WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical mutagens

  1. Mutagenic efficiency of radiations and chemical mutagens in inducing viable mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of radiations (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and chemical mutagens (EMS and NMU) in inducing viable mutations in rice. Radiations were more effective than chemical mutagens, the most effective being fast neutrons. Mutagenic efficiency when estimated on the basis of lethality was higher for radiations but when based on sterility was higher for chemical mutagens. Fast neutrons, more effective than gamma rays, were less efficient. NMU was more effective but less efficient than EMS. (author)

  2. Induced mutations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) I. comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of physical & chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic effectiveness usually means the rate of mutation as related to dose. Mutagenic efficiency refers to the mutation rate in relation to damage. Studies on comparative mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of two physical (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and two chemical mutagens (NMU and EMS) on two desi (G 130 & H 214), one kabuli (C 104) and one green seeded (L 345) chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been reported. The treatments included three doses each of gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and fast neutrons (5, 10 and 15 Gy) and two concentrations with two different durations of two chemical mutagens, NMU 0.01% 20h and 0.02% 8h) and EMS (0.1% 20h and 0.2% 8h). Results indicated that chemical mutagens, particularly NMU are not only more effective but also efficient than physical mutagens in inducing mutations in chickpea. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency showed differential behaviour depending upon mutagen and varietal type. Chemical mutagens were more efficient than physical in inducing cholorophyll as well as viable and total number of mutations. Among the mutagens NMU was the most potent, while in the physical, gamma rays were more effective. Out of four mutagens, NMU was the most effective and efficient in inducing a high frequency and wide spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in the M2 followed by fast neutrons. While gamma rays showed least effectiveness, EMS was least efficient mutagens. Major differences in the mutagenic response of the four cultivars were observed. The varieties of desi type were more resistant towards mutagenic treatment than kabuli and green seeded type

  3. Mutagenicity of chemicals in genetically modified animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems MI; van Benthem J; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The strategy for assessing human health risks of chemicals consists of a large number of tests in different research disciplines. Tests include acute and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genotoxic properties of chemicals are assessed in short-term in vitro

  4. Relative mutagenic effects of ionizing radiations and alkylating chemicals in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken on the relative mutagenic effects of three ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, fast neutrons) and five alkylating chemicals (DES, EMS, MMS, NMH, MNNG) in rice. Observations on seed germination, seedling survival, seedling height, seed fertility and chlorophyll deficient chimeras were made in the M1 generation. The M2 generation was grown as M1 ear progenies. Chlorophyll mutation frequency, segregation percentage and mutant spectrum were estimated. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were also worked out. Radiations were more effective than chemical mutagens. Mutagenic effectiveness decreased with increase in doses of mutagens. This was due to the failure of mutation frequency to increase proportionately with increase in mutagen doses. Mutagenic efficiency was higher for radiations when estimated on the basis of lethality and injury whereas, based on sterility, chemical mutagens were more efficient. Mutagenic efficiency also decreased with increase in doses of mutagens. The most effective as well as efficient radiation was fast neutrons. Among chemical mutagens the most effective was NMH whereas the most efficient was EMS. (author)

  5. Combined effects of a chemical mutagen and radiation sterilized diet in mutagenicity and reproduction studies in the same mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible intensification of the mutagenic effect of cyclophosphamide (Endoxan) by the feeding of a radiation-sterilized diet (dose, 4.5 Mrad) was studied in 2000 NMRI/Han mice. In a dominant lethal test, males were pretreated with 100 mg Endoxan/kg body weight. The greatest sensitivity towards Endoxan was observed during the late-spermatid stage. No significant differences were detected between the control group (Endoxan plus non-irradiated diet) and the experimental group (Endoxan plus radiation-sterilized diet). In this test, radiation-sterilized feed showed no co-mutagenic effect when combined with Endoxan treatment. In a reproduction study of 7 months duration (continuous mating without lactation periods), the females were treated every 2 wk with 20 mg Endoxan/kg body weight. The decline in litter size with increasing number of litters (i.e. with advancing age of the females) was more pronounced after treatment with the chemical mutagen than in the untreated group. Increases in the frequency of abortions and in premature sterility resulted from Endoxan treatment. During the entire observation period, no effects from the intake of radiation-sterilized food were detected. (author)

  6. Mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and chemical and environmental agents in Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies covered the following problems: an influence of some environmental agents on the mutagenic effectiveness of ionizing radiation, interaction between ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the induction of somatic mutations and also an application of Tradescantia model system for biological monitoring. The studies showed that the pretreatment of Tradescantia plants with sodium fluoride or the modification of the soil composition with dolomite admixture, visibly influences plants radiosensitivity. The analysis of the changes in the dose-response curves suggested that the employed agents were influencing in different ways the repair processes of the DNA. The studies on the interaction between agents proved that the synergistic effect occurs in case of combined action of ionizing radiation with such chemical mutagens as ethyl methansulfonate or 1,2 dibromomethane. It was also discovered that in the range of low doses the effect was proportional to radiation dose and total exposition to chemical mutagen. The field application of Tradescantia method defined the mutagenicity of air pollution in the Cracow area. The highest frequencies of mutations were detected after the Chernobyl accident and after the damage of the filters in the Pharmaceutical Plant. The applied method was evaluated in respect of its usefulness for biological monitoring of environmental pollution. 163 refs. (author)

  7. Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens was strongly suppressed by instant coffee in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. As decaffeinated instant coffee showed a similarly strong suppressive effect, it would seem that caffeine, a known inhibitor of SOS responses, is not responsible for the effect observed. The suppression was also shown by freshly brewed coffee extracts. However, the suppression was absent in green coffee-bean extracts. These results suggest that coffee contains some substance(s) which, apart from caffeine, suppresses SOS-inducing activity of UV or chemical mutagens and that the suppressive substance(s) are produced by roasting coffee beans. (Auth.)

  8. Effect of gamma ray and some chemical mutagens sorghum for forage sorghum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of gamma ray doses (100, 200,400,600 and 800 Gry,DES and SA by concentration (0.25%, 0.75%, 0.10% and 1.5%), on yield components and chemical characteristics (Protein, ash, fiber and charbohydrate%) in the two varieties (Piper and Green Leaf), of Sorghum for forage during M1, M2 and M3 generations . The experiments was carried out in field belonging to the Atomic energy Authority, Inshas during 1990. 1991 and 1992 Seasons. The results of the study revealed that piper variety was better than Green leaf variety in most of the studied characters. Treatment by gamma ray was more effective in increasing means of the studied characters than the two chemical mutagens(DES and SA). The low doses of studied mutagens were more effective than the high doses in increasing the studied traits. Irradiation by Gamma-ray increased the variability in the studied traits than the both chemical mutagens. SO, it could be concluded that, it is better to use Gamma ray than the chemical mutagens in breeding program for sorghum. 18 tabs., 58 refs

  9. Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discerning the Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM David G. Nashab, Esra Mutluc, William T. Prestond, Michael D. Haysb, Sarah H. Warrenc, Charly Kingc, William P. Linakb, M. lan Gilmourc, and David M. DeMarinic aOak Ridge Institute for Science and Ed...

  10. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekhoetin Matthew Omoruyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98, while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%, were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future.

  11. The use of physical/chemical mutagens for crop improvements in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most research on the use of physical and chemical mutagens for crop improvement in Indonesia are carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Bataan). At the plant breeding section of this center, much progress has been achieved in term of facilities set-up (gamma irradiators, laboratory, greenhouse and experimental fields), manpower and expertise development. Mutation breeding activities were initially started in rice in 1972, in attempts to improve the protein content of rice grain. During this earlier time, researches on detecting more effective mutagen treatments, using physical and chemical mutagenesis, were conducted in different plant species. The use of chemical mutagens have recently been very limited and it tends to be abandoned simply because of its unpractical treatment procedures working with it and less effective results. Nowadays, most induced mutations in plant breeding are primarily dependent on the use of physical mutagen i.e. gamma irradiation which is emitted from Cobalt-60 source. The effective use of gamma irradiation in plant breeding has been proven by results of finding useful mutant varieties for the country level. Major achievements were the release of some mutant varieties by the Department of Agriculture of Indonesia. These mutant varieties included 6 varieties for rice, 3 for soybean, and 1 for mungbean. Meanwhile, some promising mutant lines of other important crops such as peanuts, sorghum, banana, onions etc. are now being investigated in the field experiments. The effective use of gamma irradiation seems to vary between crop species or varieties being investigated. Experiences on breeding food crops, restricted on self-pollinated crops, the effective dose treatments of gamma irradiation on the seed materials were found to vary between 10-30 Gy. Some experiment results on the use of physical and chemical mutagens for crop improvements are discussed here

  12. The use of physical/chemical mutagens for crop improvements in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Manurung, Simon; Masrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Jakarta (ID)] [and others

    2001-03-01

    Most research on the use of physical and chemical mutagens for crop improvement in Indonesia are carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Bataan). At the plant breeding section of this center, much progress has been achieved in term of facilities set-up (gamma irradiators, laboratory, greenhouse and experimental fields), manpower and expertise development. Mutation breeding activities were initially started in rice in 1972, in attempts to improve the protein content of rice grain. During this earlier time, researches on detecting more effective mutagen treatments, using physical and chemical mutagenesis, were conducted in different plant species. The use of chemical mutagens have recently been very limited and it tends to be abandoned simply because of its unpractical treatment procedures working with it and less effective results. Nowadays, most induced mutations in plant breeding are primarily dependent on the use of physical mutagen i.e. gamma irradiation which is emitted from Cobalt-60 source. The effective use of gamma irradiation in plant breeding has been proven by results of finding useful mutant varieties for the country level. Major achievements were the release of some mutant varieties by the Department of Agriculture of Indonesia. These mutant varieties included 6 varieties for rice, 3 for soybean, and 1 for mungbean. Meanwhile, some promising mutant lines of other important crops such as peanuts, sorghum, banana, onions etc. are now being investigated in the field experiments. The effective use of gamma irradiation seems to vary between crop species or varieties being investigated. Experiences on breeding food crops, restricted on self-pollinated crops, the effective dose treatments of gamma irradiation on the seed materials were found to vary between 10-30 Gy. Some experiment results on the use of physical and chemical mutagens for crop improvements are discussed here

  13. Integrated biological chemical approach for the identification of polyaromatic mutagens in surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    GALLAMPOIS Christine

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters are essential for human life, to supply of drinking water and as an important resource for agricultural, industrial and recreational activities. However, tonnes of pollutants enter these surface waters every year. Amongst the substances discharged into the environment, a large number are known to be mutagenic. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a tool to identify chemicals responsible for the observed toxic effects. It is based on a combination of chemical and biological analysi...

  14. Study of anti mutagenic and mutagenic effect of different chemicals on clinically isolated strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was undertaken to study the effect of twelve different compounds to test their anti mutagenic and mutagenic activity against clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect of these compounds was estimated by counting the number of rifampicin resistant colonies growing in a particular time in a compound. The results were interpreted by plotting graphs between 10g N/NO (Rif R Colonies/ ml) and time to estimate the forward mutation rat. The results revealed that acridine, Basic fuchsin, Caffeine, cycloheximide, Ethidium bromide and Histidine probably have an anti mutagenic effect, while Cysteine, folic acid, Ethyl methane, suplphonate, Manganous Chloride and N-nitrosodietylamine acted as mutagen. Ecoli was used as control through out the study. (author)

  15. Dimethylglycine and chemically related amines tested for mutagenicity under potential nitrosation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, A J

    1989-04-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) and the chemically related amino acids glycine, sarcosine (monomethylglycine) and betaine (trimethylglycine) were tested in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 after treatment with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions using a modified Ames Salmonella/microsome assay as reported by Colman et al. (1980). The increase in the number of revertants observed both with and without metabolic activation was also induced in the control mixtures without adding the amines. From the subsequent testing of the individual components of the mixtures, we concluded that non-consumed nitrite was responsible for the mutagenic responses observed in the different reaction mixtures, and not the amines themselves. There were no consistent indications of mutagenic activity of the DMG test mixture as compared to the control mixture which exhibited both consistent mutagenic activity and a toxic effect which was not increased by the addition of DMG. In fact, DMG seemed to decrease the toxicity of the control reaction solution to the Salmonella which was clearly observed at the higher doses. DMG cannot be considered mutagenic under the test conditions employed. The same can be said of the other amino acids as well. PMID:2468082

  16. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN3). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  17. Use of physical/chemical mutagens in plant breeding program in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Huu Dong; Bui Huy Thuy; Le Van Nha; Nguyen Van Bich [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Among more than 1870 new plant varieties formed by mutation breeding in the world, 44 varieties of different plants were formed by Vietnamese scientists. Research on induced mutation in Vietnam started in 1966, was promoted in Agricultural Institute, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute of Food Crop Research, and Agriculture Universities, and has produced varieties of rice, maize, soybean, peanut, tomato, jujuba, green bean etc using physical and chemical mutagens: Irradiation with gamma rays or neutrons, and use of such chemicals as dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES), ethyleneimine (EI), N-nitrosomethylurea (NUM), N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}). In the present report, the results of cytological and genetic effects in M1 plants, the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutants, the mutants obtained and the genetic nature of the next generation are described, particularly for the case of rice. Radiation dose and dose rate used as mutagens are also reported. (S. Ohno)

  18. Effects of gamma rays and chemical mutagens on quantitative characteristics of hemp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhatov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of hemp plants produced by seeds irradiated with gamma rays (1 or 15 kR) or treated with chemical mutagens (soaking in 0.01% ethylenimine for 18 h or in 0.05% ethylmethanesulfonate for 12 h) showed the appearance of both positive and negative hereditary characteristics. Combination of the wider spectrum of mutant plants with those from appropriate breeding practices could lead to the development of new varieties of hemp with superior commercial characteristics.

  19. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  20. Chemical and mutagenic properties of asphalt fume condensates generated under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, G; Swanson, M; Paustenbach, D; Beach, J

    2000-08-21

    Exposure to asphalt fumes is widely recognized as a potential occupational health concern for paving and roofing workers. Two studies suggest that asphalt fumes generated in the laboratory are carcinogenic to mice. In this study, asphalt fume condensate (AFC) was collected from the head space of an operating hot mix asphalt storage tank and from a laboratory fume-generating apparatus operating at approximately 149 degrees C and 316 degrees C. Salmonella assays for mutagenesis, in vitro chromosomal aberration assays using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, chemical analyses, and simulated distillations were performed using gas chromatography to characterize the toxicological and chemical properties of AFCs generated by these two methods. The 316 degrees C lab AFC sample was more mutagenic in the Salmonella assay than the 149 degrees C lab AFC sample, with mutagenicity indices (MIs) of 8.3 and 5.3, respectively. AFCs collected from the storage tank were not mutagenic. Chromosomal aberration assays of all AFCs were negative. Chemical analyses and simulated distillations showed substantial differences in the chemical composition of the AFC samples. The 316 degrees C lab AFC sample contained more higher-boiling-point (three- and four-ring) polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds than the 149 degrees C lab AFC sample, and both lab AFC samples contained 5 to 100 times more of these compounds than AFC samples collected from the asphalt storage tank. These results are consistent with other data reported in the scientific literature describing the carcinogenicity of higher-boiling-point sulfur heterocycle compounds. In contrast to other recent studies, the results of this study indicate that the chemical composition and toxicological properties of laboratory-generated asphalt fumes are not representative of those properties of fumes to which workers and the public might be exposed. PMID:10946241

  1. Suppression of SOS-inducing activity of chemical mutagens by metabolites from microbial transformation of (+)-longicyclene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2010-08-25

    In this study, biotransformation of (+)-longicyclene (1) by Aspergillus niger (NBRC 4414) and the suppressive effect on umuC gene expression by chemical mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 were investigated. Initially, compound 1 was converted to three new terpenoids, (-)-(10R)-10-hydroxy-longicyclic acid (2), (+)-(10S)-10-hydroxy-longicyclic acid (3), and (+)-10-oxo-longicyclic acid (4) by A. niger , and their conversion rates were 27, 23, and 30%, respectively. The metabolites suppressed the SOS-inducing activity of furylfuramide and AFB1 in the umu test. Compounds 1-4 were hardly showing a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of the SOS responses in S. typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 against furylfuramid. However, metabolites showed a suppressive effect against AFB1. Compound 4 had gene expression by chemical mutagen AFB1, was suppressed 53% at <1.0 mM, and was the most effective compound in this experiment. PMID:20662538

  2. Regulation of radiation pollution: its possible usefulness in strategy for intervention against chemical mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, R

    1979-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a large amount of work has been carried out in the field of safety with regard to ionizing radiations. This has resulted in the establishment of norms of security which have been accepted in most countries. These norms are not perfect; they are constantly reviewed and, from time to time, revised; but, such as they are, they are of tremendous usefulness. These standards may serve as a model of what must be achieved in the field of pollution by chemical mutagens. Further, the norms already in force for radiation may serve as a reference for the establishment of similar norms for the major environmental mutagens. It is not possible to assign a specific factor of equivalence with radiation (rad-equivalence) to a given chemical pollutant; but it is possible to establish point-equivalences with regard to well-defined biological systems under well-defined conditions. When they are accurately determined, such point values may be useful and sensible. In this area, as with radiation, it is impossible to find perfect solutions; however, approximate solutions can be arrived at that would already represent a reat progress with regard to the present situation, and which could later be improved as work in the field allows.

  3. The effective use of physical and chemical mutagen in the induction of mutation for crop improvement in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earliest work of induced mutations breeding program in Malaysia was reported in 1967. The project was carried out by Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia using x-radiation in an attempt to improve rubber trees for dwarfism and disease resistance. Subsequently, more efforts were taken up by the universities to promote the technology for genetic changes and creation of new genetic resources, particularly in crops that are not easily achievable through conventional techniques. Gamma radiation is always been used as physical mutagen, while ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) was a popular chemical mutagen used in induced mutation breeding in the country. Gamma rays is an effective mutagen to which more than 30 potential mutants were produced up to now through mutagenesis of several important food crops and ornamental plants. Although chemical mutagen such as EMS were reported being used, the result is not so convincing as compared to gamma radiation. Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has initiated and promoted nuclear technique in mutation breeding for the improvement of importance food crops such as rice, legume and other potential crops for export, like fruit trees and ornamentals. Gamma radiation is the main source of mutagen used in mutation-breeding programme at MINT. The effectiveness of these two mutagens were verified with mutants derived through induced mutation breeding in the country which some mutant has shown outstanding improvement and released as new varieties and cultivars. This paper summarises and discuss the effects as well as achievement attained through the use of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagen in plant mutation breeding in Malaysia. (author)

  4. The effective use of physical and chemical mutagen in the induction of mutation for crop improvement in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahim Harun [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    The earliest work of induced mutations breeding program in Malaysia was reported in 1967. The project was carried out by Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia using x-radiation in an attempt to improve rubber trees for dwarfism and disease resistance. Subsequently, more efforts were taken up by the universities to promote the technology for genetic changes and creation of new genetic resources, particularly in crops that are not easily achievable through conventional techniques. Gamma radiation is always been used as physical mutagen, while ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) was a popular chemical mutagen used in induced mutation breeding in the country. Gamma rays is an effective mutagen to which more than 30 potential mutants were produced up to now through mutagenesis of several important food crops and ornamental plants. Although chemical mutagen such as EMS were reported being used, the result is not so convincing as compared to gamma radiation. Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has initiated and promoted nuclear technique in mutation breeding for the improvement of importance food crops such as rice, legume and other potential crops for export, like fruit trees and ornamentals. Gamma radiation is the main source of mutagen used in mutation-breeding programme at MINT. The effectiveness of these two mutagens were verified with mutants derived through induced mutation breeding in the country which some mutant has shown outstanding improvement and released as new varieties and cultivars. This paper summarises and discuss the effects as well as achievement attained through the use of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagen in plant mutation breeding in Malaysia. (author)

  5. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN) test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health. PMID:26929826

  6. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens in crop hybrid breeding in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2001-03-01

    Crop heterosis utilization was one of the greatest achievements in the agriculture production in the 20th century. It is proved that every breakthrough in crop hybrid breeding was predicated on the discovery or successful development of new heterosis germplasm. In recent years, in order to open up the scope and ways of using crop heterosis, it has been paid much close attention to apply mutation techniques to hybrid breeding. Useful tool materials like male sterile mutant lines, fertile restoration mutants in many crops have been obtained by effective use of physical/chemical mutagens. Brief introduction is made in this paper on the newest research improvement concerning the effective use of the techniques of mutation induction in China to create special useful genes, enrich the diversity of germplasm and promote the rapid development of crop hybrid breeding. (author)

  7. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens in crop hybrid breeding in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop heterosis utilization was one of the greatest achievements in the agriculture production in the 20th century. It is proved that every breakthrough in crop hybrid breeding was predicated on the discovery or successful development of new heterosis germplasm. In recent years, in order to open up the scope and ways of using crop heterosis, it has been paid much close attention to apply mutation techniques to hybrid breeding. Useful tool materials like male sterile mutant lines, fertile restoration mutants in many crops have been obtained by effective use of physical/chemical mutagens. Brief introduction is made in this paper on the newest research improvement concerning the effective use of the techniques of mutation induction in China to create special useful genes, enrich the diversity of germplasm and promote the rapid development of crop hybrid breeding. (author)

  8. A QSAR for the Mutagenic Potencies of Twelve 2-Amino-trimethylimidazopyridine Isomers: Structural, Quantum Chemical,and Hydropathic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M G; Hatch, F T; Tanga, M J; Lau, E V; Colvin, M E

    2005-04-23

    An isomeric series of heterocyclic amines related to one found in heated muscle meats was investigated for properties that predict their measured mutagenic potency. Eleven of the 12 possible 2-amino-trimethylimidazopyridine (TMIP) isomers were tested for mutagenic potency in the Ames/Salmonella test with bacterial strain TA98, and resulted in a 600-fold range in potency. Structural, quantum chemical and hydropathic data were calculated on the parent molecules and the corresponding nitrenium ions of all of the tested isomers to establish models for predicting the potency of the unknown isomer. The regression model accounting for the largest fraction of the total variance in mutagenic potency contains four predictor variables: dipole moment, a measure of the gap between amine LUMO and HOMO energies, percent hydrophilic surface, and energy of amine LUMO. The most important determinants of high mutagenic potency in these amines are: (1) a small dipole moment, (2) the combination of b-face ring fusion and N3-methyl group, and (3) a lower calculated energy of the {pi} electron system. Based on predicted potency from the average of five models, the isomer not yet synthesized and tested is expected to have a mutagenic potency of 0.84 revertants/{micro}g in test strain TA98.

  9. Inducing mutations in the mouse genome with the chemical mutagen ethylnitrosourea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.G. Massironi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available When compared to other model organisms whose genome is sequenced, the number of mutations identified in the mouse appears extremely reduced and this situation seriously hampers our understanding of mammalian gene function(s. Another important consequence of this shortage is that a majority of human genetic diseases still await an animal model. To improve the situation, two strategies are currently used: the first makes use of embryonic stem cells, in which one can induce knockout mutations almost at will; the second consists of a genome-wide random chemical mutagenesis, followed by screening for mutant phenotypes and subsequent identification of the genetic alteration(s. Several projects are now in progress making use of one or the other of these strategies. Here, we report an original effort where we mutagenized BALB/c males, with the mutagen ethylnitrosourea. Offspring of these males were screened for dominant mutations and a three-generation breeding protocol was set to recover recessive mutations. Eleven mutations were identified (one dominant and ten recessives. Three of these mutations are new alleles (Otop1mlh, Foxn1sepe and probably rodador at loci where mutations have already been reported, while 4 are new and original alleles (carc, eqlb, frqz, and Sacc. This result indicates that the mouse genome, as expected, is far from being saturated with mutations. More mutations would certainly be discovered using more sophisticated phenotyping protocols. Seven of the 11 new mutant alleles induced in our experiment have been localized on the genetic map as a first step towards positional cloning.

  10. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on morphological parameters in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) were treated with various doses of gamma rays and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate, diethyl sulphate and ethyleneimine. The effect of mutagens was studied in respect of morphological parameters such as sprouting, survival, sprout height, plant height, number and size of leaves, number of cloves and weight of bulb. In case of mutagen treatment the percentage of sprouting and survival as well as sprout height were found to be decreased with an increase in the dose/concentration of the mutagen. The effect of mutagen on leaf size and number was inhibitory. However, the number of cloves and weight of bulb were found to be increased at lower dose concentration of mutagens. (author)

  11. Modifying the effects of fast neutrons in rice seeds by post-treatment with chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormant rice seeds were exposed to 290-1160 rad of neutrons, dehulled and then soaked in buffered aqueous solutions of either 0.03M EMS or 0.005M MMS for 15h at 30 deg. C. The neutron plus EMS treatment did not affect seedling height and seedset as much as did the neutron plus MMS treatment, which caused marked reductions over those due to neutrons alone. The mutation frequency (Msp) in all neutron doses was slightly to markedly increased by EMS, and reduced by MMS. Neutrons + EMS was found to be an efficient mutagenic combination whereas neutrons + MMS was inefficient (Msp/I). Differences in the synergistic effects of these combined treatments may be due to the specific biological action of the chemicals as determined by their physical properties. An idea that the chemicals may have acted essentially as selective factors for survival of neutron-damage or mutated tiller initials is briefly discussed. (author). 26 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  13. Antimutagenic properties of lactic acid-cultured milk on chemical and fecal mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, A.; Kashina, T.; Kada, T.

    1986-09-01

    The antimutagenic properties of milk cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were examined using streptomycin-dependent strains of Salmonella in an in vitro assay system. The mutagens utilized for testing included 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, and fecal mutagenic extracts from cats, monkeys, dogs and other mammals. Both types of cultured milk exhibited antimutagenic activity on all mutagens used. Antimutagenic activities of the cultured milks with 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide increased with incubation time but were thermolabile beyond 55/sup 0/C for 10 min.

  14. Chemical characterization and mutagenic properties of polycyclic aromatic compounds in sediment from tributaries of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, David L.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Besser, John M.; Mac, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments from four inshore industrial sites and a reference site in the Great Lakes were extracted with solvents and characterized chemically for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). An aqueous phase and a crude organic extract were obtained. The crude organic extract was further resolved into fractions A-2 (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and A-3 (nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds), which were analyzed for PACs by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extracts and fractions were tested for mutagenicity in three assays: Ames, rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis, and Chinese hamster ovary hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT). Sediments from the industrial sites contained 27 to 363 μg/g total PACs; the reference site, less than 1 μg/g. Qualitative differences in the residue profiles among the sites were attributable to the probable sources of the PACs (petroleum versus combustion). Only one industrial site yielded measurable (0.1 μg/g or more) concentrations of individual nitrogen-containing PACs. In the Ames assay, only the highest doses of the A-2 fractions from two sites approached positive results. Conversely, the crude organic extract and A-2 and A-3 fractions from all sites induced unscheduled DNA synthesis. Crude organic extracts and the A-2 and A-3 fractions from all industrial sites gave well-defined dose-response relations in the CHO/HGPRT assay. We established the presence of chemical mutagens in sediment that could be correlated with neoplasms in fish from many of the sites; however, the mutagenicity of the sediment extracts was not completely related to the degree of contamination by PACs. We also discuss the utility of mutagenicity assays in the evaluation of complex chemical mixtures and recommend the use of a CHO/HGPRT-type assay in which cells are not required to proliferate in the presence of potential interfering chemicals.

