; Johnson, Stanley N; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates that can undergo long-range transport, releasing NOx downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO3 with alpha-pinene at 1 atm in dry synthetic air (relative humidity approximately 3%) and at 298 K using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the product mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GC-MS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToF-MS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane-2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl)acetaldehyde. Furthermore, there was an additional first-generation organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NOx.

  20. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11) and the tragic incidents involving twenty-three people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO) nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection and analysis. Six hypotheses were tested. Using a

  1. Chemical form of selenium differentially influences DNA repair pathways following exposure to lead nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Shauna M; Horgan, Karina A; Murphy, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Lead, an environmental toxin is known to induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions in humans through a number of mechanisms including the deactivation of antioxidants thus leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage. Selenium on the other hand has been proven to play an important role in the protection of cells from free radical damage and oxidative stress, though its effects are thought to be form and dose dependent. As the liver is the primary organ required for metabolite detoxification, HepG2 cells were chosen to assess the protective effects of various selenium compounds following exposure to the genotoxic agent lead nitrate. Initially DNA damage was quantified using a comet assay, gene expression patterns associated with DNA damage and signalling were also examined using PCR arrays and the biological pathways which were most significantly affected by selenium were identified. Interestingly, the organic type selenium compounds (selenium yeast and selenomethionine) conferred protection against lead induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells; this is evident by reduction in the quantity of DNA present in the comet tail of cells cultured in their presence with lead. This trend also followed through the gene expression changes noted in DNA damage pathways analysed. These results were in contrast with those of inorganic sodium selenite which promoted lead induced DNA damage evident in both the comet assay results and the gene expression analysis. Over all this study provided valuable insights into the effects which various selenium compounds had on the DNA damage and signalling pathway indicating the potential for using organic forms of selenium such as selenium enriched yeast to protect against DNA damaging agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation-chemical behaviour of Rh(4) in perchlorate and nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.; Khalkina, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetic of rhodium(4) reduction in the process of radiolysis in solutions of perchloric (0.6-3.2 mol/l) and nitric (2-9 mol/l) acids with rhodium (4) concentration (0.4-5)x10 -3 mol/l has been studied. Irradiation of the solutions was carried out using a 60 Co source with dose rate of 3.5 Gy/s in the absorbed dose range up to 10 4 Gy. A mechanism of radiation-chemical reduction of rhodium(4) in perchloric and nitric acid solutions in suggested, the reason for high radiation-chemical yields of reduction is discussed. 7 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  4. Negative chemical ionization GC/MS determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater using exact matching double spike isotope dilution and derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltan; D'Ulivo, Alessandro

    2012-03-06

    The alkylation of nitrite and nitrate by triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate allows determination of their ethyl esters by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the present study, significant improvement in analytical performance is achieved using negative chemical ionization providing detection limits of 150 ng/L for NO(2)(-) and 600 ng/L for NO(3)(-), an order of magnitude better than those achieved using electron impact ionization. The derivatization procedure was optimized and alkaline conditions adopted to minimize conversion of nitrite to nitrate (determined to be 0.07% at 100 mg/L NO(2)(-)) and to avoid the exchange of oxygen between the analytes and the solvent (water). Quantitation entails use of isotopically enriched standards (N(18)O(2)(-) and (15)NO(3)(-)), which also permits monitoring of potential conversion from nitrite to nitrate during the analysis (double spike isotope dilution).

  5. Chemical reactivity of potential ferrocyanide precipitates in Hanford tanks with nitrates and nitrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Tingey, J.M.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-bearing wastes were produced at the Hanford Site during the 1950s. Safe storage of these wastes has recently drawn increased attention. As a result of these concerns, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was chartered to investigate the chemical reactivity and explosivity of the ferrocyanide-bearing wastes. We have investigated the thermal sensitivity of synthetic wastes and ferrocyanides and observed oxidation at 130 deg. C and explosions down to 295 deg. C. Coupled with thermodynamic calculations, these thermal studies have also shown a dependence of the reactivity on the synthetic waste composition, which is dependent on the solids settling behavior. (author)

  6. Studies on the thermal decomposition of nitrates found in highly active waste and of chemicals used to convert the waste to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K.S.

    1977-05-01

    The decomposition of all the individual chemicals used in the Harwell inactive vitrification pilot plant has been studied by means of a thermal balance. Weight loss curves to 1100 0 C have been obtained. The four materials sodium nitrate, cesium nitrate, lithium nitrate and ruthenium nitroso-nitrate (solution) showed a greater weight loss than that based on an oxide yield, and hence these compounds or their products of decomposition are volatile below 1100 0 C. The remaining materials suffered a weight loss no more than that corresponding to a full yield of the oxide, and hence they were not volatile below 1100 0 C. Most of the chemicals begin to decompose at less than 75 0 C but the nitrates of cesium, strontium, barium and sodium not until 295 0 to 590 0 C. The results obtained can be used in the analysis of process conditions in the vitrification and calcination of highly radioactive wastes and also of the thermal decomposition behaviour of mixtures containing those materials. The materials tested were: Al(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O, Ba(NO 3 ) 2 , CaNo 3 , Cr(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O, Fe(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O. Mg(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O, Ni(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O, R.E. Nitrates, Ruthenium Solution, Sr(NO 3 ) 2 , UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O, Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O. Zirconium Solution, 'Gasil WP' Silica, 'Neosyl' Silica, LiOH.H 2 O. LiNO 3 .3H 2 O, Na 2 CO 3 , NaNO 3 , Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O. (author)

  7. Chemical interaction of potassium diphosphate with cadmium nitrate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokhanovskij, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Formation of low-soluble compounds in 1.5 mol/l isomolar cross section of K 4 P 2 O 7 -Cd(NO 3 ) 2 -H 2 O system was studied. Liquid phases are studied by the methods of refractometry and pH value measuring, an solid ones - by the methods of chemical and X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, chromatography and microscopy. Three individual chemical compounds K 2 CdP 2 O 7 x 4H 2 O, K 2 Cd 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 2 x 3H 2 O and Cd 2 P 2 O 7 x 3.5H 2 O and some their mixtures were isolated and investigated. It is shown that doulble diphosphate K 6 Cd(P 2 O 7 ) 2 x 6H 2 O does not precipitate spontanously, but instead of it in wide region of system K 2 CdP 2 O 7 x 4H 2 O crystallizes as elongated acicular crystals or as thin plates of improper form

  8. Isotopic and Chemical Analysis of Nitrate Sources and Cycling in the San Joaquin River Near Stockton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Bemis, B.; Wankel, S.; Bergamaschi, B.; Kratzer, C.; Dileanis, P.; Erickson, D.; Avery, E.; Paxton, K.

    2002-12-01

    Fish migration through the deep-water channel in the San Joaquin River at Stockton, California is inhibited by low oxygen concentrations during the summer months. The cause for this condition appears to be stagnation and decomposition of algae with attendant oxygen consumption. Algae growth in the San Joaquin River is promoted by nutrients entering the river mainly in the form of nitrate. Possible significant sources of nitrate include soil, fertilizer from agriculture, manure from dairy operations, and N derived from municipal sewage. A 2000 CALFED pilot study investigated the sources and cycling of nitrate at four sites along the San Joaquin River upstream of Stockton using the carbon and nitrogen isotopes of total dissolved and particulate organic matter, together with hydrological measurements and various concentration data, including chlorophyll-a. The nitrate source, its relationship to phytoplankton, and the effect of the nitrate source and cycling on the N isotopic composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter were the primary concerns of the study. The d15N values of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were used as a proxy for nitrate d15N because nitrate comprised about 90% of DON. Chlorophyll-a and C:N ratios indicated that the particulate organic matter (POM) consisted largely of plankton and therefore the d15N of POM was used as a proxy for the d15N of plankton. A tentative interpretation of the pilot study was that nitrate was a major nutrient for the plankton and the nitrate was of anthropogenic origin, possibly sewage or animal waste. To test these assumptions and interpretations, we are currently analyzing a set of samples collected in 2001. In addition to the previous sample types, a subset of samples will be measured directly for nitrate d15N to assess the validity of using d15N of DON as a proxy for nitrate.

  9. Development of improved space sampling strategies for ocean chemical properties: Total carbon dioxide and dissolved nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Catherine; Davis, Daniel; Peltzer, Edward T.; Brewer, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    Large-scale ocean observing programs such as the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) today, must face the problem of designing an adequate sampling strategy. For ocean chemical variables, the goals and observing technologies are quite different from ocean physical variables (temperature, salinity, pressure). We have recently acquired data on the ocean CO2 properties on WOCE cruises P16c and P17c that are sufficiently dense to test for sampling redundancy. We use linear and quadratic interpolation methods on the sampled field to investigate what is the minimum number of samples required to define the deep ocean total inorganic carbon (TCO2) field within the limits of experimental accuracy (+/- 4 micromol/kg). Within the limits of current measurements, these lines were oversampled in the deep ocean. Should the precision of the measurement be improved, then a denser sampling pattern may be desirable in the future. This approach rationalizes the efficient use of resources for field work and for estimating gridded (TCO2) fields needed to constrain geochemical models.

  10. Volatile compounds and some physico-chemical properties of pastırma produced with different nitrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Akköse

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different nitrate levels (150, 300, 450, and 600 ppm KNO3 on the volatile compounds and some other properties of pastırma. Methods Pastırma samples were produced under the controlled condition and analyses of volatile compounds, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as an indicator of lipid oxidation, non-protein nitrogenous matter content as an indicator of proteolysis, color and residual nitrite were carried out on the final product. The profile of volatile compounds of pastırma samples was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a solid phase microextraction. Results Nitrate level had a significant effect on pH value (p<0.05 and a very significant effect on TBARS value (p<0.01. No significant differences were determined in terms of aw value, non-protein nitrogenous substance content, color and residual nitrite between pastırma groups produced by using different nitrate levels. Nitrate level had a significant (p<0.05 or a very significant (p<0.01 effect on some volatile compounds. It was determined that the amounts and counts of volatile compounds were lower in the 450 and especially 600 ppm nitrate levels than 150 and 300 ppm nitrate levels (p<0.05. While the use of 600 ppm nitrate did not cause an increase in residual nitrite levels, the use of 150 ppm nitrate did not negatively affect the color of pastırma. However, the levels of volatile compounds decreased with an increasing level of nitrate. Conclusion The use of 600 ppm nitrate is not a risk in terms of residual nitrite in pastırma produced under controlled condition, however, this level is not suitable due to decrease in the amount of volatile compounds.

  11. A Nuclear Reactor and Chemical Processing Design for Production of Molybdenum-99 with Crystalline Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Gary Michael

    Medical radioisotopes are used in tens of millions of procedures every year to detect and image a wide variety of maladies and conditions in the human body. The most widely-used diagnostic radioisotope is technetium-99m, a metastable isomer of technetium-99 that is generated by the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99. For a number of reasons, the supply of molybdenum-99 has become unreliable and the techniques used to produce it have become unattractive. This has spurred the investigation of new technologies that avoid the use of highly enriched uranium to produce molybdenum-99 in the United States, where approximately half of the demand originates. The first goal of this research is to develop a critical nuclear reactor design powered by solid, discrete pins of low enriched uranium. Analyses of single-pin heat transfer and whole-core neutronics are performed to determine the required specifications. Molybdenum-99 is produced directly in the fuel of this reactor and then extracted through a series of chemical processing steps. After this extraction, the fuel is left in an aqueous state. The second goal of this research is to describe a process by which the uranium may be recovered from this spent fuel solution and reconstituted into the original fuel form. Fuel recovery is achieved through a crystallization step that generates solid uranyl nitrate hexahydrate while leaving the majority of fission products and transuranic isotopes in solution. This report provides background information on molybdenum-99 production and crystallization chemistry. The previously unknown thermal conductivity of the fuel material is measured. Following this is a description of the modeling and calculations used to develop a reactor concept. The operational characteristics of the reactor core model are analyzed and reported. Uranyl nitrate crystallization experiments have also been conducted, and the results of this work are presented here. Finally, a process flow scheme for uranium

  12. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons; Armes de terreur. Debarrasser le monde des armes nucleaires, biologiques et chimiques - Commission sur les armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  13. Nitrate source apportionment using a combined dual isotope, chemical and bacterial property, and Bayesian model approach in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Li, Yuefei; Zhang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) pollution is a serious problem worldwide, particularly in countries with intensive agricultural and population activities. Previous studies have used δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- to determine the NO3- sources in rivers. However, this approach is subject to substantial uncertainties and limitations because of the numerous NO3- sources, the wide isotopic ranges, and the existing isotopic fractionations. In this study, we outline a combined procedure for improving the determination of NO3- sources in a paddy agriculture-urban gradient watershed in eastern China. First, the main sources of NO3- in the Qinhuai River were examined by the dual-isotope biplot approach, in which we narrowed the isotope ranges using site-specific isotopic results. Next, the bacterial groups and chemical properties of the river water were analyzed to verify these sources. Finally, we introduced a Bayesian model to apportion the spatiotemporal variations of the NO3- sources. Denitrification was first incorporated into the Bayesian model because denitrification plays an important role in the nitrogen pathway. The results showed that fertilizer contributed large amounts of NO3- to the surface water in traditional agricultural regions, whereas manure effluents were the dominant NO3- source in intensified agricultural regions, especially during the wet seasons. Sewage effluents were important in all three land uses and exhibited great differences between the dry season and the wet season. This combined analysis quantitatively delineates the proportion of NO3- sources from paddy agriculture to urban river water for both dry and wet seasons and incorporates isotopic fractionation and uncertainties in the source compositions.

  14. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do.

  15. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  16. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Eeffect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Madhavrao Kemdeo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 12 wt % molybdena was deposited over 1:1 silica zirconia mixed oxide support and the resultant catalyst was calcined between the 500 to 700 oC range of temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorbed FT-IR techniques.  Nitration of toluene was studied as a model reaction over the prepared catalysts and parameters like effect of reaction temperature, effect of various solvents, catalyst reusability are studied. It was found that conversion of toluene varies with the presence of Brönsted acid sites over the catalyst surface and para-nitrotoulene selectivity is associated with pore size of the catalyst. Over the same catalysts, nitration was extended for some other aromatics. Avoid of sulfuric acid in the present process is an interesting concern in view of green chemistry. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedKeywords: MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2; SO2-ZrO2; NH3-TPD; Nitration; ortho-nitro tolueneReceived: 19th May 2012, Revised: 24th May 2012, Accepted: 26th May 2012[How to Cite: S.M. Kemdeo. (2012. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Effect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 92-104. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/3521] | View in 

  17. Multispectral UV imaging for fast and non-destructive quality control of chemical and physical tablet attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klukkert, Marten; Wu, Jian X; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of tablet quality attributes in direct vicinity of the production process requires analytical techniques that allow fast, non-destructive, and accurate tablet characterization. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of multispectral UV imaging...... as a reliable, rapid technique for estimation of the tablet API content and tablet hardness, as well as determination of tablet intactness and the tablet surface density profile. One of the aims was to establish an image analysis approach based on multivariate image analysis and pattern recognition to evaluate...... the potential of UV imaging for automatized quality control of tablets with respect to their intactness and surface density profile. Various tablets of different composition and different quality regarding their API content, radial tensile strength, intactness, and surface density profile were prepared using...

  18. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, C A

    1906-05-22

    The invention relates to an apparatus in which the destructive distillation or coking of coal, peat, shale, etc., is carried out by means of a current of hot gases at a temperature of 700--800/sup 0/F., as described in Specification No. 11,925, A.D. 1906.

  19. Interaction in triple systems of neodymium nitrate, water and nitrates of trimethylammonium and tetramethylammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeva, M.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    At 20 and 40 deg C the mutual solubility is studied in systems neodymium nitrate-water-trimethylamine nitrate and neodymium nitrate-water-tetramethylammonium nitrate. It has been established that the above systems belong to those with chemical interaction of the components. The compounds have been isolated preparatively, their composition has been confirmed analytically, and their thermal behaviour studied

  20. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  1. An assessment of the Canadian Forces' capability to manage the consequences of the domestic use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    In view of the threat to Canadian domestic targets presented by the asymmetric use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) weapons of mass destruction (WMD), this thesis examines whether the Canadian Forces (CF) has capability deficiencies in managing the consequences of such an attack. Research included an examination of the post Cold War strategic environment, the state of the art in CBRN technology, current concepts and experience in managing the consequences of major disasters and responsibilities at the municipal, provincial and federal levels of government. The methodology used included scenario based planning to develop circumstances where WMD might be used domestically, and decomposition to break down the scenarios into events and potential CF roles and tasks. The current CF structure was used to determine the probable CF response, which included the ability of CF units to perform the required tasks, the CF response time and the ability of the CF to sustain the operation. (author)

  2. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosden, S; Cosden, J S

    1937-09-08

    A means and process are described for the destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials in which the process comprises charging the material, in a finely divided condition into a stream of hot combustion gases, and allows the hot gases to act pyrolytically on the organic compounds contained in the material, separating the volatile liberated constituents from residuary constituents. Hot reaction gases are generated by fuel ignition means in a generator and are immediately intermingled with comminuted carbonaceous material from a hopper, in a narrow conduit. The mixture of material and reaction fluid is then passed through an elongated confined path, which is exteriorly heated by the combustion chamber of the furnace, where the destructive distillation is effected. Volatile and solid constituents are separated in the chamber, and the volatile constituents are fractionated and condensed.

  3. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process and apparatus for the destructive distillation at low temperature of mineral or organic material particularly oil shale, is given in which the process comprises distilling the material in a horizontal gaseous stream, subjecting the hot residues to the action of a gaseous stream containing a predetermined amount of oxygen so as to burn, at least partly, the carbon-containing substances, and the process uses the gases from this combustion for the indirect heating of the gases serving for the distillation.

  4. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  5. Water masses in the Humboldt Current System: Properties, distribution, and the nitrate deficit as a chemical water mass tracer for Equatorial Subsurface Water off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson; Rojas, Nora; Fedele, Aldo

    2009-07-01

    Three sections are used to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of the water masses in the eastern South Pacific and their distributions. Oceanographic data were taken from the SCORPIO (May-June 1967), PIQUERO (May-June 1969), and KRILL (June 1974) cruises. Vertical sections of temperature, salinity, σ θ, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and silicate were used to analyze the water column structure. Five water masses were identified in the zone through T- S diagrams: Subantarctic Water, Subtropical Water, Equatorial Subsurface Water, Antarctic Intermediate Water, and Pacific Deep Water. Their proportions in the sea water mixture are calculated using the mixing triangle method. Vertical sections were used to describe the geographical distributions of the water mass cores in the upper 1500 m. Several characteristic oceanographic features in the study area were analyzed: the shallow salinity minimum displacement towards the equator, the equatorial subsurface salinity maximum associated with a dissolved oxygen minimum zone and a high nutrient content displacement towards the south, and the equatorward intermediate Antarctic salinity minimum associated with a dissolved oxygen maximum. The nitrate deficit generated in the denitrification area off Peru and northern Chile is proposed as a conservative chemical tracer for the Equatorial Subsurface Waters off the coast of Chile, south of 25°S.

  6. Metal Ion-Catalyzed Alcoholysis as a Strategy for the High Loading Destruction of Chemical Warfare Organophosphorus Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    agents (CWAs). Whether these inhibitors are used as pesticides or CWAs, all act in the same way by inhibiting an enzyme (a cholinesterase ), thereby...phosphinate, and phosphonate esters are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that are used as animal and crop protectants and chemical warfare...for these inhibitors are used annually, accounting for 70% of all insecticides used for agriculture, in homes and gardens, and for government

  7. On the isomers of pyridine-4-carboxaldoxime and its nitrate salt, X-ray crystal structure and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Saied M.; Albering, Jörg; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.

    2017-07-01

    The reaction between nitric acid and pyridine-4-carboxaldoxime (P4A) afford the corresponding pyridinum nitrate salt (P4AN). Its X-ray structure is measured and compared with the related P4A salts. The DFT/B3LYP results showed that both the P4A and P4AN favored the Syn-I form which has the lowest energy among the other possible isomers. Transition state calculations predicted that the Syn-I form is the thermodynamically and kinetically most stable form. The X-ray solid state structure of the new nitrate salt (P4AN) indicated that the labile proton favored the N-atom of the pyridine ring. DFT studies showed that the same is true for its solution in polar solvents. In contrast, the pyridinium cation is not favored either in the gas phase or solution of P4AN in nonpolar solvent. In these cases, the proton favored to bond with one O-atom from the nitrate group. Second order interaction energies and Mayer bond order values revealed these results. The bond order of the Nsbnd H bond is higher in polar solvents as well as at the experimental structure than either in the gas phase or non polar solvents. The topology parameters obtained from the atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis were used to describe the nature of the Nsbnd H and Osbnd H bonds. The bond critical points (BCP) were found to be close to the H-atoms in case of stronger interaction.

  8. Toxicity of binary chemical munition destruction products: methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphinic acid, 2-diisopropylaminoethanol, DF neutralent, and QL neutralent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca E; Hafez, Ahmed M; Kremsky, Jonathan N; Bizzigotti, George O

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity and environmental impact of neutralents produced from the hydrolysis of binary chemical agent precursor chemicals DF (methylphosphonic difluoride) and QL (2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl ethyl methylphosphonite). Following a literature review of the neutralent mixtures and constituents, basic toxicity tests were conducted to fill data gaps, including acute oral and dermal median lethal dose assays, the Ames mutagenicity test, and ecotoxicity tests. For methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a major constituent of DF neutralent, the acute oral LD(50) in the Sprague-Dawley rat was measured at 1888 mg/kg, and the Ames test using typical tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli was negative. The 48-h LC(50) values for pH-adjusted DF neutralent with Daphnia magna and Cyprinodon variegatus were > 2500 mg/L and 1593 mg/L, respectively. The acute oral LD(50) values in the rat for QL neutralent constituents methylphosphinic acid (MP) and 2-diisopropylaminoethanol (KB) were both determined to be 940 mg/kg, and the Ames test was negative for both. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant ecotoxicity tests for MP and KB gave 48-h D. magna EC(50) values of 6.8 mg/L and 83 mg/L, respectively. GLP-compliant 96-h C. variegatus assays on MP and KB gave LC(50) values of 73 and 252 mg/L, respectively, and NOEC values of 22 and 108 mg/L. QL neutralent LD(50) values for acute oral and dermal toxicity tests were both > 5000 mg/kg, and the 48-h LD(50) values for D. magna and C. variegatus were 249 and 2500 mg/L, respectively. Using these data, the overall toxicity of the neutralents was assessed.

  9. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste

  10. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Cheng, Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.edu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe{sup 3+} species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu{sup 2+}. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe{sup 3+} species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  11. Performance of a novel microwave-based treatment technology for atrazine removal and destruction: Sorbent reusability and chemical stability, and effect of water matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Erdan; Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu"2"+ and Fe"3"+ in zeolite pores enhance atrazine sorption and MW-induced degradation. • Exchanged zeolites perform well over multiple sorption–regeneration cycles. • Fe"3"+ species in the zeolite micropores have much greater stability than those of Cu"2"+. • DOC in natural waters can compromise the sorption capacity of exchanged zeolites. • Iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites hold great promise for practical applications. - Abstract: Transition metal-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites were used to adsorb atrazine from aqueous solutions, followed by regeneration of the sorbents and destruction of the sorbed atrazine with microwave irradiation. Exchange of copper and iron into the zeolite's micropores significantly enhanced its sorption capacity and selectivity toward atrazine, and increased the microwave-induced degradation rate of the sorbed atrazine by 3–4-folds. Both the copper- and iron-exchanged zeolites could be regenerated and reused multiple times, while the catalytic activity of the latter was more robust due to the much greater chemical stability of Fe"3"+ species in the micropores. The presence of humic acid, and common cations and anions had little impact on the sorption of atrazine on the transition metal-exchanged zeolites. In the treatment of atrazine spiked in natural surface water and groundwater samples, sorptive removal of atrazine was found to be impacted by the level of dissolved organic carbon, probably through competition for the micropore spaces and pore blocking, while the water matrices exhibited no strong effect on the microwave-induced degradation of sorbed atrazine. Overall, iron-exchanged dealuminated Y zeolites show great potential for removal and destruction of atrazine from contaminated surface water and groundwater in practical implementation of the novel treatment technology.

  12. Destructive, distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, J

    1882-10-23

    The apparatus employed resembles a reverberatory furnace, having a brickwork chamber with pipes or passages leading from the bottom, through which gases and vapors, arising from destructive distillation or heating of the materials with which the chamber is charged to a certain depth, are drawn by suction produced by a fan or blower. The materials are heated from above by firegates admitted from a separate furnace or fireplace. When shale is thus treated, to obtain burning gas, oil, and ammonia, the suction may be so regulated as to give preponderance to whichever product is desired, the depth of material treated being also concerned in the result. The process is applicable also in the treatment of coal pit refuse, sawdust, peat, and other matters, to obtain volatile products; in burning limestone to obtain carbon dioxide; and in roasting ores. Reference is made to a former Specification for coking coal, No. 1947, A. D. 1882.

  13. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, G

    1865-05-16

    A retort for the destructive distillation of coal, shale, whereby hydrocarbons are produced, is described. The vertical retort is provided with a charging door, a discharging door, an outlet leading to the condensing plant, an inclined bottom, and a perforated cage to facilitate the escape of the vapor and to regulate the amount of materials operated upon in the retort. The upper part of the cage is conical to deflect the materials fed in by the door and the lower part is also slightly conical to facilitate emptying the retort. The bottom may incline from both back and front, and also from the sides to the center. The apparatus is heated from below, and the flues pass all round the lower part of the retort.

  14. Chemical Etching, AFM, Laser Damage Threshold, and Nonlinear Optical Studies of Potential Nonlinear Optical Crystal: Bis (L-Glutamine Potassium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redrothu Hanumantharao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal bis (L-glutamine potassium nitrate (BGPN grown by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The grown crystal surface has been analyzed by chemical etching and atomic force microscopy (AFM studies. Amplitude parameters like area roughness, roughness average, valley height, valley depth, peak height, and peak valley height were measured successfully from AFM studies. Etching studies were carried out by various solvents like water, methanol and ethanol. The etching study indicates the occurrence of different types of etch pit patterns like striations and steplike pattern. The laser damage threshold energy has been measured by irradiating laser beam using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm. Second harmonic generation (SHG studies have been performed by famous Kurtz powder technique with reference to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals (KDP. It is found from this technique that SHG efficiency of BGPN is in comparison to that of standard KDP crystals.

  15. Determination of nitrate pollution sources by using isotopes and hydro-chemical techniques in the shallow Aquifer of Bara basin Northern Kordofan State Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamien, S. A. A.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the nature of the nitrate concentration and its effect on the quality of groundwater in the Bara basin in North Kordofan State Sudan. The principal objective of this study is to: detect possible NO 3 sources affecting groundwater quality. The δ 15 N results included two range of values, which suggested two different nitrogen sources in different parts of the study area. The data used in this study includes lithological logs, pumping and recovery data and chemical analysis. Rock ware, surfer, aquitest and aquichem software programs were used to analyze the data. which is the based on the lithological logs from nine shallow wells and seven deep boreholes. The geological formation was found to be the Umm Ruwaba formation which consists of two aquifers an upper shallow one and the other deep aquifer. The transmissivity of the upper aquifer was found to be 0.528m 2 / day, which is good and the average of hydraulic conductivity was found to be 0.08 4 m/ day, which is high and the storativity is 0.08 1 . The direction of flow of groundwater was found to be from North West to North East over all the area. Chemical analysis showed that the TDS concentration in the study area is within the permissible limits of the Sudanese and the WHO standards. The calcium concentration in the study area also found to be within the permissible limits of the Sudanese and the WHO standards. The nitrate concentration in the upper aquifer ranges between 9.68 and 891 mg/1 which is above the permissible limit of the Sudanese and the WHO standards. The water type in the upper aquifer was found to be calcium-nitrate-chloride-bicarbonate. It appears that the source of the calcium is either for the decay of dead animal bones or the dissolution of calcareous deposits within the upper aquifer. It can be concluded that the quality of groundwater in the study area is good for the human consumption. (Author)

  16. Room-temperature and temperature-dependent QSRR modelling for predicting the nitrate radical reaction rate constants of organic chemicals using ensemble learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Basant, N; Mohan, D; Singh, K P

    2016-07-01

    Experimental determinations of the rate constants of the reaction of NO3 with a large number of organic chemicals are tedious, and time and resource intensive; and the development of computational methods has widely been advocated. In this study, we have developed room-temperature (298 K) and temperature-dependent quantitative structure-reactivity relationship (QSRR) models based on the ensemble learning approaches (decision tree forest (DTF) and decision treeboost (DTB)) for predicting the rate constant of the reaction of NO3 radicals with diverse organic chemicals, under OECD guidelines. Predictive powers of the developed models were established in terms of statistical coefficients. In the test phase, the QSRR models yielded a correlation (r(2)) of >0.94 between experimental and predicted rate constants. The applicability domains of the constructed models were determined. An attempt has been made to provide the mechanistic interpretation of the selected features for QSRR development. The proposed QSRR models outperformed the previous reports, and the temperature-dependent models offered a much wider applicability domain. This is the first report presenting a temperature-dependent QSRR model for predicting the nitrate radical reaction rate constant at different temperatures. The proposed models can be useful tools in predicting the reactivities of chemicals towards NO3 radicals in the atmosphere, hence, their persistence and exposure risk assessment.

  17. Exergy destruction in ammonia scrubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical ammonia scrubbing process by sulfuric acid solution is assessed with the concept of exergy. The exergy destruction of chemical neutralization is mainly (75–94%) due to changes in the chemical exergy of streams and thermal effects from the reaction while mixing effects have a limited

  18. Nitrate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, I.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence on behaviour of nitrate glasses is reviewed in terms of relationships between the presence of water in vitrescent nitrate systems and the properties of the systems. The glasses considered belong to systems of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 - Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; Hg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; NaNO 3 -Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; M-Zn(NO 3 ) 3 , where M is a mixture of 20% mass NaNO 3 and 80% mass Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , and Zn is a rare earth ion. Nitrate glass is shown to be a product of dehydration. Vitrification may be regarded as a resusl of formation of molecular complexes in the chain due to hydrogen bonds of two types, i.e. water-water, or water-nicrate group. Chain formation, along with low melting points of the nitrates, hinder crystallization of nitrate melts. Provided there is enough water, this results in vitrification

  19. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1881-04-12

    Destructive distillation of shale for the manufacture of mineral oil and ammonia is described. The retorts are arranged in benches, each retort being placed over its own combustion chamber into which the spent shale is discharged and consumed in heating the next charge as described in Specification No. 1578, A. D. 1880. Two forms of retorts are shown, each consisting of two retorts placed above and communicating with one another, the upper being employed to distill the oil at a low red heat, and the lower to eliminate the nitrogen in the form of ammonia at a much higher temperature. The retorts are divided by a sliding damper and have an outlet for the passage of the products placed at the junction. The retorts have an outlet at the top for the escape of the products. Each retort has an opening closed by a cover for charging and a door for discharging. The products of combustion from the combustion chambers pass through ports to a chamber surrounding the lower retorts and thence through ports in the division wall controlled by dampers into the chamber surrounding the upper retorts, whence they pass through flues to the chimney. Around the bottom of each retort are openings communicating with a chamber to which steam is admitted through a valve from a pipe preferably placed in a coil in the flue.