  15. Comparative effect of irradiation and metabolization of some chemical pollutants in animals based upon mutagenic/carcinogenic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have long been implicated as mutagens and carcinogens. The compounds selected for this study, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and 3-methylcholanterene (MC), were considered the most representative substances of this chemical group. Of the tested metabolites of the first, only 1,2 and 9-hydroxy-BP and diasteromers diolepoxi (7,8,9,10-cis and trans) proved mutagens. BP and MC in mammalian cells produced DNA lesions in the form of single-strand breaks and inhibition of semiconservative synthesis. They did not inhibit rejoining of DNA single-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation. BP and MC are both mutagens only after metabolic activation, as shown in host-mediated assay and by in-vitro test. In order to establish an equivalence, the effect of three chemicals were investigated: an alkylating agent, BP and MC, the latter requiring metabolic activation. Under the given experimental conditions, 1 rad appeared as equivalent to 55 ng of IOB-82 (a cytostatic), 115 ng of BP and 178 ng of MC. This concept could prove of great importance for evaluating the risks arising from chemical and physical pollutants in man's environment

  16. Co-exposure of ELF-magnetic fields and chemical mutagens: An investigation of genotoxicity with the SOS-based VITOTOX test in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschaeve, Luc; Wambacq, Sheleen; Anthonissen, Roel; Maes, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that extreme low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) are not mutagenic, at least at exposure levels below 100 μT. Synergistic or co-operative effects with environmental mutagens remain possible yet. We therefore investigated the effects of ELF-MF in conjunction with 4 different well known chemical mutagens having different modes of action. For this purpose the bacterial Vitotox test was used. Our study confirmed previous results which showed that a 100 μT magnetic field (50 Hz) does not damage DNA and hence is not mutagenic in this assay and that there was also no influence on the DNA damaging capacity of the used mutagens.

  17. Effect of physical and chemical mutagens on seed germination and survival of seedling in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry and healthy seeds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Co-2 were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR. The percentage of seed germination was directly proportional to the dose given. The survival percentage decreased with higher doses. Concentration of EMS and NMU applied, ranged from 10 mM to 50 mM and 1 mM to 5 mM, respectively. The duration of soaking of seed was 4 hours in distilled water and 4 hours in mutagenic agents. In treated seeds, the percentage of germination and survival of seedlings decreased with an increase in concentration of these chemical mutagens. These observations are discussed in detail. (author). 11 refs

  18. Tests for the mutagenic action of a number of chemicals on Haemophilus influenzae with special emphasis on hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, R.F.; Hirsch, B.F.

    1975-01-01

    A number of chemicals have been tested for their ability to produce novobiocin-resistant mutants in Haemophilus influenzae. Of these, hydrazine (HZ) proved unique because it induced a fairly high incidence of mutation without killing significant numbers of cells at concentrations ranging over nearly four orders of magnitude. Moreover, its dose--effect curve increased very slowly initially and reached a relatively low maximum. It is suggested that HZ may be acting as both a mutagen and an antimutagen in this system. (auth)

  19. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial and Mutagenic Activities of Seven Lamiaceae Essential Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Laura De Martino; Filomena Nazzaro; Vincenzo De Feo

    2009-01-01

    Deeper knowledge of the potentiality of aromatic plants can provide results of economic importance for food and pharmacological industry. The essential oils of seven Lamiaceae species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antibacterial, antifungal and mutagenic activities. Monoterpenes in the oils ranged between 82.47% (hyssop oil) and 97.48% (thyme oil), being mainly represented by oxygenated compounds. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against si...

  20. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial and Mutagenic Activities of Seven Lamiaceae Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Deeper knowledge of the potentiality of aromatic plants can provide results of economic importance for food and pharmacological industry. The essential oils of seven Lamiaceae species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antibacterial, antifungal and mutagenic activities. Monoterpenes in the oils ranged between 82.47% (hyssop oil and 97.48% (thyme oil, being mainly represented by oxygenated compounds. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against six pathogenic and five non-pathogenic bacterial strains. Oregano and thyme oils showed the strongest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic ones. The antifungal activity was evaluated against six fungal strains of agrifood interest: the oils tested exhibited variable degrees of activity. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains were used to assess the possible mutagenic activity. No oil showed mutagenic activity. Data obtained let us hypothesise that the use of essential oils could be a viable and safe way to decrease the utilisation of synthetic food preservatives. Further research is needed to obtain information regarding the practical effectiveness of essential oils to prevent the growth of food borne and spoiling microbes under specific application conditions.

  1. Sister chromatid exchanges in the bone marrow cells of in vivo rats induced by gamma radiation and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in the bone marrow of in vivo rats induced by gamma radiation doses and by the chemical mutagens, mitomycin C (MMC), cyclophosphamide (CP), and sulphonate-methylmethane (SMM), were studied. The purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of a simplified SCE in vivo detecting system developed in our laboratory and to compare the results obtained with those reported elsewhere. Simplification consisted in administering the amounts of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) necessary to observe the SCE, after first adsorbing the BrdU in activated carbon and then injecting it interperitoneally, into the rats. The results were a longer time in vivo ADN incorporation without convulsions in the rats, and a reduction in the time course as compared to other methods. We observed a basal rate of 3.6+-0.37 SCE/cell and that: 0.44 Gy of gamma radiation induced 7.7+-0.73 SCE/cell; 1.6 μg/g of MMC induced 8.1+-1.20 SCE/cell; 5 μg/g of CP induced 8.25+-1.5 SCE/cell, 40 μg/g of SMM induced 22.0+-5 SCE/cell and 380 μg/g of sulphonate-ethylmethane induced 8.6+-1.2 SCE/cell. This showed that all the agents were capable of inducing SCE in the bone marrow cells of rats in vivo under our conditions. We noted a greater induced efficiency for gamma radiation than the obtained by other investigators and a relatively similar efficiency in the case of chemical mutagens as reported in other studies. (author)

  2. Comparison of the mutagenic potential of 17 physical and chemical agents analyzed by the flow cytometry mutation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, C. Tenley [Cytomation GTX Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ross, Carley D. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Keysar, Stephen B. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Joshi, Dhanashree D. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Lim, Chang-Uk [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fox, Michael H. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States) and Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)]. E-mail: mfox@colostate.edu

    2006-12-01

    Several methods to assess genotoxicity of physical and chemical agents have been developed, most of which depend on growing colonies in selective medium. We recently published a new method for detecting mutations in the CD59 gene in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line that contains a single copy of human chromosome 11 (CHO A{sub L}). The assay is based on detecting the surface expression of CD59 with monoclonal antibodies using flow cytometry. The capabilities of this flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) to detect mutations from a wide variety of genotoxic agents are described here. There was a 400-fold separation between CD59{sup -} and CD59{sup +} populations based on fluorescence intensity. Small numbers of negative cells mixed in with positive cells were detected in a highly linear fashion. Mutation dose response curves over a dose range yielding 80% to 20% survival are shown for ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), mitomycin C (MMC) and lead acetate. EMS and lead acetate exhibited a threshold in response while MMC had a linear dose response over the full dose range. The mutant fraction was measured over time periods ranging up to 35 days following treatment. The mutant fraction peaked at different times ranging from 6 to 12 days after treatment. An additional 14 chemical and physical agents including point mutagens, heavy metals, ionizing and UV radiation, and DNA intercalators and cross linkers, were analyzed for mutagenic potential after doses giving 80% to 20% survival. The results presented here demonstrate the sensitivity and broad-ranging capability of the FCMA to detect mutations induced by a variety of genotoxic agents.

  3. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, Joaquim [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Miguel [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, Montserrat Garcia [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2008-04-02

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p {<=} 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal

  4. Some factors determining the concentration of liver proteins for optimal mutagenicity of chemicals in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, C; Kuroki, T; Brun, G; Hautefeuille, A; Camus, A M; Bartsch, H

    1979-12-01

    In plate assays in the presence of S. typhimurium TA100 and various amounts of liver 9000 X g supernatant (S9) from either untreated, phenobarbitone- (PB) or Aroclor-treated rats, the S9 concentration required for optimal mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) depended both on the source of S9 and on the concentration of the test compound. In these assays, the water-soluble procarcinogen, dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) was mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA1530 only in the presence of a 35-fold higher concentration of liver S9 from PB-treated rats than that required for AFB, a lipophilic compound. In liquid assays, a biphasic relationship was observed in the mutagenicities in S. typhimurium TA100 of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and AFB and the concentration of liver S9. For optimal mutagenesis of BP, the concentration of liver S9 from rats treated with methylcholanthrene (MC) was 4.4% (v/v); for AFB it was 2.2% (v/v) liver S9 from either Aroclor-treated or untreated rats. At higher concentrations of S9 the mutagenicity of BP and of AFB was related inversely to the amount of S9 per assay. The effect of Aroclor treatment on the microsomemediated mutagenicity of AFB was assay-dependent: in the liquid assay, AFB mutagenicity was decreased, whereas in the plate assay it did not change or was increased. As virtually no bacteria-bound microsomes were detected by electron microscopy, after the bacteria had been incubated in a medium containing 1-34% (v/v) MC-treated rat-liver S9, it is concluded that, in mutagenicity assays, mutagenic metabolites generated by microsomal enzymes from certain pro-carcinogens have to diffuse through the assay medium before reaching the bacteria. Thus the mutagenicity of BP was dependent on both the concentration of rat-liver microsomes and that of total cytosolic proteins and other soluble nucleophiles such as glutathione. At a concentration of 4.4% (v/v) liver S9, the mutagenicity of BP was about 3.6 times higher than in assays containing a 4-fold higher

  5. Mutation induction in rice by radiation combined with chemical protectants and mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of the rice variety 'Dourado Precoce' were treated with different combinations of gamma rays, cysteine and EMS or gamma rays, cysteine and dES. Cysteine showed some protection against the effects of gamma radiation and combined gamma-ray + chemical treatments with regard to germination, seedling height and fertility. There are also indications of changes in the spectra of chlorophyll mutations. (author)

  6. Studying the synergistic damage effects induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR) with four chemical mutagens on human lymphocyte DNA using comet assay in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study the synergistic DNA damage effects in human lymphocytes induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field radiation (RFR, SAR of 3 W/kg) with four chemical mutagens, i.e. mitomycin C (MMC, DNA crosslinker), bleomycin (BLM, radiomimetic agent), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, alkylating agent), and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, UV-mimetic agent). The DNA damage of lymphocytes exposed to RFR and/or with chemical mutagens was detected at two incubation time (0 or 21 h) after treatment with comet assay in vitro. Three combinative exposure ways were used. Cells were exposed to RFR and chemical mutagens for 2 and 3 h, respectively. Tail length (TL) and tail moment (TM) were utilized as DNA damage indexes. The results showed no difference of DNA damage indexes between RFR group and control group at 0 and 21 h incubation after exposure (P > 0.05). There were significant difference of DNA damage indexes between MMC group and RFR + MMC co-exposure group at 0 and 21 h incubation after treatment (P 0.05). The experimental results indicated 1.8 GHz RFR (SAR, 3 W/kg) for 2 h did not induce the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects in vitro, but could enhance the human lymphocyte DNA damage effects induced by MMC and 4NQO. The synergistic DNA damage effects of 1.8 GHz RFR with BLM or MMS were not obvious

  7. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tano, Shigemitsu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the 8th workshop on plant mutation breeding. Effective use of physical/chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Plant Mutation Breeding of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia), was held on 9-13 October 2000 in Hanoi, Vietnam. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE of Vietnam) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD of Vietnam) in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), National Institute of Agrobiological Resources (NIAR of Vietnam), the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Two Scientists, a Project Leader and an expert on methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding, participated from each of the member countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Japan. Also attending the Workshop were, one participant from Korea, seven participants from both Japan and Vietnam. The number of the participants in the Workshop totalled about sixty people including guests and observers. Sixteen papers including eight invited papers on the current status of methodology for plant/crop mutation breeding in the participating countries were presented. Discussions were focused on the subject concerning 'Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens', as well as a detailed report on the current status of research in each participating country. In addition, the topics of developing a mutant breeding database, an information exchange for plant/crop mutation breeding, and more tightly bound international co-operative research in the near future were also high on the agenda. This proceeding compiles the invited and contributed papers that were submitted from the speakers. (author)

  9. Protection against genetic hazards from environmental chemical mutagens: experience with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation protection, the recurrent theme is, and always has been, dose limitation whether it is for occupational workers, individual members of the public or the population as a whole. The key words are 'dose' and 'limitation'. The quantitative system of dose limitation has been achieved because of a number of conceptual developments in our understanding of the mechanism of radiation action, development of radiation dosimetry, the accumulation of a vast body of quantitative information on dose-effect relationships and the effects of various biological and physical variables that affect these relationships of data on patterns and levels of exposures likely to be encountered to make estimates of the effects expected to result from such exposures, and balancing of risks to society against the benefits derived, the latter a matter of informed judgement. The philosophy has always been to avoid all unnecessary exposures and to limit the necessary exposures (justified by the benefits expected) to as low a level as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into acccount. The introduction of the concept that the system of dose limitation to the population should be based on genetic risks has stressed the need for careful planning to ensure that our genetic heritage is not endangered. Transfer of this knowledge to the field of chemical protection is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. 59. Protectivc effect of melatonin on genetic damage by chemical mutagen and the influence on cell prolife-ration kenetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we observed the effect of melatonin on the frequency of sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation of binuclear cell in lymphocyte from human peripheral blood in vitro, micronucleus formation of mouse bone marrow polycychromatic erythrocyte in vivo, which were induced by chemical mutagen, and lymphocyte proliferation kenetics in vitro. Methods: ① Lymphocytes were cultured in vitro in the presence of 0.01,0.10,1.00 mmol/L melatonin, mitomycin C(MMC) (positive control), 0.5% ethanol (negative control)and 0.01,0.10,1.00 mmol/L melatonin plus MMC for 72 h at 37℃±1℃. Lymphocytes were examined for the frequence of SCE, mitotic index, cell proliferation cycle, cell cycle ratio and proliferation index. ② Lymphocytes were cultured in vitro in the presence of 0.01,0.10,1.00 mmol/L melatonin, mitomycin C(MMC) (positive control), 0.5% ethanol (negative control) and 0.01,0.10,1.00 mmol/L melatonin plus MMC for 44 h at 37℃±1℃. Then each culture was given cytochalasin B, which was cultured to 72 h. Binuclear lymphocytes were examined for the micronucleus rate. ③ The mice were administered with 0.1, 1.0,10.0 mg/kg*bw melatonin and distillated water (negative control) respectively for 7 d, then were given melatonin plus cyclophosphamide (CP) (positive control) for 2 d since the eighth day. The rate of micronulclei of mouse bone marrow polycychromatic erythrocyte was examined. Results: ① The frequences of sister chromatid exchange of lymphocytes which were cultured in the presence of 0.01,0.10,1.00 mmol/L melatonin compared with negative control exhibited no statistical significance. ② The SCE of cells treated with melatonin plus MMC compared with positive control were markedly decreased. ③ The mitotic indices of lymphocytes cultured in the presence of 0.10,1.00 mmol/L melatonin were lower than negative control. The proliferation index was significant lower than negative control only in the culture exposed to 1.00 mmol

  11. A robust method for assessing chemically induced mutagenic effects in the oral cavity of transgenic Big Blue® rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R; Thompson, Chad M; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Suh, Mina; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    The Big Blue® (BB) in vivo mutation assay uses transgenic rodents to measure treatment-induced mutations in virtually any tissue. The BB assay can be conducted in rats or mice and is ideal for investigating tissue-specific mutagenic mode of action of tumor induction. Some tissues such as oral mucosa have not been thoroughly studied. Due to the small quantity and cartilaginous nature of oral cavity tissues, development of special prosection and DNA isolation methods was required to permit robust analysis of mutations in these tissues. Improved surgical methods permitted collection of adequate and reproducible quantities of tissue (∼45 mg gingiva/buccal and ∼30 mg gingiva/palate). Optimized DNA isolation methods included use of liquid nitrogen pulverization, homogenization, nuclei pelleting, digestion, and phenol/chloroform extraction, to yield sufficient quantities of DNA from these tissues. In preliminary optimization work, mutant frequency (MF) in tongue and gingiva was increased in rats exposed to the promutagen, benzo[a]pyrene, and the direct mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. The oral cavity carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO; 10 ppm in drinking water; 28 days), was qualified as a positive control for mutagenesis in oral tissues since it caused significant increases in cII MFs in gingiva/palate (50.2-fold) and gingiva/buccal tissues (21.3-fold), but not in liver or bone marrow (0.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively). These results are consistent with the observation that 4-NQO primarily induces tumors in oral cavity. Results also demonstrate the utility of the BB rat mutation assay and optimized methods for investigation of oral cavity mutagenicity, and by extension, analysis of other small and cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25969955

  12. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by fasted and fed human gastric fluid. I. Chemical reduction and mitigation of mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Flora, Silvio; Camoirano, Anna; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Savarino, Vincenzo; Zentilin, Patrizia; Marabotto, Elisa; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the reducing capacity of human gastric fluid from healthy individuals, under fasted and fed conditions, is critical for assessing the cancer hazard posed by ingested hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and for developing quantitative physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models used in risk assessment. In the present study, the patterns of Cr(VI) reduction were evaluated in 16 paired pre- and post-meal gastric fluid samples collected from 8 healthy volunteers. Human gastric fluid was effective both in reducing Cr(VI), as measured by using the s-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method, and in attenuating mutagenicity in the Ames test. The mean (±SE) Cr(VI)-reducing ability of post-meal samples (20.4±2.6μgCr(VI)/mL gastric fluid) was significantly higher than that of pre-meal samples (10.2±2.3μgCr(VI)/mL gastric fluid). When using the mutagenicity assay, the decrease of mutagenicity produced by pre-meal and post-meal samples corresponded to reduction of 13.3±1.9 and 25.6±2.8μgCr(VI)/mL gastric fluid, respectively. These data are comparable to parallel results conducted by using speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Cr(VI) reduction was rapid, with >70% of total reduction occurring within 1min and 98% of reduction is achieved within 30min with post-meal gastric fluid at pH2.0. pH dependence was observed with decreasing Cr(VI) reducing capacity at higher pH. Attenuation of the mutagenic response is consistent with the lack of DNA damage observed in the gastrointestinal tract of rodents following administration of ≤180ppm Cr(VI) for up to 90days in drinking water. Quantifying Cr(VI) reduction kinetics in the human gastrointestinal tract is necessary for assessing the potential hazards posed by Cr(VI) in drinking water. PMID:27404458

  13. The Role of Genotypes That Modify the Toxicity of Chemical Mutagens in the Risk for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Ann Gross-Davis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN (polycythemia vera; essential thrombocythemia; primary myelofibrosis is unknown, however they are associated with a somatic mutation—JAK2 V617F—suggesting a potential role for environmental mutagens. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in three rural Pennsylvania counties of persons born 1921–1968 and residing in the area between 2000–2008. Twenty seven MPN cases and 292 controls were recruited through random digit dialing. Subjects were genotyped and odds ratios estimated for a select set of polymorphisms in environmentally sensitive genes that might implicate specific environmental mutagens if found to be associated with a disease. Results: The presence of NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, and CYP1A2, GSTA1, and GSTM3 variants were associated with an average 3–5 fold increased risk. Conclusions: Exposures, such as to aromatic compounds, whose toxicity is modified by genotypes associated with outcome in our analysis may play a role in the environmental etiology of MPNs.

  14. Evaluation of the co-genotoxic effects of 1800 MHz GSM radiofrequency exposure and a chemical mutagen in cultured human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Anne; Freire, Maëlle; Bachelet, Christine; Collin, Alice; Levêque, Philippe; Pla, Simon; Debouzy, Jean-Claude

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a 1800 MHz radiofrequency GSM signal combined with a known chemical mutagen (4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide: 4NQO) on human THP1 cells. Comet and γ-H2AX assays were used to assess DNA damage. No heating of the cell cultures was noted during exposure (2 h). The exposure of cells to electromagnetic fields with SARs of 2 to 16 W/kg did not increase the DNA damage induced by 4NQO, whereas the number of DNA strand breaks increased with a temperature increase of at least 4 °C. In conclusion, no co-genotoxic effect of radiofrequency was found at levels of exposure that did not induce heating.

  15. Enhanced alkaline cellulases production by the thermohalophilic Aspergillus terreus AUMC 10138 mutated by physical and chemical mutagens using corn stover as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, George Saad; Abu-Tahon, Medhat Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A thermohalophilic fungus, Aspergillus terreus AUMC 10138, isolated from the Wadi El-Natrun soda lakes in northern Egypt was exposed successively to gamma and UV-radiation (physical mutagens) and ethyl methan-sulfonate (EMS; chemical mutagen) to enhance alkaline cellulase production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. The effects of different carbon sources, initial moisture, incubation temperature, initial pH, incubation period, inoculum levels and different concentrations of NaCl on production of alkaline filter paper activity (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and β-glucosidase by the wild-type and mutant strains of A. terreus were evaluated under SSF. The optimum conditions for maximum production of FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase were found to be the corn stover: moisture ratio of 1:3(w/v), temperature 45 °C, pH range, 9.0-11.0, and fermentation for 4, 4 and 7 day, respectively. Inoculum levels of 30% for β-glucosidase and 40% for FPase, CMCase gave the higher cellulase production by the wild-type and mutant strains, respectively. Higher production of all three enzymes was obtained at a 5% NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, the mutant strain A. terreus M-17 produced FPase (729 U/g), CMCase (1,783 U/g), and β-glucosidase (342 U/g), which is, 1.85, 1.97 and 2.31-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Our results confirmed that mutant strain M-17 could be a promising alkaline cellulase enzyme producer employing lignocellulosics especially corn stover.

  16. Development of an improved and early sowing potential variety of jute - binadeshipat-2 using chemical mutagen sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jute is the important agricultural and industrial resource of Bangladesh for earning foreign currency. Seeds of the widely cultivated variety, CVL-1 were treated with 4 mM to 20mM of sodium azide (NaN3). The treated seeds were grown in M1 to M10 generations. A single plant (selection number C-278) was selected from M2 segregating population on the basis of early sowing potential and late flowering. Ten fiber quality characters were tested and it was found that the fiber quality of the mutant had been improved. Hence, the mutagen sodium azide showed extra potentiality to induce fiber quality characters of jute. The strain C-278 was also tested through Preliminary, Advanced, Zonal Yield Trial and Farmers field trial at different locations of the jute growing area in Bangladesh. The field evaluation team of the National Seed Board (NSB) visited most of the trials and reported that at early sowing and overall performance of the strain C-278 was found best than that of the mother variety. Besides these the strain produced 7.5% and 20% higher fiber yield than the mother variety CVL-1 and a local cultivar, D-154, respectively. After evaluation of the Technical Committee of NSB recommended that the strain C-278 may be released as a variety. The National Seed Board released the strain C-278 as a National jute variety under the name Binadeshipat-2 for cultivation in Bangladesh

  17. Biological effects of mutagenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing body of evidence that mutagenic agents (biological, chemical and physical) play an important role in the etiology of human diseases. Mutations may occur in the germinal as well as in the somatic cells. Mutations of the germ cells may result on infertility or fertilization of damaged cells, the later leading to abortion or birth of a malformed fetus. Somatic-cells mutations may have various biological effects, depending on the period of the human life at which the mutation occurs. If it occurs during the prenatal life, a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect will be observed. If the somatic cell is damaged during the postnatal life, this will lead to neoplastic transformation. Therefore it is extremely important to know the mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of various biological, chemical and physical agents in order to eliminate them from our environment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  19. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  20. Physical‐chemical and microbiological characterization, and mutagenic activity of airborne PM sampled in a biomass‐fueled electrical production facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Corey A.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Long, Alexandra S.;

    2011-01-01

    Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health...... includes PM from biomass combustion as well as internal combustion vehicles, may contribute to an elevated risk of adverse health effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc....

  1. Molecular and genetic mechanisms of environmental mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program is primarily concerned with elucidation of the nature of DNA lesions produced by environmental and energy related mutagens, their mechanisms of action, and their repair. The main focus is on actions of chemical mutagens and electromagnetic radiations. Synergistic interactions between mutagens and the mutational processes that lead to synergism are being investigated. Mutagens are chosen for study on the basis of their potential for analysis of mutation (as genetic probes), for development of procedures for reducing mutational damage, for their potential importance to risk assessment, and for development of improved mutagen testing systems. Bacterial cells are used because of the rapidity and clarity of scientific results that can be obtained, the detailed genetic maps, and the many well-defined mutand strains available. The conventional tools of microbial and molecular genetics are used, along with intercomparison of genetically related strains. Advantage is taken of tcollective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  2. Scanning electron-microscopic and X-ray-microanalytic observation of diesel-emission particles associated with mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particles formed by diesel combustion, which may contain various mutagenic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are analyzed in their morphology by scanning electron microscopy; their sulfur content is detected by X-ray microanalysis, and mutagenicity is tested with a Salmonella typhimurium bioassay. The authors find a close correlation between sulfur content and mutagenicity of PAH. (Auth.)

  3. Relative effectiveness of mutagens on amylase production in Aspergillus wentii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three physical mutagens (UV light and γ- and X-rays) and 3 chemical mutagens (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, hydroxylamine and nitrous acid) were tested for their ability to produce mutants of A. wentii Wehmer (IMI 17295) having altered amylase activity. There was marked variation in amylase activity among the mutants, increase, decrease or complete absence of such activity was noticed. Nitrous acid was most effective in inducing high yielding amylase producing mutants. (author)

  4. Assessment of the Mutagenicity of Sediments from Yangtze River Estuary Using Salmonella Typhimurium/Microsome Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Sediments in estuaries are of important environmental concern because they may act as pollution sinks and sources to the overlying water body. These sediments can be accumulated by benthic organisms. This study assessed the mutagenic potential of sediment extracts from the Yangtze River estuary by using the Ames fluctuation assay with the Salmonella typhimurium his (- strain TA98 (frameshift mutagen indicator and TA100 (baseshift mutagen indicator. Most of the sediment samples were mutagenic to the strain TA98, regardless of the presence or absence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9 induction by β-naphthoflavone/phenobarbital. However, none of the samples were mutagenic to the strain TA100. Thus, the mutagenicity pattern was mainly frameshift mutation, and the responsible toxicants were both direct (without S9 mix and indirect (with S9 mix mutagens. The mutagenicity of the sediment extracts increased when S9 was added. Chemical analysis showed a poor correlation between the content of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the detected mutagenicity in each sample. The concept of effect-directed analysis was used to analyze possible compounds responsible for the detected mutagenic effects. With regard to the mutagenicity of sediment fractions, non-polar compounds as well as weakly and moderately polar compounds played a main role. Further investigations should be conducted to identify the responsible components.