  20. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Fyfe, J

    1897-06-03

    Improvements in retorts of the class described in Specification No. 1377, A. D. 1882, for the destructive distillation of shale are disclosed. The retorts are provided with enlarged multiple hoppers for the reception of the fresh shale, and with enlarged chambers for the reception of the exhausted shale. The hoppers are built up of steel plates, and are bolted at the bottom to flanges on the upper ends of the retorts so as to permit of differential expansion. The shale is fed continuously into the retorts by rods or chains carried by a rocking shaft, or by a slit tube attached to a rocking shaft, and in connection with the hydraulic main. The spent shale is discharged into the receiving chambers by means of a series of prongs extending through a grating and carried by a rocking shaft actuated by levers engaging with reciprocating bars. In an alternative arrangement, the pronged rocking shafts are replaced by worms or screws formed into one half with a right-hand thread and the other half with a left-hand thread.

  1. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J M

    1884-06-03

    The invention relates to retorts for the destructive distillation of shale, dross, and other carbonaceous or oleaginous materials, and for the distillation and carbonization of sawdust, shavings, tan bark, and the like. The material is fed from a trapped hopper on a series of trays or casings of cast iron or other material, separated by flue spaces and arranged in a tier round a vertical rotating shaft passing through tubular pieces cast on the casings. The shaft is fitted with arms which carry stirring-blades so disposed that the material is shifted from side to side and slowly fed towards the ducts through which it passes to the casing next below, and is finally withdrawn from the apparatus by a pipe, which may be trapped or otherwise. Furnace gases are admitted through openings in the enclosing brickwork having settings to support the casings, the lowermost of which may be fitted below the inlet for furnace gases and their contents cooled by the circulation of cold water round them. The gaseous or volatile products of distillation pass to a condenser by means of openings and the pipe, which may be formed in sections to obtain access to the casings, or doors may be provided for this purpose. The ducts may be arranged alternately at the edge and center of the casings, which may be jacketed, and heated air or steam may be employed instead of furnace gases. Means may also be provided for admitting superheated steam into one or more of the casings.

  2. Seasonal variation of fine- and coarse-mode nitrates and related aerosols over East Asia: synergetic observations and chemical transport model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Itsushi; Osada, Kazuo; Yumimoto, Keiya; Wang, Zhe; Itahashi, Syuichi; Pan, Xiaole; Hara, Yukari; Kanaya, Yugo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Fairlie, Thomas Duncan

    2017-11-01

    We analyzed long-term fine- and coarse-mode synergetic observations of nitrate and related aerosols (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+) at Fukuoka (33.52° N, 130.47° E) from August 2014 to October 2015. A Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) including dust and sea salt acid uptake processes was used to assess the observed seasonal variation and the impact of long-range transport (LRT) from the Asian continent. For fine aerosols (fSO42-, fNO3-, and fNH4+), numerical results explained the seasonal changes, and a sensitivity analysis excluding Japanese domestic emissions clarified the LRT fraction at Fukuoka (85 % for fSO42-, 47 % for fNO3-, 73 % for fNH4+). Observational data confirmed that coarse NO3- (cNO3-) made up the largest proportion (i.e., 40-55 %) of the total nitrate (defined as the sum of fNO3-, cNO3-, and HNO3) during the winter, while HNO3 gas constituted approximately 40 % of the total nitrate in summer and fNO3- peaked during the winter. Large-scale dust-nitrate (mainly cNO3-) outflow from China to Fukuoka was confirmed during all dust events that occurred between January and June. The modeled cNO3- was in good agreement with observations between July and November (mainly coming from sea salt NO3-). During the winter, however, the model underestimated cNO3- levels compared to the observed levels. The reason for this underestimation was examined statistically using multiple regression analysis (MRA). We used cNa+, nss-cCa2+, and cNH4+ as independent variables to describe the observed cNO3- levels; these variables were considered representative of sea salt cNO3-, dust cNO3-, and cNO3- accompanied by cNH4+), respectively. The MRA results explained the observed seasonal changes in dust cNO3- and indicated that the dust-acid uptake scheme reproduced the observed dust-nitrate levels even in winter. The annual average contributions of each component were 43 % (sea salt cNO3-), 19 % (dust cNO3-), and 38 % (cNH4+ term). The MRA dust

  3. The ytterbium nitrate-quinoline (piperidine) nitrate-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Boeva, M.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections the solubility of solid phases in the ytterbium nitrate-quinoline nitrate - water (1) and ytterbium nitrate-piperidine nitrate-water (2) systems is studied at 25 and 50 deg C. It is established, that in system 1 congruently melting compound of the composition Yb(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 x3H 2 O is formed. The new solid phase has been isolated as a preparation and subjected to chemical X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Isotherms of system 2 in the studied range of concentrations and temperatures consist of two branches, corresponding to crystallization of tetruaqueous ytterbi um nitrate and nitric acid piperidine

  4. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chamberlin, Rebecca M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worley, Christopher Gordon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Elmer J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borrego, Andres Patricio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fulwyler, James Brent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holland, Charlotte S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Klundt, Dylan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Frances Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Dennis Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porterfield, Donivan R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schake, Ann Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schappert, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Soderberg, Constance B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Spencer, Khalil J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stanley, Floyd E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thomas, Mariam R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Townsend, Lisa Ellen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Xu, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  5. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Neilson, A; Young, A

    1876-10-09

    The invention relates to modifications of the retort apparatus, described in Specification No. 2487, A.D. 1872, for the destructive distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. The retorts instead of being worked continuously are completely filled and completely discharged in turn. They are made oblong in cross-section in order to present the material in thin layers and cause it to be acted upon more rapidly and economically. The retorts can thus be heated solely by the combustion of the carbonaceus matter contained in the discharged residues or with a small amount of coal in addition. Each retort is contracted at the bottom and is fitted with a box or chest having a hole in it corresponding to the opening in the retort and a sliding plate of iron, firebrick, or other suitable material, which can be operated by a rod passing through the front of the box, for opening or closing the retort. Underneath the box and over the combustion chamber are placed fireclay blocks leaving an opening, which can be closed by another plate of firebrick or the like. When distillation commences, the gases and vapors in the retort are drawn off through a pipe and a main by an exhauster. In order to prevent air from entering the retort or hydrocarbon vapor from being puffed back by the action of the wind, the gas which remains after the condensation of the oils is forced back into the box between the plates and part of it enters the retort and part the combustion chamber. In order to avoid the liability of the oil being carried past the condensers by the action of the gas, steam may be used as a substitute for the gas or mixed with it in large proportions, a steam jet being used to force the gas into the main supplying the boxes.

  6. Neodymium nitrate-tetraethylammonium nitrate-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Boeva, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Method of isothermal cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C is used to study solid phase solubility in the neodymium nitrate-tetraethylammonium nitrate-water system. Crystallization fields of congruently soluble compounds, the salt component ratio being 1:1:4H 2 O and 1:3:2H 2 O are detected. New solid phases are preparatively obtained and subjected to chemical, differential thermal, IR spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses. The obtained compounds are acido-complexes in which nitrate groups enter into the first coordination sphere

  7. Influence of environmental changes on the biogeochemistry of arsenic in a soil polluted by the destruction of chemical weapons: A mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Hugues; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Norini, Marie-Paule; Le Forestier, Lydie; Charron, Mickael; Dupraz, Sébastien; Gautret, Pascale

    2018-06-15

    Thermal destruction of chemical munitions from World War I led to the formation of a heavily contaminated residue that contains an unexpected mineral association in which a microbial As transformation has been observed. A mesocosm study was conducted to assess the impact of water saturation episodes and input of bioavailable organic matter (OM) on pollutant behavior in relation to biogeochemical parameters. Over a period of about eight (8) months, the contaminated soil was subjected to cycles of dry and wet periods corresponding to water table level variations. After the first four (4) months, fragmented litter from the nearby forest was placed on top of the soil. The mesocosm solid phase was sampled by three rounds of coring: at the beginning of the experiment, after four (4) months (before the addition of OM), and at the end of the experiment. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy observations showed that an amorphous phase, which was the primary carrier of As, Zn, and Cu, was unstable under water-saturated conditions and released a portion of the contaminants in solution. Precipitation of a lead arsenate chloride mineral, mimetite, in soils within the water saturated level caused the immobilization of As and Pb. Mimetite is a durable trap because of its large stability domain; however, this precipitation was limited by a low Pb concentration inducing that high amounts of As remained in solution. The addition of forest litter modified the quantities and qualities of soil OM. Microbial As transformation was affected by the addition of OM, which increased the concentration of both As(III)-oxidizing and As(V)-reducing microorganisms. The addition of OM negatively impacted the As(III) oxidizing rate, however As(III) oxidation was still the dominant reaction in accordance with the formation of arsenate-bearing minerals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of nitrates and sulphates with dynamic SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, M.; Goschnick, J.; Ache, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sputter conditions are outlined for the identification of chemically sensitive salt compounds, such as nitrates or sulphates, in multicomponent samples of environmental origin using dynamic SIMS for depth-profiling with nanoscale resolution. Sputtering with 1 keV Xe + has been found to be appropriate to enable both the emission of decisive molecular ions with enough intensity as well as substantial erosion for depth-profiling. The use of heavy projectiles reduces the destruction of chemical compounds in the surface of the solid and enhances sensitivity and identification power of SIMS. The method was applied to the analysis of urban outdoor aerosol particles to investigate the conversion of NaCl into Na 2 SO 4 or NaNO 3 by the interaction of sea salt aerosol with the atmospheric pollutants NO x and SO x . Only NaNO 3 was found in the sea salt fraction. (orig.)

  9. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, A V

    1856-04-22

    In order to obtain, at the first distillation, from coal, shale, and bituminous substances an oil sufficiently pure for illuminating and other purposes, the material broken into very small pieces and placed on the bottom of the retort, is evenly covered with common sand, about four times greater in weight than the weight of the coal. The coal and sand are then gradually raised to a temperature of 212/sup 0/F. Steam containing carbonaceous impurities first passes to the condenser, and subsequently oil, which rises to the surface of the water in the receiving-vessel. When some bituminous substances are employed, the temperature, after oil ceases to come over, may be gradually raised until the oil produced ceases to be pure. Most kinds of clay and earth, chalk, gypsum, black oxide of manganese, plumbago, or charcoal may be used separately, in combination, or with added chemicals, instead of sand as the medium for filtering the gas or vapor from which the oil is formed. Either the oil obtained by the first distillation or oils obtained by other means may be rectified by distilling with sand.

  10. Ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the binary phase diagram for the system ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate has been determined from -55/sup 0/C to 185/sup 0/C. Results are presented for the ammonium-nitrate-rich end of the system up to 30 wt% potassium nitrate.

  11. Aminoethyl nitrate – the novel super nitrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Long-term use of most organic nitrates is limited by development of tolerance, induction of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In this issue of the BJP, Schuhmacher et al. characterized a novel class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Aminoethyl nitrate was identified as a novel organic mononitrate with high potency but devoid of induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cross-tolerance to nitroglycerin or the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine after in vivo treatment was not observed. Like all nitrates, aminoethyl nitrate induced vasorelaxation by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing view, high potency in an organic nitrate is not necessarily accompanied by induction of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction. This work from Daiber's group is an important step forward in the understanding of nitrate bioactivation, tolerance phenomena and towards the development of better organic nitrates for clinical use. PMID:19732062

  12. Nitrate removal from alkaline high nitrate effluent by in situ generation of hydrogen using zinc dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline radioactive low level waste generated in Nuclear Fuel Cycle contains substantial amount of nitrate and needs to be treated to meet Central Pollution Control Board discharge limits of 90 mg/L in marine coastal area. Several denitrification methods like chemical treatment, electrochemical reduction, biological denitrification, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, photochemical reduction etc are followed for removal of nitrate. In effluent treatment plants where chemical treatment is carried out, chemical denitrification can be easily adapted without any additional set up. Reducing agents like zinc and aluminum are suitable for reducing nitrate in alkaline solution. Study on denitrification with zinc dust was taken up in this work. Not much work has been done with zinc dust on reduction of nitrate to nitrogen in alkaline waste with high nitrate content. In the present work, nitrate is reduced by nascent hydrogen generated in situ, caused by reaction between zinc dust and sodium hydroxide

  13. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beulow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Sanchez, J.A.; Spontarelli, T.

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400 degrees C and 650 degrees C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The reactions produce primarily N 2 , N 2 O,CO 2 , and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525 degrees C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives at low temperatures (<100 degrees C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented

  14. Non-destructive Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hyeon; Ryu, Taek In; Ko, Jun Bin; Hwang, Yong Hwa

    2006-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of non-destructive engineering on outline of non-destructive test, weld defects, radiographic inspection radiography, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, eddy current inspection method, strain measurement, acoustic emission inspection method, other non-destructive testing like leakage inspection method, and non-destructive mechanics for fault analysis such as Griffiths creaking theory, and stress analysis of creaking.

  15. The systems lanthanum (cerium, samarium) nitrate-tetramethyl-ammonium nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1984-01-01

    The method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C has been applied to study solubility in the systems lanthanum nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (1), cesium (3) nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (2) and samarium nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (3). Crystallization fields of congruently dissolving compounds with 1:3 ratio of salt components (in system 1) and 1:2 ratio (in systems 2 and 3) are found in the systems. New solid phases are separated preparatively and subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Compositions of formed compounds are compared with the compositions known for nitrates of other representatives of light lanthanides

  16. Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Cyprus, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands , Mongolia, Panama, and St. Vin- cent and the Grenadines, according to a State Department summary available...1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. As such, NBC weapons represent a group of weapons that the...Development, Produc- tion and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction contains two references to WMD

  17. Nitrates of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Pushkina, L.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The systematization of experimental data with account of the last achievements in the field of studying the RE nitrate properties is realized. The methods of production, solubility in aqueous solutions structure, thermodynamic characteristics and thermal stability of nitrate hydrates, RE anhydrous and basic nitrates are considered. The data on RE nirtrate complexing in aqueous solutions are given. Binary nitrates, nitrate solvates and RE nitrate adducts with organic compounds are described. The use of RE nitrates in the course of RE production, in the processes of separation and fine cleaning of RE preparations is considered

  18. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standards development of chemical analysis and non destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Jun chitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to standardize the chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals of industrial grade. These methods are among those serving bases for international standardization of products. The chemical analysis is aimed at quantitative analysis of trace impurities, in particular, present in pure titanium metals of industrial grade by developing and standardizing the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, known for its low detectable limit, and, at the same time, spark and glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry as the improved routine analysis methods. These methods, although being used by, e.g., steel makers, have not been standardized because the effects of titanium-peculiar matrix are not elucidated. The non-destructive testing is aimed at standardization of the techniques useful for automatic production lines. More concretely, these include optical methods aided by a laser or CCD camera for plate surface defect inspection, ultrasonic methods for plate internal defect inspection, and pressure differential methods for air-tightness of welded pipes. They have not been used yet for automatic production lines. (NEDO)

  19. Sodium nitrate-cerium nitrate-water ternary system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, T.P.; Onishchenko, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility isotherm of sodium nitrate-cerium nitrate-water system at 25 deg C consists of three crystallization branches of initial salts and double compound of the composition 2NaNO 3 xCe(NO 3 ) 3 x2H 2 O. Sodium nitrate introduced in the solution strengthens complexing. Physico-chemical characteristics are in a good agreement with solubility curve

  20. Chemical assessment of lead, cadmium, nitrate, and nitrite intakes with daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages in Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysz, Katarzyna; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Kopeć, Aneta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study has been to measure the level of lead, cadmium, nitrates, and nitrites in the daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages located in Krakow (Poland). Diets were collected over four seasons of 2009. The content of cadmium and lead was measured with flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Nitrates and nitrites in diets were measured using the Griess colorimetric method. In all orphanages, the average intake of lead with daily diets, regardless of the season, ranged from 1.11 ± 0.15 to 22.59 ± 0.07 μg/kg bw/week. The average cadmium intake by children and adolescents ranged between 3.09 ± 0.21 and 20.36 ± 2.21 μg/kg bw/week and, for all orphanages, exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) level. Daily intake of nitrates and nitrites ranged respectively from 27 to 289 % and from 9 to 99 % of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The youngest children, with lower body mass, were particularly sensitive to the excessive intakes of cadmium and nitrates.

  1. Preliminary conceptual design for the destruction of organic/ferrocyanide constituents in the Hanford tank waste with low-temperature hydrothermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Orth, R.J.; Cox, J.L.; Elmore, M.E.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Meng, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    Hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical processing method that can be employed to destroy organic and ferrocyanide constituents in Hanford tank waste by using the abundant existing oxidants in the tank waste such as nitrite and nitrate. Use-temperature HTP effectively destroys organics at temperatures from 250 degree C to 400 degree C to eliminate safety hazards and improve further processing. This proposal describes a conceptual design of a low-temperature HTP system (including a preliminary flow diagram and plot plan, equipment descriptions and sizes, utility requirements, and costs); the experimental work supporting this effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); the reaction chemistry and kinetics; the technical maturity of the process; and a preliminary assessment of maintenance, operation, and safety of a system. Nitrate destruction using organic reductants is also described. The low-temperature hydrothermal program at PNL was initiated in January 1993. It is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies, which was originally funded by Hanford's Tank Waste Remediation System program and then was transferred to the Initial Pretreatment (IPM) project. As described in the document, low-temperature HTP (1) meets or exceeds system requirements in organic, ferrocyanide, and nitrate destruction, and processing rate; (2) is technically mature with little additional technology development required; (3) is a simple process with good operational reliability; (4) is flexible and can be easily integrated in the system; (5) has reasonable costs and utility requirements; and (6) is safe and environmentally-benign

  2. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  3. Comparison of Chemical Modifiers for Simultaneous Determination of Different Selenium-Compounds in Serum and Urine by Zeeman-Effect Electrothermal Atomic-Absorption Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, J.K.; Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal stability of selenite, selenate, selenomethionine and trimethylselenonium was studied using different chemical modifiers in various amounts. The normally recommended amounts of nickel nitrate, magnesium nitrate, copper nitrate, copper nitrate mixed with magnesium nitrate, palladium ni...

  4. The systems cerium(3) (samarium) nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C the solubility in the systems cerium (3) nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water and samarium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water has been studied. It is established that in the systems during chemical interaction of components congruently melting compounds of the composition: Ce(NO 3 ) 2 x2[C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 ]x6H 2 O and Sm(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 ]x2H 2 O are formed. New solid phases are separated preparatively and are subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. The investigation results are compared with similar ones for nitrates of other representatives of lanthanide group

  5. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  6. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  7. Physico-chemical study of new functionalized surfactants having thermo sensitive de-mixing behaviour: use in extraction of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, S.

    2006-04-01

    New thermo-sensitive functionalized surfactants with metal-chelating properties have been developed and their physical-chemistry studied. They associate a polyethoxylated nonionic surfactant (CiEj) block and a amino-acid residue as a chelating group. Functionalization preserves both properties of the thermo-sensitive surfactant moiety and the chelating group, a diamide closed to uranyl ionophore.The complexing group participates to the polar head group of the surfactant, increasing the area per molecule. As a result, functionalized surfactants form spherical micelles when diluted in water, and the concentrated part of their phase diagrams exhibits structures having higher curvatures than the nonionic precursor CiEj. The structure of the uranyl - diamide complex has been elucidated by NMR and ESI-MS and is of the type UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 .L; the associated complexation constant, which is very low, has been evaluated by 1 H NMR.A nitrate salt, LiNO 3 , is added at high concentration to improve complexation. The effect of this salt has been analyzed, and was found to be rather similar to the effect on classical CiEj. When uranyl nitrate complexation occurs, the cloud point decreases dramatically, together with the reduction of the area per head group at micelle/solution interface. This effect can be minimized by using a nonionic precursor having a larger polar head group. The functionalized surfactants have been tested in the cloud point extraction of uranyl nitrate, and have proved their efficiency. Those results demonstrate the viability of the functionalized surfactants design, with a covalent link between a thermo-sensitive surfactant block and a chelating group. (author)

  8. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  9. Physical basis of destruction of concrete and other building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleymanova, L. A.; Pogorelova, I. A.; Kirilenko, S. V.; Suleymanov, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article the scientifically-grounded views of authors on the physical essence of destruction process of concrete and other materials are stated; it is shown that the mechanism of destruction of materials is similar in its essence during the mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical and combined influences, and that in its basis Newton's third law lays. In all cases destruction consists in decompaction of structures, loosening of the internal bonds in materials, in the further integrity damage and their division into separate loosely-bound (full destruction) and unbound with each other (incomplete destruction) elements, which depends on the kind of external influence and perfection of materials structure.

  10. Do nitrates differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, H.-L.

    1992-01-01

    1 The organic nitrates all share a common biochemical and physiological mechanism of action. 2 The organic nitrates differ substantially in their pharmacologic potency and pharmacokinetics. In vitro potency differences appear larger than the corresponding in vivo activities. 3 The duration of action of organic nitrates, after a single immediate-release dose, is governed by the pharmacokinetics of the drug. However, the duration of action of available sustained-release preparations, whatever the nitrate or formulation, is limited to about 12 h, due to the development of pharmacologic tolerance. 4 Nitrates do not appear to differ in their production of undesirable effects. PMID:1633079

  11. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  12. Aqueous-salt system containing ytterbium nitrate and pyridine nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Izmajlova, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section method has been used to study solubility in ternary aqueous-salt system Yb(NO 3 ) 3 -C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 -H 2 0 at 25 and 50 deg C. It is established that the system is characterized by chemical interaction. Congruently soluble compound of Yb(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 ] composition is discovered in the system. Composition of the compound is confirmed by chemical analysis; its infrared spectra are studied. Interplanar distances are determined; derivatogram of the compound is given. The results of the works are compared with analogous investigations of another rare earth nitrates

  13. Visualization and Non-Destructive Quantification of Inkjet-Printed Pharmaceuticals on Different Substrates Using Raman Spectroscopy and Raman Chemical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Rantanen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    and ethanol was developed. Inkjet printing technology was used to apply haloperidol ink onto three different substrates. Custom-made inorganic compacts and dry foam, as well as marketed paracetamol tablets were used as the substrates. RESULTS: Therapeutic personalized doses were printed by using one to ten...... printing rounds on the substrates. The haloperidol content in the finished dosage forms were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The distribution of the haloperidol on the dosage forms were visualized using Raman chemical imaging combined with principal components analysis (PCA...... prediction was observed for the paracetamol tablets. It was not possible to quantify haloperidol on the dry foam due to the low and varying density of the substrate. CONCLUSIONS: Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for visualization and quality control of inkjet printed personalized medicine....

  14. Does nitrate deposition following astrophysical ionizing radiation events pose an additional threat to amphibians?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brian C.; Honeyman, Michelle D.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that amphibians are especially susceptible to the combination of heightened UVB radiation and increased nitrate concentrations. Various astrophysical events have been suggested as sources of ionizing radiation that could pose a threat to life on Earth, through destruction of the ozone layer and subsequent increase in UVB, followed by deposition of nitrate. In this study, we investigate whether the nitrate deposition following an ionizing event is sufficiently large to cause an add...

  15. Comparative evaluation of nitrate removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbi, A.; Viraraghavan, T.; Butler, R.; Corkal, D.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the extensive application of artificial nitrogen-based fertilizers and animal manure on land, many water agencies face problems of increasing concentrations of nitrate in groundwater. The contamination of groundwater by nitrate may pose a significant public health problem. The threat of methemoglobinemia is well documented and reflected in the U.S. drinking water standard of 10 mg/L as nitrate-nitrogen. Approximately 45% of Saskatchewan's population use groundwater for drinking purposes, out of which, approximately 23% (230,000) are rural residents. The water used is made available from over 48,000 privately owned wells in regions where there is an extensive application of chemical fertilizers. Biological denitrification, ion exchange and reveres osmosis (RO) processes were selected for further study. Field studies were conducted on these processes. The sulfur/limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) process was selected to achieve biological removal of nitrate from groundwater. The feasibility of the system was evaluated under anaerobic conditions. An ion exchange study was conducted using Ionac A554 which is strong anion exchange resins. In the case of groundwater containing low sulfate concentrations, A554 offered high nitrate removal. However, the disposal of regenerant brine can be a problem. A reverse osmosis unit with Filmtec membrane elements (FT30-Element Family) was used in the study on nitrate removal. The unit effluent average nitrate concentration was less than the maximum allowable concentration. (author)

  16. Modeling the current and future role of particulate organic nitrates in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate ...

  17. Electrochemical destruction of nitrosamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejen, T; Volchek, K; Ladanowski, C; Velicogna, D; Whittaker, H [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Div.

    1996-09-01

    Treatment conditions for the electrolytic destruction of nitrosamines were studied. The joint investigation between Canada and the Ukraine was part of an assessment of hazardous contaminants at former Soviet ICBM missile sites. The electrochemical destruction of N-dimethylnitrosamines (NDMA) on carbon/platinum electrodes was studied under basic and acidic conditions by UV spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and colorimetry. Experiments with a 100 ppm NDMA solution showed that electrolytic-reduction was pH sensitive within a range of pH 0.5 to 4.0. Electrolysis was effective for the reduction of NDMA in strong acidic conditions. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Money Creation and Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Salomon; Gersbach, Hans

    2017-01-01

    We study money creation and destruction in today’s monetary architecture and examine the impact of monetary policy and capital regulation in a general equilibrium setting. There are two types of money created and destructed: bank deposits, when banks grant loans to firms or to other banks and central bank money, when the central bank grants loans to private banks. We show that equilibria yield the first-best level of money creation and lending when prices are flexible, regardless of the monet...

  19. Formation, Evaporation, and Hydrolysis of Organic Nitrates from Nitrate Radical Oxidation of Monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, N. L.; Takeuchi, M.; Eris, G.; Berkemeier, T.; Boyd, C.; Nah, T.; Xu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates play an important role in the cycling of NOx and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, yet their formation mechanisms and fates remain highly uncertain. The interactions of biogenic VOCs with NO3 radicals represent a direct way for positively linking anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Results from ambient studies suggest that organic nitrates have a relatively short lifetime, though corresponding laboratory data are limited. SOA and organic nitrates produced at night may evaporate the following morning due to increasing temperatures or dilution of semi-volatile compounds. Once formed, organic nitrates can also undergo hydrolysis in the presence of particle water. In this work, we investigate the formation, evaporation, and hydrolysis of organic nitrates generated from the nitrate radical oxidation of a-pinene, b-pinene, and limonene. Experiments are conducted in the Georgia Environmental Chamber facility (GTEC) under dry and humid conditions and different temperatures. Experiments are also designed to probe different peroxy radical pathways (RO2+HO2 vs RO2+NO3). Speciated gas-phase and particle-phase organic nitrates are continuously monitored by a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS). Bulk aerosol composition is measured by a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). A large suite of highly oxygenated gas- and particle-phase organic nitrates are formed rapidly. We find a resistance to aerosol evaporation when it is heated. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis in the humid experiments is evaluated. The dynamics of the speciated organic nitrates over the course of the experiments will also be discussed. Results from this chamber study provide fundamental data for understanding the dynamics of organic nitrate aerosols over its atmospheric lifetime.

  20. Ecology of Thioploca spp.: nitrate and sulfur storage in relation to chemical microgradients and influence of Thioploca spp. on the sedimentary nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopfi, J; Kjaer, T; Nielsen, L P; Jørgensen, B B

    2001-12-01

    Microsensors, including a recently developed NO3(-) biosensor, were applied to measure O(2) and NO3(-) profiles in marine sediments from the upwelling area off central Chile and to investigate the influence of Thioploca spp. on the sedimentary nitrogen metabolism. The studies were performed in undisturbed sediment cores incubated in a small laboratory flume to simulate the environmental conditions of low O(2), high NO3(-), and bottom water current. On addition of NO3(-) and NO2(-), Thioploca spp. exhibited positive chemotaxis and stretched out of the sediment into the flume water. In a core densely populated with Thioploca, the penetration depth of NO3(-) was only 0.5 mm and a sharp maximum of NO3(-) uptake was observed 0.5 mm above the sediment surface. In sediments with only few Thioploca spp., NO3(-) was detectable down to a depth of 2 mm and the maximum consumption rates were observed within the sediment. No chemotaxis toward nitrous oxide (N2O) was observed, which is consistent with the observation that Thioploca does not denitrify but reduces intracellular NO3(-) to NH(4)(+). Measurements of the intracellular NO3(-) and S(0) pools in Thioploca filaments from various depths in the sediment gave insights into possible differences in the migration behavior between the different species. Living filaments containing significant amounts of intracellular NO3(-) were found to a depth of at least 13 cm, providing final proof for the vertical shuttling of Thioploca spp. and nitrate transport into the sediment.

  1. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  2. Open-Source Photometric System for Enzymatic Nitrate Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittbrodt, B T; Squires, D A; Walbeck, J; Campbell, E; Campbell, W H; Pearce, J M

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate, the most oxidized form of nitrogen, is regulated to protect people and animals from harmful levels as there is a large over abundance due to anthropogenic factors. Widespread field testing for nitrate could begin to address the nitrate pollution problem, however, the Cadmium Reduction Method, the leading certified method to detect and quantify nitrate, demands the use of a toxic heavy metal. An alternative, the recently proposed Environmental Protection Agency Nitrate Reductase Nitrate-Nitrogen Analysis Method, eliminates this problem but requires an expensive proprietary spectrophotometer. The development of an inexpensive portable, handheld photometer will greatly expedite field nitrate analysis to combat pollution. To accomplish this goal, a methodology for the design, development, and technical validation of an improved open-source water testing platform capable of performing Nitrate Reductase Nitrate-Nitrogen Analysis Method. This approach is evaluated for its potential to i) eliminate the need for toxic chemicals in water testing for nitrate and nitrite, ii) reduce the cost of equipment to perform this method for measurement for water quality, and iii) make the method easier to carryout in the field. The device is able to perform as well as commercial proprietary systems for less than 15% of the cost for materials. This allows for greater access to the technology and the new, safer nitrate testing technique.

  3. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  4. Experience destructive therapy anogenital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rahmatulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the efficiency and tolerability of the Mardil Zinc Max, solution for external application, in topical therapy of patients with anogenital warts. Materials and methods. The study involved 58 women and 12 men at the age of 18 to 57 years old, suffering from anogenital warts. the diagnosis was confirmed by identification of human papillomavirus by the polymerase chain reaction in real time. All the patients were treated by the chemical destruction of anogenital warts with the 1.5% solution of zinc chloropropionate in 50% 2-chloropropionic acid (Mardil Zinc Max by a single application of the solution on the pathological eruptions. The results of treatment were assessed in 2 weeks, in 1, 3, 6 and 9 months after the destructive therapy. Results. In 2 weeks 62 (88.6% patients showed a clinical cure with complete tissue regeneration in the lesions, in 8 (11,4% cases in areas of the preparation erosions were visualized in the epithelialization phase, and they completely resolved within 1 week. recurrences of anogenital warts were detected in 1 (1,4% patient in the observation period up to 3 months and in 2 (2,8% patients during 9 months after carrying out the destruction. Adverse drug events have not been identified in the course of therapy and follow-up. Conclusions. As a result of the treatment of anogenital warts with the Mardil Zinc Max high rate of performance and security was set (100%, as well as the low percentage (4,2% of development of relapses.

  5. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1992-03-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing an electrochemical process, based upon mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), that converts toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, and chloride or chloride precipitates. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ , Co 3+ , or Fe 3+ are produced at an anode. These can attack organic molecules directly, and may also produce hydroxyl free radicals that promote destruction. Solid and liquid radioactive waste streams containing only inorganic radionuclide forms may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. The coulombic efficiency of the process has been determined, as well as the destruction efficiency for ethylene glycol, a surrogate waste. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient- temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag(II) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(III) and Co(III) are attractive alternatives to Ag(II) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data have been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(III) and Co(III). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, these data have enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(III) and Co(III) with Ag(II). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(II) had already been collected

  6. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  7. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  8. Contribution of nitrogen oxides to the acidification of rain (part 2). Evaluation of nitrate production mechanisms in a droplet by fog chemical model simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, A. (and others) (CRIEPI, Komae-shi (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    The fog chemical model developed in the previous work was applied to various types of fog. Simulated results of Cl[sup -], NO[sub 3][sup -] and SO[sub 4][sup 2-] concentrations in fogwater by the fog chemical model almost agreed with observed values in case the fog total ionic concentration was above 1000 [mu]eg/1. The chemical compositions of ideal water droplets formed under various atmospheric conditions based on observation data were predicted by the fog chemical model. About 80% of HNO[sub 3] and HCl in the atmosphere were scavenged by the droplets in all the cases. SO[sub 2] scavenging ratio by a droplet was dependent mainly on the pH of the droplet. When the droplet pH was decreased by dissolution of HNO[sub 3] and HCl, aqueous phase sulfate production was inhibited by decrease of SO[sub 2] solubility in the droplet. Contribution of HNO[sub 3] in the atmosphere was larger than that of SO[sub 2] to the acidification of highly acidic fogwater observed in Kanto district. In addition, HCl was considered to play an important role, as well as HNO[sub 3], in the acidification of fogwater.

  9. Aluminum nitrate recrystallization and recovery from liquid extraction raffinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Huxtable, W.P.

    1991-09-01

    The solid sludges resulting form biodenitrification of discarded aluminum nitrate are the largest Y-12 Plant process solid waste. Aluminum nitrate feedstocks also represent a major plant materials cost. The chemical constraints on aluminum nitrate recycle were investigated to determine the feasibility of increasing recycle while maintaining acceptable aluminum nitrate purity. Reported phase behavior of analogous systems, together with bench research, indicated that it would be possible to raise the recycle rate from 35% to between 70 and 90% by successive concentration and recrystallization of the mother liquor. A full scale pilot test successfully confirmed the ability to obtain 70% recycle in existing process equipment

  10. Non-destructive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouvet, A.

    1978-01-01

    The non-destructive controls permit, while respecting their integrity, the direct and individual examination of parts or complete objects as they are manufactured, as well as to follow the evolution of their eventual defects while in operation. The choice of control methods depends on the manufacturing process and shapes of parts, on the physical properties of their components as well as the nature, position and size of the defects which are likely to be detected. Whether it is a question of controls by means of ionizing radiation, flux of neutrons, ultrasons, acoustic source, sweating, magnetoscopy. Foucault currents, thermography, detection of leaks or non-destructive metallography, each has a limited field of application such that they are less competitive than complementary [fr

  11. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  12. Destructive distillation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-09-08

    A process of destructive distillation of distillable carbonaceous material under pressure is described, consisting of regulating the temperature by introducing the carbonaceous materials to a point where the reaction of hydrogenation has begun but has not stopped, by placing it in indirect heat-exchange with a cooling agent at a critical temperature below the reaction temperature, the agent being under pressure and introduced in the liquid state. Water is used as the cooling agent.

  13. REMEDIATION OF NITRATE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING A BIOBARRIER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STrietelmeir, B.

    2000-01-01

    A biobarrier system has been developed for use in remediating shallow alluvial groundwater. This barrier is made from highly porous materials that are relatively long-lasting, carbon-based (to supply a limiting nutrient in nitrate destruction, in most cases), and extremely inexpensive and easy to emplace. In a series of laboratory studies, we have determined the effectiveness of this barrier at destroying nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater from Mortandad Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This groundwater was obtained from a monitoring well, MCO-5, which is located in the flowpath of the discharge waters from the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Water with elevated nitrate levels has been discharged from this plant for many years, until recently when the nitrate levels have been brought under the discharge limits. However, the historical discharge has resulted in a nitrate plume in the alluvial groundwater in this canyon. The LANL Multi-Barrier project was initiated this past year to develop a system of barriers that would prevent the transport of radionuclides, metals, colloids and other contaminants, including nitrate and perchlorate, further down the canyon in order to protect populations down-gradient. The biobarrier. will be part of this Multi-Barrier system. We have demonstrated the destruction of nitrate at levels up to 6.5-9.7 mhl nitrate (400-600 mg/L), and that of perchlorate at levels of about 4.3 microM perchlorate (350 ppb). We have quantified the populations of microorganisms present in the biofilm that develops on the biobarrier. The results of this research will be discussed along with other potential applications of this system

  14. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  15. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  16. Management of Nitrate m Groundwater: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture may cause nitrate and other chemicals to enter into groundwater systems. Nitrate in drinking water is considered a health hazard. A study was conducted to assess the extent of nitrate pollution of groundwater caused by agriculture and to evaluate the possibility of using the LEACHN model to manage nitrate entry into groundwater of agricultural areas of Al-Batinah, which is the most important agricultural region of Oman. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed to assess the problem and to detect possible trends. Soil sampling and analyses were done to demonstrate the difference in the nitrate concentration in agricultural and non-agricultural soils. A questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information on agricultural practices, fertilizer input, and other possible sources of nitrate pollution. Results from the study show that 23% of groundwater samples have a concentration of nitrate-N concentration of 10 mg/l and 34% samples exceed 8 mg/l. Agricultural soils have higher levels of nitrate compared to non- agricultural soils. Results also demonstrate that nitrate levels in groundwater in Al-Batinah are rising. Application of the ‘LEACHN’ model demonstrated its suitability for use as a management tool to reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater by controlling fertilizer and water input.

  17. Chemical interaction of potassium diphosphate with cadmium nitrate in aqueous solution. Khimicheskie vzaimodejstviya difosfatov kaliya s azotnokislym kadmiem v vodnom rastvore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokhanovskij, V V [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1993-06-01

    Formation of low-soluble compounds in 1.5 mol/l isomolar cross section of K[sub 4]P[sub 2]O[sub 7]-Cd(NO[sub 3])[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O system was studied. Liquid phases are studied by the methods of refractometry and pH value measuring, an solid ones - by the methods of chemical and X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, chromatography and microscopy. Three individual chemical compounds K[sub 2]CdP[sub 2]O[sub 7] x 4H[sub 2]O, K[sub 2]Cd[sub 3](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2] x 3H[sub 2]O and Cd[sub 2]P[sub 2]O[sub 7] x 3.5H[sub 2]O and some their mixtures were isolated and investigated. It is shown that doulble diphosphate K[sub 6]Cd(P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2] x 6H[sub 2]O does not precipitate spontanously, but instead of it in wide region of system K[sub 2]CdP[sub 2]O[sub 7] x 4H[sub 2]O crystallizes as elongated acicular crystals or as thin plates of improper form.

  18. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO 3 - solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  20. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV ′ transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C

  1. Low temperature destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process is given and apparatus is described for the destructive distillation at low temperature of coal, oil shale, and the like by subjection to the action of a stream of hot gases or superhearted steam, flowing in a closed circuit. Subsequent treatment of the distillation residues with a gas stream containing oxygen results in combustion of the carbon-containing material therein brings to a high temperature the solid residue, in which the process comprises subsequently contacting the hot solid residue with the fluid stream effecting the distillation.

  2. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ or Ce +4 are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs

  3. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdiak, J.; Gafrik, A.; Pulis, P.; Susko, M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  4. Simultaneous aerosol mass spectrometry and chemical ionisation mass spectrometry measurements during a biomass burning event in the UK: insights into nitrate chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Reyes-Villegas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in short-term events that negatively affect air quality such as bonfires and fireworks. High aerosol and gas concentrations generated from public bonfires or fireworks were measured in order to understand the night-time chemical processes and their atmospheric implications. Nitrogen chemistry was observed during Bonfire Night with nitrogen containing compounds in both gas and aerosol phases and further N2O5 and ClNO2 concentrations, which depleted early next morning due to photolysis of NO3 radicals and ceasing production. Particulate organic oxides of nitrogen (PONs concentrations of 2.8 µg m−3 were estimated using the m ∕ z 46 : 30 ratios from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements, according to previously published methods. Multilinear engine 2 (ME-2 source apportionment was performed to determine organic aerosol (OA concentrations from different sources after modifying the fragmentation table and it was possible to identify two PON factors representing primary (pPON_ME2 and secondary (sPON_ME2 contributions. A slight improvement in the agreement between the source apportionment of the AMS and a collocated AE-31 Aethalometer was observed after modifying the prescribed fragmentation in the AMS organic spectrum (the fragmentation table to determine PON sources, which resulted in an r2 =  0.894 between biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA and babs_470wb compared to an r2 =  0.861 obtained without the modification. Correlations between OA sources and measurements made using time-of-flight chemical ionisation mass spectrometry with an iodide adduct ion were performed in order to determine possible gas tracers to be used in future ME-2 analyses to constrain solutions. During Bonfire Night, strong correlations (r2 were observed between BBOA and methacrylic acid (0.92, acrylic acid (0.90, nitrous acid (0.86, propionic acid, (0.85 and hydrogen cyanide (0

  5. Simultaneous aerosol mass spectrometry and chemical ionisation mass spectrometry measurements during a biomass burning event in the UK: insights into nitrate chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villegas, Ernesto; Priestley, Michael; Ting, Yu-Chieh; Haslett, Sophie; Bannan, Thomas; Le Breton, Michael; Williams, Paul I.; Bacak, Asan; Flynn, Michael J.; Coe, Hugh; Percival, Carl; Allan, James D.

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in short-term events that negatively affect air quality such as bonfires and fireworks. High aerosol and gas concentrations generated from public bonfires or fireworks were measured in order to understand the night-time chemical processes and their atmospheric implications. Nitrogen chemistry was observed during Bonfire Night with nitrogen containing compounds in both gas and aerosol phases and further N2O5 and ClNO2 concentrations, which depleted early next morning due to photolysis of NO3 radicals and ceasing production. Particulate organic oxides of nitrogen (PONs) concentrations of 2.8 µg m-3 were estimated using the m / z 46 : 30 ratios from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements, according to previously published methods. Multilinear engine 2 (ME-2) source apportionment was performed to determine organic aerosol (OA) concentrations from different sources after modifying the fragmentation table and it was possible to identify two PON factors representing primary (pPON_ME2) and secondary (sPON_ME2) contributions. A slight improvement in the agreement between the source apportionment of the AMS and a collocated AE-31 Aethalometer was observed after modifying the prescribed fragmentation in the AMS organic spectrum (the fragmentation table) to determine PON sources, which resulted in an r2 = 0.894 between biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and babs_470wb compared to an r2 = 0.861 obtained without the modification. Correlations between OA sources and measurements made using time-of-flight chemical ionisation mass spectrometry with an iodide adduct ion were performed in order to determine possible gas tracers to be used in future ME-2 analyses to constrain solutions. During Bonfire Night, strong correlations (r2) were observed between BBOA and methacrylic acid (0.92), acrylic acid (0.90), nitrous acid (0.86), propionic acid, (0.85) and hydrogen cyanide (0.76). A series of oxygenated species

  6. Nitrate pollution and its distribution in the groundwater of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nagireddi Srinivasa

    2006-12-01

    The complex depositional pattern of clay and sand in most of the areas controlled the vertical and lateral movement of nitrate in groundwater. The variation of nitrate concentration at different groundwater levels and the lateral distribution of nitrate in the groundwater at two sites indicated the filtration of nitrate by clayey formations. A rural agricultural district located in the Vamsadhara river basin, India was selected for studying the lateral and vertical distribution of nitrate in the groundwater and the association of nitrate with other chemical constituents. The nitrate concentrations in the groundwater are observed to vary between below detectable limit and 450 mg NO3/L. The sources for nitrate are mainly point sources (poultry farms, cattleshed and leakages from septic tanks) and non-point sources (nitrogenous fertilisers). The nitrate concentrations are increased after fertiliser applications. However, very high concentrations of nitrate are derived from animal wastes. Relatively better correlations between nitrate and potassium are observed ( R = 0.74 to 0.82). The better relationship between these two chemical constituents in the groundwater may be due to the release of potassium and nitrate from both point and non-point sources. The nitrate and potassium concentrations are high in the groundwater from clayey formations.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of uranium and nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    1978-04-01

    A direct spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of 20 to 200 g/l of uranium in the presence of 3 to 5 M nitric acid. A dual-wavelength analysis is used to eliminate the enhancing effect of nitrate ion on the uranium visible spectra. The precision and accuracy of the simultaneous analysis of uranium and nitrate were compared using combinations of the four uranium wavelength maxima, occurring at 426, 416, 403 and 359 nm. Calculations based on 426 and 416 nm data yielded the most accurate results. The calculated relative standard deviation of uranium and nitrate concentrations was 5.4 percent and 15.5 percent, respectively. The photometric procedure is slightly affected by temperature; an increase of one degree centigrade results in a 0.2 g/l overestimation of uranium concentration. Because the method is non-destructive, it is directly applicable to the continuous in-line analysis of dissolved uranium in aqueous fuel reprocessing streams.

  8. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  9. Destructive distillation: oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J; Glover, S

    1918-01-31

    Canned and other coals are destructively distilled in continuously operated vertical retorts which at their upper portions are maintained at temperatures suitable for low temperature oil distillation such as about 700/sup 0/C, and at their lower portions the temperature is higher and such as to be suitable for the production of gas, e.g., about 1400/sup 0/C. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower portion of the retort, preferably by means of the arrangement described in Specification 120,458, and this is converted into blue water gas which assists the distillation in the center of the coal charge. The retorts are preferably such as are described in Specifications 2663/07 and 7757/14.

  10. The systems terbium (holmium) nitrate-piperidine nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C solubility in the systems Tb(NO 3 ) 2 -C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 -H 2 O and Ho(NO 3 ) 3 -C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 -H 2 O has been studied. The systems are characterized by chemical interaction of components. Solubility isotherms have crystallization fields of solid phases of the composition Tb(NO 3 ) 3 x3[C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 ]x3H 2 O and Ho(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 ]. The compounds detected are singled out preparatively, their IR spectra are studied, their thermogravimetric analysis is carried out. Investigation results are compared with similar systems formed by nitrates of other representatives of rare earth group

  11. Reactivity of Metal Nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-20

    02NOCuOH Any mechanism suggested for the nitration of aromatic systems by titanium(IV) nitrate must take into account the observed similarity, in...occurs. -26- References 1. For recent reviews see (a) R. B. Moodie and K. Schofield, Accounts Chem. Res., 1976, 9, 287; (b) G. A. Olah and S. J. Kuhn...Ithaca, N.Y., 1969, Chapter VI; L. M. Stock, Prog. Phys. Org. Chem., 1976, 12, 21; J. G. Hoggett , R. B. Moodie, J. R. Penton, and K. Schofield

  12. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  13. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K 3 Fe(CN) 6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Nitrate radical oxidation of γ-terpinene: hydroxy nitrate, total organic nitrate, and secondary organic aerosol yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jonathan H.; de Perre, Chloé; Lee, Linda; Shepson, Paul B.

    2017-07-01

    Polyolefinic monoterpenes represent a potentially important but understudied source of organic nitrates (ONs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) following oxidation due to their high reactivity and propensity for multi-stage chemistry. Recent modeling work suggests that the oxidation of polyolefinic γ-terpinene can be the dominant source of nighttime ON in a mixed forest environment. However, the ON yields, aerosol partitioning behavior, and SOA yields from γ-terpinene oxidation by the nitrate radical (NO3), an important nighttime oxidant, have not been determined experimentally. In this work, we present a comprehensive experimental investigation of the total (gas + particle) ON, hydroxy nitrate, and SOA yields following γ-terpinene oxidation by NO3. Under dry conditions, the hydroxy nitrate yield = 4(+1/-3) %, total ON yield = 14(+3/-2) %, and SOA yield ≤ 10 % under atmospherically relevant particle mass loadings, similar to those for α-pinene + NO3. Using a chemical box model, we show that the measured concentrations of NO2 and γ-terpinene hydroxy nitrates can be reliably simulated from α-pinene + NO3 chemistry. This suggests that NO3 addition to either of the two internal double bonds of γ-terpinene primarily decomposes forming a relatively volatile keto-aldehyde, reconciling the small SOA yield observed here and for other internal olefinic terpenes. Based on aerosol partitioning analysis and identification of speciated particle-phase ON applying high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we estimate that a significant fraction of the particle-phase ON has the hydroxy nitrate moiety. This work greatly contributes to our understanding of ON and SOA formation from polyolefin monoterpene oxidation, which could be important in the northern continental US and the Midwest, where polyolefinic monoterpene emissions are greatest.

  16. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and peroxyacetic acid (PAA measurements by iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometry: first analysis of results in the boreal forest and implications for the measurement of PAN fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Phillips

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3C(OO2NO2, PAN and peroxyacetic acid (CH3C(OOOH, PAA in the Boreal forest using iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS. The measurements were made during the Hyytiälä United Measurement of Photochemistry and Particles – Comprehensive Organic Particle and Environmental Chemistry (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 measurement intensive. Mixing ratios of PAN and PAA were determined by measuring the acetate ion signal (CH3C(OO, m/z = 59 resulting from reaction of CH3C(OO2 (from the thermal dissociation of PAN or CH3C(OOOH with iodide ions using alternatively heated and ambient temperature inlet lines. During some periods of high temperature (~ 30 °C and low NOx (< 1 ppbv, PAA mixing ratios were similar to, or exceeded those of PAN and thus contributed a significant fraction of the total acetate signal. PAA is thus a potential interference for ICIMS measurements of PAN, and especially eddy covariance flux measurements in environments where the PAA flux is likely to be a significant proportion of the (short timescale acetate ion variability. Within the range of mixing ratios of NOx measured during HUMPPA-COPEC, the modelled ratio of PAA-to-PAN was found to be sensitive to temperature (through the thermal decomposition rate of PAN and the HO2 mixing ratio, thus providing some constraint to estimates of photochemical activity and oxidation rates in the Boreal environment.

  17. A simple QuEChERS-like extraction approach for molecular chemical characterization of organic aerosols: application to nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (NPAH and OPAH) quantified by GC-NICIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, A; Nalin, F; Tomaz, S; Beaumont, J; Lestremau, F

    2014-05-01

    An extraction procedure based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) approach has been developed and used for analysis of particle-bound nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (NPAH and OPAH, respectively). Several analytical conditions, for example GC injection temperature and MS detection settings, were optimized. This analytical procedure enabled simultaneous GC-NICIMS quantification of 32 NPAH and 32 OPAH (or other oxygenated compounds), including typical components of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by photooxidation of PAH (e.g. 2-formyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde and 6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one). The QuEChERS-like approach was optimized, including the nature of the extraction solvent, the sorbent used for clean-up, and extraction time. The final extraction procedure was based on brief mechanical agitation (vortex mixing for 1.5 min), with 7 mL acetonitrile as solvent. Because dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) did not provide satisfactory results, SPE using SiO2 was selected for sample purification. Identical results were obtained when the QuEChERS-like and traditional pressurised solvent extraction (PLE) procedures were compared for analysis of fortified ambient air particle samples. The procedure was validated by analysis of two aerosol standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1649b (urban dust) and SRM 2787 (fine particulate matter, extraction methods, including PLE, the QuEChERS-like procedure resulted in increased productivity and reduced extraction cost. This paper shows that QuEChERS-like extraction procedures can be suitably adapted for molecular chemical characterization of aerosol samples and could be extended to other categories of compound.

  18. Phase extraction equilibria in systems rare earth (3) nitrates-ammonium nitrate-water-trialkylmethylammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth metals (3) between aqueous and organic phases in the systems rare earth metal (3) (praseodymium-lutetium (3), yttrium (3)) nitrate-ammonium nitrate-water-trialkylmethylammonium (kerosene diluent nitrate has been studied. It is shown that in organic phase di- and trisolvates of metals (3) with tralkylmethylammonium nitrate are formed. The influence of concentration of rare earth metal (3) nitrate and ammonium nitrate on the values of extraction concentrational constants has been ascertained: they decrease with increase in the ordinal number of lanthanide (3). 11 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  19. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection

  20. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. Material and methods: X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Results: Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. Conclusion: WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  1. Evaluation of destructive methods for managing decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are discussed of a laboratory evaluation of destructive methods for processing chemical decontamination wastes. Incineration, acid digestion and wet-air oxidation are capable of degrading decontamination reagents and organic ion-exchange resins. The extent of destruction as a function of operating parameters was waste specific. The reagents used in the testing were: EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid and LND-101A

  2. Nitrate Leaching Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  3. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Damse

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials te...

  4. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  5. Destructive hydrogenation. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-07-15

    Liquid or readily liquefiable products are obtained from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales or other bituminous substances by subjecting the said initial materials to destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzine is substantially avoided, and then subjecting the treated material to extraction by solvents. By hydrogenating under mild conditions the heavy oils which prevent the asphaltic substances from being precipitated are preserved, and the separation of the liquid products from the solid residue is facilitated. Solid paraffins and high boiling point constituents suitable for the production of lubricating oils may be removed before or after the extraction process. The extraction is preferably carried out under pressure with solvents which do not precipitate asphaltic substances. Brown coal containing 11 per cent ash is passed at 450/sup 0/C, and 200 atmospheres pressure in counter current to hydrogen; 40 per cent of the coal is converted into liquid products which are condensed out of the hydrogen stream; the pasty residue, on extraction with benzene, yields 45 per cent of high molecular weight products suitable for the production of lubricating oil.

  6. Innovation in Non Destructive Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, C.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In many established companies the pace of innovation is low. The Non-Destructive Testing sector is an example of a sector where the pace of innovation is very slow. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) refers to the set of non-invasive activities used to determine the condition of objects or installations

  7. Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, Donald G. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Felt, Rowland E. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Agnew, Steve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barney, G. Scott [B& W Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); McKibben, J. Malvyn [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Garber, Robert [Parallax Inc., Rocklin, CA (United States); Lewis, Margie [Parallax Inc., Rocklin, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the chemical properties and safe conditions for handling and storing solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN, NH2OH•HNO3 or NH3OH+) in nitric acid (HNO3). Section 1.0 summarizes the accidents experienced within the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex involving HAN or hydroxylamine sulfate (HAS), a chemical with similar properties. Section 2.0 describes past and current uses of HAN by DOE, the U.S. Military and foreign countries. Section 3.0 presents the basic chemistry of HAN, including chemical reaction and energy content equations. Section 4.0 provides experience and insights gained from previous uncontrolled reactions involving HAN and experimental data from Hanford & Savannah River Site (SRS). This information was used to develop safe conditions for the storage and handling of HAN as presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes recommendations for safe facility operations involving HAN and future research needs.

  8. Release and dispersion of overheated liquids from plutonium-nitrate transfer containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehars, H.D.; Hochrainer, D.; Spiekermann, M.

    1985-01-01

    Potential traffic accidents of 18B-transfer containers with liquid Pu-nitrate during road transportation may induce an exposure of the Ti vessel itself to a fire due to the ignition of the leaking fuel up to a critical level, causing the burst of the vessel and the more or less complete release of the contents in form of liquid aerosol particles. A report is given on experiments with the original Ti vessels and a quadrivalent Ce-nitrate solution used as a substitute with similar physico-chemical properties as the Pu-nitrate solution. Total release of mass as well as of the respirable particle mass fraction is strongly dependent on the orientation of the vessel. Maximum release, connected with a high bursting pressure and the total destruction of the vessel, is observed in case of the vertical orientation of the vessel. According to the weak temporal variability of the low wind speed (between 3 and 4.5 m/s) and direction parallel to the centre of the measuring area strong horizontal variations of the inhalation hazard occured in the range less than 50 m from the origin, while spatially homogeneous inhalation hazards were observed in the range of more than 50 m up to 200 m, almost independent on the orientation of the vessel. The extremely high total particle mass fractions between 1.6 and 8.6 mg at distances up to 50 m are noticeable. Scanning electron microscope analysis and electron probe microanalysis of Ce particles deposited up to distances of 100 m from the origin, indicated their deposition in the liquid state. (orig./HP)

  9. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  10. NITRATE REDUCTION PROGRAM AT THE LINE CREEK OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff W Hawley

    2015-01-01

    Blasting activities at the Line Creek operation are releasing oxides of nitrogen and arecontributing to chemical changes in the surrounding watersheds. Through analysis of themechanisms of nitrogen release, history of explosive usage, historical nitrate release, changingregulatory requirements, strategy analysis and social impacts associated with the release ofnitrates a nitrate reduction plan will be established.The paper develops the framework for engineering groups, operations groups andma...

  11. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  12. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  13. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers, circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride, factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilization (factors related to the plants, soil, clime, harvest methods, storage, agrotechnical measures, nitrates/nitrites toxicity (over 45 ppm nitrates in drinking water, over 0.5 g nitrate/100 g D.M fodder/diet, the factors that influence nitrates/nitrites toxicity ( species, age, rate of feeding, diet balance especially energetically, pathological effects and symptoms (irritation and congestions on digestive tract, resulting diarrhoea, transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin determining severe respiratory insufficiency, vascular collapse, low blood pressure inthe acute nitrates intoxication; hypotiroidism, hypovitaminosis A, reproductive disturbances(abortion, low rate of fertility, dead born offspring, diarrhoea and/or respiratory insufficiency in new born e.g. calves, immunosuppression, decrease of milk production in chronic intoxication. There were presented some suggestions concerning management practices to limit nitrate intoxication (analyze of nitrates/nitrites in water and fodders, good management of the situation of risk ,e .g. dilution of the diet with low nitrate content fodders, feeding with balanced diet in energy, protein, minerals and vitamins, accommodation to high nitrate level diet, avoid grazing one week after a frost period, avoid feeding chop green fodders stored a couple of days, monitoring of health status of animals fed with fodders containing nitrates at risk level, a.o..

  14. Non-destructive inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen, P.; Sarkimo, M.; Lahdenperae, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the possible damages occurring in the components and structures of operating nuclear power plants during service the main components and structures are periodically inspected by non-destructive testing techniques. The reliability of non-destructive testing techniques applied in these inservice inspections is of major importance because the decisions concerning the needs for repair of components are mainly based on the results of inspections. One of the targets of this research program has been to improve the reliability of non-destructive testing. This has been addressed in the sub-projects which are briefly summarised here. (author)

  15. Using WRF-Chem to investigate the impact of night time nitrate radical chemistry and N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry on the chemical composition of the UK troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lowe, D.; Utembe, S.; McFiggans, G.

    2012-04-01

    It is believed that NO3 is the primary oxidant at night time, significantly impacting ozone formation, rain acidification and the formation and transformation of aerosols, particularly through the formation of the ammonium nitrate particulate (Allan et. al., 2000). However, many of the basic chemical processes controlling the formation and removal of NO3, in particular, the N2O5 heterogeneous reactions, are often not represented in models, although general parameterisations have been developed (c.f. Bertram & Thornton, 2009). The ROle of Night time chemistry in controlling the Oxidising Capacity of the atmOsphere (RONOCO) campaign is a project being funded by NERC and being carried out by a collaboration of UK Universities. It aims to better understand the role of the NO3 radical on the chemistry of the night time atmosphere, its oxidation capacity and thus its overall effects on the composition of the troposphere. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is a state of the art regional climate model with fully coupled online air quality and meteorological components allowing for better resolution of aerosol and gas-phase chemistry (Grell et. al., 2005). It has been extended to include the Common Representative Intermediates scheme (CRIv2-R5) (Watson et. al., 2008), a reduced chemical scheme designed to simulate the atmospheric degradation of 220 species of hydrocarbons and VOCs. The MOSAIC aerosol scheme (Zaveri et. al., 2008), has been extended to include a reduced complexity condensed organic phase consisting of 13 semi-volatile and 2 involatile species (Topping et. al., 2012), as well as the N2O5 heterogeneous reaction scheme of Bertram & Thornton (2009). We aim to use WRF-Chem to compare the oxidation capacity of nighttime NO3 chemistry with that of daytime OH chemistry. The model was run using two nested grids: a 15km resolution domain over western Europe, containing a 5km resolution domain over the UK. The RONOCO campaign consisted

  16. Method for the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, in particular nuclear fuels containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the chemical processing of irradiated uranium-containing nuclear fuels which are hydrolyzed with aqueous nitric acid, a suggestion is made to use as quaternary ammonium nitrate trialkyl-methyl ammonium nitrates as extracting agent, in which the sum of C atoms is greater than 16. In the illustrated examples, tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, trilaurylmethylammonium nitrate and tridecylmethylammonium nitrate are named. (HPH/LH) [de

  17. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  18. COGEMA Experience in Uranous Nitrate Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, E.; Bretault, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Separation and purification of plutonium by PUREX process is based on a sequence of extraction and back extraction which requires reducing plutonium Pu IV (extractable form) into Pu III (inextractable form) Different reducers can be used to reduce Pu IV into Pu III. Early plants such as that for Magnox fuel at Sellafield used ferrous sulfamate while UP 1 at Marcoule used uranous sulfamate. These reducers are efficient and easy to prepare but generates ferric and/or sulphate ions and so complicates management of the wastes from the plutonium purification cycle. Recent plants such as UP3 and UP2 800 at La Hague, THORP at Sellafield, and RRP at Rokkasho Mura (currently under tests) use uranous nitrate (U IV) stabilized by hydrazinium nitrate (N 2 H 5 NO 3 ) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). In the French plants, uranous nitrate is used in U-Pu separation and alpha barrier and HAN is used in Pu purification. Compared to sulfamate, U IV does not generate extraneous chemical species and uranyl nitrate (U VI) generated by reducing Pu IV follows the main uranium stream. More over uranous nitrate is prepared from reprocessed purified uranyl nitrate taken at the outlet of the reprocessing plant. Hydrazine and HAN offer the advantage to be salt-free reagents. Uranous nitrate can be generated either by electrolysis or by catalytic hydrogenation process. Electrolytic process has been implemented in early plant UP 1 at Marcoule (when changing reducer from uranous sulfamate to uranous nitrate) and was used again in UP2 plant at La Hague. However, the electrolytic process presented several disadvantages such as a low conversion rate and problems associated with the use of mercury. Electrolysis cells with no mercury were developed for the Eurochemic plant in Belgium and then implemented in the first Japanese reprocessing plant in Tokai-Mura. But finally, in 1975, the electrolytic process was abandoned in favor of the catalytic hydrogenation process developed at La Hague. The

  19. Evaluation of Nitrate Transport in Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Seyedian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and purpose: With the increase in world population and the need to provide food, farmers are now using a variety of chemical fertilizers, organic pesticides have turned. Indiscriminate use of these inputs without considering its side effects, both environmental problems and brings in terms of human health. Among these, organic fertilizers contain soluble compounds such as nitrate. These compounds through precipitation or irrigation of the soil solution, groundwater and surface water resources are. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of nitrate transport in clay and simulation software using HYDRUS2D. Methods: In order to perform it, 5 different height of soil column 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm selected. In thicknesses of 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm respectively output levels after a period of 6, 12, 18 and 22 hours to input the concentration of nitrate (50 mg/lit is. In thicknesses of 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm, respectively, after the time of 5/6, 5/12, 21, and 25-hour concentration of 50 mg/lit is output. In thickness 20, 40, 60 and 80cm, outlet concentration after 6, 12, 18 and 22 minutes inlet concentration (50mg/lit. Results: The result showed that Hydrus software ability of simulates nitrate movement in soil and result of Hydrus software and laboratory data near. Conclusions: With increasing soil thickness difference HYDRUS2D results and experimental data more and more time to transfer nitrate were spent with increasing thickness. 