  5. Mutagenic and chemical analyses provide new insight into enzyme activation and mechanism of the type 2 iron-sulfur l-serine dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao Lan; Grant, Gregory A

    2016-04-15

    The crystal structure of the Type 2 l-serine dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila (lpLSD), revealed a "tail-in-mouth" configuration where the C-terminal residue acts as an intrinsic competitive inhibitor. This pre-catalytic structure undergoes an activation step prior to catalytic turnover. Mutagenic analysis of residues at or near the active site cleft is consistent with stabilization of substrate binding by many of the same residues that interact with the C-terminal cysteine and highlight the critical role of certain tail residues in activity. pH-rate profiles show that a residue with pK of 5.9 must be deprotonated and a residue with a pK of 8.5 must be protonated for activity. This supports an earlier suggestion that His 61 is the likely catalytic base. An additional residue with a pK of 8.5-9 increases cooperativity when it is deprotonated. This investigation also demonstrates that the Fe-S dehydratases convert the enamine/imine intermediates of the catalytic reaction to products on the enzyme prior to release. This is in contrast to pyridoxyl 5' phosphate based dehydratases that release an enamine/imine intermediate into solution, which then hydrolyzes to produce the ketoamine product. PMID:26971469

  6. Mutagenic Activity of Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Regina Calvo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa, are used as a source of indigo dye and to treat several diseases. The mutagenic activity of the methanolic extracts from aerial parts, glycerolipid, flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of the extract were evaluated by means of Salmonella/microsome assays using TA100, TA98, TA102 and TA97a strains. The methanolic extract of I. truxillensis showed mutagenic activity in the TA98 strain without S9 while glycerolipid fraction was devoid of activity. The flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of both plants showed mutagenicity. Chemical analysis of flavonoid fractions of I. truxillensis and I. suffruticosa resulted in the identification of kaempferol, quercetin and their derivatives. The alkaloid fraction of both the species contained indigo and indirubin and indigo was found mainly responsible for the mutagenic activity.

  7. Mutagenicity study of butachlor and its metabolites using Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuei-Yao; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Lin, Jen-Kun; Kuo, Wein-Shung; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2005-12-01

    Butachlor is the most commonly used herbicide in Taiwan and many other countries. It has been reported to be an indirect mutagen and carcinogen in various in vitro assay systems. Previous investigation has also demonstrated that butachlor stimulates cell proliferation, transforms normal embryonic cells, and induces stomach tumors in Spraque-Dawley rats. However, the mechanism of butachlor carcinogenicity is still not clear. In order to clarify the toxicologic and carcinogenic properties of butachlor, we proposed a metabolic pathway, and synthesized the authentic metabolites by chemical methods. In addition, we tested the mutagenicity of butachlor and these metabolites on Salmonella typhimurium. The results indicate that butachlor might manifest its carcinogenicity via the mutagenicity of its metabolic products. Although the molecular mechanism of butachlor-induced cellular toxicity is still not clear, it is likely that the cellular transformation ability of butachlor is partly associated with its mutagenicity.

  8. Granuloma pouch assay for mutagenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, P

    1980-11-01

    The Granuloma Pouch Assay (GPA) is an animal model in which mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of a testcompound can be detected in rapidly dividing fibroblasts of a granulation tissue in adult male rats. Growth of this tissue was initiated with a small amount of croton oil at the inside wall of a subcutaneous air pouch on the back of the animals. The test compound can be injected either into the pouch (local) or administered by systemic routes. Alkali labile DNA-lesions, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, point mutations and tumor development in situ were determined. The comparison of mutation frequencies after local and systemic administration of testcompounds, provide an estimation of the pharmacokinetic characteristics and the mutagenic potency of the chemical. The local application route allows the detection of locally active mutagens and of compounds which require activation by P-448 dependent mono-oxygenases. Liver mediated proximate metabolites are detectable when they are transformed into ultimate carcinogens in extrahepatic cells whereas chemicals with a strong organ specific activity are not. PMID:7235991

  9. Mutagenic potential of water from rivers, lakes and seas; Mutagenes Potential von Wasser aus Fluessen, Seen und Meeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zietz, B. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umwelt- und Arbeitsmedizin; Pfeiffer, E.H. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Hygiene

    2000-07-01

    Examinations of mutagenicity with the Salmonella/microsome test are reviewed that were carried out on surface waters. In surface waters mutagenicity could preferably be found after a concentration of the samples. Adsorption to XAD resins was used most frequently as a concentration method. It showed good results especially with large volumes of water. The extraction with organic solvents was performed with good results, too. Testing samples without concentration was tried only by some authors. Results of testing for the kind of mutagenicity were very heterogeneous. In surface waters frameshift mutagens that only take effect after metabolic transformation were most abundant. In the next rank of frequency were direct acting frameshiftmutagens. Every second sampling place showed basepairsubstituting mutagens. Mutagens that only take effect after metabolic transformation were more frequent, too. Studies using concentration by adsorption to XAD resins had positive testings for mutagenicity at an amount of 10 to 1250 ml extracted water. Today chemical characterisation is often added to mutagenicity testing. On the basis of the reviewed articles it can be concluded that in regions with human influence a load of mutagens has to be expected in every sample of survace water. (orig.) [German] Es werden Mutagenitaetsuntersuchungen mit dem Salmonella/Mikrosomen-Test nach Ames dargestellt, die an Oberflaechenwaessern durchgefuehrt worden sind. Ein mutagenes Potential konnte bevorzugt nach einer Probenanreicherung nachgewiesen werden. Als Anreicherungsmethode wurde die Adsorption an XAD-Harz oder andere Adsorbentien weitaus am haeufigsten verwendet. Sie liess sich auch bei grossen Probenvolumina sehr gut handhaben. Ebenfalls gute Ergebnisse lieferte die Extraktion der Wasserproben mit organischen Loesungsmitteln. Das Testen von Proben ohne Anreicherung wurde eher selten versucht. Die Testergebnisse zur Art der Mutagenitaet der verschiedenen Waesser waren sehr heterogen. In

  10. Mutagenic Potency of Food-Derived Heterocyclic Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Wu, R W; Colvin, M E; Hatch, F T; Malfatti, M A

    2006-10-26

    The understanding of mutagenic potency has been primarily approached using ''quantitative structure activity relationships'' (QSAR). Often this method allows the prediction of mutagenic potency of the compound based on its structure. But it does not give the underlying reason why the mutagenic activities differ. We have taken a set of heterocyclic amine structures and used molecular dynamic calculations to dock these molecules into the active site of a computational model of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 enzyme. The calculated binding strength using Boltzman distribution constants was then compared to the QSAR value (HF/6-31G* optimized structures) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic potency. Further understanding will only come from knowing the complete set of mutagenic determinants. These include the nitrenium ion half-life, DNA adduct half-life, efficiency of repair of the adduct, and ultimately fixation of the mutation through cellular processes. For two isomers, PhIP and 3-Me-PhIP, we showed that for the 100-fold difference in the mutagenic potency a 5-fold difference can be accounted for by differences in the P450 oxidation. The other factor of 20 is not clearly understood but is downstream from the oxidation step. The application of QSAR (chemical characteristics) to biological principles related to mutagenesis is explored in this report.

  11. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  12. Mutagenicity assessment of produced water during photoelectrocatalytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Nie, Xiangping; Sheng, Guoying; Zeng, Xiangying; Fu, Jiamo; Lin, Zheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2007-03-01

    Oilfield produced water was treated by photocatalysis, electro-oxidation, and photoelectrocatalysis, respectively. The chemical composition and toxicity of the raw effluent and treated products were assessed by chemical and mutagenicity analysis. The raw effluent exhibited mutagenic activity in both strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The lowest concentration of the dichloromethane extract capable of inducing a positive response in strains TA98 and TA100 were as low as 4 and 5 microg/plate, respectively. All three technologies could detoxify direct-acting mutagenic organic pollutants efficiently, although they could not completely eliminate mutagenicity in the water after 60 min of treatment. At equivalent doses, photoelectrocatalysis exhibited the greatest capability to reduce genotoxicity, whereas photocatalysis was the least effective and did not cause appreciable change in mutagenicity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that n-alkanes (259.4 ng/L) and phenolic compounds (2,501.4 ng/L) were the main organic constituents in the oilfield produced water. Thus, the results of both biological and chemical analysis indicate that photoelectocatalysis was the most effective technology for degradation of oilfield wastewater. PMID:17373504

  13. Entrepreneurship as Elixir and Mutagen

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Erik; Westelius, Alf

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are powerful tools for sensemaking, sensegiving, and theory development, but they are often concealed in academic writing. This paper uncovers two metaphors underlying entrepreneurship discourse and research—elixir and mutagen. The elixir metaphor is uncovered by examining critiques of entrepreneurship research, and serves as a compact description of problematic aspects entrepreneurship scholars should be mindful of. The mutagen metaphor is uncovered by examining evolutionary framew...

  14. Mutagenicity assessment of textile dyes from Sanganer (Rajasthan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2007-01-01

    Sanganer town, district Jaipur (Rajasthan, India) is famous worldwide for its hand block dyeing and textile printing industries. These industries use a variety of chemicals and dyes during processing and finishing of raw materials. Most of the textile dyes used by these industries have not been evaluated for their impact on health and the environment. The workers in these industries are exposed to such dyes with no control over the length and frequency of exposure. Further, untreated and sometimes even treated effluents from these industries are released into surface waters of Amani Shah drainage or through the drainage systems, seep into the ground water and adjoining water bodies. Since many textile dyes are known carcinogens and mutagens, a complete evaluation of the safety of these dyes in the human environment must include an evaluation of their genotoxicity or mutagenicity. A total of 12 textile dyes from Sanganer were tested for their mutagenicity, by Ames Salmonella reversion assay using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Only 1 dye, Red 12 B showed absence of mutagenic activity. The remaining 11 dyes were all positively mutagenic.

  15. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal AdenomaIn a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  16. Mutagenicity of cooked foods. Kuumennuskaesiteltyjen elintarvikkeiden mutageenisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikkanen, L. (Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Elintarvikelaboratorio)

    1989-09-01

    In this study the mutagenic activity in different kinds of ordinary Finnish foods was determined using mainly the Ames Salmonella bacterial assay. The purpose of this study was also to acquire the technical capability to study cooked food mutagens and to get basic informavtion about the mutagenic activity of foods under different cooking conditions. The samples tested were different kinds of ready-to-eat foods. Products were industrially heat-processed by frying and roasting, sterilization, smoking, deep-frying, spray-drying and UHT-treatment. According to the results, the majority of the fried and roasted food samples containing meat or fish were clearly or strongly mutagenic. Some of the products processed by sterilization and deep-frying were marginally mutagenic. The effect of the frying temperature on the mutagenicity in the Ames test was studied with minced meat. The mutagenic activity of the fried meat clearly correlated with the frying temperature. There were conspicuous differences in mutagenic activity between different fried and roasted products. Charcoal-grilled fish and the surface layers of the grilled meat and chicken were strongly mutagenic. Meat and fish hamburgers were in most cases only slightly mutagenic. The mutagenic activity was stronger in the surface layers of the products than in the inside. Also reheating by frying increased the mutagenicity of meat patties clearly. Differences in mutagenic activity between equivalent products of different manufacturers were evident in many cases. Variation of the mutagenicity was most conspicuous in the grilled products. This variation indicates that the industrial processing of food has a marked effect on the mutagenic activity of the final product, which thus might be reduced by modifying the process. The solvent extraction method used in this study was more effective than the Blue-Cotton method for the isolation of mutagenic compounds.

  17. Heating milk: a study on mutagenicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of heated milk and model systems was investigated by the Ames mutagenicity assay. Heating varied from pasteurization to in-bottle sterilization to ultra-high-temperature (UHT) heat-treatment. No mutagenic response was found in heated milk or model systems. Early Maillard reaction pr

  18. Improved mutagen testing systems in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roderick, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Our laboratory was the first to induce and ascertain a mammalian chromosomal inversion; we did this by searching for a high frequency of first meiotic anaphase bridges in testes of males whose fathers received post-spermatogonial radiation or mutagenesis from chromosomal breaking chemical mutagens. One test in was examined in each mouse, and those showing a high frequency were then mated to determine if the high frequency were passed on as a dominant and whether linkage analysis suggested the presence of an inversion. A very high incidence (exceeding 20% bridges in first meiotic anaphase bridges) was found in about 1 in 150 males examined and this frequency was generally found to be passed on to the offspring an predicted. Later cytological banding techniques were developed elsewhere and we used them to show visually the inverted orders of the inverted chromosomal segments. Since that time we have induced inversions covering most of the mouse genome.

  19. Analysis of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and Dipicryethane (DPE) for Mutagenicity by the Ames/Salmonella Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R; Felton, J

    2007-10-12

    The Ames/Salmonella assay, developed by Professor Bruce Ames at the University of California, Berkeley, is a rapid and sensitive assay for detecting mutagenicity of various chemical compounds (Maron and Ames, 1983). It is a widely accepted short-term assay for detecting chemicals that induce mutations in the histidine (his) gene of Salmonella typhimurium. This is a reverse mutation assay that detects the mutational reversion of his-dependent Salmonella to the his-independent counterpart. Thereby, mutagenic compounds will increase the frequency of occurrence of his-independent bacterial colonies. The assay utilizes the specific genetically constructed strains of bacteria either with or without mammalian metabolic activation enzymes (S9), Aroclor induced rat liver homogenate to assess the mutagenicity of different compounds. In this study, we will use the Ames/Salmonella assay to investigate the mutagenicity of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from both Bofors and Pantex, and Dipicryethane (DPE).

  20. Mutagenicity of some alkyl nitrites used as recreational drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkel, V.C.; Cameron, T.P. (National Institute of Health, Bethesda (USA)); Rogers-Back, A.M.; Lawlor, T.E.; Harbell, J.W. (Microbiological Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    When the AIDS epidemic was in its earliest stages, and prior to identification of HIV as the etiological factor, the use of volatile nitrites by the male homosexual community to enhance sexual activities appeared to have a significant role in this disease. Preliminary observations indicated that that portion of the male homosexual community which developed Kaposi's sarcoma were also heavy nitrite users. These nitrites had been demonstrated to be mutagenic in bacteria and thus it was postulated that they could be responsible for the appearance of the sarcoma. To evaluate further the genotoxic activity of these chemicals, six nitrites, including those most commonly used by homosexuals for sexual gratification, were selected for testing in the mouse lymphoma TK {plus minus} and Salmonell typhimurium mutagenicity assays. One chemical, n-amyl nitrite, was negative in the mouse lymphoma assay, while the other five chemicals, n-butyl, isobutyl, iso-amyl, sec-butyl, and n-propyl nitrite, were positive. All six compounds were positive in the Salmonella assay. The mutagenic and known toxic effects of these chemicals remain a concern because a large population of teenagers and young adults continue to abuse these substances.

  1. Extending (Q)SARs to incorporate proprietary knowledge for regulatory purposes: A case study using aromatic amine mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Ernst; Amberg, Alexander; Beilke, Lisa D; Bower, David; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Ford, Kevin A; Van Gompel, Jacky; Harvey, James; Honma, Masamitsu; Jolly, Robert; Joossens, Elisabeth; Kemper, Raymond A; Kenyon, Michelle; Kruhlak, Naomi; Kuhnke, Lara; Leavitt, Penny; Naven, Russell; Neilan, Claire; Quigley, Donald P; Shuey, Dana; Spirkl, Hans-Peter; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Teasdale, Andrew; White, Angela; Wichard, Joerg; Zwickl, Craig; Myatt, Glenn J

    2016-06-01

    Statistical-based and expert rule-based models built using public domain mutagenicity knowledge and data are routinely used for computational (Q)SAR assessments of pharmaceutical impurities in line with the approach recommended in the ICH M7 guideline. Knowledge from proprietary corporate mutagenicity databases could be used to increase the predictive performance for selected chemical classes as well as expand the applicability domain of these (Q)SAR models. This paper outlines a mechanism for sharing knowledge without the release of proprietary data. Primary aromatic amine mutagenicity was selected as a case study because this chemical class is often encountered in pharmaceutical impurity analysis and mutagenicity of aromatic amines is currently difficult to predict. As part of this analysis, a series of aromatic amine substructures were defined and the number of mutagenic and non-mutagenic examples for each chemical substructure calculated across a series of public and proprietary mutagenicity databases. This information was pooled across all sources to identify structural classes that activate or deactivate aromatic amine mutagenicity. This structure activity knowledge, in combination with newly released primary aromatic amine data, was incorporated into Leadscope's expert rule-based and statistical-based (Q)SAR models where increased predictive performance was demonstrated. PMID:26879463

  2. Outcrossing in mutagenically treated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classification by sexual reproductive systems is arbitrary in that exclusive autogamy or allogamy seldom occurs. Various mechanisms can promote a certain mating system; the adherence is, however, dependent on environmental conditions at the time of flowering. The rate of cross-pollination in autogamous plant species is generally low and its practical significance for breeding procedures is negligible. Outcrossing in mutagen-treated material, on the other hand, is reported to increase by induced sterility and is especially influenced by male sterility mutations. Although increased cross-pollination can be observed in mutagenically treated autogamous plants, a change in the breeding procedure towards the methodology applied for allogamous crop plants does not seem to be warranted in procedures with practical and applied objectives. Some plant species can be classified as facultatively allogamous. Their degree of outcrossing depends largely on environmental conditions. Extreme values of 5 and 60% have been reported in the field bean (Vicia faba). While to our knowledge results on the effects of mutagen treatments on the mating pattern have not been published, prerequisites for changes towards allogamy by the aid of induced mutations are shortly discussed. (author)

  3. Quantitative mammalian cell mutagenesis and mutagen screening: study with CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHO/HGPRT system has been developed and defined for quantifying mutation induced by various physical and chemical agents at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In all direct-acting chemical mutagens studied, mutation induction increases linearly as a function of the concentration, with no apparent threshold. Some chemicals induce mutation at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The mutagenicity of ethyl methanesulfonate has been quantified as a function of exposure concentration x treatment time. The sensitive and quantitative nature of the system enables studies of the structure-activity (mutagenicity) relationships of various classes of chemicals, including alkylating agents, heterocyclic nitrogen mustards, and platinum compounds. When rat liver S9-mediated metabolic activation is present, procarcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, and dimethylnitrosamine are mutagenic, whereas their noncarcinogenic structural analogues pyrene, fluorene, and dimethylamine are not. The system has been shown to be useful in determining the interactive effects between physical and chemical agents, and in screening for mutagenicity of fractionated organic mixtures and industrial chemicals in both liquid and gaseous state. For the system to be used successfully in routine screening, further studies should be directed toward the development of a metabolic activation system suitable for a broad spectrum of chemicals, a sensitive and reliable statistical method, and an experimental design to determine compounds with low mutagenicity. The system has been expanded for determination of mutagen-induced chromosome aberration, sister-chromatid exchange, and micronucleus formation in addition to gene mutation and cytotoxicity; it can also be used to study inhibition of DNA synthesis

  4. The influence of mutagenic agents on rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation on the influence of the physical and chemical mutagenic, gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and dimethyl sulphonate (DMS) to oryza sativa var Pelita I/1 Rajalele, and Pelopor is done. Morphological observation on M-1, shows that the percentage of germination is high with the low dose, and the percentage decreases with the increase of dosage. The total production tillers per treated plants are generally higher than the controls. (author)

  5. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  6. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy

  7. 50. Mutagenicity Study of Meloxicam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The Meloxicam is a drug for diminishing inflammation and contraining ache, and has good curative effect on clinic. In order to ascertain the safety of it, mutagenicity of Meloxicam was studied by using Ames test、 chromosome test and micronuclus test. ①Ames test: Meloxicam at six concentrations of 5 000、2 000、200、20、2、0.2 μg/plate were studied by using TA97、TA98、TA100、TA102 bacterial plant

  8. ASSESMENT OF BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PRAECITRULLUS FISTULOSUS TREATED WITH MUTAGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are well known to have certain primary and secondary metabolites collectively are known as biochemicals that plays an important role for human health as their medicinal properties. The aim of present study was to enhance and evaluate biochemical profile of Praecitrullus fistulosus by induced mutagenesis to cause genetic variations, plant leaves were treated with different chemical and physical mutagens. Colchicine and Ethidium bromide were used as chemical mutagens. While Ultraviolet (UV rays and X- rays were used as physical mutagens for the treatment of seeds. After the eleventh week of their growth, methanol extracts of dried leaves were prepared and further analyzed for the estimation of biochemicals. It was observed that total carbohydrates, total Proteins, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, reducing power, ascorbic Acid  and Chlorophyll a, were found significantly (p<0.05 higher in Colchicine 0.02% treated plants, while reducing sugars were significantly (p<0.05  increases in Colchicine 0.01% treated plants as compared to control plants. Total flavonoids, total flavonol, Chlorophyll b and Carotenoids were increases significantly (p<0.05 in plants treated with 0.05% Ethidium bromide while tannin content was increased significantly (p<0.05 in 0.10% Ethidium bromide treated plants as compared to the  control plants.

  9. Mutagenic effects of Pingyangmycin on rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutagenic effects of Pingyangmycin (PYM) on rice were studied by means of seed treatment with 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μg/ml of PYM. The results showed that PYM could induce high frequency of chromosome aberrations, produce physiological damages of various degrees in terms of seed germination, seedling growth and spikelet fertility in M1 generation, and induce high frequency of chlorophyll-deficient mutation and mutation in plant height and heading date in M2 generation. With 15 μg/ml of treatment, the highest total mutation frequency, higher than that of the widely used chemical mutagen EMS, was reached. As induction of beneficial mutations was concerned, PYM was inferior to EMS in inducing early heading mutation, but superior to EMS in inducing short straw mutation

  10. Results of the Study of Mutagenic Effects of Microbial Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Sidorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of mutagenic effects of Pseudomonas alcaligenеs polysaccharides. Pseudomonas genus – non-fermentative ubiquitous bacteria, having specific metabolic cycles and unique physical, chemical and biological properties was used as a producer of natural exopolysaccharides. In an experiment using the Ames test, three variants of test compounds were studied: 1. a compound of the Pseudomonas alcaligenes biofilm, 2. exopolysaccharide matrix and the microorganism cell wall compound, and 3. actually the microbial exopolysaccharide. In all cases the lack of mutagen action of polysaccharides of Pseudomonas alcaligenes is proved that make them perspective for use as nanomaterials of new generation – alternative wound coverings.

  11. 浸种温度与化学诱变剂对芝麻种子发芽的影响%Effects of Steeping Temperature and Chemical Mutagen on Seeds Germination of Sesame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳阳; 梅鸿献; 武轲; 郑永战; 张海洋

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of steeping temperature and chemical mutagen on seeds germination of sesame,sesame seeds were pre-soaked in water under 4 ℃ and 25 ℃ for 24 h,and the impact of different concentrations and treatment time of EMS and NaN3 on the germination potential,germination rate,germination index and vigor index of sesame were studied. The results showed that the three sesame varieties pre-soaked in water under 4 ℃ could not germinate normally in the treatment of EMS for more than 4 h or beyond 10 g/L, while those pre-soaked in water under 25 ℃ could germinate normally by treatment with 10 g/L of EMS for 6 h or 15 g/L of EMS for 4 h. In the treatment of NaN3, three sesame varieties could germinate normally after pre-soaked at both of degrees. Notably, the germination rate of sesame seeds pre-soaked under 4 ℃ was less than 50. 0% by treatment with 6 mmol/L of NaN3 for 12 h,while the three sesame varieties had a germination rate above 69. 3% after pre-soaked under 25 ℃. When sesame seeds were pre-soaked in water under 4 ℃ , EMS and NaN3, in general, played better roles under the same treating combination of concentration and time duration. In addition, the sensitivity to the EMS varied greatly among different sesame varieties,while they had a close sensitivity to NaN3. In order to obtain the desirable mutations,it is recommended to select the application of 5 g/L of EMS for 8 h or 4 mmol/L of NaN3 for 12 h after the seeds pre-soaked in water under 4 ℃ for 24 h.%为了探讨浸种温度及化学诱变剂对芝麻种子发芽的影响,在不同浸种温度下,研究了甲基磺酸乙酯(EMS)和叠氮化钠(NaN3)不同(质量)浓度处理不同时间对芝麻种子发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数的影响.结果表明,4℃浸种后,EMS处理时间超过4h或者EMS质量浓度大于10 g/L时,3个芝麻品种均不能正常发芽,而25℃浸种后,10 g/L EMS处理6h或15 g/L EMS处理4h,3个品种仍能正常发芽.4

  12. Testing of some azo dyes and their reduction products for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium TA 1538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, R C; Nutman, C A

    1977-07-01

    A series of ten azo dyes as well as various single ring aromatic amines substituted on the benzene ring were tested for bacterial mutagenicity with Salmonella typhimurium TA 1538 using a soft-agar overlay method. Two dyes, sudan 2 and chrysoidin induced mutation but only in the presence of a rat liver preparation. Chrysoidin was the more active. Testing of its reduction products, aniline and 1,2,4-triaminobenzene showed a liver metabolite of the latter compound could be responsible for the mutagenic effect, having a comparable mutagenicity with 1,2-diamino-4-nitro-benzene, one of the mutagenic constituents of hair dyes. Structure-activity studies on a series of ring-substituted anilines indicated that mutagenic activity required at least two positions to be substituted with either amino or nitro groups, or one of each. The bacteria as well as the liver enzyme preparation may partake in the activation of these chemicals. The correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity for this group of compounds is discussed.

  13. Microplate Ames MPF™ test use in assessment of mutagenic properties of dust pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly industrialized Upper Silesia Region is particularly polluted by both anthropogenic and natural airborne particulate matters, which may lead to negative health effects in human. Materials and methods: The aim of the study was to assess the mutagenic properties of dust extracts which were collected in six cities in the Silesian Voivodeship. Dust samples were collected on glass fiber filters by the aspirator with air flow ca. 1 m3/min. Extraction of pollution was carried out using dichlorometane. The extracted samples were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. The mutagenic properties were assessed using microplate Ames assay MPFTM with the use of bacteria Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100. Results: In microplate Ames assay MPFTM there was observed a linear dose-response relationship in both metabolic variants of TA98 strain. Similar relationship was observed for TA100 strain with metabolic activation (S9. Mutagenic activity (AM of 100% extracts for TA98 strain in both metabolic variants (S9 exceeded 2, what indicate highly mutagenic effects of dust extracts. There was no mutagenic activity observed in the assay with TA100 (S9, AM 1. In the variant with exogenous metabolic activation (S9 in TA100 strain AM values ranged from AM1,160,15 to AM9,671,02. Mutagenic activity varied between different cities. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that microplate Ames assay MPFTM is fast and complex method of assessing the mutagenic properties of dust pollution, which exert toxic effect on organisms. The use of microplate Ames assay MPFTM together with chemical analyses of air dust pollution may evaluate the level of exposure in the environment and enable to perform health risk assessment in populations exposed to mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic substances.

  14. Investigating the Mutagenic Effects of Three Commonly Used Pulpotomy Agents Using the Ames Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Samiei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The mutagenic potency of materials used in dentistry is of great concern. The Ames test is a bacterial reverse mutation assay, which is used to determine the mutagenicity potential of chemicals. In this study, the Ames test was used to compare mutagenic effects of three pulpotomy agents, namely, CEM cement, formocresol and ferric sulfate. Methods: TA100 strain of Salmonella typhimurium was used to evaluate mutagenicity of different concentrations of pulpotomy materials in the presence and absence of enzymatic system found in rat liver S9 fraction. Negative controls were 1% dimethyl sulfoxide and water. The positive controls were sodium azide and 2-aminoanthracene. The number of colonies per plate was counted. The material was regarded mutagenic if the number of histidine revertant colonies was twice or more than the spontaneous revertant colonies (Ames mutagenicity ratio. Results: Ferric sulfate was found mutagenic in the concentrations prepared by addition of 50 μL of its 1 in 100 and 1 in 1000 times diluted solutions to the culture medium in the absence of S9 fraction (Ames test ratios of 2.8 and 2.2, respectively. Formocresol showed strong toxicity toward TA100 strain of S. typhimurium up to the concentration as low achieved using 1000 times diluted solution of the original preparation, particularly in the presence of S9 fraction. Ames assay failed to detect significant reverse mutations in all the concentrations of CEM cement. Conclusion: In contrast to formocresol and ferric sulfate, CEM cement is a less toxic and non-mutagenic agent.

  15. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  16. Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CCRIS database contains chemical records with carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, tumor promotion, and tumor inhibition test results. CCRIS provides historical...

  17. Studies on Potential Mutagenic and Genotoxic Activity of Setarud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Farzamfar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Setarud (IMODTM is a new herbal drug that has demonstrated immune modulating activity in preliminary investigations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mutagenicity and genotoxic properties of Setarud following the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD for the Testing of Chemicals. Methods: Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenesis assay was used to evaluate the ability of the drug and its metabolites to induce mutation in Salmonella tester strains. Setarud was applied in concentrations of 0.1-1000 µg/dish. The effect of the drug metabolites which were formed in the presence of rat liver microsomal fraction S9 was investigated using complete and incomplete microsomal activation mixtures, separately. Induction of dominant lethal mutations in spermatogenic stem cells of male mice was also assessed. Results: In the Ames test, the drug preparation did not cause a significant increase in the number of revertant bacterial colonies as compared with negative control meaning that Setarud within the tested range did not exhibit mutagenic activity. The level of post-implantation losses and as a result the number of lethal mutations in germ cells at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice treated with Setarud was not statistically higher than that of control. Conclusion: Under experimental conditions which were employed, the drug was not mutagenic or genotoxic.

  18. Evolutionary Ensemble for In Silico Prediction of Ames Test Mutagenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Yao, Xin

    Driven by new regulations and animal welfare, the need to develop in silico models has increased recently as alternative approaches to safety assessment of chemicals without animal testing. This paper describes a novel machine learning ensemble approach to building an in silico model for the prediction of the Ames test mutagenicity, one of a battery of the most commonly used experimental in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests for safety evaluation of chemicals. Evolutionary random neural ensemble with negative correlation learning (ERNE) [1] was developed based on neural networks and evolutionary algorithms. ERNE combines the method of bootstrap sampling on training data with the method of random subspace feature selection to ensure diversity in creating individuals within an initial ensemble. Furthermore, while evolving individuals within the ensemble, it makes use of the negative correlation learning, enabling individual NNs to be trained as accurate as possible while still manage to maintain them as diverse as possible. Therefore, the resulting individuals in the final ensemble are capable of cooperating collectively to achieve better generalization of prediction. The empirical experiment suggest that ERNE is an effective ensemble approach for predicting the Ames test mutagenicity of chemicals.

  19. Linking mutagenic activity to micropollutant concentrations in wastewater samples by partial least square regression and subsequent identification of variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Christine; Sievers, Moritz; Ottermanns, Richard; Hollert, Henner; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We deployed multivariate regression to identify compounds co-varying with the mutagenic activity of complex environmental samples. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents with a large share of industrial input of different sampling dates were evaluated for mutagenic activity by the Ames Fluctuation Test and chemically characterized by a screening for suspected pro-mutagens and non-targeted software-based peak detection in full scan data. Areas of automatically detected peaks were used as predictor matrix for partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) in combination with measured mutagenic activity. Detected peaks were successively reduced by the exclusion of all peaks with lowest variable importance until the best model (high R(2) and Q(2)) was reached. Peaks in the best model co-varying with the observed mutagenicity showed increased chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen abundance compared to original peak set indicating a preferential selection of anthropogenic compounds. The PLS regression revealed four tentatively identified compounds, newly identified 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine, and three known micropollutants present in domestic wastewater as co-varying with the mutagenic activity. Co-variance between compounds stemming from industrial wastewater and mutagenic activity supported the application of "virtual" EDA as a statistical tool to separate toxicologically relevant from less relevant compounds. PMID:26070082

  20. Carcinogens, Teratogens and Mutagens: Their Impact on Occupational Health, Particularly for Women in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, J. E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)

  1. Mutagenicity tobacco snuff: possible health implications for coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whong, W.Z.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenicity of tobacco snuff extracts was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay system. No mutagenic activity was found for tobacco snuff extracts without S9 activation. However, mutagenic substances were formed from tobacco snuff extracts in an acidic environment. The mutagenic substances induced predominantly frameshift mutations and were direct-acting mutagens. Mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff extracts was enhanced in the presence of coal-dust extracts at low pH. Since tobacco snuff has been used by some coal miners to substitute for cigarettes, a possible risk for gastric cancer induction among coal miners is proposed.

  2. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-07-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  3. Mutagen sensitivity as measured by induced chromatid breakage as a marker of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Hsu, T C

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment is now recognized as a multidisciplinary process, extending beyond the scope of traditional epidemiologic methodology to include biological evaluation of interindividual differences in carcinogenic susceptibility. Modulation of environmental exposures by host genetic factors may explain much of the observed interindividual variation in susceptibility to carcinogenesis. These genetic factors include, but are not limited to, carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair capacity. This chapter describes a standardized method for the functional assessment of mutagen sensitivity. This in vitro assay measures the frequency of mutagen-induced breaks in the chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutagen sensitivity assessed by this method has been shown to be a significant risk factor for tobacco-related maladies, especially those of the upper aerodigestive tract. Mutagen sensitivity may therefore be a useful member of a panel of susceptibility markers for defining high-risk subgroups for chemoprevention trials. This chapter describes methods for and discusses results from studies of mutagen sensitivity as measured by quantifying chromatid breaks induced by clastogenic agents, such as the γ-radiation mimetic DNA cross-linking agent bleomycin and chemicals that form so-called bulky DNA adducts, such as 4-nitroquinoline and the tobacco smoke constituent benzo[a]pyrene, in short-term cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  4. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS mutagenicity and ITS carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Harrie; Aldenberg, Tom; Batke, Monika; Escher, Sylvia; Klein Entink, Rinke; Kühne, Ralph; Marquart, Hans; Pauné, Eduard; Rorije, Emiel; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Kroese, Dinant

    2013-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals usually implies data evaluation of in vivo tests in rodents to conclude on their hazards. The FP7 European project OSIRIS has developed integrated testing strategies (ITS) for relevant toxicological endpoints to avoid unnecessary animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. This paper describes the implementation of ITS mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in the public OSIRIS webtool. The data requirements of REACH formed the basis for these ITS. The main goal was to implement procedures to reach a conclusion on the adequacy and validity of available data. For the mutagenicity ITS a quantitative Weight of Evidence approach based on Bayesian statistics was developed and implemented. The approach allows an overall quality assessment of all available data for the five types of mutagenicity data requirements: in vitro bacterial mutagenicity, in vitro and in vivo chromosome aberration, in vitro and in vivo mammalian mutagenicity. For the carcinogenicity ITS a tool was developed to evaluate the quality of studies not conforming (entirely) to guidelines. In a tiered approach three quality aspects are assessed: documentation (reliability), study design (adequacy) and scope of examination (validity). The quality assessment is based on expert and data driven quantitative Weight of Evidence. PMID:23357514

  5. Mutagenicity of eluent by hot water extraction of various coals: Effect of chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunenori Nakajima; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Satomi Nakamata; Hirokazu Takanashi; Akira Ohki [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Department of Bioengineering

    2008-10-15

    Six kinds of powdery coals (two bituminous coals, two sub-bituminous coals, and two lignites) were extracted by hot water, and the eluents obtained were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), absorbance at 260 nm (A260), and pH. The TOC in the eluents decreased in the order, lignites > sub-bituminous coals > bituminous coals. The eluents of lignite gave high A{sub 260}/TOC values and fairly low pH compared to other coals. Chemical structure of the organic matter eluted from coals was discussed with the aid of FTIR analysis. The coal eluents were analyzed by the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains, and no mutagenicity was observed for all of the six coals. However, especially for the lignites, chlorination of the eluents produced an appreciable mutagenicity, and the expression of mutagenicity was dependent upon the type of coal. The mutagenicity was extinguished when metabolic activation (rat liver homogenate, +S9) was applied. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Screening of azo dyes for mutagenicity with Ames/Salmonella assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, A; Sandhu, R S; Grover, I S

    1993-01-01

    Azo dyes, the largest portion of manufactured dyestuffs, are primarily used as colouring substances in food, textiles, and the plastic industry. It has been estimated that 128 tonnes per annum of dyes are released into the environment worldwide [Anliker, 1977]. Certain azo compounds are known to be mutagenic in bacterial tests [Yahagi et al., 1975; Venitt and Bushell, 1976; Brown et al., 1978]. Watersoluble dyes are biotransformed by intestinal micro-organisms in the gastro intestinal tract, and the toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of these dyes in the gut or liver may be attributed to their metabolites. Since it is desirable to have a genotoxic evaluation of a chemical being released into the environment in order to check their indiscriminate use, a project has been initiated to determine the mutagenicity of the azo dyes being used commercially. The present report deals with the results of 13 dyes tested in Salmonella typhimurium with and without metabolic activation.

  7. New approaches to assessing the effects of mutagenic agents on the integrity of the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elespuru, R.K. [Division of Biology, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Rosalie.Elespuru@fda.hhs.gov; Sankaranarayanan, K. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Einthovenweg, Building 2, Post Zone S-4-P, Post Office Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2007-03-01

    Heritable genetic alterations, although individually rare, have a substantial collective health impact. Approximately 20% of these are new mutations of unknown cause. Assessment of the effect of exposures to DNA damaging agents, i.e. mutagenic chemicals and radiations, on the integrity of the human genome and on the occurrence of genetic disease remains a daunting challenge. Recent insights may explain why previous examination of human exposures to ionizing radiation, as in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, failed to reveal heritable genetic effects. New opportunities to assess the heritable genetic damaging effects of environmental mutagens are afforded by: (1) integration of knowledge on the molecular nature of genetic disorders and the molecular effects of mutagens; (2) the development of more practical assays for germline mutagenesis; (3) the likely use of population-based genetic screening in personalized medicine.

  8. Detection of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in unused and used motor oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S

    1983-12-15

    The discharge of used motor oils in the environment poses public health problems because of the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in them. Among these hazardous chemicals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are of particular interest since the carcinogenic properties of some of them are known. The authors have applied the Salmonella/microsome test, coupled with two preparation methods of samples, to motor oils of different brands, both before and after use in car petrol engines. A PAH determination method was also studied. The results showed the unused motor oils to be nonmutagenic and to contain traces of PAH, while the used motor oils of the samples taken according to both preparation methods were highly mutagenic and contained a much higher quantity of mutagenic/carcinogenic PAH.

  9. Mutagenicity assessment of acrylate and methacrylate compounds and implications for regulatory toxicology requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, F R; Vogt, Barbara; Waite, Maureen; Deskin, Randy

    2008-04-01

    Esters of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid, more commonly known as acrylates and methacrylates, respectively, are key raw materials in the coatings and printing industry, with several of its chemical class used in food packaging. The results of over 200 short-term in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies available in the open literature have been evaluated. Despite differences in acrylate or methacrylate functionality or in the number of functional groups, a consistent pattern of test response was seen in a typical regulatory battery of mutagenicity tests. No evidence of point mutations was observed when acrylic acid or over 60 acrylates and methacrylates were investigated in Salmonella bacterial tests or in hprt mutation tests mammalian cells, and no evidence of a mutagenic effect was seen when tested in whole animal clastogenicity and/or aneuploidy (chromosomal aberration/micronucleus) studies. Consistent with the in vivo testing results, acrylic acid exhibited no evidence of carcinogenicity in chronic rodent cancer bioassays. In contrast, acrylic acid and the entire acrylate and methacrylate chemical class produced a consistently positive response when tested in the mouse lymphoma assay and/or other in vitro mammalian cell assays designed to detect clastogenicity. The biological relevance of this in vitro response is questioned based on the non-concordance of in vitro results with those of in vivo studies addressing the same mutagenic endpoint (clastogenicity). Thus, in short-term mutagenicity tests, the acrylates and methacrylates behave as a single chemical category, and genotoxicity behavior of a similar chemical can be predicted with confidence by inclusion within this chemical class, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. PMID:18346829

  10. Studies on Mutagenicity and Teratogenicity of Sarafloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jian-zhong; SHEN Chuan; XIAO Xi-long; LI Jun-suo; LIU Jin-feng; ZHANG Su-xia; ZHOU Zong-can; FU Juan-ling

    2002-01-01

    Wistar rats and closed Kunming strain mice were selected to study the genetic toxicity of sarafloxacin. The results indicated that sarafloxacin had no significant toxic effect of an excreted mutagen in S. typhimurium strains, and did not induce significantly higher percentages of polyehromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCE) in mice. No significant mutagenic activity was observed in dominant lethal assay.At 5 and 50mg/kg b.w. , sarafloxacin did not produce significant effects on the reproductive parameters of litters and fetal growth, and did not induce the teratogenic effects on fetuses. Sarafloxacin induced some toxic effects on body length and skeletal growth in fetuses of 500mg/kg b.w., but had no significant dose - response relationship among the administered dosages of sarafloxacin. The results of the genetic toxicology above indicated that no evidence showing sarafloxacin was mutagenic and potentially teratogenic for animals.

  11. STUDY OF MUTAGENICITY OF VIRAL VECTOR IN TUMOR GENETHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺书; 李殿俊; 刘旭; 李大林

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the mutagenicity of retrovirus and adenovirus as transgenic vectors to evaluate the safety of transgenic tumor cells as tumor vaccines. Methods: Cells were cultured together with the virus. Then DNA and supernatant were tested for mutagenicity by means of genetic toxicological laboratory technique. Results: The results indicated that DNA and supernatant of transgenic cells had no mutagenicity through both in vivo and in vitro tests. Conclusion: The modified virus had no mutagenicity as a transgenic vector.

  12. Mutagenic efficiency and effectiveness of gamma rays and EMS and their combination in inducing chlorophyll mutations in M2 generation of Urdbean (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Usharani and C.R. Ananda Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of any mutagenic agent depends on its ability to induce high frequency of desirable changes as compared to undesirable ones. Hence, often it is necessary to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of mutagens for efficient and effective use. Though some studies have been carried out in blackgram, studies involving gamma rays and Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS are scanty. The present investigation was undertaken in a blackgram variety VBN 4 to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of physical and chemical mutagen viz., gamma ray and EMS respectively in single and combination dose/concentration. The mutagenic efficiency was found to be highest, at lower and intermediate concentration of mutagenic treatments. Based on lethality, injury and sterility, EMS was more efficient than gamma rays and combination of both in producing chlorophyll mutants. The effectiveness of chlorophyll mutants was high in gamma rays treatment than EMS.

  13. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AND COLORECTAL ADENOMA RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractWe investigated urinary mutagenicity and colorectal adenoma risk in a clinic-based, case-control study of currently nonsmoking cases (n = 143) and controls (n = 156). Urinary organics were extracted by C18/methanol from 12-h overnight urine samples, and mutagenici...

  14. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide), in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide) extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was meas...

  15. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  16. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  17. Mutagenic activity and metabolites in the urine of workers exposed to trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, G; Einistö, P; Sorsa, M

    1988-05-01

    Urine samples taken after work and after a free weekend from 50 workers employed in various activities in a chemical plant manufacturing explosives were analysed. On the basis of hygienic surveys, the subjects were divided into three categories of exposure to trinitrotoluene (TNT). The urine analyses consisted of gas chromatographic identification of TNT and its two metabolites, 4-ADNT and 2-ADNT, and a determination of the mutagenic activity. Two frame shift detector strains of Salmonella typhimurium were used, TA 98 and TA 98 NR, the latter being deficient in endogenous nitroreductase activity. On the basis of previous results on TNT mutagenicity, no exogeneous metabolic system was used to test the urine concentrates. Both tester strains showed that the mean urinary mutagenic activity was higher in the after work samples than in post weekend samples from the same subjects, showing that bacterial nitroreductase activity was not significantly responsible for the mutagenicity, although the response was higher with strain TA 98 than with TA 98 NR. The interindividual variation in urine mutagenicity was high, however, and the difference between the two sampling times was statistically significant (p less than 0.05) only for the high exposed group (workers in trotyl foundry and sieve house). Correlation between urinary mutagenicity and concentration of TNT in urine was poor; correlation was significant only with the urinary concentration of 4-ADNT. The correlation between urinary TNT and both metabolites was good (p less than 0.001). These results suggest that analysis of 4-ADNT in urine would be a sufficient biological measure for controlling exposure to TNT.

  18. Mutagenic, Anti-Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide, in vitro, extracted from Artemisia diffusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Taherkhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artediffusin is a sesquiterpene lactone with an endoperoxide group which has been isolated from Artemisia diffusa. Artemisia has always been of great botanical and pharmaceutical interest and is useful in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases and complaints. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin (Tehranolide extracted from Artemisia diffusa. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay on normal human lymphocytes and cancer cells. The mutagenic and anti-mutagenic activities of Artediffusin were evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with and without metabolic activation S9. Results: 28μg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 77.73±0.78% of HeLa cells activity and 5600µg/ml concentration of Artediffusin inactivated 28.79±1.82% of lymphocytes activity. The maximum percentage of anti-mutagenic activity of Artediffusin was observed in the strain of S. typhimurium TA98, with the presence of metabolic activation S9. Conclusion: Artediffusin may be exploited as a natural anti-cancer and anti-mutagenic agent with low adverse side effects.

  19. Handbook of mutagenicity test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book consists of 39 chapters. Some of the titles are: Bacillus subtilis repair test, Induced reversion using human adenovirus, The fluctuation test in bacteria, Chemical mutagenesis with diploid human fibroblasts, The specific locus test in the mouse, The bone marrow micronucleus test, and Sperm morphology in testing in mice

  20. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of DRDE-07 and its analogs against sulfur mustard in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vinod; Pathak, Uma; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM), a chemical warfare agent, is classified as a class I human carcinogen by IARC. No effective antidote against this agent is available. The synthetic aminothiol, amifostine, earlier known as WR-2721, has been extensively used as a chemical radioprotector for normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. SM is a radiomimetic agent; this prompted us to evaluate the protective efficacy of amifostine and three of its analogs, DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulphide], DRDE-30 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl propyl sulphide] and DRDE-35 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl butyl sulphide], against sulfur mustard-induced mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The antidotes were also evaluated for possible mutagenic activity. DRDE-07 was mutagenic in strain TA104 in the absence of S9; DRDE-30 was mutagenic in strain TA100; amifostine and DRDE-35 did not show mutagenic activity in any of the five tester strains used. SM is mutagenic in strains TA97a and TA102, with or without S9 activation. In the antimutagenicity studies, DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 showed promising antimutagenic activity against SM in the absence of S9, in comparison to amifostine. DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 are promising protective agents against SM-induced mutagenicity.

  1. Analytical methods in bioassay-directed investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Christopher H; Hewitt, L Mark

    2007-01-01

    The combination of short-term bioassays and analytical chemical techniques has been successfully used in the identification of a variety of mutagenic compounds in complex mixtures. Much of the early work in the field of bioassay-directed fractionation resulted from the development of a short-term bacterial assay employing Salmonella typhimurium; this assay is commonly known as the Ames assay. Ideally, analytical methods for assessment of mutagenicity of any environmental matrix should exhibit characteristics including high capacity, good selectivity, good analytical resolution, non-destructiveness, and reproducibility. A variety of extraction solvents have been employed in investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate; sequential combination of dichloromethane followed by methanol is most popular. Soxhlet extraction has been the most common extraction method, followed by sonication. Attempts at initial fractionation using different extraction solvents have met with limited success and highlight the need for fractionation schemes applicable to moderately polar and polar mutagenic compounds. Fractionation methods reported in the literature are reviewed according to three general schemas: (i) acid/base/neutral partitioning followed by fractionation using open-column chromatography and/or HPLC; (ii) fractionation based on normal-phase (NP) HPLC using a cyanopropyl or chemically similar stationary phase; and (iii) fractionation by open-column chromatography followed by NP-HPLC. The HPLC methods may be preparative, semi-preparative, or analytical scale. Variations based on acid/base/neutral partitioning followed by a chromatographic separation have also been employed. Other lesser-used approaches involve fractionation based on ion-exchange and thin-layer chromatographies. Although some of the methodologies used in contemporary studies of mutagenicity of air particulate do not represent significant advances in technology over the past 30 years, their simplicity, low

  2. Improved mutagen testing systems in mice. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roderick, T.H.

    1992-12-31

    Our laboratory was the first to induce and ascertain a mammalian chromosomal inversion; we did this by searching for a high frequency of first meiotic anaphase bridges in testes of males whose fathers received post-spermatogonial radiation or mutagenesis from chromosomal breaking chemical mutagens. One test in was examined in each mouse, and those showing a high frequency were then mated to determine if the high frequency were passed on as a dominant and whether linkage analysis suggested the presence of an inversion. A very high incidence (exceeding 20% bridges in first meiotic anaphase bridges) was found in about 1 in 150 males examined and this frequency was generally found to be passed on to the offspring an predicted. Later cytological banding techniques were developed elsewhere and we used them to show visually the inverted orders of the inverted chromosomal segments. Since that time we have induced inversions covering most of the mouse genome.

  3. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  4. Sensitive hepatocyte-mediated assay for the metabolism of nitrosamines to mutagens for mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.A.; Huberman, E.

    1980-02-01

    A sensitive cell-mediated assay has been developed for testing mutagenesis in Chinese hamster V79 cells by carcinogenic nitrosamines. Mutations were characterized by resistance to ouabian and 6-thioguanine. Since V79 cells do not metabolize nitrosamines, mutagenesis in the V79 cells was tested in the presence of primary hepatocytes capable of metabolizing nitrosamines. The hepatocytes were isolated after collagenase and hyaluronidase digestion of liver slices. All seven liver carcinogens of the nine tested nitrosamines exhibited a mutagenic response in this cell-mediated assay. The potent liver carcinogens nitrosodimethylamine, nitrosodiethylamine, nitrosoethylmethylamine, and nitrosodipropylamine could be detected with doses as low as 1 ..mu..m. The noncarcinogenic nitrosodiphenylamine was not mutagenic. Nitrosomethoxymethylamine was the only nitrosamine that exhibited mutagenic activity in the absence of hepatocytes, and this activity was diminished in the presence of hepatocytes. It is suggested that the use of hepatocytes prepared by the slicing method for carcinogen metabolism and mutable V79 cells offers a highly sensitive assay for determining the mutagenic potential of carcinogenic nitrosamines and probably of other classes of hazardous chemicals occurring in the environment.

  5. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  6. Investigations on potential co-mutagenic effects of formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speit, Günter, E-mail: guenter.speit@uni-ulm.de; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Duong, Giang; Bausinger, Julia

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A549 cells were exposed to formaldehyde in combination with various mutagens. • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction and removal of DNA damage (comet assay). • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction of micronuclei by the mutagens tested. • The expression of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was not affected. - Abstract: The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of formaldehyde (FA) has been well-characterized during the last years. Besides its known direct DNA-damaging and mutagenic activity in sufficiently exposed cells, FA at low concentrations might also enhance the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of other environmental mutagens by interfering with the repair of DNA lesions induced by these mutagens. To further assess potential co-mutagenic effects of FA, we exposed A549 human lung cells to FA in combination with various mutagens and measured the induction and removal of DNA damage by the comet assay and the production of chromosomal mutations by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). The mutagens tested were ionizing radiation (IR), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (methyl nitrosourea; MNU) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). FA (10–75 μM) did not enhance the genotoxic and mutagenic activity of these mutagens under the test conditions applied. FA alone and in combination with MNU or MMS did not affect the expression (mRNA level) of the gene of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in A549 cells. The results of these experiments do not support the assumption that low FA concentrations might interfere with the repair of DNA damage induced by other mutagens.

  7. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of benfuracarb insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, Sevim Feyza; Akyıl, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu

    2016-08-01

    Benfuracarb is a carbamate insecticide used to control insect pests in vegetables and it has anti-acetylcholinesterase activity lower than other carbamates. Cytotoxic effects of benfuracarb were evaluated by using root growth inhibition (EC50), mitotic index (MI), and mitotic phase determinations on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and mutagenic effects were determined in Salmonella typhymurium Ames test by TA98 and TA100 strains with and without metabolic activation. In Allium test, 1 % DMSO was used as negative control group and 10 ppm MMS was used as positive control group. 75 ppm concentration of benfuracarb was found as EC50. In MI and mitotic phases determination study, 37.5, 75 and 150 ppm doses of benfuracarb were used. Dose-dependent cytotoxic activity was found by root growth inhibition and MI studies. It was identified that mitotic inhibition activity of benfuracarb was higher than 10 ppm MMS. In Ames test, mutagenic activity was not observed and over 200 µg/plate of benfuracarb was determined as cytotoxic to S. typhymurium strains. Benfuracarb can be called as "mitotic inhibitor" but not called as mutagen. PMID:25381170

  8. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.

  9. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided.