  20. Lanthanum (samarium) nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the isothermal method of cross-sections at 50 deg C systems lanthanum nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (1), samarium nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (2), are studied. Isotherms of system 1 consist of two crystallization branches of initial salt components. In system 2 formation of congruently soluble compounds of the composition Sm(No) 3 ) 3 xC 11 H 13 ON 3 xHNO 3 is established. Analytical, X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analysis of the isolated binary salt are carried out

  1. Nitrate biosensors and biological methods for nitrate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Manzar; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-06-01

    The inorganic nitrate (NO3‾) anion is present under a variety of both natural and artificial environmental conditions. Nitrate is ubiquitous within the environment, food, industrial and physiological systems and is mostly present as hydrated anion of a corresponding dissolved salt. Due to the significant environmental and toxicological effects of nitrate, its determination and monitoring in environmental and industrial waters are often necessary. A wide range of analytical techniques are available for nitrate determination in various sample matrices. This review discusses biosensors available for nitrate determination using the enzyme nitrate reductase (NaR). We conclude that nitrate determination using biosensors is an excellent non-toxic alternative to all other available analytical methods. Over the last fifteen years biosensing technology for nitrate analysis has progressed very well, however, there is a need to expedite the development of nitrate biosensors as a suitable alternative to non-enzymatic techniques through the use of different polymers, nanostructures, mediators and strategies to overcome oxygen interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  3. Destruction of DOE/DP surrogate wastes with supercritical water oxidation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlette, T.T.; Mills, B.E.; Hencken, K.R.; Brynildson, M.E.; Johnston, S.C.; Hruby, J.M.; Freemster, H.C.; Odegard, B.C.; Modell, M.

    1990-11-01

    Surrogate wastes of specific interest to DOE/DP production facilities (Hanford and Rocky Flats), and the electronics industry have been successfully processed in a laboratory-scale, supercritical water oxidation flow reactor. In all cases, the observed destruction/reduction efficiencies for the organic components were in excess of 99.9%, limited by instrumentation detection capability. Separation of the inorganic components of the Hanford process stream was more difficult to accomplish than destruction of the organic component. Large fractions of all metals contained in this stream were found both in the solids separator effluent and in deposits removed from the reactor. Mass closure was not achieved. Of the process stream's non-metallic, inorganic components, the sulfates and phosphates precipitated, while the nitrates tended to stay in solution. The inorganic material that did precipitate from the simulated Hanford mixed waste accumulated in zones that may be associated with changes in the chemical and physical properties of the supercritical fluid. Corrosion is expected to be a significant problem. Witness wires of Inconel 625, Hastalloy C-276, and titanium placed in the preheater, reactor and cooldown exchanger indicated selective dissolution of chromium, nickel, and molybdenum for some conditions, and non-selective dissolution for others. While these results are very promising, further research is required to evaluate the scalability, reliability, and economics of SCWO reactor components and systems, particularly for mixed wastes. Future research must explore a parameter space (temperature, pressure, pH, residence time, etc.) focused on selecting conditions and materials for specific process streams

  4. Evaluation of Nitrate Sources and Transformation in the Oglio River Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delconte, C. A. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, U.O.S. di Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Della Terra e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Pavia (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e dell' ambiente, Universita di Pavia (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR, U.O.S. di Pavia (Italy); Allais, E. [ISO4 s.n.c., Torino (Italy); Racchetti, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita di Parma (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    In agricultural watersheds, the management of nitrate contamination in rivers requires the understanding of the existing relationships between soil, groundwater and surface water. The reported data correspond to three sampling campaigns, conducted in different seasons on surface water in a nitrate Vulnerable Zone of lombardy (northern Italy). The Oglio River, its tributaries, one spring, and effluents from wastewater treatment plants were sampled to determinen content, speciation and nitrate isotopes. The nitrate content increased along the Oglio River, mostly due to groundwater inputs. In summer, nitrate tended to decrease at the downstream reach, whilst this trend was not clear in autumn and winter campaigns. In summertime chemical and isotopic data suggest the presence of weak denitrification in the Oglio riverbed. Chemical, isotopic data and flow measurements allow the definition of the N fluxes and identification of sources and processes affecting the nitrate concentration in the river. (author)

  5. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standards development of chemical analysis and non-destructive inspection methods for pure titanium metals; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Junchitan no shiken hyoka hoho no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    To propose it to ISOTC79 and ISOTC135, study was conducted for standardization of chemical analysis method and non-destructive inspection method for industrial use pure titanium. As the chemical analysis method, the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry which has good detection limit was developed, and at the same time, the standardization of spark and/or glow discharged atomic emission spectrometry was developed. As the non-destructive inspection method, developmental study on the following was carried out: surface defect inspection method of pure titanium metals by laser scanning inspection system or CCD camera; internal defect inspection of pure titanium sheet and coil by plate wave ultrasonic inspection method; internal defect inspection of pure titanium bar by eddy current method; inspection of very small leakage of pressurized fluid through defects in pure titanium pipe and tube by pressure differential testing method. As a result of the study, standards of system performance and tolerance were determined in analysis of Pd, Si, Al, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta and Y. Further, analytical conditions and application ranges of the spark discharged atomic emission spectrometry were made definite in terms of 19 elements including Mn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Sn, Pb, Si, Al, V, Cu, Mo, Zr, Nb, Ta, Co, B, Y, C and W. (NEDO)

  6. dl-Asparaginium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa Slimane, Nabila; Cherouana, Aouatef; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C4H9N2O3 +·NO3 −, alternatively called (1RS)-2-carbamoyl-1-carboxy­ethanaminium nitrate, the asymmetric unit comprises one asparaginium cation and one nitrate anion. The strongest cation–cation O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the structure, together with other strong cation–cation N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generates a succession of infinite chains of R 2 2(8) rings along the b axis. Additional cation–cation C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link these chains into two-dimensional layers formed by alternating R 4 4(24) and R 4 2(12) rings. Connections between these layers are provided by the strong cation–anion N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as by one weak C—H⋯O inter­action, thus forming a three-dimensional network. Some of the cation–anion N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are bifurcated of the type D—H⋯(A 1,A 2). PMID:21577586

  7. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly......, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations....... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...

  8. DESTRUCTIVE EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES AT UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Владимирович Феоктистов

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problems of origin and development of destructive educational practices at university. The authors focus on complex of interactions that disturb the existing in the academic environment norms and ethical principles. The most vivid evidence of destructive educational practice is the corruption issue. On the basis of the analyzed publications dealing with dynamics of corruption in the Russian higher education and the results of the survey by questionnaire, carried out at the technical university, the complex of recommendations has been prepared and suggested that is directed at minimization of destructive behavior at university.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-28

  9. Evolution of aerosol chemistry in Xi'an, inland China, during the dust storm period of 2013 - Part 1: Sources, chemical forms and formation mechanisms of nitrate and sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.; Cheng, C. L.; Huang, Y.; Tao, J.; Ren, Y. Q.; Wu, F.; Meng, J. J.; Li, J. J.; Cheng, Y. T.; Cao, J. J.; Liu, S. X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, R.; Chen, Y. B.

    2014-11-01

    A total suspended particulate (TSP) sample was collected hourly in Xi'an, an inland megacity of China near the Loess Plateau, during a dust storm event of 2013 (9 March 18:00-12 March 10:00 LT), along with a size-resolved aerosol sampling and an online measurement of PM2.5. The TSP and size-resolved samples were determined for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and nitrogen (WSON), inorganic ions and elements to investigate chemistry evolution of dust particles. Hourly concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+ and Ca2+ in the TSP samples reached up to 34, 12, 180, 72 and 28 μg m-3, respectively, when dust peak arrived over Xi'an. Chemical compositions of the TSP samples showed that during the whole observation period NH4+ and NO3- were linearly correlated with each other (r2=0.76) with a molar ratio of 1 : 1, while SO42- and Cl- were well correlated with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ (r2 > 0.85). Size distributions of NH4+ and NO3- presented a same pattern, which dominated in the coarse mode (> 2.1 μm) during the event and predominated in the fine mode (hours, but both exhibited two equivalent peaks in both the fine and the coarse modes during the non-event, due to the fine-mode accumulations of secondarily produced SO42- and biomass-burning-emitted Cl- and the coarse-mode enrichments of urban soil-derived SO42- and Cl-. Linear fit regression analysis further indicated that SO42- and Cl- in the dust samples possibly exist as Na2SO4, CaSO4 and NaCl, which directly originated from Gobi desert surface soil, while NH4+ and NO3- in the dust samples exist as NH4NO3. We propose a mechanism to explain these observations in which aqueous phase of dust particle surface is formed via uptake of water vapor by hygroscopic salts such as Na2SO4 and NaCl, followed by heterogeneous formation of nitrate on the liquid phase and subsequent absorption of ammonia. Our data indicate that 54 ± 20% and 60 ± 23% of NH4+ and NO3- during the dust period

  10. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  11. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  12. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  13. Nitrates in SNCs: Implications for the nitrogen cycle on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Monica M.; Wright, I. P.; Franchi, I. A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    . Lithology C glass was therefore selected for nitrate analysis, first by non-destructive infra red spectroscopy, and then by stepped combustion.

  14. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-01-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  15. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  16. A study of precipitation from pure solutions of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrop, J.; Holder, J.; Sauteron, J.

    1961-01-01

    After its purification by extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent, uranium has to be converted into solid form again: uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). It can be done either by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate or by precipitation of uranium, followed by filtration and calcination. Only the second method has been studied for now at the Bouchet plant. This paper reports the bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments of the studies of the precipitation of pure solutions of uranyl nitrate using ammonia (gaseous or in solution) or ammonium carbonate. These have been carried out at the Bouchet plant. It investigates the chemical aspect (pH, precipitates chemical composition) and the technical aspect of the different ways of precipitation (conditions of precipitation, decantation and filtration of precipitates). (M.P.)

  17. Heterogeneous-catalytic redox reactions in nitrate - formate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; Tananaev, I.G.; Brossard, Ph.; Broudic, J.Ch.

    2000-01-01

    It was found that an intensive destruction of various organic and mineral substances - usual components of aqueous waste solutions (oxalic acid, complexones, urea, hydrazine, ammonium nitrate, etc.) takes place under the conditions of catalytic denitration. Kinetics and mechanisms of urea and ammonium nitrate decomposition in the system HNO 3 - HCOOH - Pt/SiO 2 are comprehensively investigated. The behaviour of uranium, neptunium and plutonium under the conditions of catalytic denitration is studied. It is shown, that under the certain conditions the formic acid is an effective reducer of the uranium (VI), neptunium (VI, V) and plutonium (VI, IV) ions. Kinetics of heterogeneous-catalytic red-ox reactions of uranium (VI), neptunium (VI, V) and plutonium (VI, IV) with formic acid are investigated. The mechanisms of the appropriate reactions are evaluated. (authors)

  18. Influence of plasticizer on the selectivity of nitrate-sensitive CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauthamer, W.P.R.V.; Stauthamer, W.P.R.V.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    1994-01-01

    By chemical modification of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor, a sensor (CHEMFET) has been developed whose sensitivity for nitrate has been tested. A plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains lipophilic tetra-n-octyl-ammonium ions, is responsible for the nitrate

  19. Evaluation of ferrocyanide/nitrate explosive hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, H.H.

    1992-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory agreed to assist Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the Ferrocyanide Safety Evaluation Program by helping to evaluate the explosive hazard of several mixtures of simulated ferrocyanide waste-tank sludge containing sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This report is an evaluation of the small-scale safety tests used to assess the safety of these materials from an explosive point of view. These tests show that these materials are not initiated by mechanical insult, and they require an external heat source before any exothermic chemical reaction can be observed

  20. Conceptualizing Chronic Self-Destructiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathryn

    Self-destructiveness can be viewed in two ways: as performing an act which one knows cognitively is not conducive to one's welfare but nonetheless leads to some pleasurable affect (e.g., overeating, smoking); or not performing an act one knows one should perform but which has some negative affective consequences (e.g., dental checkups, saving…

  1. Animal Spirits Meets Creative Destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; Lloyd-Ellis, H.

    2001-01-01

    We show how a Schumpeterian process of creative destruction can induce coordination in the timing of entrepreneurial activities across diverse sectors of the economy.Consequently, a multi-sector economy, in which sector-specific, productivity improvements are made by independent, profit-seeking

  2. Dynamic Scoring Through Creative Destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We examine the dynamic feedback effects of fiscal policies on the government budget and economy activity in a calibrated general equilibrium framework featuring endogenous growth through creative destruction. For several European countries, we find that making tax incentives with respect

  3. Proliferation of massive destruction weapons: fantasy or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article evaluates the threat of massive destruction weapons (nuclear, chemical, biological) for Europe and recalls the existing safeguards against the different forms of nuclear proliferation: legal (non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), fissile material cut off treaty (FMCT) etc..), technical (fabrication of fissile materials, delays). However, all these safeguards can be overcome as proven by the activities of some countries. The situation of proliferation for the other type of massive destruction weapons is presented too. (J.S.)

  4. Mechanism of radiation destruction of dyes in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belichenko, A.S.; Dyumaev, K.M.; Maslyukov, A.P.; Matyushin, G.A.; Nechitailo, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    Considering the experimental results, it might be expected that the mechanism of radiation destruction of dyed polymers by UV-and γ-irradiation should also be associated with a chemical reaction between dye molecules and oxyradicals which appear either on destruction of polymer macromolecules or on oxidation of macroradicals by the oxygen dissolved in the matrix. Thus, the radiation stability of dyes should depend on the rate of formation of primary radicals in the polymer under the action of UV- and γ-irradiation. As has been demostrated, this rate can be influenced by 'resonant' low-molecular additives which perform oscillative cross-relaxation. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  6. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cv Coker-312 callus culture was assessed in terms of its usefulness as a system for investigating the effect of nitrates from different chemical compounds of nitrogen on embryo induction percentage in calli as the plant growth and cell differentiation mainly based on nitrogen. Both sources and ...

  7. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The described method is selective for phenols. ... the significant cause of post translational modification that can ... decades, significant attention was paid on nitration of phenols to .... Progress of the reaction can be noted visually. Yttrium.

  8. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions

  9. Degradation mechanism and thermal stability of urea nitrate below the melting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilets, Sylvain; Brousseau, Patrick; Chamberland, Daniel; Singh, Shanti; Feng, Hongtu; Turcotte, Richard; Anderson, John

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Decomposition mechanism of urea nitrate. → Spectral characterization of the decomposition mechanism. → Thermal stability of urea nitrate at 50, 70 and 100 o C. → Chemical balance of decomposed products released. - Abstract: Aging and degradation of urea nitrate below the melting point, at 100 o C, was studied by using thermal analysis and spectroscopic methods including IR, Raman, 1 H and 13 C NMR techniques. It was found that urea nitrate was completely degraded after 72 h at 100 o C into a mixture of solids (69%) and released gaseous species (31%). The degradation mechanism below the melting point was clearly identified. The remaining solid mixture was composed of ammonium nitrate, urea and biuret while unreacted residual nitric and isocyanic acids as well as traces of ammonia were released as gaseous species at 100 o C. The thermal stability of urea nitrate, under extreme storage conditions (50 o C), was also examined by isothermal nano-calorimetry.

  10. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions.

  11. The effect of spatial heterogeneity on nitrate reduction in soil systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Lu

    the initial inoculum size, nitrate reduction was barely affected, but DNRA increased substantially by 71%. Additionally, nitrite-, ammonium-, and nitrous oxide were sequentially produced during nitrate reduction: an initial burst of nitrite production led to DNRA, and for the microcosms which became mass...... was chemically or biochemically fixed from inert nitrogen, back into the atmosphere as inert nitrogen. Over the last century, the excess of anthropogenically fixed nitrogen has put increasing pressures on the nitrogen cycle. Nitrate is a central molecule in the nitrogen cycle. Its concentration is, on the one...... hand governed by formation by oxidation of ammonia-N, and on the other hand by removal a removal by two dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes:denitrification, in which nitrate is converted to the gaseous compounds dinitrogen and nitrous oxide, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA...

  12. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubo, H.

    2002-02-01

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  13. Multi-scale nitrate transport in a sandstone aquifer system under intensive agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Ballard, Jean-Marc; Lefebvre, René; Savard, Martine M.

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate transport in heterogeneous bedrock aquifers is influenced by mechanisms that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. To understand these mechanisms in a fractured sandstone aquifer with high porosity, a groundwater-flow and nitrate transport model—reproducing multiple hydraulic and chemical targets—was developed to explain the actual nitrate contamination observed in groundwater and surface water in a study area on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Simulations show that nitrate is leached to the aquifer year-round, with 61% coming from untransformed and transformed organic sources originating from fertilizers and manure. This nitrate reaches the more permeable shallow aquifer through fractures in weathered sandstone that represent only 1% of the total porosity (17%). Some of the nitrate reaches the underlying aquifer, which is less active in terms of groundwater flow, but most of it is drained to the main river. The river-water quality is controlled by the nitrate input from the shallow aquifer. Groundwater in the underlying aquifer, which has long residence times, is also largely influenced by the diffusion of nitrate in the porous sandstone matrix. Consequently, following a change of fertilizer application practices, water quality in domestic wells and the river would change rapidly due to the level of nitrate found in fractures, but a lag time of up to 20 years would be necessary to reach a steady level due to diffusion. This demonstrates the importance of understanding nitrate transport mechanisms when designing effective agricultural and water management plans to improve water quality.

  14. Designing the Army’s Future Active Duty Weapons of Mass Destruction Response: Is the Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives Response Force (DCRF) the Right Force at the Right Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    the 20th Support Command (CBRNE) (Mauroni 2006, 230). The newly formed Chemical Analysis and Remediation Activity ( CARA ) and the WMD-Coordination...calculated without regard to incipient secondary effects like fires or collapse 7. Electricity and communications are heavily disrupted across much of

  15. Synthesis of microspheres of triuranium octaoxide by simultaneous water and nitrate extraction from ascorbate-uranyl sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykala, M; Deptula, A; Rogowski, M; Lada, W; Olczak, T; Wawszczak, D; Smolinski, T; Wojtowicz, P; Modolo, G

    A new method for synthesis of uranium oxide microspheres (diameter nitrate-ascorbate sols were prepared by addition of ascorbic acid to uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solution and alkalizing by aqueous ammonium hydroxide and then emulsified in 2-ethylhexanol-1 containing 1v/o SPAN-80. Drops of emulsion were firstly gelled by extraction of water by the solvent. Destruction of the microspheres during thermal treatment, owing to highly reactive components in the gels, requires modification of the gelation step by Double Extraction Process-simultaneously extraction of water and nitrates using Primene JMT, which completely eliminates these problem. Final step was calcination in air of obtained microspheres of gels to triuranium octaoxide.

  16. Monitoring of nitrate content of vegetable crops in Uzhgorod district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Mykaylo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to conduct a monitoring study of nitrate content in plant products of Uzhgorod district and to accomplish comparative analysis of the survey results in different periods of crop ripening. Selection of vegetable samples was carried out in Uzhgorod district in the early spring and summer periods. Determination of the nitrate content was performed using an ion-selective method at the Chemical and Toxicological Department of the Regional State Veterinary Medicine Laboratory in the Transcarpathian region of Ukraine. Vegetables were tested for nitrate content using the ion-selective method with the laboratory ion meter AI-123. Core investigation samples were crushed and homogenized. A 10.0 g weight of the investigated product, which was prepared according to MIR № 5048-89, was placed in a flat-bottomed or a conical flask, which was then filled with 50 cm3 potassium alumens solution and shaken in a shaking-machine for 5 minutes and then transferred into a measuring glass. The nitrate weight fraction in milligrams per kilogram was obtained together with the weight concentration value of nitrate ions in solution. For our study we selected vegetables grown in both public and private gardens of Uzhgorod district, namely: common onions, radishes, garden parsley, cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers, white cabbages, carrots and table beets. 25 samples were selected for each type of vegetable. Nitrate content was determined in the early spring growing period (from February 9 to May 27, 2011 and in the summer growing period (from June 3 to September 28, 2011, because in these particular periods we recorded the most frequent cases of food poisoning from nitrates among the population of the region. A clear trend has been traced towards increasing the nitrate content in food plant production, at levels which exceed the maximum permissible concentration (MPC. The results of our research demonstrate that the nitrate content exceeded the

  17. Total destruction of PCB transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that if elimination of PCB liability, including lingering liabilities, is the goal, then landfilling cannot be and option. The law is clear that the generator of PCB waste is responsible for that waste until this destruction. Landfilling is not destruction. Retrofilling as askarel units will not get rid of all PCB liabilities, either. Askarel retrofilling can only make this claim when it can give a lifetime guaranty of no detectable PCBs. States like Washington and California regulate, as hazardous waste, fluids which contain greater than 2 and 5 ppm PCB, respectively. There is no guarantee that your state will not so regulate PCBs in the future or that the federal laws might tighten up. Therefore, replacement and disposal by Resource Recovery constitutes the only lifetime guarantee on the market that the PCBs in your askarel transformers will never come back to haunt you

  18. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  19. Non-destructive characterization using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Explosives, illicit drugs, and other contraband materials contain various chemical elements in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from innocuous substances. Furthermore, the major chemical elements in coal can provide information about various parameters of importance to the coal industry. In both examples, the non-destructive identification of chemical elements can be performed using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons that, through nuclear reactions, excite the nuclei of the various elements. This technique is being currently developed for the dismantling of nuclear weapons classified as trainers, and for the on-line coal bulk analysis. (orig.)

  20. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkin, Jason M; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Nitrates have been used to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina for over 135 years. These drugs are known to activate nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophasphate (cGMP) signaling pathways underlying vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation, albeit many questions relating to how nitrates work at the cellular level remain unanswered. Physiologically, the anti-angina effects of nitrates are mostly due to peripheral venous dilatation leading to reduction in preload and therefore left ventricular wall stress, and, to a lesser extent, epicardial coronary artery dilatation and lowering of systemic blood pressure. By counteracting ischemic mechanisms, short-acting nitrates offer rapid relief following an angina attack. Long-acting nitrates, used commonly for angina prophylaxis are recommended second-line, after beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Nicorandil is a balanced vasodilator that acts as both NO donor and arterial K(+) ATP channel opener. Nicorandil might also exhibit cardioprotective properties via mitochondrial ischemic preconditioning. While nitrates and nicorandil are effective pharmacological agents for prevention of angina symptoms, when prescribing these drugs it is important to consider that unwanted and poorly tolerated hemodynamic side-effects such as headache and orthostatic hypotension can often occur owing to systemic vasodilatation. It is also necessary to ensure that a dosing regime is followed that avoids nitrate tolerance, which not only results in loss of drug efficacy, but might also cause endothelial dysfunction and increase long-term cardiovascular risk. Here we provide an update on the pharmacological management of chronic stable angina using nitrates and nicorandil.

  1. Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    explosive ammonium nitrate produces ammonia and nitric acid in the gaseous headspace above bulk solids, but the concentrations of the products have been...and NO2-, a product of nitrate fragmentation (Figure 7). Brief spikes in the background and dips in oxalic acid signal were observed at the time of...either filtered air or experimental nitric acid vapor sources so that analyte signal could be measured directly opposite background. With oxalic

  2. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  3. Destructive analysis and evaluation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Lemaire, R.; Wenzel, U.; Aigner, H.; Bagliano, G.; Deron, S.; Jordan, L.

    1986-07-01

    This manual describes the procedures for independent verification measurements by Destructive Analysis as required by the Divisions of Operations. It includes the relevant instructions and information necessary to achieve the verification from sampling through final use of the evaluation results. It is a working/reference document for the Inspectors and for the supporting units, as well as a training manual for Inspectors which brings together all the necessary information for verification by Destructive Analysis. This manual gives information essential to the Inspector and to the units of the Safeguards Analytical Services (SAS) in the following areas: material stratification, sampling, sample conditioning and data collection; packaging, transporting, tracking, receipt and analysis of samples; and evaluation and final use of the evaluation results. This information is provided as: specific instructions and/or examples; summaries of relevant, existing documents; and references to existing documents. Forms are available for sample, item and stratum data collection as well as for transfer of samples and for the reporting of results. A complete typical example package of the documents related to the verification by Destructive Analysis is included. In addition, summaries of the analytical procedures used at the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) of the IAEA and the expected measurement performance for element assay and isotopic abundance are provided. (author)

  4. CBRN Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Relevance of the United States Armys Chemical Corps in the Support of Homeland Security and Defense against State and Non-State Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    unacceptable counteraction and-or belief that the cost of action outweighs the perceived benefits .15 Doctrine, Organization, Training, Material, Leadership...1346. In 1495, the Spanish drank wine infected by the French with leprosy patients’ blood. In 1650 Siemenowics, a Polish artillery general, put...that the Corps is ready for the present and future operational environment; giving a positive perception benefiting the Chemical Corps and its

  5. Interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsyuk, A.P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Karabanov, V.P.; Lebedeva, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Thermographic, thermodynamic and X-ray phase studies have been made into the interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite. Examined among other things was the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the interaction between alkali metal nitrates and kyanite. The chemical mechanism of the occurring processes has been established. The interaction with calcium carbonates results in the formation of alkali metal carbonates and calcium oxide with liberation of nitrogen oxide and oxygen. The products of the interaction with kyanite are shown to be identical with the compounds forming when alkali metal carbonates are used

  6. Particulate organic nitrates: Sampling and night/day variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Platz, J.; Granby, K.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric day and night concentrations of particulate organic nitrates (PON) and several other air pollutants were measured in the summer 1995 over an open-land area in Denmark. The sampling of PON was evaluated comparing 24 h samples with two sets of 12 h samples. These results indicate...... that the observed low contribution of PON to NO, is real and not the result of an extensive loss during the sampling. Empirical relationships between the vapour pressure and chemical formula of organic compounds were established in order to evaluate the gas/particle distribution of organic nitrates. A positive...

  7. Destruction of chlorine-containing organic agents in a system plasma - liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Ya.; Yukhymenko, V.V.; Babich, I.L.; Slyusarenko, Y.I.; Tarasova, Ya.B.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma chemical destruction of persistent toxic agent 1,1-di(4-chlorophenol)-2,2,2-threechlorethane (DDT) in water solutions is researched in this work. The destruction of agricultural pesticide containing DDT was carried out in water solution at atmospheric pressure with usage of plasma treatment on the basis of secondary discharges with a 'liquid' electrode, and of combination of a plasma method with reagent method. The comparative analysis of results of the physical-chemical analysis and biological test of toxicity of solutions is carried out and the optimum regimes for destruction and detoxication of DDT in water are determined

  8. Abiotic mechanism for the formation of atmospheric nitrous oxide from ammonium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubasinghege, Gayan; Spak, Scott N; Stanier, Charles O; Carmichael, Gregory R; Grassian, Vicki H

    2011-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a primary cause of stratospheric ozone destruction. Despite its importance, there remain missing sources in the N2O budget. Here we report the formation of atmospheric nitrous oxide from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate via an abiotic mechanism that is favorable in the presence of light, relative humidity and a surface. This source of N2O is not currently accounted for in the global N2O budget. Annual production of N2O from atmospheric aerosols and surface fertilizer application over the continental United States from this abiotic pathway is estimated from results of an annual chemical transport simulation with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ). This pathway is projected to produce 9.3(+0.7/-5.3) Gg N2O annually over North America. N2O production by this mechanism is expected globally from both megacities and agricultural areas and may become more important under future projected changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  9. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  10. Reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, B.R.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Wilmanns, E.; McInroy, R.; Ely, J.; Robinson, J.M.; Buelow, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing nitrate/nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions for the treatment of aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site at Hanford, Washington was studied. The reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts by reaction with EDTA using a tank waste simulant was examined at temperatures between 623K and 800K and pressures between 0.6 and 1.2 kbar. Continuous flow reactors were used to determine kinetics and products of reactions. All reactions were studied under pressures high enough to produce single phase conditions. The reactions are rapid, go to completion in less than a minute, and produce simple products, such as carbonate, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide gases. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of chemical reactions under hydrothermal conditions to reduce the nitrate and nitrite salts and destroy organic compounds in the waste mixtures

  11. Water quality and possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron Terrace Aquifer, Oklahoma, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from the Cimarron terrace aquifer in northwest Oklahoma commonly has nitrate concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (referred to as nitrate) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public drinking water supplies. Starting in July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study in the Cimarron terrace aquifer to assess the water quality and possible sources of nitrate. A qualitative and quantitative approach based on multiple lines of evidence from chemical analysis of nitrate, nitrogen isotopes in nitrate, pesticides (indicative of cropland fertilizer application), and wastewater compounds (indicative of animal or human wastewater) were used to indicate possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron terrace aquifer. Nitrate was detected in 44 of 45 ground-water samples and had the greatest median concentration (8.03 milligrams per liter) of any nutrient analyzed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from chemicals, 3 compounds were hydrocarbons, 2 compounds were industrial chemicals, 2 compounds were pesticides, 1 compound was of animal source, and 1 compound was a detergent compound. The most frequently detected wastewater compound was phenol, which was detected in 23 wells. N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was detected in water samples from 5 wells. Benzophenone, ethanol- 2-butoxy-phosphate, and tributylphosphate were detected in water samples from 3 wells. Fertilizer was determined to be the possible source of nitrate in samples from 13 of 45 wells sampled, with a15N values ranging from 0.43 to 3.46 permil. The possible source of nitrate for samples from the greatest number of wells (22 wells) was from mixed sources of nitrate from fertilizer, septic or manure, or natural sources. Mixed nitrate sources had a 15N values ranging from 0.25 to 9.83 permil. Septic or manure was determined as the possible

  12. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhalia Bakerywala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  13. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  14. Surface and groundwater Nitrate distribution in the area of Vicenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altissimo, L.; Dal Pra, A.