  10. Evaluating the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of air particulate matter: A comparison of two extraction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, Isabel C; Oliveira, Ivo F; Franklin, Robson L; Barros, Silvia B M; Roubicek, Deborah A

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have focused on assessing the genotoxic potential of the organic fraction of airborne particulate matter. However, the determination of water-soluble compounds, and the evaluation of the toxic effects of these elements can also provide valuable information for the development of novel strategies to control atmospheric air pollution. To determine an appropriate extraction method for assessing the mutagenicity of the water-soluble fraction of PM, we performed microwave assisted (MW) and ultrasonic bath (US) extractions, using water as solvent, in eight different air samples (TSP and PM10). Mutagenicity and extraction performances were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and TA100, followed by chemical determination of water-soluble metals. Additionally, we evaluated the chemical and biological stability of the extracts testing their mutagenic potential and chemically determining elements present in the samples along several periods after extraction. Reference material SRM 1648a was used. The comparison of MW and US extractions did not show differences on the metals concentrations, however positive mutagenic responses were detected with TA98 strain in all samples extracted using the MW method, but not with the US bath extraction. The recovery, using reference material was better in samples extracted with MW. We concluded that the MW extraction is more efficient to assess the mutagenic activity of the soluble fraction of airborne PM. We also observed that the extract freezing and storage over 60 days has a significant effect on the mutagenic and analytical results on PM samples, and should be avoided. PMID:27258903

  11. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of chilli variety CO-2 (Coimbatore-2) were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 kR to 35 kR at an interval of 5 kR and the effect on seed germination, seedling survival, percent lethality and seedling injury were studied. Lower doses were stimulative, while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling survival. The highest percentage of seed germination (37.5) and seedling survival (31.3) was recorded at 10 kR as compared to 28 percent of germination and 3.3 percent seedling survival in control. Percent lethality (9.6%) and seedling injury (6.5%) were comparatively low than the lethality percentage and seedling injury of the higher dose treatments. In chemical mutagen treatments, the maximum seed germination (54.5%) and seedling survival (51.2%), seedling lethality (0.97%) and seedling injury (1.37%) were obtained in the treated seeds of EMS at 0.5% concentration followed by 39.5% seed germination and 30.0% seedling survival, seedling lethality (3.8%) and seedling injury (3.06%) of MMS. The stimulative effect of seed germination is more in chemical mutagens than the physical mutagen. There was a proportionate decrease in germination percentage and seedling survival with an increase in dose/concentration of both the chemicals. (author)

  12. 16. Inhibition of DNA adduct formation and mutagenic action of Trp-P-2 by chlorophyllin-chitosan in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Food that humans eat every day contains mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds such as heterocyclic amines. Food also contains antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic agents. It is of great interest to seek edible, safe chemicals that could prevent the genotoxic actions of some components in food. Recently, a new antimutagenic compound,

  13. Antitumoral, mutagenic and (antiestrogenic activities of tingenone and pristimerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. M. Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer constitutes the second main mortality cause in the world, after cardiovascular diseases. In spite of the progresses in the chemotherapeutics treatments, many patients fail chemotherapy, mainly because of side effects or multi-drugs resistance, proving the need and importance of the research for new molecules with anticancer activity, more effective and with smaller adverse effects. Various compounds derived from plant secondary metabolites are commonly used in the chemotherapy against cancer and the natural products play an important role in the research for new molecules. Among several molecules of natural origin evaluated by MTT assay in murine tumor cell lines [breast (LM3 and lung (LP07] the quinona-methide triterpenes tingenone and pristimerin showed marked cytotoxic activity presenting IC50 around 2 and 5 µM respectively. The structure-activity relationship suggests that rings A and B containing an α, ß-unsaturated carbonyl group are essential for the observed cytotoxic activity. The interaction between these positions and acetylcisteyne residues suggests a probable mechanism of action. The in vitro mutagenic activity was also evaluated by the Salmonella microsome assay (Ames test for pristimerin and tingenone with and without metabolic activation (S9 in the strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, none of which showed mutagenic potential in any strains. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were also studied by the e-screen assay in MCF-7 cells with negative results. The present data point to the importance of pristimerin and tingenone as representative of an emerging class of potential anticancer chemicals.

  14. Bacterial and human cell mutagenicity study of some C[sub 18]H[sub 10] cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with fossil fuels combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, A.L.; Longwell, J.P.; Marr, J.A.; Monchamp, P.A.; Thilly, W.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Mulder, P.P.Y.; Boere, B.B.; Cornelisse, J.; Lugtenburg, J. (Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands))

    1993-06-01

    A number of isomeric C[sub 18]H[sub 10] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thought to be primarily cyclopenta-fused PAHs, are produced during the combustion and pyrolysis of fossil fuels. To determine the importance of their contributions to the total mutagenic activity of combustion and pyrolysis samples in which they are found, we characterized reference quantities of four C[sub 18]H[sub 10] CP-PAHs: benzol [ghi] fluoranthene (BF), cyclopenta [cd] pyrene (CPP), cyclopent [hi] acephenanthrylene (CPAP), and cyclopent [hi] acaenthrylene (CPAA). Synthesis of CPAA and CPAP is described. The availability of reference samples of these isomers also proved to be an essential aid in the identification of the C[sub 18]H[sub 10] species often found in combustion and pyrolysis samples. Chemical analysis of selected combustion and pyrolysis samples showed that CPP was generally the most abundant C[sub 18]H[sub 10] isomer, followed by CPAP and BF. CPAA was detected only in pyrolysis products from pure PAHs. We tested the four C[sub 18]H[sub 10] PAHs for mutagenicity in a forward mutation assay using S. typhimurium. CPP, BF, and CPAA were roughly twice as mutagenic as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), whereas CPAP was only slightly active. These PAHs were also tested for mutagenic activity in human cells. In this assay, CPP and CPAA were strongly mutagenic but less active than BaP, whereas CPAP and BF were inactive at the dose levels tested. Also, the bacterial and human cell mutagenicity of CPAA and CPAP were compared with the mutagenicity of their monocyclopenta-fused analogs, aceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene. Although the mutagenicities of CPAP and acephenanthrylene are similar, the mutagenic activity of CPAA is an order of magnitude greater than that of aceanthrylene.

  15. Role of certain plant natural products or gamma radiation in the control of mutagenic activity of some heterocyclic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to use ames test to evaluate the antimutagenic effect of some natural products on the lever microsomes extracted from rats and incubated with some chemical mutagens (heterocyclic compounds). Male swiss albino rats (120-140 g) were used as the source of liver microsomes. Three natural products (Nigella extract, garlic powder and sesame oil) were used to evaluate their antimutagenic activities on six heterocyclic amines. All the tested natural products exhibited their antimutagenic activities when added to the investigated heterocyclic compounds and the most effective product was nigella sativa. another group of rats was exposed to gamma-radiation (6.5 Gy) for testing the validity of ames test in quantitating mutagenicity using liver microsomes of irradiated rats. Liver microsomes from irradiated rats showed to lose ability for metabolic activation needed for heterocyclic amines to exert their mutagenic effect on salmonella typhimurium

  16. Mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of sulfur-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments with metaphase plates from blood lymphocytes, conducted during rats' lifetime, a study was made of the mutagenic effect of 35S. Various tumors were diagnosed in the experimental animals after their death. The competitive analysis of the number of stable cytogenetic changes in lymphocytes of the experimental animals at the remote times and tumor occurrence has revealed a highly positive correlation between these indices. Both effects were severest at the highest absorbed 35S dose of less than 10 cGy

  17. In vivo evaluation of the mutagenic potential and phytochemical characterization of oleoresin from Copaifera duckei Dwyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis Maistro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the chemical constituents of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and used dermal application to Wistar rats to evaluated its possible mutagenic and cytotoxic activities on peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow cells. Chemical characterization of the oleoresin revealed the presence of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, an unidentified neutral diterpene and diterpene acids. To evaluate mutagenicity evaluation the rats were treated with 10, 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin for three consecutive days and peripheral blood collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h for micronucleus analysis. The rats were humanly sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment and chromosome preparations made using standard techniques. At the three concentrations and the three time intervals tested we found that there were no statistically significant differences in either the mean number of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs or the number of chromosomal aberrations as to the negative control. However, at 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin there was a significant decrease in the mitotic index (MI as compared to the negative control. Under our experimental conditions, C. duckei V11 oleoresin produced no mutagenic effects on bone marrow cells or in peripheral reticulocytes as assessed by chromosome aberrations and the micronucleus test respectively, but showed cytotoxic activity at high doses.

  18. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  20. Quantitative mammalian cell mutagenesis and a preliminary study of the mutagenic potential of metallic compounds. [Cell system used was CHO/HGPRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsie, A.W.; Johnson, N.P.; Couch, D.B.; San Sebastian, J.R.; O' Neill, J.P.; Forbes, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    We have defined a set of stringent conditions required to quantify specific gene mutation in a mammalian cell system, CHO/HGPRT. Greater than 98% of the 6-thioguanine (TG)-resistant variants were shown to be deficient in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The sensitive and quantitative nature of this assay was utilized to study the structure-activity (mutagenicity) relationship of various classes of chemicals. Mutagenicity as determined in the CHO/HGPRT assay, appears to correlate well (76/83 (92%)) with the reported animal carcinogenicity of 108 chemicals studied. The system also appears to be suitable for studying the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of metallic compounds. We found that cis-dichlorodiammine Pt(II) (cis-Pt(NH/sub 3/)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/) (cis-DDP), one of the widely used inorganic antitumor agents, is cytotoxic and mutagenic. Mutagenicity of cis-DDP correlates with its binding to DNA. However, trans-DDP, (Pt(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/)Cl/sub 2/, and K/sub 2/(PtCl/sub 4/) exhibit greatly reduced biological activities. Among 14 other metals studied, we found that carcinogenic metallic compounds, such as MnCl/sub 2/, NiCl/sub 2/, and BeSO/sub 4/ are mutagenic, while non-carcinogenic compounds such as MgCl/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ are not. Determination of metal mutagenicity is apparently complicated by the ionic composition of the medium. This may account in part for varying results in studies of the mutagenicity of other metallic compounds. Further refinement of the assay conditions, especially with respect to the ionic environment necessary for quantifying mutagenesis of each metallic agent, is in progress.

  1. Influence of sampling filter type on the mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R.; Truex, Timothy J.; Lee, Frank S. C.; Salmeen, Irving T.

    The effects of filter types on the mutagenicity and chemical characteristics of organic extracts of diesel engine particulate exhaust were studied by collecting exhaust particles in a dilution tube simultaneously on three different types of filters: Teflon membrane (Zefluor), Teflon impregnated glass fiber (Pallflex T60A20), and a quartz fiber (Pallflex 2500QAO). The particles were extracted with dichloromethane and subsequently with acetonitrile. The dichloromethane extracts were evaluated in the Salmonella reversion (Ames) assay using strains TA 98, TA 100 and TA 1538 and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The filter loadings ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 mg cm -2, typical of loadings in studies of diesel engine particulate exhaust. No major differences in relative concentrations were observed in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, oxygenated or transition fractions for the three filter types. Furthermore, no differences in the mutagenicity of the samples could be detected.

  2. [Systematization of data and information on delayed consequences of the effects of chemicals in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianno, L V; Pimenova, M N; Osipova, I V

    1993-01-01

    The systematization and analysis of the data connected with delayed consequences arising in human body from exposure to dangerous chemicals have been carried out. The paper contains the list of dangerous chemicals exerting mutagenic or carcinogenic effects and chromosome aberrations. The cytologic express method of revealing mucous membrane dysplasia resulting from exposure to some chemical mutagens have been evaluated.

  3. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  4. MUTAGEN: Multi-user tool for annotating GENomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brugger, K.; Redder, P.; Skovgaard, Marie

    2003-01-01

    MUTAGEN is a free prokaryotic annotation system. It offers the advantages of genome comparison, graphical sequence browsers, search facilities and open-source for user-specific adjustments. The web-interface allows several users to access the system from standard desktop computers. The Sulfolobus...... acidocaldarius genome, and several plasmids and viruses have so far been analysed and annotated using MUTAGEN....

  5. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  6. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van methylvinylether met microorganismen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd CE; van der Stel JJ; Verharen HW

    1984-01-01

    Met het gas methylvinylether is geen mutagene werking gevonden met Klebsiella pneumoniae bij 50% (v/v) of minder in de lucht. Met de Salmonella typhimurium stammen TA 98 en TA 100, met en zonder metabolische activering, is met methylvinylether geen mutagene werking gevonden bij 2,5% (v/v) en lager.

  7. 51. Mutagenicity Study of Cyclophoshpamide on Human Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Whether Cyclophoshpamide(CP) has mutagenicity on germ cell or not is paid close attention to. This paper studied the mutagenicity of CP on germ cell by adopting human sperm chromosome and micronuclus in two-cell embryo. Semen samples obtained from healthy male were liquefied、dealed with Ca2+, and exposed to four

  8. Practical aspects of mutagenicity testing strategy: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, B B; Krishna, G

    2000-11-20

    Genetic toxicology studies play a central role in the development and marketing of new chemicals for pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, and consumer use. During the discovery phase of product development, rapid screening tests that require minimal amounts of test materials are used to assist in the design and prioritization of new molecules. At this stage, a modified Salmonella reverse mutation assay and an in vitro micronucleus test with mammalian cell culture are frequently used for screening. Regulatory genetic toxicology studies are conducted with a short list of compounds using protocols that conform to various international guidelines. A set of four assays usually constitutes the minimum test battery that satisfies global requirements. This set includes a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro cytogenetic test with mammalian cell culture, an in vitro gene mutation assay in mammalian cell cultures, and an in vivo rodent bone marrow micronucleus test. Supplementary studies are conducted in certain instances either as a follow-up to the findings from this initial testing battery and/or to satisfy a regulatory requirement. Currently available genetic toxicology assays have helped the scientific and industrial community over the past several decades in evaluating the mutagenic potential of chemical agents. The emerging field of toxicogenomics has the potential to redefine our ability to study the response of cells to genetic damage and hence our ability to study threshold phenomenon.

  9. Discerning Chemical Composition and Mutagenic Effects of Soy Biodiesel PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaust particles from the combustion of traditional diesel fuel have been shown to lead to increases in adverse health effects such as impaired lung function, respiratory distress, and cardiovascular disease. This has resulted in an effort to find alternative fuels, such as soy...

  10. Assessing the mutagenic activities of smoke from different cigarettes in direct exposure experiments using the modified Ames Salmonella assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Kanemaru, Yuki; Nara, Hidenori; Erami, Kazuo; Nagata, Yasufumi

    2016-06-01

    The Ames assay is useful for evaluating the mutagenic potentials of chemicals, and it has been used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of cigarette smoke (CS). In vitro direct exposure systems have been developed to mimic CS exposure in the human respiratory tract, and the Ames assay has been used with such systems. Ames tests were performed using the Vitrocell(®) direct exposure system in this study. The mutagenic potentials of whole mainstream CS and gas/vapor phase fractions produced by conventional combustible cigarettes under two smoking regimens were compared. Salmonella Typhimurium TA98 and TA100 were used with and without metabolic activation, and the number of revertants induced by exposure to each CS was determined. The amount of smoke particles to which cells were exposed were also determined, and dose-response curves describing the relationships between exposure to smoke particles and the number of revertants induced were plotted. The slopes of linear regressions of the dose-response curves were determined, and the slope for each CS was used as a mutagenic activity index for that CS. A new heated cigarette was also tested and smoke from the heated cigarette had a lower mutagenic activity in TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation than did the conventional CS. The results indicate that the direct exposure system and the Ames test can be used to determine the mutagenic potentials of CS produced by different cigarettes under different conditions (i.e., using different Salmonella Typhimurium strains with and without metabolic activation, and using different smoking conditions). PMID:27265375

  11. Characterization and validation of an in silico toxicology model to predict the mutagenic potential of drug impurities*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov [Science and Research Staff, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993–0002 (United States); Cross, Kevin P. [Leadscope, Inc., 1393 Dublin Road, Columbus, OH, 43215–1084 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Control and minimization of human exposure to potential genotoxic impurities found in drug substances and products is an important part of preclinical safety assessments of new drug products. The FDA's 2008 draft guidance on genotoxic and carcinogenic impurities in drug substances and products allows use of computational quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) to identify structural alerts for known and expected impurities present at levels below qualified thresholds. This study provides the information necessary to establish the practical use of a new in silico toxicology model for predicting Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of drug impurities and other chemicals. We describe the model's chemical content and toxicity fingerprint in terms of compound space, molecular and structural toxicophores, and have rigorously tested its predictive power using both cross-validation and external validation experiments, as well as case studies. Consistent with desired regulatory use, the model performs with high sensitivity (81%) and high negative predictivity (81%) based on external validation with 2368 compounds foreign to the model and having known mutagenicity. A database of drug impurities was created from proprietary FDA submissions and the public literature which found significant overlap between the structural features of drug impurities and training set chemicals in the QSAR model. Overall, the model's predictive performance was found to be acceptable for screening drug impurities for Salmonella mutagenicity. -- Highlights: ► We characterize a new in silico model to predict mutagenicity of drug impurities. ► The model predicts Salmonella mutagenicity and will be useful for safety assessment. ► We examine toxicity fingerprints and toxicophores of this Ames assay model. ► We compare these attributes to those found in drug impurities known to FDA/CDER. ► We validate the model and find it has a desired predictive

  12. Urinary mutagenic activity in workers exposed to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Kado, N.Y. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Hammond, S.K.; Woskie, S.R.; Smith, T.J. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Worcester (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured postshift urinary mutagenicity on a population of railroad workers with a range of diesel exhaust exposures. Postshift urinary mutagenicity was determined by a sensitive microsuspension procedure using Salmonella strain TA 98 {plus minus} S9. Number of cigarettes smoked on the study day and urinary cotinine were highly correlated with postshift urinary mutagenicity. Diesel exhaust exposure was measured over the work shift by constant-flow personal sampling pumps. The relative ranking of jobs by this adjusted respirable particle concentration (ARP) was correlated with relative contact the job groups have with operating diesel locomotives. After adjustment for cigarette smoking in multiple regressions, there was no independent association of diesel exhaust exposure, as estimated by ARP, with postshift urinary mutagenicity among smokers or nonsmokers. An important finding is the detection of baseline mutagenicity in most of the nonsmoking workers. Despite the use of individual measurements of diesel exhaust exposure, the absence of a significant association in this study may be due to the low levels of diesel exposure, the lack of a specific marker for diesel exhaust exposure, and/or urinary mutagenicity levels from diesel exposure below the limit of sensitivity for the mutagenicity assay.

  13. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  14. Micronucleus test and erythropoiesis: effect of cobalt on the induction of micronuclei by mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Shimizu, H; Nagae, Y; Fukumoto, M; Okonogi, H; Kadokura, M

    1993-01-01

    The micronucleus test is used widely as an in vivo short-term assay for potential carcinogens. In the present study, results of the micronucleus test were affected by cobalt dichloride pretreatment. Cobalt dichloride was used to induce erythropoietin, a growth factor for erythropoiesis. The increase in mutagen-induced micronucleus response following cobalt pretreatment, therefore, may have been due to a change in the rate of erythropoiesis. The greatest interaction between cobalt pretreatment and mutagen treatment for the induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) occurred when mice were injected with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) 12-24 hr after pretreatment with cobalt dichloride and killed 30 hr later. Increased sensitivity of the micronucleus test was attributable to the administration of mutagen during the differentiation and multiplication of erythroblast, which is presumed to have been accelerated by pretreatment with cobalt dichloride. An increased induction of MPCE in the bone marrow by two chemicals--benzo(a)pyrene, 2-naphthylamine--was also observed following pretreatment with cobalt dichloride. PMID:8359151

  15. Risk assessment of a cold argon plasma jet in respect to its mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, K; Bekeschus, S; Schmidt, A; Jatsch, L; Hasse, S; Weltmann, K D; Masur, K; von Woedtke, T

    2016-03-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas represent a favorable option for the treatment of heat sensitive materials and human or animal tissue. Beneficial effects have been documented in a variety of medical conditions, e.g., in the treatment of chronic wounds. It is assumed that the main mechanism of the plasma's efficacy is mediated by a stimulating dissipation of energy via radiation and/or chemical energy. Although no evidence on undesired side effects of a plasma treatment has yet been presented, skepticism toward the safety of the exposure to plasma is present. However, only little data regarding the mutagenic potential of this new treatment option is available. Accordingly, we investigated the mutagenic potential of an argon plasma jet (kinpen) using different testing systems in accordance with ISO norms and multiple cell lines: a HPRT1 mutation assay, a micronucleus formation assay, and a colony formation assay. Moderate plasma treatment up to 180 s did not increase genotoxicity in any assay or cell type investigated. We conclude that treatment with the argon plasma jet kinpen did not display a mutagenic potential under the test conditions applied and may from this perspective be regarded as safe for the use in biomedical applications.

  16. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  17. A contribution to the study on the mutagenicity of atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a review of the literature, the genotoxic hazards of atmospheric pollutants at various locations (rural sites, motorway tolls, paint shops...) were evaluated by in vitro mutagenicity assays (Ames' test and SOS chromo-test) and analytical methods (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry). Instrumentation and procedures were developed for the sampling of volatile organic pollutants: adsorption on XAD2 followed by acetone extraction of the compounds trapped. A comparative study allowed to assess the relative mutagenic action of the volatile organic compounds and to establish a mutagenicity scale. (author)

  18. A novel QSAR model of Salmonella mutagenicity and its application in the safety assessment of drug impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Antoni; Prous, Josep; Mora, Oscar [Prous Institute for Biomedical Research, Rambla de Catalunya, 135, 3-2, Barcelona 08008 (Spain); Sadrieh, Nakissa [Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States); Valerio, Luis G., E-mail: luis.valerio@fda.hhs.gov [Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    As indicated in ICH M7 draft guidance, in silico predictive tools including statistically-based QSARs and expert analysis may be used as a computational assessment for bacterial mutagenicity for the qualification of impurities in pharmaceuticals. To address this need, we developed and validated a QSAR model to predict Salmonella t. mutagenicity (Ames assay outcome) of pharmaceutical impurities using Prous Institute's Symmetry℠, a new in silico solution for drug discovery and toxicity screening, and the Mold2 molecular descriptor package (FDA/NCTR). Data was sourced from public benchmark databases with known Ames assay mutagenicity outcomes for 7300 chemicals (57% mutagens). Of these data, 90% was used to train the model and the remaining 10% was set aside as a holdout set for validation. The model's applicability to drug impurities was tested using a FDA/CDER database of 951 structures, of which 94% were found within the model's applicability domain. The predictive performance of the model is acceptable for supporting regulatory decision-making with 84 ± 1% sensitivity, 81 ± 1% specificity, 83 ± 1% concordance and 79 ± 1% negative predictivity based on internal cross-validation, while the holdout dataset yielded 83% sensitivity, 77% specificity, 80% concordance and 78% negative predictivity. Given the importance of having confidence in negative predictions, an additional external validation of the model was also carried out, using marketed drugs known to be Ames-negative, and obtained 98% coverage and 81% specificity. Additionally, Ames mutagenicity data from FDA/CFSAN was used to create another data set of 1535 chemicals for external validation of the model, yielding 98% coverage, 73% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 81% concordance and 84% negative predictivity. - Highlights: • A new in silico QSAR model to predict Ames mutagenicity is described. • The model is extensively validated with chemicals from the FDA and the public domain.

  19. How stable are the mutagenic tautomers of DNA bases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brovarets’ O. O.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the lifetime of the mutagenic tautomers of DNA base pairs through the investigation of the physicochemical mechanisms of their intramolecular proton transfer. Methods. Non-empirical quantum chemistry, the analysis of the electron density by means of Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM theory and physicochemical kinetics were used. Results. Physicochemical character of the transition state of the intramolecular tautomerisation of DNA bases was investigated, the lifetime of mutagenic tautomers was calculated. Conclusions. The lifetime of the DNA bases mutagenic tautomers by 3–10 orders exceeds typical time of DNA replication in the cell (~103 s. This fact confirms that the postulate, on which the Watson-Crick tautomeric hypothesis of spontaneous transitions grounds, is adequate. The absence of intramolecular H-bonds in the canonical and mutagenic tautomeric forms determine their high stability

  20. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii cells. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was investigated of single and combined actions of alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) and UV-radiation on the survival of cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation following mutagen activity. In particular, the single phases were investigated of the total lethal effect, i.e., the death of cells before division and their death after division. The most pronounced changes in dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens and on the given conditions of cultivation were noted in cell death before division. In dependence on the sequence of application of mutagens, the effect of the combined action on the survival of cells changed from an additive (alkylnitrosourea + UV-radiation) to a protective effect (UV-radiation + alkylnitrosourea). (author)

  1. Study on the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of a natural food colour (annatto) in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Lima, R O; Azevedo, L; Ribeiro, L R; Salvadori, D M F

    2003-02-01

    Most manufactured foods contain chemicals added as a deliberate part of the manufacturing process. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of annatto, a natural pigment extracted from the Bixa orellana L. and widely used as a colorant in foods. The micronucleus test was performed in bone marrow cells from Swiss male mice treated with one of the three concentrations of annatto (1330, 5330 and 10,670 ppm), incorporated into the diet. The animals were fed with the diets for 7 days and sacrificed 24 h after the last treatment. For the evaluation of the antimutagenic potential of annatto, at day 7, the animals received an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg body weight). Under the concentrations tested annatto did not present mutagenic or antimutagenic activities on the mice bone marrow cells. However, an increased frequency of micronucleated cells was observed when the highest concentration (10,670 ppm) was administered simultaneously with cyclophosphamide. In conclusion, the data indicate that annatto colour, for the conditions used, is neither mutagenic nor an inhibitor of induced mutations, although it should be used carefully since high doses may increase the effect of a mutagen. PMID:12480296

  2. Anti-mutagenic activity of Salvia merjamie extract against gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Khalid Mashay

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine is an anti-cancer drug with clinically uses in the treatment of various neoplasms, including breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung, pancreaticand cervical cancers, T-cell malignancies, germ cell tumours, and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, it has also been reported to have many adverse effects. Naturally occurring anti-mutagenic effects, especially those of plant origin, have recently become a subject of intensive research. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the anti-mutagenic effects of Salvia merjamie (Family: Lamiaceae) plant extracts against the mutagenic effects of gemcitabine. The anti-mutagenic properties of Salvia merjamie were tested in Inbred SWR/J male and female mice bone marrow cells. The mice were treated in four groups; a control group treated with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine and three treatment groups, each with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine together with, respectively, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight Salvia merjamie extract. Chromosomal aberration and mitotic index assays were performed with the results demonstrating that Salvia merjamie extract protects bone marrow cells in mice against gemcitabine induced mutagenicity. This information can be used for the development of a potential therapeutic anti-mutagenic agents. PMID:25743821

  3. Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from domestic combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Nuno; Lopes, Isabel; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Vicente, Ana M; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Almeida, Susana Marta; Alves, Célia A

    2016-06-01

    Domestic biofuel combustion is one of the major sources of regional and local air pollution, mainly regarding particulate matter and organic compounds, during winter periods. Mutagenic and carcinogenic activity potentials of the ambient particulate matter have been associated with the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their oxygenated (OPAH) and nitrogenated (NPAH) derivatives. This study aimed at assessing the mutagenicity potential of the fraction of this polycyclic aromatic compound in particles (PM10) from domestic combustion by using the Ames assays with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Seven biofuels, including four types of pellets and three agro-fuels (olive pit, almond shell and shell of pine nuts), were tested in an automatic pellet stove, and two types of wood (Pinus pinaster, maritime pine, and Eucalyptus globulus, eucalypt) were burned in a traditional wood stove. For this latter appliance, two combustion phases-devolatilisation and flaming/smouldering-were characterised separately. A direct-acting mutagenic effect for the devolatilisation phase of pine combustion and for both phases of eucalypt combustion was found. Almond shell revealed a weak direct-acting mutagenic effect, while one type of pellets, made of recycled wastes, and pine (devolatilisation) presented a cytotoxic effect towards strain TA100. Compared to the manually fired appliance, the automatic pellet stove promoted lower polyaromatic mutagenic emissions. For this device, only two of the studied biofuels presented a weak mutagenic or cytotoxic potential.

  4. Development of resistance to Puccinia graminis avenae in Avena sativa by mutagen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of over seven million M2 oat plants derived from irradiated and chemical mutagen treated seeds (about 50,000) or low-level chronically irradiated growing plants produced no new sources of useful resistance. However, preliminary results indicate that the gene Pg-16 has been transferred from the tetraploid Avena barbata L. to the hexaploid A. sativa L. by irradiation of disomic alien addition lines and monosomic alien substitution lines. This gene is highly effective and confers resistance to all but two of the known races of stem rust occurring in North America. (author)

  5. ABSENCE OF MUTAGENICITY IN THE URINE OF AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE: FACTORS INFLUENCING MUTAGENICITY TESTING OF URINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of exposure to autopsy workers to formaldehyde using urinary mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium. A matched control group was also studied. Additional studies including the recovery of histidine from urine samples, the determination of h...

  6. Efeito de poluentes químicos cumulativos e mutagênicos durante o desenvolvimento ontogenético de Poecilia vivípara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae Effect of cumulative chemical and mutagenic pollutants during ontogenic development of Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maria Teixeira de Sabóia-Morais

    2001-05-01

    conditions. Our intention was to know the origin and the differentiation of cell types in the development of the gill and to detect variations of the branchial epithelium in embryos of pregnant females exposed to lead (a cumulative and mutagenic chemical pollutant. Two groups were formed, the control and the experimental group, which was exposed to a solution of 1 ppm lead acetate. Embryos in stages 24, 30 and 36 were observed (Vernier, 1969 and analyzed under light and electronic scanning microscopy. Embryos of the females were quantified and measured. The formation of the arcs, filaments, rays and lamellae gill were registered. In the epithelium, first the chlorine cells differentiated; in stage 36 mucous cells appear in the branchial ray. There were no morphological differences between the groups in the epithelial cells of the gill. Viviparity may be the explanatory factor

  7. Activation by caecal reduction of the azo dye D & C red no. 9 to a bacterial mutagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, D; Combes, R; Zeiger, E

    1994-07-01

    D & C Red No. 9 is a monoazo dye used for manufacturing printing inks, rubber and plastics, and as an additive in cosmetics and drugs. In an NTP carcinogenicity study in rats and mice it induced splenic sarcomas and liver nodules in male rats; no chemical-related tumours were induced in mice. On the basis of its contradictory responses in a range of in vitro tests and its inactivity in several in vivo genotoxicity assays, it has been suggested that the dye may act as a non-genotoxic carcinogen. We tested the dye in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay using several different protocols. The dye was not mutagenic when tested using the standard (aerobic) preincubation protocol. Variable responses were seen when the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reduction protocol was used. A third protocol was provided by incubating the test compound overnight with a rat caecal preparation under anoxic conditions to reduce the azo bond. Ethyl acetate extracts of this incubation mixture, when tested in the standard preincubation protocol using induced rat liver S9, yielded dose-related mutagenic responses in TA100, and a weak response in TA98. The presuemed major reduction product, 1-amino-2-naphthol (1-A-2-N) was mutagenic to TA100, but not TA98, in standard protocols with S9. The results show that it is necessary to use a protocol in which D & C Red No. 9 is reduced in order to demonstrate the mutagenicity of this dye. The non-genotoxicity previously reported for D & C Red No. 9, may have been due to insufficient reductive cleavage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Vinyl carbamate epoxide, a major strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of vinyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate (urethane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K K; Liem, A; Stewart, B C; Miller, J A

    1993-03-01

    Vinyl carbamate epoxide (VCO) was found to possess strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic activities. It reacted with water at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 (phosphate buffer) to form glycolaldehyde and several related reducing compounds; none of these products were mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. Under these conditions VCO had a half-life (determined chemically and mutagenically) of approximately 10.5 min. This half-life was progressively lowered by increasing concentrations of chloride ion (liver, serum and isotonic levels). This ion reacted with VCO to form chloroacetaldehyde. VCO also reacted with other nucleophiles such as glutathione, DNA and its constituent guanine and adenine bases. The purine adducts formed by VCO in DNA in vitro and in vivo were released by weak acid treatment and consisted of 7-(2'-oxoethyl)guanine and N2,3-ethenoguanine as major products with 1,N6-ethenoadenine as a minor product. VCO was a strong direct mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA100 but was only weakly active in the TA98 mutant. VCO was a stronger initiator of carcinogenesis in the skin of CD-1 mice and in the liver of infant male B6C3F1 mice than its metabolic precursors vinyl carbamate (VC) and ethyl carbamate (EC). Unlike VC and EC, VCO was a strong complete carcinogen in the skin of CD-1 mice and induced papillomas and carcinomas following repetitive administration of sub-ulcerogenic doses. VCO also exhibited some carcinogenic activity in the lungs of mice and in the s.c. and mammary tissue of female Sprague-Dawley rats. These data and those from other recent studies support the conclusion that VCO is a major strong electrophilic, mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of EC and VC in the mouse. PMID:8453720

  9. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae and Their Mutagenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Mininel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes.

  10. Mutagenicity of airborne particulates in the rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, B; Indulski, J; Janik-Spiechowicz, E; Palus, J

    1989-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in the rubber industry. Air was sucked through Whatman glass-fibre filters with Staplex pumps and adsorbed substances and fume particles were extracted with acetone or toluene for 2 h in a ultrasonic cleaner. After separation of the insoluble solid phase by filtration, solvent was evaporated at a temperature of 70 degrees C in an argon atmosphere. The residue was stored at -20 degrees C. Mutagenicity was determined by the Salmonella plate incorporation assay with the tester strain TA98 and activity is related either to the weight of aerosol (rev mg-1) or to the volume of atmospheric sample (rev m-3). The fumes emitted from the tyre tread line, calender feeding, and tyre vulcanizing processes, showed the highest mutagenic activity (55-211 rev mg-1, + S9). At these and at other workplaces (extruder mill, carbon black station, mixer loading), mutagenic activity related to the volume of air was in the range of 22-158 rev m-3, + S9. The results indicate the need to reduce and monitor mutagenic contamination in order to increase the safety of work in the rubber industry. PMID:2693511

  11. Mutagenicity and antimutigenicity studies of air borne particles from Guangzhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming Qian; Ying He; Jieming Chen [Guangzhou Normal Univ. (China)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Guangzhou is a city of 6 million in south China. In the past decade, air pollution in Guangzhou become serious. The incidence of lung cancer increased, showing a significant correlation with the air pollution. The authors performed a series of studies of airborne particles from Guangzhou. We studied the mutagenicity of the airborne particles from the city, analysed the correlations between the mutagenicity of the organic extracts of air pollutants and meteorological condition and compared the antimutagenic effects of TP (tea polyphenols) and CHL (chlorophyllin) towards the extracts. The above studies are summarized as following: (1) the extracts of airborne particles showed very strong mutagenicity in E. Coli PQ37 and Salmonella typhimurium TA98, without S9 mix; (2) the mutagenicity of the extracts was correlated to the meteorological conditions; (3) the analysis of the effects of meteorological conditions on the mutagenicity resulted in different conclusions if different meteorological data (sampling time and periods) were used. It might be an explanation for those surprising different conclusions of the related studies appeared last few years. (4) there were no significant effect of pH (3.5-7.0) and temperature (100-200{degrees}C) on the antimutigenicity of TP and CHL, showing no deteriorate effects of the conditions of common use of the 2 antimutagens.

  12. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Karol; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek; Podgórska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)hexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic. PMID:27559394

  13. Determining effective radiation mutagen dose for garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to get database for future garlic mutation breeding studies. For this aim, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses of Cs137 (gamma-ray) were applied on garlic cloves as a physical mutagen. 50 cloves were used for each dose. Sixty days after treatment, germination rate and shoot development of cloves were determined. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by regression analyses. According to the results, 4.455 Gy dose was found to be effective as ED50. (author)

  14. Improved mutagen-testing systems in mice. Progress report, 1 June 1976--31 August 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from studies on the production of chromosomal inversion by chemical treatment or irradiation of sperm in mice and to detect inversions by observing high frequencies of first meiotic anaphase bridges of their sons or by using chromosomal banding techniques to detect inverted segments cytologically. For each new inversion, which is either of considerable length or which has particularly useful experimental properties, we will determine its linkage group, mark it genetically, if possible, or place it with a genetically marked homologous chromosome, and study its cytological, physiological, and anatomical effects. The inversions are being used to construct recessive lethal testing systems for estimating mutational loads in populations exposed to radiation or either proved or potential chemical mutagens, to mark and maintain induced lethals for analysis of their potential dominant effects on fitness, and to study other basic problems in mammalian genetics

  15. 40 Years of the Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: Implications for 21st Century Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay was developed and introduced by Bruce Ames and colleagues in 1971. Since then, it has become the standard assay for hazard identification of mutagens worldwide. It is a first-tier test for mutagenic activity in the pharmaceutical and chemi...

  16. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of bioflavonoids and structural analogues in the Ames/Salmonella test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohn GR; Van der Stel JJ; Stavenuiter JFC; Hamzink MRJ; Kreijl CF; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    The mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of bioflavonoids were determined in the bacterial mutagenicity test of Ames, using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The decreasing order of mutagenic activity found in both strains was quercetin>myricetin-kaempferol>morin hydrate. The compound

  17. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van 3-methyl-5-fenyl-2-pyridineamine op microorganismen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd CE; Stel JJ van der; Bruchem MC van; Stavenuiter JFC

    1989-01-01

    Met het aminozuurpyrolysaat 5-fenyl-2-pyridineamine (PPA) werd een mutagene werking op diverse Salmonella typhimurium stammen in de Ames-test gevonden. Om na te gaan of modificatie van dit molecuul de mutagene eigenschappen zou veranderen, werden de mutagene eigenschappen van 3-methyl-5-fenyl-2-

  18. 61. STUDY ON MUTAGENICITY OF PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum (P. digitatum) is a pathogenic fungus mildewed fruits and its process products. There were some events of poisoning on the clinic because fruits and its process products mildewed by the fungi are eaten. A lot of reports were about the study on acute poisoning on this hand. But there were few reports about the study on genetoxicity, and therefor we determined the mutagenicity of P. digitatum with different methods to provide scientific basis for prevent the effect of human genetoxicity. METHODS: ① The preparation of extract from P. digitatum: Preponderant fungus separated from mildewed fruits was incubated in the Czapak's medium for two weeks, and then it was extracted with CHCL2 and evaporated. It was dissolved by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for use. ② Bacterial reverse mutation assay: The assay was without S9 mix. E. coli ND-160 strain was used in the assay. The assay set up negative control, positive control and test group, The test group contained four concentrations (3.125 mg/plate, 6.25 mg/plate, 12.5 mg/plate and 25 mg/plate). ③ Micronucleus assay of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in mice bone marrow. The assay was individed into negative control group (0.9% NaCl, 20 ul/mice), positive control group (cyclophosphamide, CP, 30 mg/kg B.W.) and test group (extract, 250 mg/kg B.W.). ④ Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in primary cells of lung and liver of rat. Fresh cells separated from lung and liver were incubated. There were three groups in the test. They were negative control group SO, 1%(v/v)], positive control group (10-7 mol/L 3-MC for lung cell; 10-7 mol/L HN2. HCL for liver cell). The radioactivity of cells that were treated was detected. The result showed unscheduled incorporation index, and the index represented the level of UDS. ⑤ Mutation assay in E. coli K12 infA gene. Using E. coli K12 strain as mutation target, partial infA gene was amplified by PCR, and the overlapping fragments were cloned into PGEN-T vector

  19. 28. Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 28th Annual Meeting of the European Environmental Mutagen Society took place in Salzburg from September 7th till September 11th, 1998. A lot of presentations also dealt with many radiation effects on cells, chromosomal aberrations and genetic effects caused by radioactive irradiation. In vivo and in vitro experiments concerning radiation injuries and carcinomas are analyzed. (Cecil)

  20. Flavonoids and alkenylbenzenes: mechanisms of mutagenic action and carcinogenic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Woude, van der H.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Schutte, M.E.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present review focuses on the mechanisms of mutagenic action and the carcinogenic risk of two categories of botanical ingredients, namely the flavonoids with quercetin as an important bioactive representative, and the alkenylbenzenes, namely safrole, methyleugenol and estragole. For quercetin a

  1. Assessment of mutagenic, antimutagenic and genotoxicity effects of Mimosa tenuiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir, Fabaceae, were investigated by using both micronucleus test and bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 respectively. In respect of Ames test results show that the extract does not induce mutations in any strains of Salmonella typhimurium tested since the mutagenicity index is less than 2. In the antimutagenic effect was observed that the extract at the concentrations tested significantly decreased the mutagenicity index of all strains tested which characterized the extract as antimutagenic in these conditions. In the micronucleus test in vivo, we observed that the concentrations used did not induce an increase in the frequency of micronucleus in normochromatic erythrocytes of mice. Therefore, we concluded that the extract of M. tenuiflora is not mutagenic in the absence of exogenous metabolizing system and does not induce an increase in the frequency of the micronucleus characterized as an agent not mutagenic in these conditions. Further studies of toxicity need to be made to the use of this plant in the treatment of diseases to be stimulated.

  2. Mutagenicity of Diesel and Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity Of Diesel And Soy Biodiesel Exhaust Particles E Mutlua,b' SH Warrenb, PP Matthewsb, CJ Kingb, B Prestonc, MD Haysb, DG Nashb,ct, WP Linakb, MI Gilmourb, and DM DeMarinib aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC bU.S. Environmental Agency, Research Triangle Pa...

  3. DNA-damaging activity in vivo and bacterial mutagenicity of sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives, as related quantitatively to their carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Taningher, M; Russo, P; Pala, M; Tamaro, M; Monti-Bragadin, C

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives were studied. They were: benzidine; 2-acetylaminofluorene; 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminobenzene; o-aminoazo-toluene; p-dimethylaminoazobenzene; 2,4-diamino-toluene; 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,4-diaminoanisole; 4,4'-methylenedianiline; 2-naphthylamine; Auramine O; Rhodamine B; Ponceau MX; 1-naphthylamine; p-aminoazobenzene and aniline. The compounds were examined for their capability to induce alkaline DNA fragmentation in rat liver after treatment in vivo, for their mutagenicity in the Salmonella strains TA 98 and TA 100, for their acute toxicity and for their carcinogenicity in mice and rats. For each parameter a quantitative potency index was established, and the correlation existing amongst the different parameters investigated. Only mutagenicity in the strain TA 98 was slightly correlated with carcinogenic potency (r = 0.408). DNA fragmentation and toxicity were not correlated with carcinogenicity. A significant correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and toxicity (r = 0.539). No correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and mutagenicity. The lack of correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity is in contrast with previous results obtained with a family of hydrazine derivatives (12) and a group of nitrosocompounds (22). For these two groups of chemicals correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity existed, but not between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in the Ames' test. It is suggested that short term tests can perform very differently for different classes of chemicals.

  4. Mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation of biodegraded textile effluent by fungal ligninolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2016-01-01

    Colored effluents from the textile industry have led to severe environmental pollution, and this has emerged as a global issue. The feasibility of ligninolytic enzymes for the detoxification and degradation of textile wastewater was investigated. Ganoderma lucidum crude ligninolytic enzymes extract (MnP 717.7, LiP 576.3, and Laccase 323.2 IU/mL) was produced using solid-state culture using wheat bran as substrate. The biodegradation treatment efficiency was evaluated on the basis of degradation and detoxification of textile effluents. Standard bioassays were employed for mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity evaluation before and after biodegradation. The degradation of Masood Textile, Kalash Textile, Khyber Textile and Sitara Textile effluents was achieved up to 87.29%, 80.17%, 77.31% and 69.04%, respectively. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and total organic carbon were improved considerably as a result of biodegradation of textile effluents, which were beyond the permissible limits established by the National Environmental Quality Standards before treatment. The cytotoxicity (Allium cepa, hemolytic, Daphnia magna and brine shrimp), mutagenicity (Ames TA98 and TA100) and phytotoxicity (Triticum aestivum) tests revealed that biodegradation significantly (P < 0.05) detoxifies the toxic agents in wastewater. Results revealed that biodegradation could possibly be used for remediation of textile effluents. However, detoxification monitoring is crucial and should always be used to evaluate the bio-efficiency of a treatment technique. PMID:27191553

  5. Structural basis of the mutagenicity of 1-amino-2-naphthol-based azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, H S; Klopman, G

    1990-03-01

    A structure-activity study of 1-amino-2-naphthol derived azo dyes using CASE, the Computer Automated Structure Evaluation system, revealed that for optimal mutagenicity, reduction of the azo bond was required, thus suggesting that activity could be related to the liberated aromatic amines. Although it has long been known that sulfonation of azo dyes resulted in decreased carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, the present study elucidates the sites of sulfonation which will decrease mutagenicity maximally. Comparison of CASE predictions with available mutagenicity data indicates a concordance. Unexpectedly, CASE indicates that one of the aromatic amines obtained upon azo reduction of FD and C Red no. 40 is predicted to be mutagenic.

  6. Artificial turf football fields: environmental and mutagenicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, Tiziana; Traversi, Deborah; Degan, Raffaella; Pignata, Cristina; Alessandria, Luca; Scozia, Dario; Bono, Roberto; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The public has recently raised concerns regarding potential human health and environmental risks associated with tire crumb constituents in the artificial turf of football fields. The aim of the present study was to develop an environmental analysis drawing a comparison between artificial turf football fields and urban areas relative to concentrations of particles (PM10 and PM2.5) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs), and mutagenicity of organic extracts from PM10 and PM2.5. No significant differences were found between PM10 concentrations at an urban site and on a turf football field, both during warm and in cold seasons, either with or without on-field activity. PM2.5 concentrations were significantly greater at the urban site in the cold season as was the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. BTXs were significantly greater at urban sites than on turf football fields on both on warm and cold days. The ratio of toluene to benzene (T/B ratio) was always comparable with that of normal urban conditions. The concentration of PAHs on the monitored football fields was comparable with urban levels during the two different sampling periods, and the contribution of PAHs released from the granular material was negligible. PM10 organic extract mutagenicity for artificial turf football fields was greater, whereas PM2.5 organic extract mutagenicity was lower, compared with the urban site studied. However, both organic extract mutagenicity values were comparable with the organic extract mutagenicity reported in the literature for urban sites. On the basis of environmental monitoring, artificial turf football fields present no more exposure risks than the rest of the city.

  7. Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. (Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

  8. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of phytotherapic and homeopathic solutions of Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu (Aveloz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Holandino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Euphorbia tirucalli Lineu, commonly known as Aveloz, is a very common plant found in tropical regions [1]. The ingestion or contact with its latex causes symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea, pallor, skin irritation, hepatotoxicity as well as carcinogenesis [2]. Moreover, the Aveloz latex is also responsible for a few important activities against some infectious and neoplastic diseases. Aveloz latex phytochemical composition may vary according to seasonal aspects and geographic location [3], and it is used either orally or topically in traditional medicine. Popularly known as an antitumoral agent (breast, prostate, lung, kidney, it is used not only in Brazil, but in several other countries. According to the literature, the latex could have a dual behaviour, activating or inhibiting tumoral events [3-6]. However, there are few reports discussing these mechanisms. Besides, the mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of phytochemical and homeopathic Aveloz have not yet been described. Several experimental methods have been used to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects, such as Inductest, the Ames test and the chromotest. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of Aveloz latex and Aveloz phytotherapic and homeopathic solutions. Methodology: In this study, Aveloz 5 and 30cH are prepared according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [7], from Aveloz latex collected in the Center for Natural Products Research (NPPN at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro [8]. The Aveloz phytochemical solution was prepared following the doses used in folk medicine: 2 drops diluted in 250ml of water and 2 drops diluted in 25 ml of water. All test solutions were submitted to the following methodologies: (a Inductest: assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a response to DNA damage in lysogenic bacteria; (b The Ames test: uses indicator strains of Salmonella

  9. Determining urine sample mutagenicity ratio using Ames test: Tehran forensic medicine laboratory personnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partoazar A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cancer prevention besides detection and treatment has a very important role in control of cancer disease. Since some chemical compounds that are used in laboratories, especially in pathology laboratory are potentially mutagens, lab assistances that are working with chemicals such as Benzene, Xylazine and Formaldehyde for long period of time may be exposed to overload of these carcinogens. Therefore, it is necessary to use an indicator for detecting these occupational exposures. Ames test has been recommended in biomonitoring of environment that has high risk carcinogenicity characteristic."n"nMethods: A total of fifty seven urine samples of forensic medicine laboratory personnel's were extracted by C18 column and then tested by TA100 and TA98 standard strains of Ames assay. Each sample was analyzed with and without activator to detect mutagen and promutagen materials."n"nResults: Levels of mutagenicity were found by TA98 strain without activator in one case as well as with activator in two cases of urine samples of pathology laboratory personnel's. These cases were working in laboratory for long time in all of the workdays."n"nConclusion: Personnel's working in pathology laboratories may have

  10. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To utilize and exploit pollen for in situ mutagen monitoring, screening and toxicology, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. To be useful for the development of mutagen detection systems proteins should be: (1) activity stainable or immunologically identifiable in the pollen, (2) the products of one to three loci; and (3) gametophytic and nuclear in origin. Several proteins, including alcohol dehydrogenase in maize, which meet these criteria are discussed. The waxy locus in barley and maize which controls starch deposition for pollen screening and mutant detection. Thirty waxy mutant lines, induced by sodium azide and gamma-rays are characterized for spontaneous and induced reversion frequencies, allelism, karyotype, amylose content, and UDPglucose glucosyltransferase (waxy gene product) activity. Twelve mutant alleles are being mapped by recombinant frequencies

  11. Counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Perales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction promoted by mutagen-induced elevation of mutation rates of viruses, may meet with the problem of selection of mutagen-resistant variants, as extensively documented for standard, non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors. Previously, we characterized a mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus that included in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase replacement M296I that decreased the sensitivity of the virus to the mutagenic nucleoside analogue ribavirin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Replacement M296I in the viral polymerase impedes the extinction of the mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus by elevated concentrations of ribavirin. In contrast, wild type virus was extinguished by the same ribavirin treatment and, interestingly, no mutants resistant to ribavirin were selected from the wild type populations. Decreases of infectivity and viral load of the ribavirin-resistant M296I mutant were attained with a combination of the mutagen 5-fluorouracil and the non-mutagenic inhibitor guanidine hydrocloride. However, extinction was achieved with a sequential treatment, first with ribavirin, and then with a minimal dose of 5-fluorouracil in combination with guanidine hydrochloride. Both, wild type and ribavirin-resistant mutant M296I exhibited equal sensitivity to this combination, indicating that replacement M296I in the polymerase did not confer a significant cross-resistance to 5-fluorouracil. We discuss these results in relation to antiviral designs based on lethal mutagenesis. CONCLUSIONS: (i When dominant in the population, a mutation that confers partial resistance to a mutagenic agent can jeopardize virus extinction by elevated doses of the same mutagen. (ii A wild type virus, subjected to identical high mutagenic treatment, need not select a mutagen-resistant variant, and the population can be extinguished. (iii Extinction of the mutagen-resistant variant can be achieved by a sequential treatment of a

  12. Evaluation of Mutagenicity of Three Eugenol-Containing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlan Sumawinata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Eugenol containing materials are still widely used, both by the lay people or by the dentist. Professionally it is used to relieve dental pain by placing it in the cavity, or as a mixture for temporary filling, temporary cementation, and root canal sealer. Eugenol, however, is also known to be toxic to the tissue, and aflatoxin, a substance known to be mutagenic, has been found in material labeled as clove oil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of these materials, in particular the mutagenicity. The materials tested were imported eugenol material (95.8% eugenol and local eugenol material (99.5%, both used by dentists and clove-oil material (6.8% eugenol used by the lay people. These materials were assayed in Ames test using Salmonella typhimarium TA 1535 and TA 1537 strain without S-9 mixture. It was shown that all revertants were below the negative control of the test. It was concluded that neither the eugenol used by the dentist nor the clove oil used for suppressing the dental pain by the lay people showed mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 and TA 1537 strain.

  13. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  14. Mutation induction in mangosteen : Response of explants to mutagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrommee, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Young purplish red leaves of mangosteen raised in two-phase medium and calli were collected and treated with two mutagens, gamma rays and ethylethane sulfonate (EMS. After treating with both mutagens, leaves and calli were cultured onto callus induction medium to evaluate the effect of mutagens on percent leaf forming callus and survival percentage of callus. The results showed that an increament of EMS caused decreased in survival rate of calli. The concentration that inhibited 50%growth of the calli was 0.5%. A similar result was also found in the case of leaf-forming callus. A 50% inhibition of leaf-forming callus was obtained by treating with EMS at concentrations of 0.5-0.75%. In the case of irradiation, gamma rays at 20 and 40 grays gave survival percentages of 84.2 and 80.8, which were significantly different from that of the control (100% survival. Contrary result was obtained when young red leaves were exposed to gamma ray. A drastic decrease in leaf-forming callus was found when leaves were irradiated with dose higher than 10 grays. Irradiation at 20 and 40 grays completely inhibited callus formation from leaves while 5 and 10 gray irradiation gave leaf-forming callus percentages of 50 and 10. The dose that inhibited 50% callus formation was 10 grays.

  15. The pH dependence of the mutagenicity of methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) towards Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, H I; Speakman, J B

    1981-01-01

    The ability of methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) to induce point mutations to carboxin and MBC resistance in Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arth. was dependent upon the pH value of the agar medium into which it had been incorporated. The relevance of this in relation to testing chemicals for a possible mutagenic activity with microorganisms is discussed. PMID:7010148

  16. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  17. Mutagenic and genotoxic activities of four pesticides: captan, foltaf, phosphamidon and furadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Ashok, B T; Musarrat, J

    1997-05-01

    The mutagenic and genotoxic potential of four pesticides viz. captan, foltaf, phosphamidon and furadan was evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay and their DNA damaging ability on radiation repair defective E. coli K-12 strains respectively. The mutagenic spectrum revealed captan to be most mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, while the presence of S9 mix led to an attenuated mutagenic response. Foltaf, phosphamidon and furadan were detected as relatively weaker mutagens. A significant decrease in the survival of SOS defective mutants, recA, lexA and pol- of E. coli was observed as compared to their wild-type counterparts in the presence of the pesticides. The role of SOS repair genes gains further support from the Salmonella strains triggering the error-prone SOS response.

  18. Mutagenicity of the cysteine S-conjugate sulfoxides of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Roy M; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-04-01

    The nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are believed to be mediated primarily through the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase-dependent bioactivation of the corresponding cysteine S-conjugate metabolites S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (DCVC) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (TCVC), respectively. DCVC and TCVC have previously been demonstrated to be mutagenic by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, and reduction in mutagenicity was observed upon treatment with the β-lyase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). Because DCVC and TCVC can also be bioactivated through sulfoxidation to yield the potent nephrotoxicants S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS) and S-(1,2,2-trichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine sulfoxide (TCVCS), respectively, the mutagenic potential of these two sulfoxides was investigated using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA100 mutagenicity assay. The results show both DCVCS and TCVCS were mutagenic, and TCVCS exhibited 3-fold higher mutagenicity than DCVCS. However, DCVCS and TCVCS mutagenic activity was approximately 700-fold and 30-fold lower than DCVC and TCVC, respectively. DCVC and DCVCS appeared to induce toxicity in TA100, as evidenced by increased microcolony formation and decreased mutant frequency above threshold concentrations. TCVC and TCVCS were not toxic in TA100. The toxic effects of DCVC limited the sensitivity of TA100 to DCVC mutagenic effects and rendered it difficult to investigate the effects of AOAA on DCVC mutagenic activity. Collectively, these results suggest that DCVCS and TCVCS exerted a definite but weak mutagenicity in the TA100 strain. Therefore, despite their potent nephrotoxicity, DCVCS and TCVCS are not likely to play a major role in DCVC or TCVC mutagenicity in this strain.