    1999-01-01

    Public aqueducts in the Province of Vicenza (Italy) are supplied entirely by various kinds of water sources: the sub river bed strata of the mountain valleys, water-bearing aquifers of the high plan, pressurized water-bearing aquifers of the middle plain, karstic reservoirs of the mountain massifs and local springs. Progressive increase in nitrate concentration has long been detected in the underground water of many parts of the Vicenza region. The nitrates originate from various sources: human waste, industrial dumping (e.g. the tanning industry) and the use of animal and chemical fertilizers. Nitrate distribution was studied in all wells used for extracting underground water including source waters which replenishing underground aquifers. During the study period ('91-'95), water courses in the recharge areas were found to have nitrate concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 42.0 mg/l. These values remained substantially stable in time. Underground aquifers showed stable nitrate concentration between 5.0 mg/l (mountain karstic aquifers; sub-river bed strata of valley bottom) and 44.0 mg/l (water bearing strata of the high plain of Astico and Brenta rivers). The pressurized flooding aquifers of the middle plain have lower concentrations (6.0-21.0 mg/l) but tend to increase by about 0.5 mg/l per year [it

  15. Effect of Co-Contaminant on Denitrification Removal of Nitrate in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KILIÇ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nitrogenous fertilizers used in agriculture, unconscious and without treatment wastewater is discharged led to an increase in groundwater nitrate pollution. In many countries, nitrate concentration in the ground waters used as drinking water source exceeded the maximum allowable concentration of 10 mg/L NO3-N. According to a study, some wells in the Harran Plain contain nitrate as high as 180 mg/L NO3--N and the average concentration for whole plain is 35 mg/L NO3--N (Yesilnacar et al., 2008. Additionally, increased water consumption, unconscious use of fertilizers and pesticides has led to the emergence of co-contaminant in drinking water. Recently, hazardous to human health co-contaminant such as arsenic, pesticides, perchlorate, selenate, chromate, uranium are observed in the nitrate pollution drinking water. There are many processes used for the removal of nitrate. The physical–chemical technologies that can be used for nitrate removal are reverse osmosis, ion exchange and electrodialysis (Alvarez et al., 2007. Important disadvantages of these processes are their poor selectivity, high operation and maintenance costs and the generation of brine wastes after treatment. Consequently, biological treatment processes to convert nitrates to benign dinitrogen gas, could be an interesting alternative for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with nitrates. The aim of this article, effective and cheap method for the removal of nitrate from drinking water biological denitrification is to examine the usability of contaminated drinking water with co-contaminant pollutions.

  16. Solubility isotherms in ternary systems of samarium nitrate, water and nitrates of amidopyrine, benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.

    1991-01-01

    Solubility in the system of samarium nitrate-amidopyrine nitrate-water at 25 and 50 deg C was studied. Solubility isotherms consist of three branches, corresponding to crystallization of samarium nitrate tetrahydrate, amidopyrine nitrate and congruently soluble compounds of Sm(NO 3 ) 3 · 2C 13 H 17 ON 3 ·HNO 3 composition. Its thermal behaviour was studied. The system of samarium nitrate-benzotriazole nitrate-water is referred to eutonic type

  17. Alert with destruction of stratospheric ozone: 95 Nobel Prize Winners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Zurita, E.

    1995-01-01

    After briefly summarizing the discoveries of the 95 Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry related to the threats to the ozone layer by chemical pollutants, we make a soft presentation of the overall problem of stratospheric ozone, starting with the destructive catalytic cycles of the pollutant-based free radicals, following with the diffusion mathematical models in Atmospheric Chemistry, and ending with the increasing annual drama of the ozone hole in the Antarctica. (Author)

  18. Biosensors Used for Quantification of Nitrates in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Galindo Raul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is essential for the plant because it is used for the production of chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, and other cellular compounds; nitrogen is available in two forms: ammonium and nitrate. Several tools have been used to quantify nitrates in plants such as the Kjeldahl method and Dumas combustion digestion; however, they are destructive and long time-consuming methods. To solve these disadvantages, methods such as selective electrodes, optical sensors, reflectometers, and images based sensors have been developed; nonetheless, all these techniques show interference when carrying out measurements. Currently, biosensors based on genetic constructions, based on the response of promoter gene fused to Gene Fluorescent Protein (GFP, are gaining popularity, because they improve the accuracy of measurements of nitrate by avoiding the interference of carriers ion, high salt conditions, and other factors. The present review shows the different methods to quantify the nitrogen in plants; later, a biosensors perspective is presented, mainly focused on biosensors based on organism genetically modified. The review presents a list of promoter and reporter genes that could be used to develop different kind of sensors, and a perspective of sensors to measure quantitatively the nitrogen is presented.

  19. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH 3 , hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250 degree C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs 3 or NH 4 NO 3 is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO 3 to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions

  20. Destructive spondyloarthropathy in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Ghedini, M.; Cardona, P.; Bedani, P.L.; Scutellari, P. N.

    1991-01-01

    Destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) has been observed in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. The pathophysiology of this condition is still unknown, but there is evidence that amyloid depositions play an important role in its development. Despite several reports, the radiological evolution of these lesions is poorly known. The authors report the results of the radiographic follow-up (12-18 months) of 9 cases (7 female and 2 male patients; age 63±6 years) hemodilized for over 60 months (mean: 126±33). In 7 cases. radiographic patterns of destructive arthropathy were seen in peripheral joints as well. X-ray pictures demonstrated: 1) increased erosion of vertebral end plates (in all cases); 2) increased narrowing of invertebral spaces (in 5 cases); 3) increased collapse of vertebral bodies (in 5 cases); 4) increased malalignment of the involved segments (in 4 cases). In 3 autopsied cases β 2 -microglobulin amyloid depositions were found in disc and ligamentous paravertebral tissue. These results confirm that: 1) DSA is progressive in longterm hemodialysis patients; 2) radiographic evolution is often very quick; 3) the cervical spine is the most frequently involved location and the one where lesions are quickest to develop; 4) severe malalignament of the involved spine may be present, with subsequent neurological complications

  1. Self-Destructing Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Yuval [Cornell U., LEPP; Harnik, Roni [Fermilab; Telem, Ofri [Cornell U., LEPP; Zhang, Yue [Northwestern U.

    2017-12-01

    We present Self-Destructing Dark Matter (SDDM), a new class of dark matter models which are detectable in large neutrino detectors. In this class of models, a component of dark matter can transition from a long-lived state to a short-lived one by scattering off of a nucleus or an electron in the Earth. The short-lived state then decays to Standard Model particles, generating a dark matter signal with a visible energy of order the dark matter mass rather than just its recoil. This leads to striking signals in large detectors with high energy thresholds. We present a few examples of models which exhibit self destruction, all inspired by bound state dynamics in the Standard Model. The models under consideration exhibit a rich phenomenology, possibly featuring events with one, two, or even three lepton pairs, each with a fixed invariant mass and a fixed energy, as well as non-trivial directional distributions. This motivates dedicated searches for dark matter in large underground detectors such as Super-K, Borexino, SNO+, and DUNE.

  2. An accurate and stable nitrate-selective electrode for the in situ determination of nitrate in agricultural drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Chilcottt, Neil P; Scholefield, David; Wood, John W

    2002-04-01

    A field evaluation of a novel nitrate-ion selective electrode (ISE) was undertaken by continuous immersion over a period of 5 months in agricultural drainage weirs. The nitrate sensor N,N,N-triallyl leucine betaine was covalently attached to polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS) using a free radical initiated co-polymerisation, to produce a rubbery membrane which was incorporated into a commercially available electrode body. A measurement unit was constructed comprising the nitrate-ISEs, a reference electrode and a temperature probe connected through a pre-amplifier to a data-logger and battery supply. A temperature correction algorithm was developed to accomodate the temperature changes encountered in the drainage weirs. The nitrate results obtained with the ISEs at hourly intervals compared very favourably (R2 = 0.99) with those obtained with laboratory automated chemical determinations made on contemporaneous samples of drainage in a concentration range 0.47-16 ppm nitrate-N. The ISEs did not require re-calibration and no deterioration in performance or fouling of the membrane surface was observed over four months of deployment.

  3. Environmentally benign destruction of waste energetic materials (EMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R. L.; Donahue, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers during 1991-1997 involving various methods for the destruction of waste generated by pyrotechnic, explosive and propellant materials are described. The methods assessed and evaluated include controlled incineration (CI), wet air oxidation (WAO), and hydrothermal oxidation (HTO), using a U.S. Army triple-base propellant as the initial common standard for all destructor comparative testing. All three of these methods has special feed line restrictions requiring mechanical diminution and comminution of the energetic material which, for safety reasons, cannot be used with contaminated heterogeneous production wastes. Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, alkaline hydrolysis, electrolysis and fluid cutting with very high pressure water jets and liquid nitrogen are alternate technologies that were evaluated as pre-treatment for production wastes. Wet air oxidation and electrochemical reduction studies were conducted using the U.S. Navy double propellant NOSIH-AA2, which contains a lead-based ballistic modifier. Wet air oxidation and hydrothermal oxidation studies were done using potassium dinitramide phase-stabilized nitrate as an oxidizer. All of these technologies are considered to be suitable for the environmentally benign destruction of pyrotechnic materials, including fireworks. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  5. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  6. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  7. Isotope techniques in non-destructive testing of dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gursharan; Pant, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    A few applications of gamma scanning and radiotracer techniques for Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of dynamic systems in chemical and petrochemical industries are briefly discussed in this paper. Examples of gamma scanning inspections carried out for troubleshooting of various types of columns such as vacuum, extraction, separator and rectifier, with trays and packed beds and having diameters from 1 meter to 8.4 meters are given. Radiotracer applications for Residence Time Distribution (RTD) studies on different systems like an aniline production reactor in a chemical industry and a laboratory scale solid-liquid fluidized bed column are mentioned. (author)

  8. Importance of biogenic precursors to the budget of organic nitrates: observations of multifunctional organic nitrates by CIMS and TD-LIF during BEARPEX 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Beaver

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkyl and multifunctional organic nitrates, molecules of the chemical form RONO2, are products of chain terminating reactions in the tropospheric HOx and NOx catalytic cycles and thereby impact ozone formation locally. Many of the molecules in the class have lifetimes that are long enough that they can be transported over large distances. If the RONO2 then decompose to deliver NOx to remote regions they affect ozone production rates in locations distant from the original NOx source. While measurements of total RONO2 (ΣANs and small straight chain alkyl nitrates are routine, measurements of the specific multifunctional RONO2 molecules that are believed to dominate the total have rarely been reported and never reported in coincidence with ambient ΣANs measurements. Here we describe observations obtained during the BEARPEX 2009 experiment including ΣANs and a suite of multifunctional nitrates including isoprene derived hydroxynitrates, oxidation products of those nitrates, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO derived hydroxynitrates, and monoterpene nitrates. At the BEARPEX field site, the sum of the individual biogenically derived nitrates account for two-thirds of the ΣANs, confirming predictions of the importance of biogenic nitrates to the NOy budget. Isoprene derived nitrates, transported to the site, are a much larger fraction of the ΣANs at the site than the nitrates derived from the locally emitted MBO. Evidence for additional nitrates, possibly from nocturnal chemistry of isoprene and α-pinene, is presented.

  9. Research on metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes and their infrared / millimeter wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shu-qin; Zhu, Chen-guang; Wang, Li-hong; Ou'yang, De-hua; Pan, Gong-pei

    2016-10-01

    Copper-plated and silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes, which were prepared by using chemical plating technology, were used to jam infrared detector and millimeter-wave radar. It was tested for the conductivity and infrared jamming performance of plating and also the RCS (Radar Cross Section) performance of millimeter-wave radar. Test results showed that the prepared metal-plated cellulose nitrate flakes have obvious conductivity, and infrared total radiation energy of silver plating and copper plating had approximately increased 32% and 21% respectively. Through determination, the millimeter-wave reflecting property and RCS of silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes were higher than that of copper-plated cellulose nitrate flakes. Therefore, silver-plated cellulose nitrate flakes can be used as an effective infrared / millimeter wave composite jamming material.

  10. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  11. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  12. Thermal Decomposition Of Hydroxylamine Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C.; Brower, Kay R.

    1988-05-01

    used hydroxylamine nitrate decomposes within a few minutes in the temperature range 130-140°C. Added ammonium ion is converted to N2, while hydrazinium ion is converted to HN3. Nitrous acid is an intermediate and its formation is rate-determining. A hygride transfer process is postulated. The reaction pathways have been elucidated by use of N tracers.

  13. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  14. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  15. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  16. Bill project related to the struggle against the proliferation of arms of massive destruction and their vectors; Projet de Loi relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This bill project addresses several issues: the struggle against proliferation of arms of massive destruction (nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, biological weapons, and chemical weapons), the struggle against proliferation of vectors of arms of massive destruction, double-use goods, the use of these weapons and vectors in acts of terrorism

  17. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with...

  18. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  19. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  20. Modeling the Current and Future Roles of Particulate Organic Nitrates in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Havala O T; Luecken, Deborah J; Xu, Lu; Boyd, Christopher M; Ng, Nga L; Baker, Kirk R; Ayres, Benjamin R; Bash, Jesse O; Baumann, Karsten; Carter, William P L; Edgerton, Eric; Fry, Juliane L; Hutzell, William T; Schwede, Donna B; Shepson, Paul B

    2015-12-15

    Organic nitrates are an important aerosol constituent in locations where biogenic hydrocarbon emissions mix with anthropogenic NOx sources. While regional and global chemical transport models may include a representation of organic aerosol from monoterpene reactions with nitrate radicals (the primary source of particle-phase organic nitrates in the Southeast United States), secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models can underestimate yields. Furthermore, SOA parametrizations do not explicitly take into account organic nitrate compounds produced in the gas phase. In this work, we developed a coupled gas and aerosol system to describe the formation and subsequent aerosol-phase partitioning of organic nitrates from isoprene and monoterpenes with a focus on the Southeast United States. The concentrations of organic aerosol and gas-phase organic nitrates were improved when particulate organic nitrates were assumed to undergo rapid (τ = 3 h) pseudohydrolysis resulting in nitric acid and nonvolatile secondary organic aerosol. In addition, up to 60% of less oxidized-oxygenated organic aerosol (LO-OOA) could be accounted for via organic nitrate mediated chemistry during the Southern Oxidants and Aerosol Study (SOAS). A 25% reduction in nitrogen oxide (NO + NO2) emissions was predicted to cause a 9% reduction in organic aerosol for June 2013 SOAS conditions at Centreville, Alabama.

  1. Bill project related to the struggle against the proliferation of arms of massive destruction and their vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This bill project addresses several issues: the struggle against proliferation of arms of massive destruction (nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, biological weapons, and chemical weapons), the struggle against proliferation of vectors of arms of massive destruction, double-use goods, the use of these weapons and vectors in acts of terrorism

  2. Preparation of acid deficient solutions of uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate by steam denitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    Acid deficient heavy metal (HM) nitrate solutions are often required in the internal gelation processes for nuclear fuel fabrication. The stoichiometric HM-nitrate solutions are needed in a sol-gel process for fuel fabrication. A method for preparing such nitrate solutions with a controlled molar ratio of nitrate/metal by denitration of acid-excess nitrate solutions was developed. The denitration was conducted by bubbling a nitrate solution with a mixture of steam+Ar. It was found that steam was more effective for the denitration than Ar. The acid deficient uranyl nitrate solution with nitrate/U=1.55 was yielded by steam bubbling, while not by only Ar bubbling. As for thorium nitrate, acid deficient solutions of nitrate/Th≥3.1 were obtained by steam bubbling. (author)

  3. Unilateral Opening of Rat Blood-Brain Barrier Assisted by Diagnostic Ultrasound Targeted Microbubbles Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Cui, Hai; Zhu, Qiong; Hua, Xing; Xia, Hongmei; Tan, Kaibin; Gao, Yunhua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key obstacle that prevents the medication from blood to the brain. Microbubble-enhanced cavitation by focused ultrasound can open the BBB and proves to be valuable in the brain drug delivery. The study aimed to explore the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of unilateral opening of BBB using diagnostic ultrasound targeted microbubbles destruction in rats. Methods. A transtemporal bone irradiation of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous injection of lipid-coated microbubbles were performed at unilateral hemisphere. Pathological changes were monitored. Evans Blue extravasation grades, extraction from brain tissue, and fluorescence optical density were quantified. Lanthanum nitrate was traced by transmission electron microscopy. Results. After diagnostic ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction, Evans Blue extravasation and fluorescence integrated optical density were significantly higher in the irradiated hemisphere than the contralateral side (all p ultrasound-exposed hemisphere (4 ± 1, grade 2) while being invisible in the control side. Lanthanum nitrate tracers leaked through interendothelial cleft and spread to the nerve fiber existed in the irradiation side. Conclusions. Transtemporal bone irradiation under DUS mediated microbubble destruction provides us with a more accessible, safer, and higher selective BBB opening approach in rats, which is advantageous in brain targeted drugs delivery.

  4. Unilateral Opening of Rat Blood-Brain Barrier Assisted by Diagnostic Ultrasound Targeted Microbubbles Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Blood-brain barrier (BBB is a key obstacle that prevents the medication from blood to the brain. Microbubble-enhanced cavitation by focused ultrasound can open the BBB and proves to be valuable in the brain drug delivery. The study aimed to explore the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of unilateral opening of BBB using diagnostic ultrasound targeted microbubbles destruction in rats. Methods. A transtemporal bone irradiation of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous injection of lipid-coated microbubbles were performed at unilateral hemisphere. Pathological changes were monitored. Evans Blue extravasation grades, extraction from brain tissue, and fluorescence optical density were quantified. Lanthanum nitrate was traced by transmission electron microscopy. Results. After diagnostic ultrasound mediated microbubbles destruction, Evans Blue extravasation and fluorescence integrated optical density were significantly higher in the irradiated hemisphere than the contralateral side (all p<0.01. Erythrocytes extravasations were demonstrated in the ultrasound-exposed hemisphere (4±1, grade 2 while being invisible in the control side. Lanthanum nitrate tracers leaked through interendothelial cleft and spread to the nerve fiber existed in the irradiation side. Conclusions. Transtemporal bone irradiation under DUS mediated microbubble destruction provides us with a more accessible, safer, and higher selective BBB opening approach in rats, which is advantageous in brain targeted drugs delivery.

  5. Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO 2 ), uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ), and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 )] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF 6 product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study was sponsored by

  6. Role of water and ethanol radicals in the radiation destruction of human deoxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szweda-Lewandowska, Z.

    1986-01-01

    In this study destruction of human deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) induced by the action of primary products of water radiolysis and of secondary ethanol radicals was investigated. The extent of destruction was estimated on the basis of absorbance ratio after conversion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin and the changes in the parameters of hemoglobin oxygenation. Deoxy-Hb solutions were irradiated under the atmosphere of argon and N 2 O, in the absence and presence of ethanol. In each case the radiation-chemical yield for hemoglobin destruction was determined. Results were elaborated statistically estimating, by the method of least squares. (orig./PW)

  7. High temperature interaction studies on equimolar nitrate mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalekar, Bhupesh B.; Raje, Naina; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earths including gadolinium form a sizeable fraction of the fission products in the nuclear fission of fissile material in the reactor. These fission products can interact with uranium dioxide fuel and can form various compounds which can alter the thermal behavior of the fuel. The mixed oxide formed due to the high temperature interactions of mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate (GdNH) has been studied using thermal and X- ray diffraction techniques. The equimolar mixture of UNH and GdNH was prepared by mixing the weighed amount of individual nitrates and grinding gently with mortar and pestle. Thermogravimetry (TG) measurements were carried out by separately heating 100 mg of mixture and individual nitrates at heating rate of 10°C min -1 using Netzsch thermal analyzer (Model No.: STA 409 PC Luxx) in high purity nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 120 mL min -1 . The XRD measurement was carried out on a Philips X-ray diffractometer (Model PW1710) using nickel-filtered Cu-Kα radiation

  8. Removal of nitrate from water by adsorption onto zinc chloride treated activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Ji, M.; Choi, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption study with untreated and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) treated coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) for nitrate removal from water has been carried out. Untreated coconut GAC was treated with ZnCl2 and carbonized. The optimal conditions were selected by studying the influence of process...... variables such as chemical ratio and activation temperature. Experimental results reveal that chemical weight ratio of 200% and temperature of 500 degrees C was found to be optimum for the maximum removal of nitrate from water. Both untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were characterized by scanning...... capacity of untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were found 1.7 and 10.2 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of nitrate on ZnCl2 treated coconut GAC was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration of nitrate anion, temperature, and pH by batch mode adsorption experiments. The kinetic...

  9. Denitrification and dilution along fracture flowpaths influence the recovery of a bedrock aquifer from nitrate contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jonathan J.; Comstock, Jeff; Ryan, Peter; Heindel, Craig; Koenigsberger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, elevated nitrate concentrations ranging from 12 to 34 mg/L NO_3−N were discovered in groundwater from numerous domestic bedrock wells adjacent to a large dairy farm in central Vermont. Long-term plots and contours of nitrate vs. time for bedrock wells showed “little/no”, “moderate”, and “large” change patterns that were spatially separable. The metasedimentary bedrock aquifer is strongly anisotropic and groundwater flow is controlled by fractures, bedding/foliation, and basins and ridges in the bedrock surface. Integration of the nitrate concentration vs. time data and the physical and chemical aquifer characterization suggest two nitrate sources: a point source emanating from a waste ravine and a non-point source that encompasses the surrounding fields. Once removed, the point source of NO_3 (manure deposited in a ravine) was exhausted and NO_3 dropped from 34 mg/L to 10 mg/L. Our multidisciplinary methods of aquifer characterization are applicable to groundwater contamination in any complexly-deformed and metamorphosed bedrock aquifer. - Highlights: • Bedrock wells contaminated with nitrates at a dairy farm in Vermont, U.S.A. • Nitrate concentration vs. time patterns for wells were spatially separable. • Multidisciplinary aquifer characterization used physical and chemical methods. • Denitrification dominant over dilution along fracture flowpaths • Conceptual model shows exhaustion of a nitrate point-source over 12 years.

  10. Redox reaction rates in shallow aquifers: Implications for nitrate transport in groundwater and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater age and water chemistry data along flow paths from recharge areas to streams were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals. Results from this analysis indicate that median nitrate recharge concentrations in these agricultural areas have increased markedly over the last 50 years from 4 mg N/L in samples collected prior to 1983 to 7.5 mg N/L in samples collected since 1983. The effect that nitrate accumulation in shallow aquifers will have on drinking water quality and stream ecosystems is dependent on the rate of redox reactions along flow paths and on the age distribution of nitrate discharging to supply wells and streams.

  11. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (pnitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  12. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  13. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol A. Kulkarni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed.

  14. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  15. Non-destructive testing at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    In 1969 CRNL recognized the need for a strong group skilled in non-destructive test procedures. Within two years a new branch called Quality Control Branch was staffed and working. This branch engages in all aspects of non-destructive testing including development of new techniques, new applications of known technology, and special problems in support of operating reactors. (author)

  16. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) or nitrate to ammonia and glass (NAG) process: Phase 2 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-12-01

    Continuing benchtop studies using Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants and actual Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) low-level waste (LLW), employing a new denitration process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 and 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted to gaseous ammonia. In this process, aluminum powders can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid. The process may be able to use contaminated aluminum scrap metal from DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nitrate-free ceramic product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics or silica and/or fluxing agents can be added to form a glassy ceramic or a flowable glass product. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 70% were obtained for the waste form produced. Sintered pellets produced from supernate from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) have been leached in accordance with the 16.1 leach test for the radioelements 85 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite lengthy counting times, 85 Sr could not be detected in the leachates. 137 Cs was only slightly above background and corresponded to a leach index of 12.2 to 13.7 after 8 months of leaching. Leach testing of unsintered and sintered reactor product spiked with hazardous metals proved that both sintered and unsintered product passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Design of the equipment and flowsheet for a pilot demonstration-scale system to prove the nitrate destruction portion of the NAC process and product formation is under way

  17. Collisional destruction of fast hydrogen Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new modulated electric field technique was developed to study Rydberg atom destruction processes in a fast beam. The process of destruction of a band of Rydberg atom destruction of a band of Rydberg atoms through the combined processes of ionization, excitation, and deexcitation was studied for collisions with gas targets. Rydberg atoms of hydrogen were formed by electron capture, and detected by field ionization. The modulated field technique described proved to be an effective technique for producing a large signal for accurate cross section measurements. The independent particle model for Rydberg atom destruction processes was found to hold well for collisions with molecular nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide. The resonances in the cross sections for the free electron scattering with these targets were found to also occur in Rydberg destruction. Suggestions for future investigations of Rydberg atom collision processes in the fast beam regime are given

  18. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, S.L.; Michel, R.C.; Terpandjian, P.D.; Vora, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification by Pseudomonas Stutzeri has been chosen as the method for removing nitrate from the effluent stream of the Y-12 uranium purification process. A model was developed to predict bacterial growth and carbon and nitrate depletion during the induction period and steady state operation. Modification of analytical procedures and automatic control of the pH in the reactor are recommended to improve agreement between the prediction of the model and experimental data. An initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) mass ratio of 1.4-1.5 insures adequate population growth during the induction period. Further experiments in batch reactors and in steady state flow reactors are recommended to obtain more reliable kinetic rate constants

  19. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more than...

  20. OLDAPS: Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, F.M.; Sterba, J.H.; Bichler, M. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Neelmeijer, C.; Merchel, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Pearce, N.J.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The natural volcanic glass obsidian is one of the classical objects of archaeometric analyses. Reliable provenancing by means of the highly specific chemical composition, the 'chemical fingerprint', can provide information about trading routes, extension of territory, long-distance contacts and the mobility of prehistoric people. Since the pioneer work of Cann and Renfrew in 1964 [1] various analytical methods have been employed on obsidian samples in order to locate their provenance. The existing data already offers important knowledge about long-distance interactions between prehistoric human populations. However, most applied techniques just show a small part of the element spectrum. Latest studies showed that published results gained by different analytical methods are not consistent due to systematic errors [2-3]. Therefore, the application of three complementary analytical techniques on the same set of raw material samples allows both a better characterization of obsidian sources and a comparison and validation of analytical results. The aim of this multi-methodical approach is to apply in particular: 1) lon Beam Analysis (IBA) comprising of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE), 2) Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), 3) Laser Ablation-lnductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to detect a maximum element spectrum and to compare element concentrations determined with at least two analytical techniques. This approach should check the accuracy and reliability of analytical results and should show a maximum of compositional differences between European obsidian sources to reveal the most characteristic 'chemical fingerprint' composed of more than 40 elements. These investigations are part of a new multi-methodical analytical database called the 'Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System' (OLDAPS). This novel scientific approach for

  1. Manurial properties of lead nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R A

    1924-01-01

    Water culture, pot and field experiments were conducted in order to determine the toxic and stimulating limit of lead nitrate in solution. Oats and rye grass were evaluated for evidence of lead poisoning. Results indicate that except in solutions of fairly high concentration, soil adsorbs the lead and destroys the toxicity of soluble lead salts. There was evidence to show that the addition of lead salts increased the rate of nitrification in soil.

  2. Nitration of sym-trichlorobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlin, W.T.

    1981-02-01

    Basic thermal and kinetic data were obtained for the nitration of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene to trichlorotrinitrobenzene in the presence of oleum/nitric acid. A limiting specific production rate of 5.4 kg/l/hr was determined for the addition of the first two nitro groups at 130 C and a rate of 0.16 kg/l/hr was obtained at 150 C for the addition of the third nitro group

  3. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  4. Kinetics of Chemical Agents Destruction in Supercritical Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tester, Jefferson

    2003-01-01

    .... An experimental study of methylphosphonic acid (MPA) oxidation has been completed that includes macroscopic modeling of the overall global rate law for MPA oxidation in supercritical water (SCW...

  5. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-31

    1937 by Dr. Gerhard Schrader, a chemist conducting insecticide research with organophosphates (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 1971...International Peace Research Institute 1971 and 1973). Phosgene oxime is known as “ nettle gas,” so named because of its property of intensely irritating...as a WMD. Common TICs Effects of CW Agents Organophosphate Insecticide Nerve Dimethyl Sulfate Blister Methyl Isocyanate Blood Anhydrous Ammonia

  6. Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.; Propst, R.C.

    1980-04-01

    Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP

  7. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  8. Synthesis & Studies of New Non-Destructive Read-Out Materials for Optical Storage and Optical Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rentzepis, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    .... The optical, chemical and spectroscopic properties of this non-destructive write/read/erase computer memory material have been studied This organic storage system consists of two different molecular...

  9. Nitrate and Nitrogen Oxides: Sources, Health Effects and Their Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Sabir, Muhammad; Ozturk, Munir; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum

    Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer. Despite these evident negative environmental as well as health impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for the teeming growing world population. Various agronomic and genetic modifications have been practiced to tackle this problem. Some agronomic techniques adopted include split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and encouraging the use of organic manure over chemical fertilizers. As a matter of fact, the use of chemical means to remediate nitrate from the environment is very difficult and costly. Particularly, removal of nitrate from water is difficult task because it is chemically non-reactive in dilute aqueous solutions. Hence, the use of biological means for nitrate remediation offers a promising strategy to minimize the ill effects of nitrates and nitrites. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient genotypes. This will ensure the optimum uptake of applied N in a balanced manner and exploring the molecular mechanisms for their uptake as well as metabolism in assimilatory pathways. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the interrelations which exist in the terrestrial ecosystems between the plant type and characteristics of nutrient uptake and analyze the global consumption and demand for fertilizer nitrogen in relation to cereal production, evaluate the various

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction kinetics of uranyl nitrate and actinides (III)-lanthanides nitrates by extractants with amide function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, V.

    1995-01-01

    Nowadays, the most important part of electric power is generated by fission energy. But spent fuels have then to be reprocessed. The production of these reprocessed materials separately and with a high purity level is done according to a liquid-liquid extraction process (Purex process) with the use of tributyl phosphate as solvent. Optimization studies concerning the extracting agent have been undertaken. This work gives the results obtained for the uranyl nitrate and the actinides (III)-lanthanides (III) nitrates extraction by extractants with amide function (monoamide for U(VI) and diamide for actinides (III) and lanthanides (III)). The extraction kinetics have been studied in the case of a metallic specie transfer from the aqueous phase towards the organic phase. The experiments show that the nitrates extraction kinetics is limited by the complexation chemical reaction of the species at the interface between the two liquids. An adsorption-desorption interfacial reactional mechanism (Langmuir theory) is proposed for the uranyl nitrate. (O.M.)

  11. Thermal characterization of nitrates and nitrates/expanded graphite mixture phase change materials for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.; Zhang, P.; Li, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of expanded graphite improved apparent thermal conductivity significantly. • The quadratic parallel model was used to predict the effective thermal conductivity. • The melting/freezing temperatures of mixture PCMs shifted slightly with adding of EG. - Abstract: Solar energy storage has become more attractive in recent years. In particular, latent thermal energy storage (LTES) with large energy storage density and isothermal heat storage/retrieval characteristics is a hot research topic. In the present study, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate and their mixture were used as the base materials, and expanded graphite (EG) with high thermal conductivity and thermo-chemical stability was used as an additive to enhance the thermal conductivity. EG with various mass fractions was added to the base materials to form mixture phase change materials (PCMs), and the thermal characteristics of the mixtures were studied extensively. The transient hot-wire tests showed that the addition of EG enhanced the apparent thermal conductivity significantly, e.g. the apparent thermal conductivity of the nitrates/10 wt.% EG mixture PCM was increased by about 30–40%. The test results showed good agreement with theoretical calculations of the quadratic parallel model. Tests with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) revealed that the melting/freezing temperatures of the mixture PCMs shifted slightly, compared with those of pure nitrates

  12. Nitrate removal by Fe0/Pd/Cu nano-composite in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyuan; Guo, Min; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate pollution in groundwater shows a great threat to the safety of drinking water. Chemical reduction by zero-valent iron is being considered as a promising technique for nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. In this paper, Fe0/Pd/Cu nano-composites were prepared by the liquid-phase reduction method, and batch experiments of nitrate reduction by the prepared Fe0/Pd/Cu nano-composites under various operating conditions were carried out. It has been found that nano-Fe0/Pd/Cu composites processed dual functions: catalytic reduction and chemical reduction. The introduction of Pd and Cu not only improved nitrate removal rate, but also reduced the generation of ammonia. Nitrate removal rate was affected by the amount of Fe0/Pd/Cu, initial nitrate concentration, solution pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), reaction temperature, the presence of anions, and organic pollutant. Moreover, nitrate reduction by Fe0/Pd/Cu composites followed the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The removal rate of nitrate and total nitrogen were about 85% and 40.8%, respectively, under the reaction condition of Fe-6.0%Pd-3.0%Cu amount of 0.25 g/L, pH value of 7.1, DO of 0.42 mg/L, and initial nitrate concentration of 100 mg/L. Compared with the previous studies with Fe0 alone or Fe-Cu, nano-Fe-6%Pd-3%Cu composites showed a better selectivity to N2.

  13. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  14. Destruction of Molecules or Nuclei of Hazardous Substances in Ultrasonic Activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kladov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The acceleration of chemical reactions by means of ultrasonic stress-long ago known at peace effect, but few utilized in industry due to it high price and the complexity of control. Firm ROSLO created simple and exceedingly effective device, in which you may carry out differential chemical and nuclear reactions. In given work are described the experimental events only of reactions of destruction on chemical and nuclear layers, and also is given the short-form intended explanation of occurring appearances

  15. Can non-destructive inspection be reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, M.G.; Stoneham, A.M.; Temple, J.A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on inspection is based on the book ''The reliability of non-destructive inspection: assessing the assessment of structures under stress'' by the present authors (published by Adam Hilger 1987). Emphasis is placed on the reliability of inspection and whether cracks in welds or flaws in components can be detected. The need for non-destructive testing and the historical attitudes to non-destructive testing are outlined, along with the case of failure. Factors influencing reliable inspection are discussed, and defect detection trials involving round robin tests are described. The development of reliable inspection techniques and the costs of reliability and unreliability are also examined. (U.K.)

  16. A study of precipitation from pure solutions of uranyl nitrate; Etude de la precipitaion de solutions pures de nitrate d'uranyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decrop, J; Holder, J; Sauteron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Usine du Bouchet, Service des Lab. de Recherches et de Controle, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    After its purification by extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent, uranium has to be converted into solid form again: uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}). It can be done either by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate or by precipitation of uranium, followed by filtration and calcination. Only the second method has been studied for now at the Bouchet plant. This paper reports the bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments of the studies of the precipitation of pure solutions of uranyl nitrate using ammonia (gaseous or in solution) or ammonium carbonate. These have been carried out at the Bouchet plant. It investigates the chemical aspect (pH, precipitates chemical composition) and the technical aspect of the different ways of precipitation (conditions of precipitation, decantation and filtration of precipitates). (M.P.)

  17. Non-destructive nuclear forensics of radioactive samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, R.B. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Bentoumi, G.; Dimayuga, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Flacau, R. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Li, G.; Li, L.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    It is a matter of public safety and security to be able to examine suspicious packages of unknown origin. If the package is radioactive and sealed (i.e., the radioactive materials contained in the package, including their chemical and physical forms, are unknown), there is a significant risk on how to handle the package and eventually safely dispose of its contents. Within the context of nuclear security, nuclear forensics helps address the key issue of identifying the nature and origin of radioactive and nuclear material in order to improve physical protection measures and prevent future theft or diversion of these materials. Nuclear forensics utilizes analytical techniques, destructive and non-destructive, developed for applications related to nuclear fuel cycles. This paper demonstrates the non-destructive examination techniques that can be used to inspect encapsulated radioactive samples. Results of γ spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, neutron imaging, neutron diffraction, and delayed neutron analysis as applied to an examination of sealed capsules containing unknown radioactive materials are presented. The paper also highlights the value of these techniques to the overall nuclear forensic investigation to determine the origin of these unknown radioactive materials. (author)

  18. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  19. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  20. Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rounds Seminar Series & Daily Conferences Fellowships and Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Education Resources Library & Learning Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society ...

  1. Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate: Kinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Liu Chunshuang; Ren Nanqi; Han Hongjun; Lee Duujong

    2010-01-01

    Biological removal of sulfide, nitrate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) simultaneously from industrial wastewaters to elementary sulfur (S 0 ), N 2 , and CO 2 , or named the denitrifying sulfide (DSR) process, is a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment process for high strength sulfide and nitrate laden organic wastewater. Kinetic model for the DSR process was established for the first time on the basis of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). The DSR experiments were conducted at influent sulfide concentrations of 200-800 mg/L, whose results calibrate the model parameters. The model correlates well with the DSR process dynamics. By introducing the switch function and the inhibition function, the competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers is quantitatively described and the degree of inhibition of sulfide on heterotrophic denitrifiers is realized. The model output indicates that the DSR reactor can work well at 0.5 1000 mg/L influent sulfide, however, the DSR system will break down.

  2. Comparison of plasma generated nitrogen fertilizer to conventional fertilizers ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate for pre-emergent and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhavarapu, A.; King, W.; Lindsay, A.; Byrns, B.; Knappe, D.; Fonteno, W.; Shannon, S.

    2014-10-01

    Plasma source generated nitrogen fertilizer is compared to conventional nitrogen fertilizers in water for plant growth. Root, shoot sizes, and weights are used to examine differences between plant treatment groups. With a simple coaxial structure creating a large-volume atmospheric glow discharge, a 162 MHz generator drives the air plasma. The VHF plasma source emits a steady state glow; the high drive frequency is believed to inhibit the glow-to-arc transition for non-thermal discharge generation. To create the plasma activated water (PAW) solutions used for plant treatment, the discharge is held over distilled water until a 100 ppm nitrate aqueous concentration is achieved. The discharge is used to incorporate nitrogen species into aqueous solution, which is used to fertilize radishes, marigolds, and tomatoes. In a four week experiment, these plants are watered with four different solutions: tap water, dissolved ammonium nitrate DI water, dissolved sodium nitrate DI water, and PAW. Ammonium nitrate solution has the same amount of total nitrogen as PAW; sodium nitrate solution has the same amount of nitrate as PAW. T-tests are used to determine statistical significance in plant group growth differences. PAW fertilization chemical mechanisms are presented.

  3. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring the Rio Grande Valley cotton stalk destruction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.J.; Gerbermann, A.H.; Summy, K.R.; Anderson, G.L. (Department of Agriculture, Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Post harvest cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalk destruction is a cultural practice used in the Rio Grande Valley to suppress over wintering populations of boll weevils (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) without using chemicals. Consistent application of this practice could substantially reduce insecticide usage, thereby minimizing environmental hazards and increasing cotton production profits. Satellite imagery registered within a geographic information system was used to monitor the cotton stalk destruction program in the Rio Grande Valley. We found that cotton stalk screening procedures based on standard multispectral classification techniques could not reliably distinguish cotton from sorghum. Greenness screening for cotton plant stalks after the stalk destruction deadline was possible only where ground observations locating cotton fields were available. These findings indicate that a successful cotton stalk destruction monitoring program will require satellite images and earth referenced data bases showing cotton field locations.

  4. Ultrasonic process for destruction of chlorinated organic compounds in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, Hann S.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory investigations of the ultrasonic process for destruction of low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) into nonhazardous end products were carried out in a bench-scale batch reactor, equipped with a 600-W ultrasonic power supply. Process parameters studied included irradiation time, concentration, steady-state operating temperature, pH, and the intensity of applied ultrasonic-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of greater than 99% were achieved through this process, and the irradiation time and the intensity of applied energy were identified to be the most important process parameters. The irradiation time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. In addition, a detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the destruction of CCl 4 in water was formulated. The agreement between the model and experimental results is generally good

  5. Nitrat i drikkevandet og vores sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Schullehner, Jörg; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Nitrat i drikkevandet er uønsket, da det kan påvirke vores sundhed negativt. Den øvre grænse for hvor meget nitrat der tillades i drikkevandet er fastsat i forhold til risikoen for akut forgiftning med nitrit og blå børn-syndromet. Men nitrat i drikkevandet mistænkes også for at være medvirkende...

  6. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  7. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  8. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  9. Silver nitrate based gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, D; Samuel, E J J; Srinivasan, K; Roopan, S M; Madhu, C S

    2017-01-01

    A new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on silver nitrate and a normoxic gel dosimeter was investigated using UV-Visible spectrophotometry in the clinical dose range. Gamma radiation induced the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the gel and is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum which shows an absorbance peak at around 450 nm. The dose response function of the dosimeter is found to be linear upto12Gy. In addition, the gel samples were found to be stable which were kept under refrigeration. (paper)

  10. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  11. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  12. Postradiation destruction of dextran in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.T.; Sharpatyj, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of pH-metry, UV absorption and ESR spectroscopy were used to study the oxidation destruction of dextran solutions, stored in the air after gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) bydoses of up to 200 kGy. It is shown that polymer destruction under mentioned conditions is initiated by hydroperoxide decomposition with successive radical transformation into peroxides. Experimentally observed periodical change of acidity of irradiated dextran solutions is also explained by transformations of peroxy radicals

  13. An artificial self-sufficient cytochrome P450 directly nitrates fluorinated tryptophan analogs with a different regio-selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Huguet-Tapia, Jose C; Mehta, Mishal; Dedic, Evelina; Bruner, Steven D; Loria, Rosemary; Ding, Yousong

    2016-05-01

    Aromatic nitration is an immensely important industrial process to produce chemicals for a variety of applications, but it often suffers from multiple unsolved challenges. Enzymes as biocatalysts have been increasingly used for organic chemistry synthesis due to their high selectivity and environmental friendliness, but nitration has benefited minimally from the development of biocatalysis. In this work, we aimed to develop TxtE as practical biocatalysts for aromatic nitration. TxtE is a unique class I cytochrome P450 enzyme that nitrates the indole of l-tryptophan. To develop cost-efficient nitration processes, we fused TxtE with the reductase domains of CYP102A1 (P450BM3) and of P450RhF to create class III self-sufficient biocatalysts. The best engineered fusion protein was comparable with wild type TxtE in terms of nitration performance and other key biochemical properties. To demonstrate the application potential of the fusion enzyme, we nitrated 4-F-dl-tryptophan and 5-F-l-tryptophan in large scale enzymatic reactions. Tandem MS/MS and NMR analyses of isolated products revealed altered nitration sites. To our knowledge, these studies represent the first practice in developing biological nitration approaches and lay a solid basis to the use of TxtE-based biocatalysts for the production of valuable nitroaromatics. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Nitrate-nitrogen levels in rural drinking water: Is there an association with age-related macular degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barbara E K; McElroy, Jane A; Klein, Ronald; Howard, Kerri P; Lee, Kristine E

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of nitrate-nitrogen exposure from rural private drinking water and incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All participants in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (53916 improvement plan code) completed a questionnaire and had an ocular examination including standardized, graded fundus photographs at five examinations. Only information from rural residents in that study are included in this report. Data from an environmental monitoring study with probabilistic-based agro-chemical sampling, including nitrate-nitrogen, of rural private drinking water were available. Incidence of early AMD was associated with elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in rural private drinking water supply (10.0% for low, 19.2% for medium, and 26.1% for high nitrate-nitrogen level in the right eye). The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-2.78) for medium and 2.88 (95% CI: 1.59-5.23) for high nitrate-nitrogen level. Incidence of late AMD was increased for those with medium or high levels of nitrate-nitrogen compared to low levels (2.3% for low and 5.1% for the medium or high nitrate-nitrogen level, for the right eye). The OR for medium or high nitrate-nitrogen groups was 2.80 (95% CI: 1.07-7.31) compared to the low nitrate-nitrogen group.

  15. California GAMA Special Study: An isotopic and dissolved gas investigation of nitrate source and transport to a public supply well in California's Central Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K; Roberts, S K; Hillegonds, D J

    2010-04-14

    study provides two new pieces of evidence that the Ripon Farm Services Plant is the source of elevated nitrate in Ripon City Well 12. (1) Chemical mass balance calculations using nitrate concentration, nitrate isotopic composition, and initial tritium activity all indicate that that the source water for elevated nitrate to Ripon City Well 12 is a very small component of the water produced by City Well 12 and thus must have extremely high nitrate concentration. The high source water nitrate concentration ({approx}1500 mg/L as nitrate) required by these mass balance calculations precludes common sources of nitrate such as irrigated agriculture, dairy wastewater, and septic discharge. Shallow groundwater under the Ripon Farm Services RFS plant does contain extremely high concentrations of nitrate (>1700 mg/L as nitrate). (2) Nitrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of nitrate indicate that the additional anthropogenic nitrate source to Ripon City Well 12 is significantly enriched in {delta}{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}, an isotopic signature consistent with synthetic nitrate fertilizer, and not with human or animal wastewater discharge (i.e. dairy operations, septic system discharge, or municipal wastewater discharge), or with organic fertilizer. Monitoring wells on and near the RFS plant also have high {delta}{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}, and the plant has handled and stored synthetic nitrate fertilizer that will have this isotopic signature. The results described here highlight the complexity of attributing nitrate found in long screened, high capacity wells to specific sources. In this case, the presence of a very high concentration source near the well site combined with sampling using multiple isotopic tracer techniques and specialized depth-specific techniques allowed fingerprinting of the source in the mixed-age samples drawn from the production well.

  16. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Transportation Security Act NAICS North American Industrial Classification System NPRM Notice of.... Commenters noted, for example, that equipment used for transporting bulk ammonium nitrate, such as hoppers...

  17. Automated analysis for nitrate by hydrazine reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphake, L J; Hannah, S A; Cohen, J M

    1967-01-01

    An automated procedure for the simultaneous determinations of nitrate and nitrite in water is presented. Nitrite initially present in the sample is determined by a conventional diazotization-coupling reaction. Nitrate in another portion of sample is quantitatively reduced with hydrazine sulfate to nitrite which is then determined by the same diazotization-coupling reaction. Subtracting the nitrite initially present in the sample from that after reduction yields nitrite equivalent to nitrate initially in the sample. The rate of analysis is 20 samples/hr. Applicable range of the described method is 0.05-10 mg/l nitrite or nitrate nitrogen; however, increased sensitivity can be obtained by suitable modifications.

  18. Nitrate pollution of a karstic groundwater system in Svaty Jan Pod Skalou, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Kadlecova, R.; Zak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Due to increasing agricultural activity after the 1960's both shallow and deep water resources in the Czech Republic including karstic systems have been contaminated by infiltrating nitrate. Nitrate content of one of the largest spring (19L/s) now varies from 50 to 60 mg/L. To specify the sources of nitrate pollution and collect sufficient data for the prediction of possible future development, flow dynamics, chemical and isotopic composition (δ 18 O in water, δ 15 N in nitrate) were monitored in the spring and precipitation together with potential sources of pollution (fertilizers, solutes in soil profile). Observed data were modelled by a simple mixing cell model to specify system parameters (volume and mean residence time). (author)

  19. Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Haiping

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water samples (N = 228) from domestic tube wells (DTWs) and seven samples from public water supply wells (PWSWs) were collected and tested in Hailun, northeast China. The percentage of samples with nitrate and ammonia concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate, 10 mg N/L, and the maximum ensure concentration of ammonia, 1.5 mg/L, for the DTWs were significantly higher than for the PWSWs. Of the DTWs, an important observation was that the occurrence of groundwater nitrate contamination was directly related to well tube material with different joint pathways. Nitrate in seamless-tube wells was lower statistically significantly than those in multiple-section-tube wells (p water safety in villages. For DTWs it is necessary to use seamless tubes and to dig deep enough according to the depth of groundwater level. Improving the efficiency of chemical fertilizer use would also reduce the risk of groundwater contamination.

  20. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  1. Negative feedback loops leading to nitrate homeostasis and oscillatory nitrate assimilation in plants and fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongshun

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Biological Chemistry Nitrate is an important nutrient for plants and fungi. For plants it has been shown that cytosolic nitrate levels are under homeostatic control. Here we describe two networks that can obtain robust, i.e. perturbation independent, homeostatic behavior in cytosolic nitrate concentration. One of the networks, a member in the family of outflow controllers, is based on a negative feedback loop containing a nitrate-induced activation of a controller molecu...

  2. Challenges with nitrate therapy and nitrate tolerance: prevalence, prevention, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Udho

    2014-08-01

    Nitrate therapy has been an effective treatment for ischemic heart disease for over 100 years. The anti-ischemic and exercise-promoting benefits of sublingually administered nitrates are well established. Nitroglycerin is indicated for the relief of an established attack of angina and for prophylactic use, but its effects are short lived. In an effort to increase the duration of beneficial effects, long-acting orally administered and topical applications of nitrates have been developed; however, following their continued or frequent daily use, patients soon develop tolerance to these long-acting nitrate preparations. Once tolerance develops, patients begin losing the protective effects of the long-acting nitrate therapy. By providing a nitrate-free interval, or declining nitrate levels at night, one can overcome or reduce the development of tolerance, but cannot provide 24-h anti-anginal and anti-ischemic protection. In addition, patients may be vulnerable to occurrence of rebound angina and myocardial ischemia during periods of absent nitrate levels at night and early hours of the morning, and worsening of exercise capacity prior to the morning dose of the medication. This has been a concern with nitroglycerin patches but not with oral formulations of isosorbide-5 mononitrates, and has not been adequately studied with isosorbide dinitrate. This paper describes problems associated with nitrate tolerance, reviews mechanisms by which nitrate tolerance and loss of efficacy develop, and presents strategies to avoid nitrate tolerance and maintain efficacy when using long-acting nitrate formulations.

  3. The influence of nitrate concentrations and acidity on the electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate on platinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.T.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the influence of nitrate concentration and acidity on the reaction rate and selectivity of the electrocatalytic nitrate reduction on platinum. There are two different nitrate reduction mechanisms on platinum: a direct mechanism (0.4–0.1 V vs. SHE) and an indirect

  4. Lack of modulation of gastric emptying by dietary nitrate in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Shiho; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2009-05-01

    Nitric oxide produced endogenously in vagal neurons modulates gastrointestinal motor activity as an important non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitter. Other than through endogenous biosynthesis, a high concentration of nitric oxide also occurs by chemical reactions within the stomach in the presence of gastric acid through the entero-salivary re-circulation of dietary nitrate. Although dietary nitrate can be a potential source of nitric oxide in the human stomach, there has been no report on the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric emptying, one of the major parameters for the gastric motor function. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a placebo-controlled (310 mg sodium nitrate or placebo), double-blind, crossover trial. Since a sufficient amount of gastric acid is essential for dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide generation in the stomach, the same protocol was repeated after 1-week treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole. Gastric emptying was evaluated by (13)C-octanoate breath test. The sodium nitrate ingestion did not affect gastric emptying either prior to or during rabeprazole treatment, although rabeprazole treatment itself significantly delayed gastric emptying, being independent of the dietary nitrate load. Confirmation of the delayed gastric emptying with rabeprazole indicates the sensitivity of the breath test employed in the present study. In conclusion, despite the potential nitrogen source of exogenous nitric oxide, the ingestion of 310 mg sodium nitrate, which is equivalent to the average daily intake of Japanese adults, does not affect gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

  5. Nitrate reductase activity of Staphylococcus carnosus affecting the color formation in cured raw ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Gibis, Monika; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the nitrate reductase activity of two Staphylococcus carnosus strains used as starter cultures on the formation of nitrate, nitrite and color pigments in cured raw ham was investigated. In this context, microbiological, chemical and multivariate image analyses were carried out on cured raw hams, which were injected with different brines containing either nitrite or nitrate, with or without the S. carnosus starter cultures. During processing and storage, the viable counts of staphylococci remained constant at 6.5logcfu/g in the hams inoculated with starter cultures, while the background microbiota of the hams processed without the starter cultures developed after 14days. Those cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 7036 (high nitrate reductase activity) showed the highest decrease in nitrate and high nitrite concentrations in the end product, but were still in the range of the legal European level. The hams cured with nitrate and without starter culture or with the other strain, S. carnosus LTH 3838 (low nitrate reductase activity) showed higher residual nitrate levels and a lower nitrite content in the end product. The multivariate image analysis identified spatial and temporal differences in the meat pigment profiles of the differently cured hams. The cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 3838 showed an uncured core due to a delay in pigment formation. Therefore, the selection of starter cultures based on their nitrate reductase activity is a key point in the formation of curing compounds and color pigments in cured raw ham manufacture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of nitrates in drinking water from agricultural and residential areas of Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Konjačić, Miljenko; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2013-11-01

    Nitrates are the most common chemical pollutant of groundwater in agricultural and suburban areas. Croatia must comply with the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) whose aim is to reduce water pollution by nitrates originating from agriculture and to prevent further pollution. Podravina and Prigorje are the areas with a relatively high degree of agricultural activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was, by monitoring nitrates, to determine the distribution of nitrates in two different areas, Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia), to determine sources of contamination as well as annual and seasonal trends. The nitrate concentrations were measured in 30 wells (N = 382 samples) in Prigorje and in 19 wells (N = 174 samples) in Podravina from 2002 to 2007. In Podravina, the nitrate content was 24.9 mg/l and 6% of the samples were above the maximum available value (MAV), and in Prigorje the content was 53.9 mg/l and 38% of the samples above MAV. The wells were classified as correct, occasionally incorrect and incorrect. In the group of occasionally incorrect and incorrect wells, the point sources were within 10 m of the well. There is no statistically significant difference over the years or seasons within the year, but the interaction between locations and years was significant. Nitrate concentrations' trend was not significant during the monitoring. These results are a prerequisite for the adjustment of Croatian standards to those of the EU and will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive and the Directives on Environmental Protection in Croatia and the EU.

  7. Tracing the Atmospheric Source of Desert Nitrates Using Δ 17O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.; Holve, M.; Feldmeier, J.; Bao, H.; Reheis, M.; Bockheim, J. G.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    atmospheric deposition. Mass balance calculations were able to show the range of input from both nitrate sources over a range of soil types and locations. Antarctic soil nitrate Δ 17O ~ 30 ‰ reveals that these nitrates are entirely due to atmospheric deposition and that the isotopic composition of nitrates produced in pristine locations do not vary widely from those produced in highly polluted urban centers. δ 18 O and δ 15 N isotope ratios help refine these budgets further. The oxygen isotope data also suggest another source other than biologic fixation and atmospheric deposition. The implications of using Δ 17O as a conservative tracer for atmospheric nitrates has important implications for areas of research including nitrogen deposition, coastal and estuary ecology and water quality research. References: [1] J.K. Bohlke, G.E. Erickson, and K. Revesz. (1997) Chemical Geology, 136, 135-152. [2] G.M. Michalski and M.H. Thiemens , Abstracts AGU, Dec. 2000

  8. Nitration Study of Cyclic Ladder Polyphenylsilsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Jia-xiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several nitration reagents including fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4, KNO3-H2SO4, HNO3-KNO3, CH3COOH-KNO3, (CH3CO2O-HNO3 were used to nitrate cyclic ladder polyphenylsilsesquioxane (CL-PPSQ in different conditions in order to enhance the compatibility of the CL-PPSQ in polymers, the NO2-PPSQ was obtained. FTIR, element analysis, GPC, TGA and 1H NMR were used to characterize the structures of the nitrated products. The results show that the nitrating abilities of the fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4 and KNO3-H2SO4 are very strong. Many nitro groups can be linked with phenyl groups in CL-PPSQ, but with low molecular mass, fracture occurs in siloxane segment. However, the Mn of the product NO2-PPSQ sharply drops by 50% compared with that of CL-PPSQ, so the nitration reagents can break the cyclic structure of CL-PPSQ. The nitrating reagents of HNO3-KNO3 and CH3COOH-KNO3 have no nitration effects on CL-PPSQ. At last, NO2-CL-PPSQ was prepared using (CH3CO2O-HNO3 because of the moderate nitration process and ability. The cyclic structure of PPSQ is remained, although the number of —NO2 group is not too much. At the same time, the nitration mechanism using different nitration reagents was analyzed. A certain amount of NO2+, which is a kind of activator owning strong nitration ability, can be found in the fuming nitric acid and H2SO4-HNO3(KNO3 systems. As to the (CH3CO2O-HNO3 system, the main activator is CH3COONO2.

  9. Destructive analytical services to safeguards: Activity report 1984-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.

    1987-08-01

    The report gives an evaluation of the volume, delays and quality of destructive analytical services provided in 84/01/01-87/06/30 in support of Agency Safeguards. General observations are also made. Problems and improvements are identified and trends indicated. The main features of the considered period are as follows: a) About 4,100 inspections samples were received and analyzed in the period 84/01/01-87/06/30 by SAL and NWAL. The samples represented 20 different types of materials issued from different nuclear fuel cycles. b) 496 out of 895 spent fuel samples analyzed in this period were distributed to NWAL. c) The chemical and isotopic analyses of Uranium, Thorium and Plutonium requested by the Inspectors (Americium also but occasionally) resulted in the report of a total of about 14,200 analytical results. d) The calibration of on-site measurements, the certification of Working Reference Materials for Destructive Analysis and the maintenance and improvement of Destructive Analysis required additional analytical services which were provided. e) At present, compared to 1983, the total verification delays by DA were shortened by 16%, 57% and 55% respectively for Uranium, Plutonium and spent fuel materials. f) Timely detection of abrupt diversion is achievable for the low enriched Uranium samples and are close to be achievable for the Plutonium and Spent Fuel Samples. g) Concepts, Procedures, and Materials for Analytical Quality Control Programmes of the measurements performed at SAL and NWAL were prepared. The analysis performed can be adequately accurate. h) Problems continue however to be encountered in the quality of the overall DA verification system. i) Major upgrading of equipment and procedures was undertaken at SAL. j) Other selective chemical assays were being tested and Isotope Dilution Mass Spec assays have been successfully set up for the analysis of 3 mg-sized Plutonium product samples. k) Close contacts have been kept with NWAL via Consultants

  10. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    completely.Amplifying EncountersFor stars that survive their encounter with the black hole, Guillochon and McCourt find that the process of partial disruption and re-accretion can amplify the magnetic field of the star by up to a factor of 20. Repeated encounters of the star with the black hole could amplify the field even more.The authors suggest an interesting implication of this idea: a population of highly magnetized stars may have formed in our own galactic center, resulting from their encounters with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*.A turbulent magnetic field forms after a partial stellar disruption and re-accretion of the tidal tails. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]Effects in DestructionFor stars that are completely shredded and form a tidal stream after their encounter with the black hole, the authors find that the magnetic field geometry straightens within the stream of debris. There, the pressure of the magnetic field eventually dominates over the gas pressure and self-gravity.Guillochon and McCourt find that the fields new configuration isnt ideal for powering jets from the black hole but it is strong enough to influence how the stream interacts with itself and its surrounding environment, likely affecting what we can expect to see from these short-lived events.These simulations have clearly demonstrated the need to further explore the role of magnetic fields in the disruptions of stars by black holes.BonusCheck out the full (brief) video from one of the simulations by Guillochon and McCourt (be sure to watch it in high-res!). It reveals the evolution of a stars magnetic field configuration as the star is partially disrupted by the forces of a supermassive black hole and then re-accretes.CitationJames Guillochon and Michael McCourt 2017 ApJL 834 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/834/2/L19

  11. Residence time as a key for comprehensive assessment of the relationship between changing land use and nitrates in regional groundwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjie; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Yinghua

    2013-04-01

    In this study, an approach is put forward to study the relationship between changing land use and groundwater nitrate contamination in the Sanjiang Plain. This approach emphasizes the importance of groundwater residence time when relating the nitrates to the changing land use. The principles underlying the approach involve the assessment of groundwater residence time by CFCs and the Vogel age model and the reconstruction of the land use at the groundwater recharge time by interpolation. Nitrate trend analysis shows that nitrates have begun to leach into the aquifers since agricultural activities boomed after the 1950s. Hydrochemical analysis implies that the possible process relating to the nitrate reduction in the groundwater is the oxidation of Fe(ii)-silicates. However, the chemical kinetics of the oxidation of Fe(ii)-silicates is slow, so this denitrification process contributes little to the nitrate variations. Stepwise regression shows that the nitrate concentrations of samples had no direct relationship with the land use at the groundwater sampling time, but had a relatively strong relationship with the land use at the groundwater recharge time. Dry land is recognized as the dominant factor contributing to the elevated concentration of nitrates. The nitrogen isotope for nitrate (δ(15)N-NO3) gives a more direct result of the identification of nitrate sources: the use of manure in agricultural activities. Principle component (PC) regression shows that the process of the dry land exploitation is the major process that controls the nitrate contamination in the Sanjiang Plain.

  12. The proliferation of massive destruction weapons and ballistic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, M.

    1996-01-01

    The author studies the actual situation of nuclear deterrence policies, the possibilities of use chemical weapons as massive destructions weapons for non nuclear governments. The situation of non proliferation of nuclear weapons took a new interest with the disintegration of the communism block, but it seems that only few nuclear matter disappeared towards proliferating countries. The denuclearization of Bielorussia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan makes progress with the START I treaty; China has signed the Non proliferation treaty in 1992, it conducts an export policy in matter of equipment and know-how, towards Iran, Pakistan, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Syria. In a future of ten years, countries such, Iran, North Korea could catch up with Israel, India and Pakistan among non declared nuclear countries. For chemical weapon, Libya, Iran and Syria could catch up with Iraq. (N.C.)

  13. Identifying nitrate sources and transformations in surface water by combining dual isotopes of nitrate and stable isotope mixing model in a watershed with different land uses and multi-tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Lu, Baohong

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate is essential for the growth and survival of plants, animals and humans. However, excess nitrate in drinking water is regarded as a health hazard as it is linked to infant methemoglobinemia and esophageal cancer. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental for making effective water management strategies, but nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mixed land covered watersheds remain unclear. It is difficult to determine the predominant NO3- sources using conventional water quality monitoring techniques. In our study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years' monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, East China. The results demonstrated that nitrate content in surface water was relatively low in the downstream (nitrate was observed at the source of the river in one of the sub-watersheds, which exhibited an exponential decline along the stream due to dilution, absorption by aquatic plants, and high forest cover. Although dramatically decline of nitrate occurred along the stream, denitrification was not found in surface water by analyzing δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- relationship. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage; soil nitrogen; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall) were estimated using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Model results indicated nitrate sources varied significantly among different rainfall conditions, land use types, as well as anthropologic activities. In summary, coupling dual isotopes of nitrate (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-, simultaneously) with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offers a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as

  14. Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions

  15. The crystal structure of urea nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The structure of urea nitrate has been solved, by the use of three-dimensional X-ray data. Data were collected using Cu Ke and Mo K0~ radiations. The structure consists of layers with urea and nitrate groups held together by hydrogen bonds. The positions of all hydrogen atoms were found. The final R

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid.

  17. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  18. Nitrate metabolism in the gromiid microbial universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Cedhagen, Tomas

    enclose and regulate a small biogeochemical universe within their cell. Their transparent proteinaceous cell wall surrounds a complex matrix consisting of sediment, bacteria and nitrate which is concentrated to hundreds of mM in the gromiid cell. The nitrate is respired to dinitrogen, but in contrast...

  19. 4-Methoxy-N,N′-diphenylbenzamidinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt N,N′-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidinium nitrate, C20H19N2O+·NO3−, comprises two independent N,N′-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidinium cations and two nitrate anions. The crystal structure features N—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...O contacts responsible for the packing.