  19. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of a living nosode compounded with Influenza A virus

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    Alvaro Leitao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The influenza virus has been responsible for contagious respiratory diseases with high mortality rates [1]. Some drugs have been used to treat human influenza. However, these drugs cause many common side effects and induce the appearance of resistant viral strains [2]. The impact caused by the influenza virus has motivated the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of influenza [3]. Therefore, a new homeopathic medicine was developed using, as a starting point, the infectious influenza virus [4]. This belongs to a group called living nosodes [5]. However, its mutagenic and genotoxic potentials, especially when used in low dilutions, has not yet been evaluated and it is important because this biotherapic is prepared from living microorganisms. Different methods can be used to detect mutagenic and genotoxicic effects. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of influenza A living nosode at different homeopathic potencies. Methodology: 1 ml of purified viral suspension was diluted in 9 ml of sterile distilled water. This sample was submitted to 100 mechanical succussions (approximately 3 Hz, using Autic® Brazilian machine, originating the first dilution, named decimal (1x. 1 ml of this solution was diluted in 9 ml of solvent and was submitted to 100 sucussions, generating biotherapic 2x. This procedure was successively repeated, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, to obtain the biotherapic 30x [6]. By the same technique, water vehicle was prepared until 30x potency to be used as control. All samples were prepared in sterile and under aseptic conditions, using laminar flow cabinet, class II, and were stored in the refrigerator (8ºC. The samples 1x, 6x, 12x, 18x, 24x and 30x and water 30x (vehicle control were analysed by: the Inductest, which assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a reflection of damage

  20. Retrospective analysis of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity data of the cosmetic ingredients present on the Annexes of the Cosmetic EU legislation (2000-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of cosmetic ingredients at the regulatory level, usually a battery of three in vitro tests is applied. This battery, designed to be very sensitive, produces a high number of positive results, imposing the need for in vivo follow-up testing to clear the substance under study. In Europe, the use of experimental animals has become impossible for cosmetic ingredients due to the implementation of animal testing and marketing bans. Consequently, the possibility to 'de-risk' substances with positive in vitro results disappear and potentially safe cosmetic substances will be lost for the EU market unless currently used in vitro assays can be adapted or new non-animal mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies become available. Described strategies to improve the specificity of existing in vitro assays include optimisation of the used cell type and cytotoxicity assay and lowering of the applied top concentration. A reduction of the number of tests in the battery from three to two also has been suggested. In this study, the performance of the 'standard' in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity testing battery is analysed for a number of cosmetic ingredients. We composed a database with toxicological information on 249 cosmetic ingredients, mainly present on the Annexes of the European cosmetic legislation. Results revealed that the in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests showed a low specificity for the cosmetic ingredients concerned, comparable to the specificity published for chemicals. Non-confirmed or 'misleading' positive results amounted up to 93% for the in vitro test batteries. The cell type and top concentrations did not have a major impact on the specificity. With respect to cytotoxicity determinations, different end points were used, potentially leading to different testing concentrations, suggesting the need for a consensus in this matter. Overall, the results of this retrospective analysis point to an urgent need of better regulatory

  1. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  2. Mutagenic activation reduces carcinogenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene for mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, L P; Bogdanova, L A; Kaledin, V I

    2013-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (aromatic amine and azo stain metabolic stimulation inhibitor) reduced the hepatocarcinogenic activity of 4-aminoazobenzene and reduced that of ortho-aminoazotoluene in suckling mice. Both 4-aminoazobenzene and ortho-aminoazotoluene exhibited mutagenic activity in Ames' test in vitro on S. typhimurium TA 98 strain with activation with liver enzymes; this mutagenic activity was similarly suppressed by adding pentachlorophenol into activation medium. Induction of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, stimulating the mutagenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene, suppressed its carcinogenic effect on mouse liver. Hence, ortho-aminotoluene (the initial compound), but not its mutagenic metabolites, was the direct active hepatocarcinogen for mice.

  3. Structural and biochemical impact of C8-aryl-guanine adducts within the NarI recognition DNA sequence: influence of aryl ring size on targeted and semi-targeted mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sproviero, Michael; Verwey, Anne M.R.; Rankin, Katherine M.; Witham, Aaron A.; Soldatov, Dmitriy V.; Richard A. Manderville; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Sturla, Shana J.; Sharma, Purshotam; Wetmore, Stacey D.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical mutagens with an aromatic ring system may be enzymatically transformed to afford aryl radical species that preferentially react at the C8-site of 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG). The resulting carbon-linked C8-aryl-dG adduct possesses altered biophysical and genetic coding properties compared to the precursor nucleoside. Described herein are structural and in vitro mutagenicity studies of a series of fluorescent C8-aryl-dG analogues that differ in aryl ring size and are representative of auth...

  4. Assessment of estrogenic, mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of nemorosone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana S. Camargo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a wide range of research involving natural products is focused on the discovery of new drugs in many different therapeutic areas. A great number of the synthetic compounds on the market were derived from natural products, especially plants. Nemorosone is the major constituent of the floral resin of Clusia rosea Jacq., Clusiaceae, and in Cuban propolis. In vitro studies have shown cytotoxic activity in this substance against various tumor cell lines, including those resistant to various cytotoxic drugs, whereas it has low cytotoxicity to non-tumoral cells. Therefore, in order to characterize the biological activity of nemorosone, a substance with potential antitumor activity, and in view of preclinical testing of the toxicity of drug candidate compounds, the main aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of nemorosone by the Ames test, using the strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 of Salmonella typhimurium. Secondly, to characterize the estrogenic activity in an experimental recombinant yeast model (Recombinant Yeast Assay mutagenic activity was observed at in any of the concentrations in any of the test strains. To evaluate the antimutagenic potential, direct and indirect mutagenic agents were used: 4 nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD, mitomycin C (MMC and aflatoxin B1 (AFL. Nemorosone showed moderate antimutagenic activity (inhibition level 31%, in strain TA100 in the presence of AFL, and strong antimutagenic activity in TA102 against MMC (inhibition level 53%. Estrogenic activity was observed, with an EEq of 0.41±0.16 nM at various tested concentrations.

  5. Increased Mutagen Sensitivity and DNA Damage in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Chiara; Drake, Kylie M.; Rigelsky, Christina M.; McNelly, Lauren N.; Meade, Sirena L.; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious lung condition characterized by vascular remodeling in the precapillary pulmonary arterioles. We and others have demonstrated chromosomal abnormalities and increased DNA damage in PAH lung vascular cells, but their timing and role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. Objectives: We hypothesized that if DNA damage predates PAH, it might be an intrinsic cell property that is present outside the diseased lung. Methods: We measured DNA damage, mutagen sensitivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung and blood cells from patients with Group 1 PAH, their relatives, and unrelated control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline DNA damage was significantly elevated in PAH, both in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (P < 0.001). Remarkably, PBMC from unaffected relatives showed similar increases, indicating this is not related to PAH treatments. ROS levels were also higher (P < 0.01). DNA damage correlated with ROS production and was suppressed by antioxidants (P < 0.001). PBMC from patients and relatives also showed markedly increased sensitivity to two chemotherapeutic drugs, bleomycin and etoposide (P < 0.001). Results were consistent across idiopathic, heritable, and associated PAH groups. Conclusions: Levels of baseline and mutagen-induced DNA damage are intrinsically higher in PAH cells. Similar results in PBMC from unaffected relatives suggest this may be a genetically determined trait that predates disease onset and may act as a risk factor contributing to lung vascular remodeling following endothelial cell injury. Further studies are required to fully characterize mutagen sensitivity, which could have important implications for clinical management. PMID:25918951

  6. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  7. Evaluation of Mutagenicity of Three Eugenol-Containing Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Narlan Sumawinata

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol containing materials are still widely used, both by the lay people or by the dentist. Professionally it is used to relieve dental pain by placing it in the cavity, or as a mixture for temporary filling, temporary cementation, and root canal sealer. Eugenol, however, is also known to be toxic to the tissue, and aflatoxin, a substance known to be mutagenic, has been found in material labeled as clove oil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of these materials, in par...

  8. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S M; Sedgwick, S G

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, ...

  9. Hypoxia diminishes the detoxification of the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Sanen, Kathleen; Godschalk, Roger W.; Theys, Jan; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Chiu, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes genetic instability and is therefore an important factor in carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that activation of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF alpha can enhance the mutagenic phenotype induced by the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). To further elu

  10. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of bioflavonoids and structural analogues in the Ames/Salmonella test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohn GR; Stel JJ van der; Stavenuiter JFC; Hamzink MRJ; Kreijl CF; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    De mutagene en antimutagene eigenschappen van bioflavonoiden werden in de bacteriele mutageniteitstest van Ames met Salmonella typhimurium stammen TA98 en TA100 onderzocht. De volgorde van mutagene activiteit voor beide stammen in aanwezigheid van metabole activering was quercetine>myricetine

  11. 17. Exposure and Metabolism of Heterocyclic Amine Food Mutagens/Carcinogens in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Carcinogens produced from overcooked foods are extremely mutagenic in numerous in vitro and in vivo test systems. One of these mutagens, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats and has been implicated in dietary epidemiology studies for raising the risk of

  12. Cultivating High Efficient Bacteria of Degrading Pulping Wastewater by Ultraviolet Mutagenic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-ning; ZHANG Ying; LIU Shi-rui; REN Nan-qi

    2004-01-01

    Instead of pure bacteria, induction mutation of activated sludge by ultraviolet (Uv) was studied and used to treat pulping wastewater by continuous-flow. The result showed the mutagenic activated sludge had remarkable effect and application potential in pulping wastewater treatment. Comparing with common activated sludge, the mutagenic activated sludge was more suitable for lignose decomposition and had high decomposing efficiency.

  13. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; McKenzie, R J; Watson, M E; Harris, P J

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is lower in Polynesian populations of the South Pacific than in European populations. This difference in incidence of the disease may be, at least partly, related to diet. Dietary fiber is believed to protect against colorectal cancer, and one of the ways it may act is by adsorbing mutagens that are carcinogenic. Very little is known about the chemical composition or the ability to adsorb mutagens of these dietary fibers from South Pacific food plants. In contrast to European food plants, which are mostly dicotyledons, South Pacific food plants are mainly monocotyledons. We isolated cell walls (dietary fiber) from the three edible parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta), which is a monocotyledon and a major South Pacific food plant. The ability of these three unlignified cell-wall preparations to adsorb the hydrophobic environmental mutagen 1,8-dinitropyrene was studied. The greatest adsorption occurred with walls from leaf blade, followed by petiole and corm walls, although the differences were not major. The amount of adsorption was intermediate between the low adsorption previously found with unlignified dicotyledon walls (from the flesh of potato tubers and immature cabbage leaves) and the much higher adsorption found with unlignified walls from monocotyledons of the grass and cereal family (Poaceae) (from leaves of seedling Italian ryegrass). These data are consistent with the monosaccharide compositions of the taro wall preparations, which were more similar to those of unlignified walls of dicotyledons than to unlignified walls of the Poaceae. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of the dietary fiber determines its adsorptive properties and that there may be important differences between the major dietary fibers of South Pacific and European food plants.

  14. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of a nonylphenol ethoxylates: Degradation, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad

    2015-12-15

    Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment of nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEO) was performed and treatment effect was evaluated on the basis of degradation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), and toxicity reduction efficiencies. The radiolytic by-products were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Low mass carboxylic acids, aldehyde, ketone, and acetic acid were identified as the by-products of the NPEO degradation. NPEO sample irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2 showed more than 90% degradation. Allium cepa (A. cepa), brine shrimp, heamolytic tests were used for cytotoxicity study, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) of treated and un-treated NPEO. The reductions in COD and TOC were greater than 70% and 50%, respectively. Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment revealed a considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. A. cepa, heamolytic and shrimp assays showed cytotoxicity reduction up to 68.65%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. The mutagenicity reduced up to 62%, 74%, and 79% (TA98) and 68%, 78%, and 82% (TA100), respectively of NPEO-6, NPEO-9, and NPEO-30 irradiated to the absorbed dose of 15 kGy/4.58% H2O2. NPEO-6 detoxified more efficiently versus NPEO-9 and NPEO-30 and results showed that Gamma radiation/H2O2 treatment has the potential to mineralize and detoxify NPEO. PMID:26143198

  15. 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced mutagen sensitivity and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-E; Li, Chunying; Xiong, Ping; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Prieto, Victor G; Duvic, Madeleine; Lee, Jeffrey E; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Hsu, Tao C; Wei, Qingyi

    2016-04-01

    Mutagen sensitivity assay, which measures the enhanced cellular response to DNA damage induced in vitro by mutagens/carcinogens, has been used in the study of cancer susceptibility. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO), an ultraviolet (UV) radiation-mimetic chemical, can produce chromosomal breaks in mammalian cells and induce cancer. Given the potential role of 4-NQO as the experimental mutagen substituting for UV as the etiological carcinogen of cutaneous melanoma (CM), we tested the hypothesis that cellular sensitivity to 4-NQO is associated with the risk of developing CM in a case-control study of 133 patients with primary CM and 176 cancer-free controls. Short-term blood cultures were treated with 4-NQO at a final concentration of 10 μmol/l for 24 h and scored chromatid breaks in 50 well-spread metaphases. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We found that the log-transformed frequency of chromatid breaks was significantly higher in 133 patients than in 176 controls (P=0.004) and was associated with an increased risk for CM (adjusted odds ratio=1.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.84) after adjustment for age and sex. Moreover, as the chromatid break values increased, the risk for CM increased in a dose-dependent manner (P(trend)=0.003). Further analysis explored a multiplicative interaction between the sensitivity to 4-NQO and a family history of skin cancer (P(interaction)=0.004) on the risk of CM. Therefore, our findings suggest that sensitivity to 4-NQO may be a risk factor for the risk of CM, which is more sensitive than UV-induced chromotid breaks.

  16. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  17. Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, D; Bruni, R; Bianchi, N; Chiarabelli, C; Gambari, R; Medici, A; Lista, A; Paganetto, G

    2003-03-01

    Sangre de Drago is a red viscous latex extracted from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) cortex, renowned in South American popular medicine for its wound-healing properties. The in vitro antiproliferative effects were determined on the human myelogenous leukemia K562 cells line (IC50 = 2.5 +/- 0.3 microg ml(-1)). The mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of C. lechleri sap was examined by means of the Ames/Salmonella test. No mutagenic activity was found on the Salmonella typhimurium strains T98 and T100, either with or without S9 activation. On the other hand, the sap showed an inhibitory effect against the mutagenic activity of the indirectly acting mutagen 2-Aminoanthracene in presence of S9 and a moderate protective activity against directly acting mutagens Sodium Azide and 2-Nitrofluorene. Therefore we suggest that C. lechleri sap interacts with the enzymes of the S9 mix, thereby inhibiting the transformation of 2-Aminoantracene into its active forms.

  18. Mutagenic effects of β-rays on rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutagenic effects of 14C and some other mutagenic factors were compared, and the relationships between mutagenic effects of 14C and treated stages, doses and methods were studied with different rice varieties as test materials. The mutation rates of heading date and plant height were observed in M2. The results showed that the mutagenic effects of 14C were better than those of other mutagenic factors tested. It is most effective for inducing early-maturing mutation to treat plants with the doses of 333 x 104 Bq/plant at the stage of pollen mother cell formation; but for dwarf mutation , they were treated with 74 x 104 Bq/plant at the stage of pistil and stamen formation to pollen mother cell formation. As a best treating method, Na214CO3 solution was injected to plant bases

  19. Genetically modified Vibrio harveyi strains as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyz, A.; Jasiecki, J.; Bogdan, A.; Szpilewska, H.; Wegrzyn, G.

    2000-02-01

    For biodetection of mutagenic pollution of marine environments, an organism naturally occurring in these habitats should be used. The authors found that marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi may be an appropriate bioindicator of mutagenic pollution. For positive selection of mutants, they developed a simple method for isolation of V. harveyi mutants resistant to neomycin. The authors constructed genetically modified V. harveyi strains that produce significantly more neomycin-resistant mutants upon treatment with low concentrations of mutagens than the wild-type counterpart. The sensitivity of the mutagenicity test with the V. harveyi strains is at least comparable to (if not higher than) that of the commonly used Ames test, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. Therefore, the authors consider that the V. harveyi strains described in this report could be used as potential bioindicators of mutagenic pollution of marine environments.

  20. Molecular basis for the mutagenic and lethal effects of ultraviolet irradiation. Research accomplishments (1968 to present)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier work on the chemical basis of mutagenesis led to certain chemical generalities sufficient to explain how certain mutagens such as uv light and hydroxylamine functioned in information transfer systems (replicative, transcriptive and translational). When such modifications were applied to biologically active DNA in a controlled manner biological expression was non-stoichiometric because much of the damage was removed from the DNA by repair systems. Our efforts were then directed to these systems which led to: (1) the isolation, purification and characterization of endonucleases responsible for the first and controlling step in DNA repair - referred to as incision in both M. luteus and E. coli. The biological role of these enzymes was inferred in appropriate mutants; (2) the isolation, purification and characterization of exonucleases responsible for the removal or excision of damaged nucleotides in M. luteus and human placental trophoblasts; (3) the repair of uv damaged biologically active transforming and transfecting DNAs by purified endonucleases, exonucleases, DNA polymerase I and polynucleotide ligase from M. luteus and E. coli; (4) the characterization of the dual gene control for incision phenomenon in M. luteus and E. coli; and (5) isolation, purification and characterization of repair enzymes from human placenta

  1. Molecular basis for the mutagenic and lethal effects of ultraviolet irradiation. Research accomplishments (1968 to present)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier work on the chemical basis of mutagenesis led to certain chemical generalities sufficient to explain how certain mutagens such as uv light and hydroxylamine functioned in information transfer systems (replicative, transcriptive and translational). When such modifications were applied to biologically active DNA in a controlled manner biological expression was non-stoichiometric because much of the damage was removed from the DNA by repair systems. Our efforts were then directed to these systems which led to: (1) the isolation, purification and characterization of endonucleases responsible for the first and controlling step in DNA repair - referred to as incision in both M. luteus and E. coli. The biological role of these enzymes was inferred in appropriate mutants; (2) the isolation, purification and characterization of exonucleases responsible for the removal or excision of damaged nucleotides in M. luteus and human placental trophoblasts; (3) the repair of uv damaged biologically active transforming and transfecting DNAs by purified endonucleases, exonucleases, DNA polymerase I and polynucleotide ligase from M. luteus and E. coli; (4) the characterization of the dual gene control for incision phenomenon in M. luteus and E. coli; and (5) isolation, purification and characterization of repair enzymes from human placenta (currently in progress).

  2. Anti mutagenesis of chemical modulators against damage induced by reactor thermal neutrons; Antimutagenesis de moduladores quimicos contra el dano inducido por neutrones termicos de reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano A, F.; Guzman R, J.; Garcia B, A.; Paredes G, L.; Delfin L, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamentos de Materiales Radiactivos, de Biologia, del Reactor y Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The mutations are changes in the genetic information whether for spontaneous form or induced by the exposure of the genetic material to certain agents, called mutagens: chemical or physical (diverse types of radiations). As well as exist a great variety of mutagens and pro mutagens (these last are agents which transform themselves in mutagens after the metabolic activation). Also several chemical compounds exist which are called antimutagens because they reduce the mutagens effect. The C vitamin or ascorbic acid (A A) presents antimutagenic and anti carcinogenic properties. On the other hand a sodium/copper salt derived from chlorophyll belonging to the porphyrin group (C L) contains a chelated metal ion in the center of molecule. It is also an antioxidant, antimutagenic and anti carcinogenic compound, it is called chlorophyllin. The objective of this work is to establish if the A A or the C L will reduce the damages induced by thermal and fast reactor neutrons. (Author)

  3. Inhibitory effect of cheese and some food constituents on mutagenicity generated in Vicia faba after treatment with nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, W M; van Boekel, M A; van Broekhoven, L W

    1987-02-01

    The inhibitory potential of various food constituents on the mutagenicity generated in fava beans after treatment with nitrite has been investigated. Cheese was able to inhibit this direct-acting mutagenicity. The antimutagenic factor was not extractable from cheese; solvents of different polarity were used for the extraction. Casein, pectin, gelatin, Vicia faba protein and, to a lesser extent, whey protein and starch could also inhibit mutagenicity. A decrease in mutagenicity was always accompanied by a decrease in total N-nitroso content, as measured analytically. The mutagenic principles appeared to bind more strongly onto cheese than onto V. faba. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:3557236

  4. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  5. Reproductive health control of the families with mutagenic exposures after Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to estimate the additional genetic risk (hazard) of mutagenic radiation for evacuated families in relatively ecologically favorable region. The reproductive characteristics, birth defects prevalence and antropometric data compare was held among newborns for 130 families before and after mutagenic exposure, when they were evacuated from radiation polluted region. The study results indicated no evidence of low-dose radiation exposure impact on realization of additional mutagenic burden in the liquidators and evacuees families through the extent of reproductive losses and CM

  6. Comparative genotoxic effects of the cooked-food-related mutagens Trp-P-2 and IQ in bacteria and cultured mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.H.; Carrano, A.V.; Salazar, E.; Felton, J.S.; Hatch, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a major study to evaluate the mutagenicity of chemicals produced during the cooking of foods, we examined the responses of bacteria and cultured Chinese hamster cells to the compounds Trp-P-2 (3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole) and IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline), constituents identified in cooked beef and fish. In the Ames/Salmonella tester strain TA1538, both compounds were confirmed to be extremely potent mutagens that were active at levels below 1 ng/plate in the presence of hamster-liver S9 microsomal fraction. 50-fold higher doses of both compounds were required for mutagenicity in the uvr/sup +/ tester strain TA1978. Trp-P-2 also behaved as a strong mutagen in CHO cells using the standard exogenous activation with hamster-liver S9 fraction. At concentrations below 1 ..mu..g/ml it produced dose-dependent increases in cell killing, mutations at the hprt and aprt loci, sister-chromatid exchanges, and chromosomal aberrations. An excision-repair-deficient strain was about 2-fold more sensitive than the normal CHO cells with respect to these genotoxic effects of Trp-P-2. IQ had unexpectedly weak activity for all genetic endpoints in the CHO cells, and it produced clear-cut responses only in the repair-deficient cells and only above a concentration of 10 ..mu..g/ml. The toxicity that was observed with IQ was not affected by the repair capacity of the cells and was not associated with chromosomal aberrations, indicating that damage to cellular structures other than nuclear DNA was likely the predominant pathway for cell killing. 38 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Immunological detection and quantification of DNA components structurally modified by alkylating carcinogens, mutagens and chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and quantification of defined reaction products of chemical mutagens and carcinogens (and of many cancer chemotherapeutic agents) with DNA require highly sensitive analytical techniques. The exceptional capability of immunoglobulins to recognize subtle alterations of molecular structure (especially when monoclonal antibodies are used to maximize specificity), outstanding sensitivity of immunoanalysis by high-affinity antibodies, and the fact that radioactively-labelled agents are not required suggest the utility of a radioimmunoassay to recognize and quantitate alkylated DNA products. We have recently developed a set of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (secreted by mouse x mouse as well as by rat x rat hybridomas; antibody affinity constants, 109 to > 1010 lmol) specifically directed against several DNA alkylation products with possible relevance in relation to both mutagenesis and malignant transformation of mammalian cells. These alkylation products include 06-N-butyldeoxyguanosine, and 04-ethyldeoxythymidine. When used in a radioimmunassay, an antibody specific for 06-ethyldeoxyguanosine, for example, will detect this product at an 06-ethyldeoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine molar ratio of approx. 3 x 10-7 in a hydrolysate of 100 ug of DNA. The limit of detection can be lowered further if the respective alkyldeoxynucleosides are separated by HPLC from the DNA hydrolysate prior to the RIA. The anti-alkyldeoxynucleoside monoclonal antibodies can also be used to visualize, by immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy combined with electronic image intensification, specific alkylation products in the nuclear DNA of individual cells, and to localize structurally modified bases in double-stranded DNA molecules by transmission electron microscopy

  8. Impact of Environmental Exposures on the Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity of Heterocyclic Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Bennett, L M; Malfatti, M A; Colvin, M E; Kulp, K S

    2003-12-19

    Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are produced from overcooked foods and are highly mutagenic in most short-term test systems. One of the most abundant of these amines, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats. Human dietary epidemiology studies suggest a strong correlation between either meat consumption or well-done muscle meat consumption and cancers of the colon, breast, stomach, lung and esophagus. For over 20 years our laboratory has helped define the human exposure to these dietary carcinogens. In this report we describe how various environmental exposures may modulate the risk from exposure to heterocyclic amines, especially PhIP. To assess the impact of foods on PhIP metabolism in humans, we developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major PhIP urinary metabolites following the consumption of a single portion of grilled chicken. Adding broccoli to the volunteers' diet altered the kinetics of PhIP metabolism. At the cellular level we have found that PhIP itself stimulates a significant estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, but even more interestingly, co-incubation of the cells with herbal teas appear to enhance the response. Numerous environmental chemicals found in food or the atmosphere can impact the exposure, metabolism, and cell proliferation response of heterocyclic amines.

  9. 2004 Environmental Mutagen Society Annual Meeting - Genes, Mutations and Disease: The Environmental Connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, Leona D.

    2004-08-23

    The Meeting consisted of 9 Symposia, 4 Keynote Lectures, 3 Platform Sessions and 4 Poster Sessions. In addition there were Breakfast Meetings for Special Interest Groups designed to inform attendees about the latest advances in environmental mutagenesis research. Several of the topics to be covered at this broad meeting will be of interest to the Department of Energy, Office of Science. The relevance of this meeting to the DOE derives from the fact that low dose radiation may represent one of the most significant sources of human mutations that are attributable to the environment. The EMS membership, and those who attended the EMS Annual Meeting were interested in both chemical and radiation induced biological effects, such as cell death, mutation, teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and aging. These topics thate were presented at the 2004 EMS Annual meeting that were of clear interest to DOE include: human variation in cancer susceptibility, unusual mechanisms of mutation, germ and stem cell mutagenesis, recombination and the maintenance of genomic stability, multiple roles for DNA mismatch repair, DNA helicases, mutation, cancer and aging, Genome-wide transcriptional responses to environmental change, Telomeres and genomic stability: when ends don?t meet, systems biology approach to cell phenotypic decision processes, and the surprising biology of short RNAs. Poster and platform sessions addressed topics related to environmental mutagen exposure, DNA repair, mechanisms of mutagenesis, epidemiology, genomic and proteomics and bioinformatics. These sessions were designed to give student, postdocs and more junior scientists a chance to present their work.

  10. Mutagenic properties of linuron and chlorbromuron evaluated by means of cytogenetic biomarkers in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Concetta; Palmieri, Cristina; Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Ferrito, Venera; Pappalardo, Matteo; Librando, Vito; Saccone, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Agricultural practices are usually supported by several chemical substances, such as herbicides. Linuron and chlorbromuron are phenylurea herbicides largely used to protect crops from weeds, blocking photosynthesis by inhibition of the photosystem II complex. The former, also commercially known as lorox or afalon, is selectively used to protect bean and French bean plants, fennels, and celeriacs; the second, commercially known as maloran, is selectively used for carrots, peas, potatoes, soy sprouts, and sunflowers. Considering the widespread use of herbicides and, more generally, pesticides, it is important to clarify their involvement on human health, one of them concerning the possible direct or indirect effect on the genome of exposed populations. Here, we show that these herbicides are endowed by mutagenic properties, as demonstrated by an increased number of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in two exposed Chinese hamster cell lines derived from ovary and epithelial liver, respectively. This was also confirmed by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Our present and previously obtained data clearly indicate that phenylurea herbicides must be used with great caution, especially for agricultural workers who use large amounts of herbicides during their work, and particular attention should be given to residues of these herbicides and their involvement in environmental pollution.