  20. Anoxic nitrate reduction coupled with iron oxidation and attenuation of dissolved arsenic and phosphate in a sand and gravel aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Repert, Deborah A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    weeks. Additionally, Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing microbial enrichment cultures were obtained from aquifer sediments. Growth experiments with the cultures sequentially produced nitrite and nitrous oxide from nitrate while simultaneously oxidizing Fe(II). Field and culture results suggest that nitrogen oxide reduction and Fe(II) oxidation in the aquifer are a complex interaction of coupled biotic and abiotic reactions. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that anoxic nitrate-dependent iron oxidation can occur in groundwater; that it could control iron speciation; and that the process can impact the mobility of other chemical species (e.g., phosphate and arsenic) not directly involved in the oxidation–reduction reaction.

  1. Protein Tyrosine Nitration: Biochemical Mechanisms and Structural Basis of its Functional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    , immunochemical and proteomic-based studies indicate that protein tyrosine nitration is a selective process in vitro and in vivo, preferentially directed to a subset of proteins, and within those proteins, typically one or two tyrosine residues are site-specifically modified. The nature and site(s) of formation of the proximal oxidizing/nitrating species, the physico-chemical characteristics of the local microenvironment and also structural features of the protein account for part of this selectivity. Then, how this relatively subtle chemical modification in one tyrosine residue can sometimes cause dramatic changes in protein activity has remained elusive. Herein, I will analyze recent structural biology data of two pure and homogenously nitrated mitochondrial proteins (i.e. cytochrome c and MnSOD) to illustrate regio-selectivity and structural effects of tyrosine nitration, and subsequent impact in protein loss- or even gain-of-function. PMID:23157446

  2. Destruction of metallic foils under laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, N.P.; Lisitsyn, Yu.V.; Mineev, V.N.; Ivanov, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which illustrate the process of destruction of aluminium, lead and tantalum foils under irradiation of a neodymium laser, working in free generation regime with a power density varying from 5.10 5 - 5.10 6 wt/sq.cm. Calorimeters and photocells sensitive to the radiation with lambda=1.06 have been used for measuring the energy and recording the shape of the radiation pulse incident onto the target and passing through the disintegration products. The weight of the target has been determined prior to and after the experiment to find out the weight of Δm material expelled from the target. Rates of product scattering and a target destruction period, an amount of the material expelled and parameters of the radiation passing through the disintegration products have been determined as a function of the power density and an angle of the radiation incidence on the surface of the specimens. Average densities and absorption coefficients of the disintegration products of the foils under study have been assessed. A comparison of the characteristics of the metal foil (t 1 j) destruction in Pb-Ta-Al series with the metal thermal properties in this series shows that the destruction characteristics periodically vary as heat capacity, thermal conduction, evaporation heat and melting heat alter. A period of the target destruction becomes longer and the expelled mass smaller as the aforesaid thermal properties of the metals in Pb-Ta-Al series intensity [ru

  3. Destruction as a Step in Heidegger's Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Safian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in Heidegger’s philosophy is his claim that western philosophy tradition has overlooked the issue of Being. Heidegger’s attempt is to reveal the origins of this negligence by means of destruction. However, it seems that through such claim Heidegger aims to destroy and disvalue this tradition. In addition to defining and explaining destruction, our purpose in this article is to show that Heidegger’s goal is not to destroy the tradition of philosophy but the term destruction refers to a process which is a step in Heidegger’s phenomenology by means of which one can conceive and perceive Being better because only through such destruction ontology can fully assure itself in a phenomenological way of the genuine character of its concepts. The necessity of doing destruction in Heidegger’s thought has also been discussed and his persistence on it has been shown in two of his works, one belongs to early and another to later Heidegger.

  4. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  5. Use of nitrates in ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Cocco; Paul, Jerie; Hans-Ulrich, Iselin

    2015-01-01

    Short-acting nitrates are beneficial in acute myocardial ischemia. However, many unresolved questions remain about the use of long-acting nitrates in stable ischemic heart disease. The use of long-acting nitrates is weakened by the development of endothelial dysfunction and tolerance. Also, we currently ignore whether lower doses of transdermal nitroglycerin would be better than those presently used. Multivariate analysis data from large nonrandomized studies suggested that long-acting nitrates increase the incidence of acute coronary syndromes, while data from another multivariate study indicate that they have positive effects. Because of methodological differences and open questions, the two studies cannot be compared. A study in Japanese patients with vasospastic angina has shown that, when compared with calcium antagonists, long-acting nitrates do not improve long-term prognosis and that the risk for cardiac adverse events increases with the combined therapy. We have many unanswered questions.

  6. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning

    1991-01-01

    of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...

  7. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

  8. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  9. Synthesis of microspheres of triuranium octaoxide by simultaneous water and nitrate extraction from ascorbate-uranyl sols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykala, M.; Deptula, A.; Rogowski, M.; Lada, W.; Olczak, T.; Wawszczak, D.; Smolinski, T.; Wojtowicz, P.; Modolo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A new method for synthesis of uranium oxide microspheres (diameter <100 μm) has been developed. It is a variant of our patented Complex Sol-Gel Process, which has been used to synthesize high-quality powders of a wide variety of complex oxides. Starting uranyl-nitrate-ascorbate sols were prepared by addition of ascorbic acid to uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solution and alkalizing by aqueous ammonium hydroxide and then emulsified in 2-ethylhexanol-1 containing 1v/o SPAN-80. Drops of emulsion were firstly gelled by extraction of water by the solvent. Destruction of the microspheres during thermal treatment, owing to highly reactive components in the gels, requires modification of the gelation step by Double Extraction Process-simultaneously extraction of water and nitrates using Primene JMT, which completely eliminates these problem. Final step was calcination in air of obtained microspheres of gels to triuranium octaoxide. (author)

  10. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  11. Collision-induced destructive quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sun Zhenrong; Zhang Shi'an; Ding Liang'en; Wang Zugeng

    2005-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on the collision-induced destructive quantum interference of two-colour two-photon transitions in an open rhomb-type five-level system with a widely separated doublet by the density matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced decay rates, the ratio of the transition dipole moments and the energy separation of the doublet on the interference are analysed. It is shown that a narrow dip appears in the excitation spectrum due to the collision-induced destructive interference, and that the narrow interference dip still exists even when the collision broadening is comparable to the energy separation of the doublet. The physical origin of the collision-induced destructive quantum interference is analysed in the dressed-atom picture

  12. Nitrate source apportionment in a subtropical watershed using Bayesian model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liping; Han, Jiangpei; Xue, Jianlong; Zeng, Lingzao [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Shi, Jiachun, E-mail: jcshi@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Laosheng, E-mail: laowu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Jiang, Yonghai [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) pollution in aquatic system is a worldwide problem. The temporal distribution pattern and sources of nitrate are of great concern for water quality. The nitrogen (N) cycling processes in a subtropical watershed located in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China were greatly influenced by the temporal variations of precipitation and temperature during the study period (September 2011 to July 2012). The highest NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration in water was in May (wet season, mean ± SD = 17.45 ± 9.50 mg L{sup −1}) and the lowest concentration occurred in December (dry season, mean ± SD = 10.54 ± 6.28 mg L{sup −1}). Nevertheless, no water sample in the study area exceeds the WHO drinking water limit of 50 mg L{sup −1} NO{sub 3}{sup −}. Four sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} (atmospheric deposition, AD; soil N, SN; synthetic fertilizer, SF; manure and sewage, M and S) were identified using both hydrochemical characteristics [Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, Ca{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, dissolved oxygen (DO)] and dual isotope approach (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that denitrification was not the main N cycling process in the study area. Using a Bayesian model (stable isotope analysis in R, SIAR), the contribution of each source was apportioned. Source apportionment results showed that source contributions differed significantly between the dry and wet season, AD and M and S contributed more in December than in May. In contrast, SN and SF contributed more NO{sub 3}{sup −} to water in May than that in December. M and S and SF were the major contributors in December and May, respectively. Moreover, the shortcomings and uncertainties of SIAR were discussed to provide implications for future works. With the assessment of temporal variation and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −}, better

  13. Nitrate source apportionment in a subtropical watershed using Bayesian model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liping; Han, Jiangpei; Xue, Jianlong; Zeng, Lingzao; Shi, Jiachun; Wu, Laosheng; Jiang, Yonghai

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 − ) pollution in aquatic system is a worldwide problem. The temporal distribution pattern and sources of nitrate are of great concern for water quality. The nitrogen (N) cycling processes in a subtropical watershed located in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China were greatly influenced by the temporal variations of precipitation and temperature during the study period (September 2011 to July 2012). The highest NO 3 − concentration in water was in May (wet season, mean ± SD = 17.45 ± 9.50 mg L −1 ) and the lowest concentration occurred in December (dry season, mean ± SD = 10.54 ± 6.28 mg L −1 ). Nevertheless, no water sample in the study area exceeds the WHO drinking water limit of 50 mg L −1 NO 3 − . Four sources of NO 3 − (atmospheric deposition, AD; soil N, SN; synthetic fertilizer, SF; manure and sewage, M and S) were identified using both hydrochemical characteristics [Cl − , NO 3 − , HCO 3 − , SO 4 2− , Ca 2+ , K + , Mg 2+ , Na + , dissolved oxygen (DO)] and dual isotope approach (δ 15 N–NO 3 − and δ 18 O–NO 3 − ). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that denitrification was not the main N cycling process in the study area. Using a Bayesian model (stable isotope analysis in R, SIAR), the contribution of each source was apportioned. Source apportionment results showed that source contributions differed significantly between the dry and wet season, AD and M and S contributed more in December than in May. In contrast, SN and SF contributed more NO 3 − to water in May than that in December. M and S and SF were the major contributors in December and May, respectively. Moreover, the shortcomings and uncertainties of SIAR were discussed to provide implications for future works. With the assessment of temporal variation and sources of NO 3 − , better agricultural management practices and sewage disposal programs can be implemented to sustain water quality in subtropical watersheds

  14. Nitrates and Nitrites in the Treatment of Ischemic Cardiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossaman, Vaughn E.; Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris in 1867, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action. The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart failure during the birth of modern pharmacology. The clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in large veins and arteries through an as yet unidentified method of delivering nitric oxide (NO), or a NO-like compound to vascular smooth muscle cells. The major drawback with NTG administration is the rapid development of tolerance; and with amyl of nitrite, the duration and route of administration. Although amyl of nitrite are no longer used in the treatments of hypertension or ischemic heart disease, the nitrite anion has recently been discovered to possess novel pharmacologic actions such as modulating hypoxic vasodilation and providing cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the actions of these two similar chemical classes (nitrites and organic nitrates) have often been considered to be alike, we still do not understand their mechanism of action. However, the recent discovery that the nitrite anion, derived from either sodium nitrite or an intermediate NTG form, may act as a storage form for NO and provides support for investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular states. We review what is presently known about the use of nitrites and nitrates, the potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:20539102

  15. Non-destructive testing. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The book entitled 'Non-destructive Testing' Volume 2, contains the proceedings of the fourth European Conference, organized by the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing and held in London, September 1987. The volume contains seven chapters which examine the reliability of NDT, the economics of NDT and the use of NDT in:- civil engineering; oil, gas, coal and petrochemical industries; iron and steel industries; aerospace industry; and the nuclear and electricity supply industries. The seven chapters contain 78 papers, of which 19 are selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  16. Non-destructive testing of electronic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widenhorn, G.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements on quality, safety, faultlessness and reliability of electric components increase because of the high complexity of the appliances in which they are used. By means of examples a survey is given on the common non-destructive testing methods, testing operation and evaluation of test results on electric components which must meet in their application high requirements on quality and reliability. Defective components, especially those with hidden failures are sorted out by non-destructive testing and the failure frequency of the appliances and plants in testing and operation is greatly reduced. (orig.) [de

  17. Thermographic and potentiometric research on thermal destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Fialkov, B.S.; Zazharov, A.G.; Lemke, E.R.

    1981-03-01

    Analyses of thermal effects and electric potential during the thermal destruction of various types of solid fuels were conducted by means of thermography and electron-ion phenomena determination. The characteristics of coals of various ranks, and of graphite and coke are presented. Thermograms and potential curves are graphed. The studies showed a certain correlation between the thermograms and potential change curves of the solid phase. The character of the potential curves and intensity of their peaks depends on the type of sample and makes an evaluation on the charged state of the products of destruction possible. (8 refs.) (In Russian)

  18. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.; Engl, G.; Estorff, U. von

    1998-01-01

    Non destructive examination (NDE) during fabrication, Pre-service inspection (PSI) and In service inspection (ISI) are considered key issues for the safe use of nuclear energy. They are important elements of plant lifetime management which is a critical item in decision making on nuclear policies. The European non destructive examination forum (ENDEF) founded by European Commission provides a platform for open discussion between representatives of the European industries with the purpose to establish cooperation between EU, Central and Eastern European Countries and New Independent States in the field of NDE and ISI

  19. Development of Operation Management Model of Groundwater According to Nitrate Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Pourfarahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is one of the most important groundwater pollutants with such different sources as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or domestic and industrial wastewater. In this research, the optimal operation of groundwater wells in aquifers with nitrate pollution is investigated using simulation and optimization techniques. For the simulation part, an artificial neural network (ANN model is developed, and for the optimization model, the particle swarm optimization (PSO is used. Considering the high nitrate concentration in Karaj area and its increase in recent years, the northern part of this aquifer is selected as a case study to apply the proposed methodology. A seasonal ANN model is developed with input layers including well discharge in the current and previous seasons, nitrate concentration in the previous season, aquifer thickness, and well coordinates, all selected based on sensitivity analysis. The results of PSO algorithm shows that nitrate concentration can be controlled by increasing or decreasing well discharge in different zones. Therefore, it is possible to reduce nitrate concentration in critical areas by changing the spatial distribution of groundwater extractions in different zones keeping the total discharge constant.

  20. Discovery of nitrate-CPK-NLP signalling in central nutrient-growth networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun-hsiang; Niu, Yajie; Konishi, Mineko; Wu, Yue; Du, Hao; Sun Chung, Hoo; Li, Lei; Boudsocq, Marie; McCormack, Matthew; Maekawa, Shugo; Ishida, Tetsuya; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Sheen, Jen

    2018-01-01

    Nutrient signalling integrates and coordinates gene expression, metabolism and growth. However, its primary molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood in plants and animals. Here we report novel Ca2+ signalling triggered by nitrate with live imaging of an ultrasensitive biosensor in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. A nitrate-sensitized and targeted functional genomic screen identifies subgroup III Ca2+-sensor protein kinases (CPKs) as master regulators orchestrating primary nitrate responses. A chemical switch with the engineered CPK10(M141G) kinase enables conditional analyses of cpk10,30,32 to define comprehensive nitrate-associated regulatory and developmental programs, circumventing embryo lethality. Nitrate-CPK signalling phosphorylates conserved NIN-LIKE PROTEIN (NLP) transcription factors (TFs) to specify reprogramming of gene sets for downstream TFs, transporters, N-assimilation, C/N-metabolism, redox, signalling, hormones, and proliferation. Conditional cpk10,30,32 and nlp7 similarly impair nitrate-stimulated system-wide shoot growth and root establishment. The nutrient-coupled Ca2+ signalling network integrates transcriptome and cellular metabolism with shoot-root coordination and developmental plasticity in shaping organ biomass and architecture. PMID:28489820

  1. Reexamining the risks of drinking-water nitrates on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Alyce M; Diaz, James H; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Nitrates in drinking water are generally considered the sole source of nitrite poisoning with methemoglobinemia in infantile methomoglobinemia (IM). However, IM, which occurs during the first 4 months of life, is actually a constellation of cyanosis and hypoxia associated with methemoglobinemia that can result from several other causes. This review reexamines the role of nitrate levels in drinking water as a cause of IM and identifies other sources of nitrates that can affect public health and cause chronic diseases. Causes of IM include nitrites in foods, environmental chemical exposures, commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals, and the endogenous generation of oxides of nitrogen. Infants with congenital enzyme deficiencies in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and methemoglobin reductase are at greater risk of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia from nitrates in water and food and from exposures to hemoglobin oxidizers. Early epidemiological studies demonstrated significant associations between high groundwater nitrate levels and elevated methemoglobin levels in infants fed drinking water-diluted formulas. However, more recent epidemiological investigations suggest other sources of nitrogenous substance exposures in infants, including protein-based formulas and foods and the production of nitrate precursors (nitric acid) by bacterial action in the infant gut in response to inflammation and infection.

  2. CONCENTRATED CALCIUM NITRATE IS AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR MINERAL NUTRITION OF VEGETABLES GROWN THROUGH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Grebennikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basis water-soluble fertilizers that are used in greenhouse enterprises is  a Calcium  nitrate,  where  its production  and demand raise. At present time, calcium nitrate is produced  in a granulated and crystaline   form consisted of tetrahydrate, dihydrate and concentrated variants. These forms  are significantly distinguished  by their  chemical  composition.  Besides the  basic  form  of nitrogen – nitrate – there is ammoniacal nitrogen in the composition of Calcium nitrate that is found to be undesirable element, particularly with drip irrigation system in the  greenhouse. The new  product,  calcium  nitrate  has been worked out with minimal content of ammoniacal nitrogen  at  URALCHIM. The study  showed  the  advantages of the product for such characteristics as solubility and time of dissolving. It dissolves 3.4-7 time faster than those of tetrahydrate and dihydrate analogues. At present time, the concentrated  calcium  nitrate is used in many greenhouse  industrial  complexes  and  enterprises,  and has shown its efficiency in practice.

  3. Engineered P450 biocatalysts show improved activity and regio-promiscuity in aromatic nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ran; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Chao; Hackett, John C; Loria, Rosemary; Bruner, Steven D; Ding, Yousong

    2017-04-12

    Nitroaromatics are among the most important and commonly used chemicals but their production often suffers from multiple unsolved challenges. We have previously described the development of biocatalytic nitration processes driven by an engineered P450 TxtE fusion construct. Herein we report the creation of improved nitration biocatalysts through constructing and characterizing fusion proteins of TxtE with the reductase domain of CYP102A1 (P450BM3, BM3R). The majority of constructs contained variable linker length while one was rationally designed for optimizing protein-protein interactions. Detailed biochemical characterization identified multiple active chimeras that showed improved nitration activity, increased coupling efficiency and higher total turnover numbers compared with TxtE. Substrate promiscuity of the most active chimera was further assessed with a substrate library. Finally, a biocatalytic nitration process was developed to nitrate 4-Me-DL-Trp. The production of both 4-Me-5-NO 2 -L-Trp and 4-Me-7-NO 2 -L-Trp uncovered remarkable regio-promiscuity of nitration biocatalysts.

  4. Aluminium tolerance in rice is antagonistic with nitrate preference and synergistic with ammonium preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Qiang; Guo, Shi Wei; Shinmachi, Fumie; Sunairi, Michio; Noguchi, Akira; Hasegawa, Isao; Shen, Ren Fang

    2013-01-01

    Acidic soils are dominated chemically by more ammonium and more available, so more potentially toxic, aluminium compared with neutral to calcareous soils, which are characterized by more nitrate and less available, so less toxic, aluminium. However, it is not known whether aluminium tolerance and nitrogen source preference are linked in plants. This question was investigated by comparing the responses of 30 rice (Oryza sativa) varieties (15 subsp. japonica cultivars and 15 subsp. indica cultivars) to aluminium, various ammonium/nitrate ratios and their combinations under acidic solution conditions. indica rice plants were generally found to be aluminium-sensitive and nitrate-preferring, while japonica cultivars were aluminium-tolerant and relatively ammonium-preferring. Aluminium tolerance of different rice varieties was significantly negatively correlated with their nitrate preference. Furthermore, aluminium enhanced ammonium-fed rice growth but inhibited nitrate-fed rice growth. The results suggest that aluminium tolerance in rice is antagonistic with nitrate preference and synergistic with ammonium preference under acidic solution conditions. A schematic diagram summarizing the interactions of aluminium and nitrogen in soil-plant ecosystems is presented and provides a new basis for the integrated management of acidic soils.

  5. Coupling of oceanic carbon and nitrogen: A window to spatially resolved quantitative reconstruction of nitrate inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, N.; Liebetrau, V.; Gorb, S.; Wallmann, K. J. G.; Erdem, Z.; Schönfeld, J.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic impact has led to a severe acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle. Every second nitrogen atom in the biosphere may now originate from anthropogenic sources such as chemical fertilizers and the burning of fossil fuels. A quantitative reconstruction of past reactive nitrogen inventories is invaluable to facilitate projections for future scenarios and calibrations for such paleoproxies should be done as long the natural signature is still visible. Here we present a first quantitative reconstruction of nitrate concentrations in intermediate water depths of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone over the last deglaciation using the pore density in the benthic foraminiferal species Bolivina spissa. A comparison of the nitrate reconstruction to the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) record reveals a strong coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. The linear correlation between δ13C and nitrate availability remained stable over the last 22,000 years, facilitating the use of δ13C records as a quantitative nitrate proxy. The combination of the pore density record with δ13C records shows an elevated oceanic nitrate inventory during the Last Glacial Maximum as compared to the Holocene. Our novel proxy approach is consistent with the results of previous δ15N-based biogeochemical modeling studies, and thus provides sound estimates of the nitrate inventory in the glacial and deglacial ocean.

  6. [Chemical pollution of baby food products in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarov, Yu P; Milushkina, O Yu; Tikhonova, y l; Aksenova, O I; Kalinovskaya, M V

    One of the main problems of nutrition of children and adolescents is to assess chemical contamination of baby food products and the establishment of the relation with the health of the child population. With the entering different chemical compounds in the body of the child there can be observed disorders of the nervous, urinary, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, as well as metabolic deteriorations, degenerative processes in parenchymal organs and bone destruction. The aim of the study was to analyze data on chemical contamination of baby food products in the Russian Federation for 2012-2014. The analysis was executed on the data of Federal Information Fund of social and hygienic monitoring of the Russian Federation. There were identified priority pollutants (toxic elements, nitrites, nitrates, nitrosamines, pesticides, hydroxymethylfurfural, mycotoxins) and risk areas (the Lipetsk region, the Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Adygea, city of Moscow, Tatarstan, the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, the Ryazan region). There are detected contamination levels not exceeding MAC (in the dynamics of the three years offollow up, on average 22%), requiring their hygienic assessment. There were determined the baby food products containing most common occurred chemical contaminants: fruits and vegetables products, canned products, canned meat, cereals, dairy products, liquid and adapted and partially adapted milk formalas. Identified data indicate to a need for further studies of chemical substances in products for children’s nutrition in order to establish the causal relationships with a various diseases and the substantiation of methodological approaches to the risk assessment of combined exposure to chemical contaminants in concentrations up to the MPC on health of children, including infants.

  7. Urea plus nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws enhances degradation and reduces methane production in in vitro ruminal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiumin; Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Ma, Zhiyuan; Long, Donglei; Mao, Hongxiang; Wen, Jiangnan; Bernard, Lukuyu A; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang

    2018-04-10

    Urea pretreatment of straw damages fiber structure, while nitrate supplementation of ruminal diets inhibits enteric methane production. The study examined the combined effects of these treatments on ruminal substrate biodegradation and methane production using an in vitro incubation system. Rice and wheat straws were pretreated with urea (40 g kg -1 straw dry matter, DM) and urea + ammonium nitrate (34 + 6 g kg -1 dry matter (DM), respectively), and each straw (control, urea, urea+nitrate) was used in batch culture incubations in three replications (runs). Urea pretreatment increased (P content (+17%) and in vitro DM degradation of rice straw, in comparison with control. Urea+nitrate pretreatment of rice and wheat straws had higher (P content, in vitro DM degradation and propionate molar proportion, and lower (P ruminal biodegradation, facilitate propionate production and reduce methane production from lignified straws. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  9. CARBON-BASED REACTIVE BARRIER FOR NITRATE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a common ground water contaminant related to agricultural activity, waste water disposal, leachate from landfills, septic systems, and industrial processes. This study reports on the performance of a carbon-based permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that was constructed for in-situ bioremediation of a ground water nitrate plume caused by leakage from a swine CAFO (concentrated animal feeding operation) lagoon. The swine CAFO, located in Logan County, Oklahoma, was in operation from 1992-1999. The overall site remediation strategy includes an ammonia recovery trench to intercept ammonia-contaminated ground water and a hay straw PRB which is used to intercept a nitrate plume caused by nitrification of sorbed ammonia. The PRB extends approximately 260 m to intercept the nitrate plume. The depth of the trench averages 6 m and corresponds to the thickness of the surficial saturated zone; the width of the trench is 1.2 m. Detailed quarterly monitoring of the PRB began in March, 2004, about 1 year after construction activities ended. Nitrate concentrations hydraulically upgradient of the PRB have ranged from 23 to 77 mg/L N, from 0 to 3.2 mg/L N in the PRB, and from 0 to 65 mg/L N hydraulically downgradient of the PRB. Nitrate concentrations have generally decreased in downgradient locations with successive monitoring events. Mass balance considerations indicate that nitrate attenuation is dominantly from denitrification but with some component of

  10. Toward the development of the direct and selective detection of nitrates by a bioinspired Mo-Cu system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Hanit; Popowski, Yanay; Antonov, Svetlana; Gozin, Michael

    2011-10-21

    The development of a new platform for the direct and selective detection of nitrates is described. Two thioether-based chemosensors and the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones were prepared, and their photophysical properties were evaluated. Upon selective sulfoxidation of these thioethers with nitrates via an oxygen-transfer reaction promoted by a bioinspired Mo-Cu system, significant fluorescence shifts were measured. A selective response of these systems, discriminating between nitrate salts and H(2)O(2), was also shown. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Comparision of Chitosan Function as Adsorbent for Nitrate Removal Using Synthetic Aqueous Solution and Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Norisepehr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Nitrate and nitrite compounds pollution of groundwater resources in recent years which recently their mean concentration due to enhancement of different kind of municipal, industrial and agriculture waste water, were increased. The most common source of nitrates entering the water include chemical fertilizers and animal manure in agriculture, septic tank effluent, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, animal and plant residue analysis on the ground of non-sanitary disposal of solid waste and the use of absorbing wells for sewage disposal. Materials and methods: This experimental study is applied to the nitrate removal using chitosan in laboratory scale at ambient temperature and the design of the system was Batch. Effects of parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent concentration of nitrate on nitrate removal from aqueous solution was studied. Results: Function of chitosan in synthetic aqueous solution and drinking water according to the slurry system results, the optimum condition was obtained at pH=4, 20 min contact time and increasing the initial concentration of nitrate enhance the adsorption capacity of chitosan. Also optimum dosage of adsorbent was obtained at 0.5 g/l. The data obtained from the experiments of adsorbent isotherm were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir equation was found to be the best fitness with the experimental data (R2>0.93. Conclusion: Although efficiency of Nitrate removal in synthetic aqueous solution was better than drinking water, adsorption process using chitosan as an option for the design and selection nitrate removal should be considered in order to achieve environmental standards.

  12. Nitrate analogs as attractants for soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Akito; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2017-08-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). SCN was attracted to all nitrate analogs; however, attraction of SCN to nitrate analogs was not observed on agar containing nitrate. In contrast, SCN was attracted to azuki root, irrespective of presence or absence of nitrate in agar media. Our results suggest that the attraction mechanisms differ between plant-derived attractant and nitrate.

  13. Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Naoki; Kuroda, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Katsushi; Kawato, Yoshimi; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

  14. Bond scission cross sections for alpha-particles in cellulose nitrate (LR115)

    CERN Document Server

    Barillon, R; Chambaudet, A; Katz, R; Stoquert, J P; Pape, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemical damage created by alpha-particles in cellulose nitrate (LR115) have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. This technique enables identifying the sensitive bonds and giving an order of magnitude of their scission cross sections for given alpha-particle energies. The high cross sections observed suggest a new description of the track etch velocity in this material.

  15. IRIS Assessment Plan for Nitrate and Nitrite (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2017, EPA released the draft IRIS Assessment Plan (IAP) for Nitrate and Nitrite for public review and comment. This document was discussed at an EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) meeting on September 27-28, 2017....

  16. Ruminal fermentation of Anti-methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA- or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35 to 87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH but was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 µmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 µmol added formate per mL to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation in

  17. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  18. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Meng; Ruijuan, Qu; Jinyan, Liang; Xi, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  19. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan; Yang Xi

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  20. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE's operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities

  1. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  2. Creative Destruction in Libraries: Designing our Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro Pinto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: Joseph Schumpeter defines creative destruction as a “process of industrial mutation that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old one, incessantly creating a new one.” As libraries struggle with how to position themselves to thrive in the digital age, how can we balance the traditional elements of librarianship like […

  3. Unceratainty of Heisenberg in Universe Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Qur'an is a guidence which explaines all about the universe to human being. The discovery of science has been able to explain the truth of the Qur'an scientifically. One of which is the principle of Heisenberg's uncertainty in the event of the universe destruction. The purpose of this research is to know: 1 Science's view of the event of the universe destruction (Big Crunch in Qur’an [Al Infithaar]: 1-3, and How the relation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principles and the law of thermodynamics II toward  the collapse of the universe (Big Crunch based on Scientific views and the Quran. This research is a qualitative research using library research method which analyzes the related books directly or indirectly. The results of the analysis stated that: 1 The concentration of mass, which is big enough, relates to some of the laws of physics, those are: Relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principles, and the law of Thermodynamic II; 2 The universe will return at its sole point, i.e; the absence of the universe; 3 The destruction of the universe is the destruction of the order of the universe which then the stars fall scatteredly because of the gravitational force that prevents them disappears, the balance of the universe diminishes, decreases and becomes uncertain, and eventually disappears.

  4. New tasks for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings contain 29 lectures and 43 posters which were presented in Trier at the annual meeting of the DGZfP in May 1990. The contributions report on further development of non-destructive testing methods towards more reliability, both of inspections and with regard to interpretation of the results. (MM) [de

  5. Complete destructive interference of partially coherent fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbur, G.J.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2004-01-01

    A three-point source model is used to study the interference of wavefields which are mutually partially coherent. It is shown that complete destructive interference of the fields is possible in such a "three-pinhole interferometer" even if the sources are not fully coherent with respect to each

  6. Utilization of radiation in non destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Junqueira, M.M.; Matos, J.A. de; Castello Branco, L.M.; Barros Junior, J.D.; Borges, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory from COPPE/UFRJ has been developed techniques for using nuclear radiations to obtain images for non-destructive materials testing and medicine. With this objective, some prototypes of transmission computerized tomography systems using parallel beans and fan beans, with computer automation, including the mathematical process of image reprocessing and presentation in videos or printers are constructed [pt

  7. Denitrification and dilution along fracture flowpaths influence the recovery of a bedrock aquifer from nitrate contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonathan J., E-mail: jon.kim@vermont.gov [Vermont Geological Survey, 1 National Life Drive, Main 2, Montpelier, VT 05620 (United States); Comstock, Jeff [Vermont Agency of Agriculture, 116 State Street, Montpelier, VT 05620 (United States); Ryan, Peter [Dept. of Geology, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Heindel, Craig [Waite-Heindel Environmental Management, 7 Kilburn Street, Suite 301, Burlington, VT 05401 (United States); Koenigsberger, Stephan [Dept. of Geology, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In 2000, elevated nitrate concentrations ranging from 12 to 34 mg/L NO{sub 3}−N were discovered in groundwater from numerous domestic bedrock wells adjacent to a large dairy farm in central Vermont. Long-term plots and contours of nitrate vs. time for bedrock wells showed “little/no”, “moderate”, and “large” change patterns that were spatially separable. The metasedimentary bedrock aquifer is strongly anisotropic and groundwater flow is controlled by fractures, bedding/foliation, and basins and ridges in the bedrock surface. Integration of the nitrate concentration vs. time data and the physical and chemical aquifer characterization suggest two nitrate sources: a point source emanating from a waste ravine and a non-point source that encompasses the surrounding fields. Once removed, the point source of NO{sub 3} (manure deposited in a ravine) was exhausted and NO{sub 3} dropped from 34 mg/L to < 10 mg/L after ~ 10 years; however, persistence of NO{sub 3} in the 3 to 8 mg/L range (background) reflects the long term flux of nitrates from nutrients applied to the farm fields surrounding the ravine over the years predating and including this study. Inferred groundwater flow rates from the waste ravine to either moderate change wells in basin 2 or to the shallow bedrock zone beneath the large change wells are 0.05 m/day, well within published bedrock aquifer flow rates. Enrichment of {sup 15}N and {sup 18}O in nitrate is consistent with lithotrophic denitrification of NO{sub 3} in the presence of dissolved Mn and Fe. Once the ravine point-source was removed, denitrification and dilution collectively were responsible for the down-gradient decrease of nitrate in this bedrock aquifer. Denitrification was most influential when NO{sub 3}−N was > 10 mg/L. Our multidisciplinary methods of aquifer characterization are applicable to groundwater contamination in any complexly-deformed and metamorphosed bedrock aquifer. - Highlights: • Bedrock wells contaminated

  8. Effect of Stabilized Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles on Nitrate Removal from Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nooralivand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the recent decades, the use of N fertilizers has undeniable development regardless of their effects on the soil and environment. Increasing nitrate ion concentration in soil solution and then, leaching it into groundwater causes increase nitrate concentration in the water and raise the risk suffering from the people to some diseases. World health organization recommended maximum concentration level for nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water 50 and 3 mg/l, respectively. There are different technologies for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solution. The conventional methods are ion exchange, biological denitrification, reverse osmosis and chemical reduction. Using nanoscale Fe0 particles compared to other methods of nitrate omission was preferred because of; its high surface area, more reactive, lower cost and higher efficiency. More studies on the reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron nanoparticles have been in aqueous solutions or in the soil in batch scale. Nanoparticles surface modified with poly-electrolytes, surfactants and polymers cause colloidal stability of the particles against the forces of attraction between particles and increases nanoparticle transport in porous media. The objectives of this study were to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles and consideration of their application for nitrate removal from sandy soil. Materials and Methods: The nanoparticles were synthesized in a lab using borohydride reduction method and their morphological characteristics were examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. Experiments were conducted on packed sand column (40 cm length and 2.5 cm inner diameter under conditions of different nanoparticle concentration (1, 2, and 3 g1-1and high initial NO3- concentration (150, 250, and 350 mgl-1. Homogeneous soil column was filled with the wet packed

  9. Nitrate-driven urban haze pollution during summertime over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Chunrong; Wu, Nana; Guo, Hongyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zheng, Yixuan; Li, Xin; He, Kebin

    2018-04-01

    Compared to the severe winter haze episodes in the North China Plain (NCP), haze pollution during summertime has drawn little public attention. In this study, we present the highly time-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles (PM1) measured in Beijing and Xinxiang in the NCP region during summertime to evaluate the driving factors of aerosol pollution. During the campaign periods (30 June to 27 July 2015, for Beijing and 8 to 25 June 2017, for Xinxiang), the average PM1 concentrations were 35.0 and 64.2 µg m-3 in Beijing and Xinxiang. Pollution episodes characterized with largely enhanced nitrate concentrations were observed at both sites. In contrast to the slightly decreased mass fractions of sulfate, semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) in PM1, nitrate displayed a significantly enhanced contribution with the aggravation of aerosol pollution, highlighting the importance of nitrate formation as the driving force of haze evolution in summer. Rapid nitrate production mainly occurred after midnight, with a higher formation rate than that of sulfate, SV-OOA, or LV-OOA. Based on observation measurements and thermodynamic modeling, high ammonia emissions in the NCP region favored the high nitrate production in summer. Nighttime nitrate formation through heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) enhanced with the development of haze pollution. In addition, air masses from surrounding polluted areas during haze episodes led to more nitrate production. Finally, atmospheric particulate nitrate data acquired by mass spectrometric techniques from various field campaigns in Asia, Europe, and North America uncovered a higher concentration and higher fraction of nitrate present in China. Although measurements in Beijing during different years demonstrate a decline in the nitrate concentration in recent years, the nitrate contribution in PM1 still remains high. To effectively alleviate

  10. Nitrate-driven urban haze pollution during summertime over the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the severe winter haze episodes in the North China Plain (NCP, haze pollution during summertime has drawn little public attention. In this study, we present the highly time-resolved chemical composition of submicron particles (PM1 measured in Beijing and Xinxiang in the NCP region during summertime to evaluate the driving factors of aerosol pollution. During the campaign periods (30 June to 27 July 2015, for Beijing and 8 to 25 June 2017, for Xinxiang, the average PM1 concentrations were 35.0 and 64.2 µg m−3 in Beijing and Xinxiang. Pollution episodes characterized with largely enhanced nitrate concentrations were observed at both sites. In contrast to the slightly decreased mass fractions of sulfate, semivolatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA, and low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA in PM1, nitrate displayed a significantly enhanced contribution with the aggravation of aerosol pollution, highlighting the importance of nitrate formation as the driving force of haze evolution in summer. Rapid nitrate production mainly occurred after midnight, with a higher formation rate than that of sulfate, SV-OOA, or LV-OOA. Based on observation measurements and thermodynamic modeling, high ammonia emissions in the NCP region favored the high nitrate production in summer. Nighttime nitrate formation through heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 enhanced with the development of haze pollution. In addition, air masses from surrounding polluted areas during haze episodes led to more nitrate production. Finally, atmospheric particulate nitrate data acquired by mass spectrometric techniques from various field campaigns in Asia, Europe, and North America uncovered a higher concentration and higher fraction of nitrate present in China. Although measurements in Beijing during different years demonstrate a decline in the nitrate concentration in recent years, the nitrate contribution in PM1 still remains high

  11. Impact of Sulfide on Nitrate Conversion in Eutrophic Nitrate-Rich Marine Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Krieger, Bärbel; Lavik, Gaute

    2006-01-01

    IMPACT OF SULFIDE ON NITRATE CONVERSION IN EUTROPHIC NITRATE-RICH MARINE SLUDGE C.U. Schwermer 1, B.U. Krieger 2, G. Lavik 1, A. Schramm 3, J. van Rijn 4, D. de Beer 1, D. Minz 5, E. Cytryn 4, M. Kuypers 1, A. Gieseke 1 1 Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; 2 Dept...... nitrate conversion from denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In situ microsensor profiling in stagnant sludge revealed the typical stratification of nitrate reduction on top of sulfate reduction. Increasing the bulk nitrate concentration lead to a downward shift....... Our results show that the presence of sulfide generally decreased growth rates but increased N2O production. We conclude that sulfide plays a key role in causing incomplete denitrification, presumably by inhibiting the N2O reductase, and enhancing DNRA compared to denitrification.  ...

  12. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, R.J.; Chao, E.I.; Choi, W.M.; Johnson, B.R.; Varlet, J.L.P.

    1976-01-01

    Growth rates for the denitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas Stutzeri were studied to minimize the time necessary to start up a bacterial denitrification reactor. Batch experiments were performed in nine 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, a 7-liter fermentor, and a 67-liter fermentor. All reactors maintained an anaerobic environment. Initial microorganism inoculum concentration was varied over four orders of magnitude. Initial nitrate and substrate carbon concentrations were varied from 200 to 6000 ppm and from 56 to 1596 ppm, respectively, with a carbon-to-nitrogen weight ratio of 1.18. In all experiments, except those with the highest initial substrate-to-bacteria ratio, no growth was observed due to substrate depletion during the lag period. In those experiments which did exhibit an increase in bacterial population, growth also stopped due to substrate depletion. A model simulating microbe growth during the induction period was developed, but insufficient data were available to properly adjust the model constants. Because of this, the model does not accurately predict microbe growth. The metabolism of Pseudomonas Stutzeri was studied in detail. This resulted in a prediction of the denitrification stoichiometry during steady state reactor operation. Iron was found to be an important component for bacterial anabolism

  13. Anomalous electrical signals associated with microbial activity: Results from Iron and Nitrate-Reducing Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, R. B.; Zheng, Q.; Flynn, P.; Singha, K.; Brantley, S.

    2008-12-01

    Three flow-through columns outfitted with Ag/AgCl electrodes were constructed to test the effects of different microbial processes on the geophysical measurements of self potential (SP), bulk electrical conductivity (σ b), and induced polarization (IP). The columns were filled with sieved, Fe-bearing subsurface sediment from the Delmarva Peninsula near Oyster, VA, inoculated (9:1 ratio) with a freshly-collected, shallow subsurface sediment from a wetland floodplain (Dorn Creek) near Madison, WI. Each of the columns was fed anoxic and sterile PIPES buffered artificial groundwater (PBAGW) containing different concentrations of acetate and nitrate. The medium fed to Column 1 (nitrate-reducing) was amended with 100 μM acetate and 2 mM nitrate. Column 2 (iron-reducing) was run with PBAGW containing 1.0 mM acetate and 0 mM nitrate. Column 3 (alternating redox state) was operated under conditions designed to alternately stimulate nitrate-reducing and iron-reducing populations to provide conditions, i.e., the presence of both nitrate and microbially-produced Fe(II), that would allow growth of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing populations. We operated Column 3 with a cycling strategy of 14-18 days of high C medium (1 mM acetate and 100 μ M nitrate) followed by 14-18 days of low C medium (100 μ M acetate and 2 mM nitrate). Effluent chemistry (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, acetate, and Fe2+) was sampled daily for four months so as to be concurrent with the electrical measurements. We observed chemical evidence of iron reduction (dissolved [Fe(II)] = 0.2mM) in the effluent from the iron reduction and alternating redox columns. Chemical depletion of NO3- ([NO3-] ranged from 1 to 0.02mM), the production of NO2-, and possible production of NH4+ (0.2 mM) was observed in the nitrate reducing column as well as the alternating redox column. All three columns displayed loss of acetate as microbial activity progressed. σ b remained constant in the alternating redox column (~0.15 S

  14. Non-destructive measurement technologies for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.

    1998-04-01

    There are three aspects that need to be in place in order to maintain a valid safeguards system: (1) Physical protection; guarding the access to nuclear materials using physical protection and surveillance. (2) Accounting systems; computer based accounting systems that provide the current location of nuclear materials, quantities, and the uncertainty in the assayed values. (3) Measurement systems; detectors, data acquisition systems and data analysis methods that provide accurate assays of nuclear material quantities for the accounting system. The authors expand on this third aspect, measurement systems, by discussing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. NDA is defined as the quantitative or qualitative determination of the kind and/or amount of nuclear material in an item without alteration or invasion of the item. This is contrasted with destructive analysis which is the process of taking small samples from the item in question, analyzing those samples by chemical analysis, destroying the original nature of the samples in the process (hence the term destructive), and applying the results to the entire item. Over the past 30 years, numerous techniques, using the atomic and nuclear properties of the actinides, have been developed for reliable, rapid, accurate, and tamper-proof NDA of nuclear materials. The authors distinguish between two types of measurements: the first involving the detection of spontaneously emitted radiation, produced by the natural radioactive decay processes; the second involving the detection of induced radiation, produced by irradiating the sample with an external radiation source

  15. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrate, nitrous oxide, and ammonium by Pseudomonas putrefaciens.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, M O

    1985-01-01

    The influence of redox potential on dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was investigated on a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas putrefaciens. Nitrate was consumed (3.1 mmol liter-1), and ammonium was produced in cultures with glucose and without sodium thioglycolate. When sodium thioglycolate was added, nitrate was consumed at a lower rate (1.1 mmol liter-1), and no significant amounts of nitrite or ammonium were produced. No growth was detected in glucose media either with or without sod...

  16. Does thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, R.; Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Optik 125 (2014) 2022-2025) claim to have grown a so called thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal by the slow evaporation method. In this comment we prove that TSLN is actually thiosemicarbazide.

  17. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  18. [Nitrate concentrations in tap water in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To determine nitrate concentrations in drinking water in a sample of Spanish cities. We used ion chromatography to analyze the nitrate concentrations of public drinking water in 108 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (supplying 21,290,707 potential individuals). The samples were collected between January and April 2012. The total number of samples tested was 324. The median nitrate concentration was 3.47 mg/L (range: 0.38-66.76; interquartile range: 4.51). The water from 94% of the municipalities contained less than 15 mg/L. The concentration was higher than 25mg/L in only 3 municipalities and was greater than 50mg/L in one. Nitrate levels in most public drinking water supplies in municipalities inhabited by almost half of the Spanish population are below 15 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  20. ASPECTS CONCERNING NITRATE AND NITRITE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UNGUREANU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects concerning nitrate and nitrite pollution of groundwaters. Water is a basic natural resource for the good functioning of all thebiological processes in nature. It is very important for life and for the developmentof human activities. The quality of the ground water has begun to degrade moreand more, as a result of the physical, chemical and bacteriological changes.Nitrogen compounds pollution of the underground has increased lately. This hasbeen caused by the excessive and irrational use of nitrogen derived fertilizers, bythe wrong storage of the dejections resulted from zootechnical processes and byother chemical substances discharged into water. Samples were collected fromdifferent wells in order to check whether the well water was drinkable. The resultof the test revealed the existence of high concentrations of nitrates as well asvalues exceeding normal microbiological parameters. The value recorded in thetown of Segarcea, the county of Dolj, showed extremely high concentrations ofnitrates of the drinking water in the wells. Thus, Segarcea is the town with thegreatest number of contaminated wells in the country.

  1. Ternary systems, consist of erbium nitrates, water and nitrates of pyridines, quinolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khalfina, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    At 25 and 50 deg C investigated is solubility of solid phases in ternary water salt systems: erbium nitrate-pyridine nitrate-water; erbium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water. Formation of congruently soluble compounds of the Er(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 , Er(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 x4H 2 O composition is established. X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analyses have been carried out

  2. Data on nitrate and nitrate of Taham dam in Zanjan (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Massoudinejad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, contamination of water resources, with pollutants such as nitrate and nitrite, has significantly increased. These compounds can have harmful effects on human health, especially children such as methemoglobinemia. The main objective of this study was to measure the concentration of nitrate and nitrite and its health-risk assessment in the rivers entering Taham dam in Zanjan. USEPA Method was used to assess the health-risk of nitrate and nitrite. According to the obtained results, the concentration of nitrate and nitrite was in the range of 0.51–14.93 mg/l and 0.001–0.061 mg/l, respectively. According to the results, the mean of the CDI for nitrate and nitrite was 9.52*10−2 and 3.63*10−4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the mean HI for nitrate and nitrite was 5.97*10−2 and 3.63*10−3, respectively. The concentration of nitrate and nitrite in rivers was lower than the WHO and Iran guidelines. Based on the results, the HI value in all samples was less than 1 which indicating the non-carcinogenic effects of nitrate and nitrite in these rivers. Keywords: Nitrate, Nitrite, Water quality, Dam

  3. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  4. Criticality parameters for uranyl nitrate or plutonium nitrate systems in tributyl phosphate/kerosine and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the calculated values of smallest critical masses and volumina and neutron physical parameters for uranyl nitrate (3, 4, 5% U-235) or plutonium nitrate (5% Pu-240), each in a 30 per cent solution of tributyl phosphate (TBP)/kerosine. For the corresponding nitrate-water solutions, newly calculated results are presented together with a revised solution density model. A comparison of the data shows to what extent the criticality of nitrate-TBP/kerosine systems can be assessed on the basis of nitrate-water parameters, revealing that such data can be applied to uranyl nitrate/water systems, taking into account that the smallest critical mass of uranyl nitrate-TBP/kerosine systems, up to a 5 p.c. U-235 enrichment, is by 4.5 p.c. at the most smaller than that of UNH-water solutions. Plutonium nitrate (5% Pu-240) in the TBP/kerosine solution will have a smallest critical mass of up to 7 p.c. smaller, as compared with the water data. The suitability of the computing methods and cross-sections used is verified by recalculating experiments carried out to determine the lowest critical enrichment of uranyl nitrate. The calculated results are well in agreement with experimental data. The lowest critical enrichment is calculated to be 2.10 p.c. in the isotope U-235. (orig.) [de

  5. Studies in Aromatic and Amine Nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-20

    of Commerce, May 1978. 4. J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, F. Penton, and K. Schofield, Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge University Press, 1971). 5...Moodie, K. Schofield, and G. Tobin, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Comm., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm. 605 (1969). 10. (a) S...Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (Received, 5th Februaty 1980; Com. 124.) 42 ’(a) J. Hoggett , R. B. Moodie, J. R. Penton, and K. Schofield, in ’Nitration

  6. The dehydration of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalov, A.; Kamalov, D.D.; Khamidov, B.O.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Eshbekov, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to study of dehydration process of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. The dehydration process of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate was studied by means of tensimeter method with membrane zero-manometer. The research was carried out under equilibrium conditions. It was defined that in studied temperature ranges (300-450 K) the dehydration process of UO_2(NO_3)_2 has a three stage character.

  7. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  8. Nonconventional concrete hollow blocks evaluation by destructive and non-destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate cementitious matrices properties by partial replacement of Portland cement by silica fume (SF or by rice husk ash (RHA, and their application in nonbearing hollow blocks, tested by destructive and non-destructive methods. The following mixtures were produced: reference (100% of Portland cement and Portland cement replacement (10% by mass with SF or RHA. The non-destructive testing showed that the highest values of UPV were obtained for SF-based blocks and RHA-based blocks. The destructive test showed better results for SF-based blocks, but there was no statistical difference between the RHA-based and control ones.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and neodymium nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of uranyl nitrate and neodymium nitrate salts from a mixture was investigated in the present study using Sc-CO 2 modified with various ligands such as organophosphorous compounds, amides, and diketones. Preferential extraction of uranyl nitrate over neodymium nitrate was demonstrated using Sc-CO 2 modified with amide, di-(2ethylhexyl) isobutyramide (D2EHIBA). (author)

  10. Systems of cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water and cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininkov, N.E.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of solid phases in the systems cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate and cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate has been st ed by the method of isothermal sections at 25 and 50 deo. C. It has been shown that one anhydrous compound is formed in each system with a ratio of cerium(3) nitrate to amine nitrate 1:5. The compounds formed in the systems have been separated from the corresponding solutions and studied by microcrystalloscopic, X-ray phase, thermal and infrared spectroscopic methods. On the basis of spectroscopic studies the following formula has been assigned to the compound: [(CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 + ] 5 x[Ce(NO 3 ) 8 ]. The thermal analysis of the compound has shown that its melting point is 106 deg C. The solubility isotherms in the system Ce(NO 3 ) 3 -H 2 O-(C 2 H 5 ) 2 NHxHNO 3 consist of three branches which intersect in two eutonic points

  11. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  12. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  13. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. → Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. → Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  14. Evaluation of improved chemical waste disposal and recovery methods for N reactor fuel fabrication operations: 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.L.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory personnel identified and evaluated alternative methods for recovery, recycle, and disposal of waste acids produced during N Reactor fuel operations. This work was conducted under a program sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc.; the program goals were to reduce the volume of liquid waste by rejuvenating and recycling acid solutions and to generate a residual waste low in nitrates, fluorides, and metals. Disposal methods under consideration included nitric acid reclamation, grout encapsulation of final residual waste, nitrogen fertilizer production, biodenitrifaction, chemical or thermal destruction of NO 3 , and short-term impoundment of liquid NO 3 /SO 4 wastes. Preliminary testing indicated that the most feasible and practicable of these alternatives were (1) nitric acid reclamation followed by grouting of residual waste and (2) nitrogen fertilizer production. This report summarizes the investigations, findings, and recommendations for the 1984 fiscal year

  15. Research on changes of nitrate by interactions with metals under the wastes disposal environment containing TRU nuclide. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Imakita, Tsuyoshi; Tateishi, Tsuyoshi

    2004-02-01

    In TRU wastes, wastes containing nitrate ion as salt exist. In the disposal site environment, this nitrate ion changes into nitrite ion, ammonia, etc., and possibly affects disposal site environmental changes or nuclide migration parameters. In the present research, evaluation was carried out on the chemical interaction between nitrate ion and carbon steel, which is primary reducing agent, under the low-oxygen conditions simulating a disposal site. (1) In the electrochemical test, test data were generated in order to supplement influence parameters required for improvement of the accuracy of the nitrate reaction model (NEON). As the results, it was found that the influence of potential and pH is remarkable, also that of initial nitrate concentration is significant, while the temperature is not remarkable to the nitrate and nitrite reaction themselves. Besides, it was found that the difference in the surface condition of the electrodes is not remarkable. (2) Several long-term reaction tests were carried out to assume the effects of important parameters on the nitrate behavior with carbon steel under low-oxygen high-alkaline type simulated groundwater conditions using glass sealed apparatus (ampoule tests). As the results, it was found that initial nitrate ion concentration and temperature causes the increase of hydrogen generation as well as ammonia generation, while it was found that the difference of carbon steel composition doesn't affect significantly. (3) The parameter fitting NEON was reexamined to improve accuracy, gathering data of electrochemical tests and ampoule tests conducted in 2003 and 2000 through 2002. In addition by comparing the calculation results with experimental results, applicability of NEON was investigated. (4) Implementation of NEON to the mass transfer calculation code was carried out in order to enable the calculation of the nitrate ion behavior including incomings and outgoings of substance to and from the system, resulting in the

  16. Investigation of complexing of trivalent lanthanoids in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Proyaev, V.V.; Edinakova, V.

    1985-01-01

    Complexing of trivalent lanthanoids (Ce, Eu) with nitrate-ions in concentrated solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates has been studied in a wide range of ionic forces (1.0-7.0), using the extractional, densimetric and solubility methods. Nitrate complexes registered by the extraction and solubility methods mainly are of second sphere character. During rare earth extraction from concentrated nitrate solutions in the range of nitrate-ion concentrations <= 5 mol/l second sphere neutral nitrate complexes take part in distribution, at higher values of nitrate-ion concentration formation of intrasphere monoligand complexes of lanthanoids should be taken into account

  17. Nitration of soluble proteins in organotypic culture models of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine R; Söderling, Ann-Sofi; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Protein nitration due to oxidative and nitrative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but its relationship to the loss of dopamine (DA) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity is not clear. Here we quantified protein-bound 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) by a novel gas...... chromatography/negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry technique and DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) by HPLC in tissues or medium of organotypic, mouse mesencephalon cultures after acute or chronic treatments with the peroxynitrite donor 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), the dopaminergic...

  18. Dose concept of oncological hyperthermia: Heat-equation considering the cell destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We shall assume, of course, that the objective of hyperthermia is to destroy the malignant cells. Destruction definitely needs energy. Description and quality assurance of hyperthermia use the Pennes heat equation to describe the processes. However the energy balance of the Pennes-equation does not contain the hyperthermic cell-destruction energy, which is a mandatory factor of the process. We propose a generalization of the Pennes-equation, inducing the entire energy balance. The new paradigm could be a theoretical basis of the till now empirical dose-construction for oncological hyperthermia. The cell destruction is a non-equilibrium thermodynamical process, described by the equations of chemical reactions. The dynamic behavior (time dependence has to be considered in this approach. We are going to define also a dose concept that can be objectively compared with other oncological methods. We show how such empirical dose as CEM43oC could be based theoretically as well.

  19. Molten salt destruction of rubber and chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    Acceptable methods for the treatment of mixed wastes are not currently available. The authors have investigated Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) as an alternative to incineration of mixed wastes. MSD differs from incineration in several ways: there is no evidence of open flames in MSD, the containment of actinides is accomplished by chemical means (wetting and dissolution), the operating temperature of MSD is much lower (700--590 C vs 1,000--1,200 C) thus lowering the volatility of actinides. Furthermore, no acid gases are released from MSD. These advantages provide the main incentive for developing MSD as an alternative to incineration. The authors have demonstrated the viability of the MSD process to cleanly destroy rubber and chlorinated solvents

  20. Low temperature hydrothermal destruction of organics in Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Hart, T.R.; Poshusta, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate and develop a low temperature hydrothermal process (HTP) for the destruction of organics that are present wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Organic compounds contribute to tank waste safety issues, such as hydrogen generation. Some organic compounds act as complexants, promoting the solubility of radioactive constituents such as 90 Sr and 241 Am, which is undesirable for waste pretreatment processing. HTP is thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that is typically operated between 250 degrees C and 375 degrees C and approximately 200 atm. Testing with simulated tank waste, containing a variety of organics has been performed. The distribution of strontium, cesium and bulk metals between the supernatant and solid phases as a function of the total organic content of the waste simulant will be presented. Test results using simulant will be compared with similar tests conducted using actual radioactive waste

  1. Non-destructive study of iron gall inks in manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Jelena; Krstić, Dragica; Desnica, Vladan; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to establish an effective procedure of iron gall ink characterization using complementary non-destructive methods. By this, it is possible to better understand correlation of chemical composition of the inks and the state of preservation of iron gall ink manuscripts, as well as the effects of conservation treatment performed upon them. This study was undertaken on a bound 16th century manuscript comprised of different types of paper and ink from the National and University Library in Zagreb. Analytical methods used included Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Paper fibers were identified by optical microscopy and the degradation state, as well as ink differentiation, transit metal migrations and detection of stains, with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) photography. The techniques applied on original writing materials gave important information about paper and ink composition, its preservation state and efficiency of conservation treatment performed upon them.

  2. Studying the causes for corrosive destruction of water conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azamatova, F I; Kulinichev, G P; Porubov, I S

    1979-01-01

    Pipes from different oil and gas production administrations were selected for X-ray and metallographic studies of the cause of corrosive destruction. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the pipe material are presented in tables. The phase composition of the corrosion products was studied by X-rays. The complex structure of the layer made up of the corrosion products was taken into consideration. The studies were conducted in an X-ray diffraction chamber. The obtained results are presented in a table. The metallographic studies showed that a significant corrosive damage of the materials of water conduits occurs as a result of the development of local corrosion processes, caused by the substantive heterogeneity of the structure of the metal, related to the nonuniform distribution of the pearlite because of carbon liquidation.

  3. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  4. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W.

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs

  5. Enzymatic Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raushel, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is the development of a versatile enzyme-based system that is fully optimized for the decontamination, destruction, and detection of know chemical warfare agents...

  6. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3′,-5′-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 899–942. PMID:26261901

  7. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2015-10-10

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed.

  8. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.; Moisy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with circle NO 2 radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  9. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Moisy, P. [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Nuclear Energy Div.

    2012-07-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with {sup circle} NO{sup 2} radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during {gamma}-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  10. Oxygen regulation of nitrate uptake in denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, D; Rowe, J J

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen had an immediate and reversible inhibitory effect on nitrate respiration by denitrifying cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of nitrate utilization by oxygen appeared to be at the level of nitrate uptake, since nitrate reduction to nitrite in cell extracts was not affected by oxygen. The degree of oxygen inhibition was dependent on the concentration of oxygen, and increasing nitrate concentrations could not overcome the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of oxygen was maximal...

  11. Economic importance of non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebert, P.

    1979-01-01

    On May 21 to 23, 1979, the annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung took place in Lindau near the Bodensee lake. About 600 experts from Germany and abroad participated in the meeting, whose general subject was 'The Economic Importance of Non-Destructive Testing'. Theoretical problems and practical investigations were discussed in a number of papers on special subjects. Apart from the 33 papers, there was also a poster show with 53 stands with texts, drawings, diagrams, and figures where the authors informed those interested on the latest state of knowledge in testing. The short papers were read in six sessions under the headings of rentability of non-destructive testing, X-ray methods, electromagnetic methods, and ultrasonic methods 1 and 2. (orig.) [de

  12. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... in to crafting this study.' - From the foreword by Elinor Ostrom Is social capital the ‘missing link' in economics? In this vital new book, the authors argue that the ‘forgotten' production factor of social capital is as crucial in economic decision-making as the other more traditional factors of production...... such as physical, financial and human capital. They attempt to bridge the gap between theory and reality by examining the main factors that determine entrepreneurship, co-operative movements and the creation and destruction of social capital....

  13. Non-destructive control of castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutault, J.; Mascre, C.

    1978-01-01

    The object of non-destructive control in foundries is to verify the metal structure, the absence of unacceptable discontinuity, total tightness, etc. This leads to a range of very varied controls according to the importance of the series, the quality level required by the specifications, the nature of the alloy. The originality of the solutions which are imperative for castings is shown through examples: casting of high quality complex forms in short series; very thick unit parts; very large series of parts requiring on efficient automation of non-destructive control. Lastly the publishing of testing methods and interpretating rules, which are the base of a friendly understanding between constructors and founders are recalled [fr

  14. Non-destructive control in nuclear construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banus; Barbier; Launay

    1978-01-01

    Having recalled the characteristics of the fundamental components of the main primary circuit of nuclear boilers (900 MW) and the means appropriated for their control, it is recalled that the 'French Electricity Board's specifications and control rules' often prescribe more severe criteria than those existing in the U.S.A. Then practical examples of non-destructive controls concerning the steam generator end plates, vessel stainless steel linings, pump attachements, steam generator pipes are given [fr

  15. Polonium-210 as Weapon for Mass Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Properties of Po-210 make it possible for its use as weapon of mass destruction. Po-210 occurs naturally in minute quantities in the human body, in Uranium ore (< 0.1 mg Po-210 / ton ) and as a product of Radon-222 gas decay chain. Po-210 also occurs as deposition on vegetation (tobacco leaves). Po-210 is produced by bombardment of Bi-209 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Russia produces 8 grams per year for export to USA market

  16. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  17. Development of non-destructive testing. Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A National Scheme for the qualification and certification of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) personnel in various methods has been established as the first stage of implementation. Systematic training in such methods as radiography (RT), ultrasonics (UT), magnetic particles (MT), liquid penetrant (PT) and eddy currents (ET) at levels I, II and some at III has been initiated and should be continued. Direct link with the industry and continuous effort to extend practical applications is strongly recommended

  18. OLDAPS - obsidian least destructive analysis provenancing system: an application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, F.

    2013-01-01

    The natural volcanic glass obsidian is one of the classical objects of archaeometric analyses. Obsidian is generally described as a relatively homogeneous material and although the number of applicable geological sources is limited, numerous obsidian finds have been found all over the world far away from any natural outcrop. Reliable provenancing by means of the highly specific chemical composition, the 'chemical fingerprint', can provide information about trading routes, extension of territory, long-distance contacts and the mobility of prehistoric people. Several museum collections contain large numbers of unidentified obsidian finds. Therefore, a novel scientific approach for provenancing obsidian artefacts found in archaeological contexts is demanded. The establishment of the Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System (OLDAPS) contributes to both conservation and prehistoric research by ensuring a minimum of destruction to gain a maximum of information. Obsidian samples of seven archaeologically relevant geological obsidian sources in Central and Southern Europe were characterized by the application of three different methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) comprising of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) The reproducibility and accuracy of analytical data is demonstrated by the excellent agreement between determined analytical results and certified values of glassy reference material BAM-S005B. The combination of methods shows a maximum element spectrum composed of 42 elements and reveals the most characteristic -key elements-, in particular Ti, Co, As, Rb, Ba, Eu and U, by which all seven obsidian sources are cleary discriminable. OLDAPS developed the following analytical strategy to provenance archaeological obsidian, which most likely stem from Central or Southern Europe: The application

  19. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312