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of homeopathic Candida albicans solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida spp is naturally found in humans’ flora of skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and, in general, up to 75% of the population does not have any symptom [1]. However, oral candidiasis is very common among HIV patients and patients undergoing chemotherapy. The treatment of oral candidiasis is necessary once the disease causes discomfort and dysphagia, resulting in poor nutrition, slow recovery, and prolonged hospital stay [2,3]. Preliminary results obtained by our group with a new biotherapic prepared from Candida albicans (Candida 30x showed a great potential to reduce the candida yeast adhesion rate when the epithelial cells were pre-treated. This study is currently being developed with the evaluation of mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of several homeopathic solutions. Aims: The goal of this study was to assess the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of different homeopathic potencies of C. albicans. Methodology: One part of C. albicans yeast obtained from Brazilian patient’s blood [4] was diluted in 9 parts of sterile water. This sample was submitted to 100 mechanical succussions (approximately 3 Hz, using Autic® Brazilian machine, originating the first dilution (1x. Then, 1 ml of this solution was diluted in 9 ml of solvent, submitted to 100 succussions, obtaining 2x potency. This procedure was successively repeated to obtain 30x potency, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [5]. By the same technique, water vehicle was prepared until 30x to be used as control. All samples were prepared in sterile and aseptic conditions, using laminar flow cabinet, class II and were stored in the refrigerator (8ºC. The samples 1x, 6x, 12x, 18x, 24x and 30x of C. albicans and water 30x (vehicle control were analysed by: the Inductest, which assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a reflection of damage in DNA

  12. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK+/-) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 370C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author)

  13. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA). Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

    1989-09-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK{sup +/-}) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37{sup 0}C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author).

  14. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

  15. Thiolsulfonate functionalized polystyrene resin: preparation and application in the isolation and identification of electrophilic mutagens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for isolation and identification of elecrtophilic mutagens from complex matrix was developed. Thiosulfonic anion was immobilized onto polystyrene beads and used as separation media. Potassium polystyryl-thiosulfonate, prepared from polystyryl-sulfonyl chloride and KHS, was observed to selectively react with model electrophilic mutagens such as alkyl halides, α-chloroketones and α-chloroesters to produce polystyryl-thiosulfonic esters. After separation from other nonreactive organic compounds, the beads then reacted with ethanethiol to produce unsymmetrical ethyl disulfides which are easily detected by GC/MS. For one mutagenic compound, only one unsymmetrical disulfide was found to contain its structure part. Thus, the structure of the parent mutagens could be deduced from that of the unsymmetrical disulfides. The degree of functionalization of the potassium polystyryl-thiosulfonate resin was 1.11 mmol/g. Its reactivity is discussed and its recycling method is reported here.

  16. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  17. 5-Formyldeoxyuridine: a new type of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and its mutagenicity to salmonella strain TA102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, H; Iida, A; Yamaizumi, Z; Nishimura, S; Tanooka, H

    1990-04-01

    An aqueous solution of calf thymus DNA was irradiated by 60Co gamma-rays and modified nucleosides produced in DNA were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array UV detector. A new product with UV absorption maxima at 230 nm and 280 nm was observed. The structure of this compound was proposed to be 5-formyldeoxyuridine (f5dU) based on the mass spectrum of its trimethylsilyl derivative (M+, m/z472) and the structure was confirmed by chemical synthesis. The yield of f5dU (2.4/10(4) dT/krad) in DNA was of roughly the same order as that of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 5-hydroxymethyldeoxyuridine. Free f5dU was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102: therefore f5dU incorporated into DNA may induce mutations.

  18. Absence of mutagenic and citotoxic potentiality of senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl. evaluated by microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl. is widely used as laxative, but data from Ames test and animal and/or human studies with this agent have shown a mutagenic and carcinogenic potentiality. Using thee experimental models (bacterial inactivation test; bacterail mutagenisis assay-Mutoxitest; and growth Inhibition test, we investigated the toxicity of senna. Our data suggest an absence of mutagenic and citotoxic potentiality of senna.

  19. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Juergen; Bruening, Thomas [Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Research Institute for Occupational Medicine of the Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Krahl, Juergen [University of Applied Sciences Coburg, Coburg (Germany); Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Institute for Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany); Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Goetz; Mueller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst [University of Goettingen, Department of Occupational and Social Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels. (orig.)

  20. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  1. Mutagenic action of UV radiation on lambda prophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of UV radiation on a thermoinducible prophage lambda cI857 were studied in the wild-type cells of Escherichia coli K12 and in 9 repair-deficient mutants: uvrA6, uvrD3, uvrE502, polA1, recA13, lexA102, recB21recC22sbcB15, recB21recC22sbcB15recF143 and recB21recC22sbcB15recL152. After UV irradiation, lysogenic cells were submitted to thermal induction either immediately or after 90 min incubation in broth at 320. We scored for temperature-independent c-mutants of lambda phage that formed clear plaques at 320. After immediate thermoinduction (ITI) of prophage the phenomena were similar to W-reactivation (WR) and W-mutagenesis (WM) of UV-irradiated extracellular lambda phage infecting UV-irradiated host cells. In the wild-type host a shoulder was manifested on survival curves, and the frequency of c mutations significantly increased, attained a sharp maximum at 120 J/m2 and subsequently decreased. The mutagenic action on prophage remained normal in uvrA, uvrD, polA and recBCsbcB mutants, but was strongly reduced in uvrE-, recBC-sbcB-recF- and recBC-sbcB-recL- lysogens. After delayed thermoinduction (DTI) of prophage in the wild-type host, survival increased, but mutation frequency declined (in comparison with ITI). DTI had the same effects in repair-deficient mutants recBCsbcB, uvrD and polA. The delay in thermoinduction of prophage had no effect on the uvrA- lysogen but a slight effect in uvrE- and recBC-sbcB- recF- hosts. In the recBC-sbcB-recL- lysogen the delay in prophage induction had an opposite, i.e. stimulating, effect on UV mutagenesis. In recA- or lexA- hosts the prophage yielded no c mutants after either ITI or DTI. (orig.)

  2. A descriptive mutagenicity assessment of tretinoin in Allium sativum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is primarily designed to assess the mutagenicity of tretinoin by applying the Allium test. Furthermore, it has the following objectives: to evaluate the macroscopic abnormalities caused by tretinoin based on root length and root form parameters; to investigate whether tretinoin can induce aberrances in cell division such as the formation of micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase, C-metaphase, sticky chromosome, stretched chromosome, vagrant chromosome and precocious chromosome; to determine the variation in the aberrations in the different concentration of tretinoin. Procedure: eight hundred equal-sized garlic bulbs were immersed in various concentrations of tretinoin and in tap water as control. These were divided into two groups. Six hundred bulbs were evaluated for macroscopic parameters while the remaining two hundred bulbs were fixed for microscopic observations. The Allium test set-ups were placed in the plant laboratory of UP-Manila. The were harvested on the third and on the fifth day. The fixed roots were examined in the Cytogenetics Laboratory of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The data gathered for macroscopic parameter was statistically tested using Complete Randomized Design and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference. The microscopic abnormalities were determined descriptively for every concentration. Findings: analysis of macroscopic and microscopic parameters showed that: according to the analyses of variances, the number of roots, the root length and the number of root forms such as straight, bent, bulbous and tapered were not equal in all concentrations. However, the difference in the number of curled roots was not significant.; the root length distinctly showed the toxicity effect of tretinoin. The growth or the length of roots decreases as the tretinoin concentration increases; the mitotic abnormalities observed in the garlic cells include micronucleus, anaphase bridges, early anaphase. C-metaphase, sticky

  3. [Mutagenicity of the urine of rats treated with benzidine dyes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K

    1980-05-01

    Today industrial use of benzidine is restricted in many countries. However, little attention is paid to those substances which may decompose themselves in the body and release benzidine or benzidine-like substances. I investigated the mutagenicity of urinary ingredients of rats to which benzidine and three kinds of azo dyes were separately administered through the alimentary tract. The azo dyes were Direct Black EX(EX), Direct Green BK(BK), and Direct Bordeaux BK(BK), all having 4,4'-diazobiphenyl group in each structure. The mutagenicity of the urine extract with ether was tested on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Urinary metabolites of benzidine showed stronger mutagenicity than benzidine itself on both TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence of S9 mix. EX itself showed mutagenicity only on TA 98, whereas B and BK were nonmutagens. Nevertheless, the urine extract of each azo dye showed strong mutagenicity of the same pattern as benzidine. As a result it is suggested that benzidine might be released in the intestine of experimental animals after the administration of each azo dye. Mutagenic activity of urine sample is important and full of suggestions from the viewpoint of carcinogenicity of aromatic amines.

  4. Mutagenic, antimutagenic, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activities of extracts from Pituranthos tortuosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahed, Afef; Skandrani, Ines; Kilani, Soumaya; Neffati, A; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Bouhlel, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Ammar, Rebaï Ben; Mahmoud, Amor; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, nifuroxazide (NF) and sodium azide (SA), and indirect acting mutagen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) of extracts prepared from aerial parts of Pituranthos tortuosus were investigated in bacterial assay systems (i.e., the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA98, TA1538, TA1535, and the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ 37). It was found that all extracts obtained from P. tortuosus decreased the mutagenicity induced by AFB1 (10 microg/assay), SA (1.5 microg/assay), and NF (20 microg/assay). Ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and total oligomer flavenoid extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of mutagenicity induced by the indirect mutagen AFB1. In addition, antiproliferative and apoptotic properties of these extracts have also been reported using two leukemia cell lines, L1210 and K562. The results revealed that all extracts showed a significant cytotoxic effect on these cell lines, and the effect was greater in the presence of human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, whereas they do not induce apoptosis. PMID:18161507

  5. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducted with urinary mutagens from smokers of black tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, M; Castegnaro, M; Malaveille, C; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Kadlubar, F; Bartsch, H

    1990-08-01

    In order to characterize the tobacco-derived mutagens excreted in the urine of tobacco smokers, 32P-postlabelling techniques were used to examine DNA adducts formed from these mutagens with calf thymus DNA in the presence of a metabolic activation system (rat liver S9, Aroclor 1254-induced, with or without acetyl coenzyme A). Using either nuclease P1 or butanol extraction procedures, four-six and three spots, respectively, were reproducibly found on the autoradiograms in the case of the urine extract from two smokers of black tobacco. Using the urinary extract from a non-smoker, only three faint spots were detected after nuclease P1 enrichment. DNA adducts produced in smokers' urine were then compared with those formed by four N-hydroxyarylamines, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine and N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl. Visual inspection revealed that none of the reference aromatic amines contributed to the adduct pattern produced by the urinary mutagen(s). However, primary aromatic amines are mainly implicated as urinary mutagens because: (i) they produce frameshift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, (ii) they are easily extractable with blue cotton and (iii) their mutagenicity is abolished by a nitrite treatment procedure for deamination. PMID:2387016

  6. The metabolic activation of 2-naphthylamine to mutagens in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S; Smith, J; Manson, D; Gorrod, J W; Ioannides, C

    1986-01-01

    The mutagenicity of 2-naphthylamine and its major metabolites in the Ames test was determined in the absence and presence of activation systems derived from rats and hamsters. In the absence of an activation system only N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine and 2-nitrosonaphthalene were mutagenic. In the presence of activation systems derived from control and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated hamsters and Arochlor 1254-treated rats only 2-naphthylamine exhibited a mutagenic response while its hydroxy-derivatives and 2-acetamidonaphthalene were devoid of mutagenicity. Pretreatment of rats with 3-methylcholanthrene or Arochlor 1254 enhanced the mutagenicity of 2-naphthylamine while treatments with phenobarbitone, safrole and clofibrate had no significant effect. In the hamster treatment with only 3-methylcholanthrene increased the mutagenicity of 2-naphthylamine. It is concluded that the metabolic activation of 2-naphthylamine proceeds via N-hydroxylation which is preferentially catalysed by the 3-methylcholanthrene inducible forms of cytochrome P-450, whereas ring-hydroxylation appears to be a deactivation pathway. PMID:3800318

  7. In vivo cytogenetic effects of the cooked-food-related mutagens Trp-P-2 and IQ in mouse bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkler, J.L.; Carrano, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sister-chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations were measured in vivo in mouse bone marrow following intraperitoneal injection of the cooked food mutagens, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole (Trp-P-2), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ). Trp-P-2 produced a significant positive dose response for both endpoints while IQ produced only a weak but significant sister-chromatid exchange response. The relative potency of these two chemicals is similar to that seen in mammalian cells in vitro but opposite to their potency in Salmonella.

  8. Mutagenic effects on indica rice carried by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried seeds of four indica rice varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijia No.8, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the seeds vigor and agronomic traits in the SP1 generation, and on the agronomic traits, amylose conent and bacterial resistance in the SP2 generation were studied. The results showed that the space condition slightly damaged rice seeds, with the physiological damage rate of germination rate, bud length, plant height and seed-setting rate in the SP1 ranged from 0 to 26.9%. Different varieties responded differently to the space conditions, and the order from strong to weak was Gui 99, Hanghui 7, R998, Jinhang 138. Compared with the control, no trait showed segregation in the SP1 generation. Some traits appeared larger segregation in the SP2 generation, and the mutants of plant height, number of tillers, weight of grain, amylose content and bacterial blight resistance were isolated in the SP2 generation, and these mutation traits could be inherited the SP3 generation. Space conditions not only produced mutants of rice agronomic traits, but also produced mutants of rice quality and disease resistance. (authors)

  9. ININ support to plant breeding using physical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1974-1986 it was offered 171 irradiation services studies, multiplication and essays of yields in 32 different cultivations. The specialized personnel of the ININ has provided 31 advices about planning, experimental design and selection methods for such activities also it has realized studies over potato, sorghum, wheaten and broad beam from 1974. With the purpose for knowing the behavior of mutants, and segregative populations in several ecological niches, the ININ has ceded biological material to 10 institutions in some regions of the country. With the objective to achieve that the institutions which realize genetic improvement in Mexico use collaterally the ionizing radiations as mutagenic agent, the ININ with other participating institutions, has started an extension task throughout of country by means of activities such as: organization for annual meeting for knowing the advances of works of institutions that are using the irradiation for provoking mutagenesis. Conferences for investigators and professors to spread the own methodology. Imparting actualization courses for students of plant breeding. Finally the realization of courses for specialists with the backing of FAO/OIEA. (Author). 6 refs, 8 figs

  10. Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli: Pt. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV light was unable to induce rifampicin-resistant mutations at 430C in Escherichia coli ER11 and dnaE486. Although DnaE486 gene product is inactive at 430C, these bacteria contain the pcbA1 mutation which allows DNA replication provided DNA polymerase I is functional. The experiments were carried out under conditions where full expression of rifampicin-resistant mutations could occur so that the lack of induced mutations cannot be ascribed to an effect of incubation at 430C on mutation expression. UV-mutability at 43(0)C was restored by the presence of the dnaE+ allele on a plasmid. It is concluded that functional DnaE protein is essential for UV mutagenesis. The dnaE486 mutation also blocked the induction at 430C of mutations induced by UV plus delayed photoreversal, a procedure that has been postulated to reflect an early misincorporation step in the UV mutagenic process. (Author)

  11. Formaldehyde in dentistry: a review of mutagenic and carcinogenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.B.; Chestner, S.B.

    1981-09-01

    For many years there has been controversy over the value of antimicrobial drugs for intracanal dressings in endodontics. Formocresol, a formaldehyde compound, has evolved as the preferred drug for routine endodontic procedures, as well as pediatric endodontics. The increase in the use of formaldehyde has been complicated by the introduction of paraformaldehyde pastes for filling root canals. Neither of these formulas has ever been standardized. The doses are arbitrary, and the common dose of formocresol has been shown to be many times greater than the minimum dose needed for effect. The efficacy of paraformaldehyde pastes is questionable and remains clouded by inconclusive evidence, conflicting research, inadequate terminology, and a lack of convincing statistical evidence. The clinical use and delivery of formocresol and paraformaldehyde pastes remain arbitrary and unscientific. Formaldehyde has a known toxic mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Many investigations have been conducted to measure the risk of exposure to formaldehyde; it is clear that formaldehyde poses a carcinogenic risk in humans. There is a need to reevaluate the rationale underlying the use of formaldehyde in dentistry particularly in light of its deleterious effects.

  12. Removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti and mutagenicity with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; CUI Fu-yi; QU Bo; ZHU Gui-bing

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it cannot be effectively inactivated by the conventional drinking water treatment process. In order to tackle this problem, a study of removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a waterworks was performed. The results showed that Mesocyclops leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation combined with the conventional drinking water treatment process.Higher oxidizability and molecular state of chlorine dioxide in water is the key to the inactivation of Mesocyclops leukarti. The chlorite, disinfection by-products (DBPs) of chlorine dioxide, was stable at 0.45 mg/L, which is lower than that critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination showed that the quantity of organic substance in the water treated by chlorine dioxide obviously decreased. Ames test further revealed that the mutagenicity was reduced by chlorine dioxide with respect to prechlorine. The propagation ofMesocyclops leukarti can be inactivated effectively and safely by chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation.

  13. Organic mutagens and drinking water in the Netherlands : a study on mutagenicity of organic constituents in drinking water in The Netherlands and their possible carcinogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Several mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds have been detected in Dutch surface waters and in drinking water prepared from these surface waters. Although the levels of these compounds in drinking- and surface water are relatively low, in general below μg per litre, it appeared that organic

  14. Rapid changes in peat fly ash mutagenicity after release into the atmosphere: a controlled dilution bag study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, M.J.; Liimatainen, A.; Ramdahl, T.; Itkonen, A.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of moisture condensation on fly ash mutagenicity, when the effluent of a peat-fired power plant is dispersed into cold and humid air, were investigated. A 140-m/sup 3/ flow- type dilution bag was used to dilute flue gas collected after the electrostatic precipitator with ambient air and to age this mixture for approximately 2 min. Fly ash was sampled by size fractionating aerosol samplers pre- and postdilution. Organics were extracted from the samples, fractionated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and assayed for mutagenicity by the Ames method (TA98 and TA100 with and without S9). The smallest particles were the most mutagenic in both pre-and postdilution samples. Mutagenicity of the fly ash increased strongly in the dilution bag. This was most pronounced in the medium- and low-polarity organic fractions. In the predilution samples most of the mutagenicity was found in the most polar fraction. Postdilution of this fraction showed a modest increase for TA98 and TA98 + S9 but not for TA100 or TA100 + S9. Direct mutagenicity and mutagenicity with activation were comparable. In the postdilution samples most of the mutagenicity was found in the nonpolar and medium polarity fractions. The mutagenicity of the nonpolarity and medium polarity fractions increased strongly after aging 2 min in the mixing bag. In these fractions predilution mutagenicity with and without activation was comparable. Following dilution and aging the mutagenicity with activation increased to a much greater extent than the direct mutagenicity. 21 references.

  15. Reduction in the mutagenicity of synthetic dyes by successive treatment with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, Irpex lacteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachová, Katerina; Pavlícková, Zuzana; Novotný, Cenek; Svobodová, Katerina; Lednická, Denisa; Musílková, Eva

    2006-08-01

    Synthetic dyes are released in wastewater from textile manufacturing plants, and many of these dyes are genotoxic. In the present study, the mutagenicity of azo, anthraquinone, and triphenyl methane dyes was investigated before and after successive biodegradation with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, Irpex lacteus. Two biodegradation systems were used to reduce the genotoxicity of dyes that were not efficiently inactivated by activated sludge alone. Mutagenicity was monitored with the Salmonella reversion assay conducted with the base-pair substitution detector strains, TA100 and YG1042, and the frame-shift detector strains, TA98 and YG1041, with and without rat liver S9. All dyes except for Congo Red (CR) were mutagenic with S9 activation. Assays conducted with the dyes indicated that only the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was mutagenic in both TA98 and TA100. Methyl Red and Disperse Blue 3 (DB3) were mutagenic in TA98, YG1041 and YG1042, while Reactive Black 5 was mutagenic in YG1041 and YG1042. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Crystal violet (CV) and Bromophenol Blue (BPB) were mutagenic only in TA98, but the toxicity of the latter two dyes complicated the evaluation of their mutagenicity. CR was not mutagenic in any of the tester strains. Biodegradation studies conducted with RO16 and DB3 indicated that the two-step biodegradation process reduced the mutagenic potential of RO16 and DB3 to a greater extent than activated sludge alone; the mutagenicity of the two dyes was reduced by 95.2% and 77.8%, respectively, by the two-step process. These data indicate that the combined biodegradation process may be useful for reducing the mutagenicity associated with wastewater from textile factories that contain recalcitrant dyes.

  16. An open source multistep model to predict mutagenicity from statistical analysis and relevant structural alerts

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    Gini Giuseppina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenicity is the capability of a substance to cause genetic mutations. This property is of high public concern because it has a close relationship with carcinogenicity and potentially with reproductive toxicity. Experimentally, mutagenicity can be assessed by the Ames test on Salmonella with an estimated experimental reproducibility of 85%; this intrinsic limitation of the in vitro test, along with the need for faster and cheaper alternatives, opens the road to other types of assessment methods, such as in silico structure-activity prediction models. A widely used method checks for the presence of known structural alerts for mutagenicity. However the presence of such alerts alone is not a definitive method to prove the mutagenicity of a compound towards Salmonella, since other parts of the molecule can influence and potentially change the classification. Hence statistically based methods will be proposed, with the final objective to obtain a cascade of modeling steps with custom-made properties, such as the reduction of false negatives. Results A cascade model has been developed and validated on a large public set of molecular structures and their associated Salmonella mutagenicity outcome. The first step consists in the derivation of a statistical model and mutagenicity prediction, followed by further checks for specific structural alerts in the "safe" subset of the prediction outcome space. In terms of accuracy (i.e., overall correct predictions of both negative and positives, the obtained model approached the 85% reproducibility of the experimental mutagenicity Ames test. Conclusions The model and the documentation for regulatory purposes are freely available on the CAESAR website. The input is simply a file of molecular structures and the output is the classification result.

  17. Breeding of Hordeum Vulgare L. via chemical and physical Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted under field conditions to compare for yield, yield components and some agronomic traits, of four selective mutants that have been obtained by using chemical mutagen (Sodium Azide) and physical mutagen ( Gamma ray, 20 KG) and their parent Arivate and Numar. The results show that the selective mutants have a high degree of genetic stability and exceeded their parents in some agronomic parameters. There fore, the two best selective mutants were accepted for registration and release under the name of Barrak and Amel as a new varieties by Nacional Committee for Registration and Release of Agricultural varieties

  18. DNA repair capacity of cultured human lymphocytes exposed to mutagens measured by the comet assay and array expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Repair of mutagen-induced DNA lesions during transportation, storage and cultivation of lymphocytes may have a significant impact on results obtained in human biomonitoring after occupational and environmental exposure of human populations to genotoxic chemicals. Using the comet assay in combination with the repair inhibitor aphidicolin and array gene expression analysis of 92 DNA repair genes, we investigated the repair of DNA lesions induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrenediolepoxide (BPDE) in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultured human lymphocytes in the time segment before replication. The comet assay indicated fast repair of MMS-induced damage during the first hours of cultivation. In contrast, removal of BPDE-induced lesions was slower and significant amounts of damage seem to persist until S-phase. Gene expression analysis revealed that PHA stimulation had a clear effect on gene regulation in lymphocytes already during the first 18h of cultivation. Under the conditions of this study, genotoxic concentrations of MMS did not induce significant changes in gene expression. In contrast, exposure to BPDE led to altered expression of several genes in a time- and concentration-related manner. Of the significantly up-regulated genes, only two genes (XPA and XPC) were directly related to nucleotide excision repair. Our results suggest that PHA stimulation of human lymphocytes influences the expression of DNA repair genes in human lymphocytes. The effect of induced DNA damage on gene expression is comparatively low and depends on the mutagens used. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes repair induced DNA damage before they start to replicate but the repair activity during the first 18h of cultivation is not affected by changes in the expression of DNA repair genes during this period of time.

  19. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  20. Wholesomeness studies on gamma-irradiated smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the mutagenicity potential of wood-smoked mackerel (Rastrelliger sp.) was investigated. Smoked fish were irradiated with dose of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 KGy, and tested for mutagenic activity using the Salmonella plate incorporation assay, host-mediated assay, and micronucleus test. The DMSO extract of unirradiated smoked fish was found to be mutagenic, without metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA 100 and TA 104, both sensitive to base-pair substitution mutations. Strains TA 98 and TA 97 which are sensitive to frameshift mutations showed no mutagenic activity towards the same DMSO extract. The observed response towards the Salmonella strains was not affected by irradiation in the range of radiation doses studied. The presence of protamutagens in the DMSO extract of unirradiated smoked fish was not detected using the host-mediated assay. In another in-vivo test however, the same DMSO extract induced the formation of micronuclei in the bonemarrow cells of mice. Gamma irradiation up to a dose of 8.0 KGy did not affect the observed mutagenicity of wood-smoked fish. (author)

  1. Mutagenic metabolite synthesized by Salmonella typhimurium grown in the presence of azide is azidoalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, W.M.; Rosichan, J.L.; Ronald, R.C.; Kleinhofs, A.; Nilan, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A mutagenic azide metabolite was purified from the medium in which Salmonella typhimurium cells were grown in the presence of azide. This metabolite was identified to be azidoalanine based on infrared and mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. This compound appeared to be identical to the mutagenic compound synthesized in vitro from azide and O-acetylserine by partially purified O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase. The metabolite (azidoalanine) mutagenic efficiency and spectrum in S. typhimurium was similar to that of inorganic azide. The compounds 2-azidoethylamine, 2-bromoethylamine, 3-bromopropionic acid and N-(azidomethyl) phthalimide were also mutagenic with a similar spectrum to azide and azidolanine, but with lower efficienty. The compounds 3-azidopropylamine, 4-azidobutylamine, 3-chloroalanine and ethylamine were only weakly or nonmutagenic. Numerous other chloro, bromo and azido phthalimide derivatives tested were nonmutagenic. It is suggested that the lack of azide mutagenicity (and perhaps carcinogenicity) in mammalian cells may be due to their inability to convert azide to azidoalanine. 36 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale apple juice lowers mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium TA102

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    Ana Amélia Melo Cavalcante

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale is a medicinal plant native to Brazil and also yields a nutritious fruit juice. Its large pulpy pseudo-fruit, referred to as the cashew apple, contains high concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and minerals. Natural and processed cashew apple juice (CAJ/cajuina are amongst the most popular juices in Brazil, especially in the north-east. Both juices have antioxidant potential and suppress mutagenicity of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study we evaluated the inhibitory effects of CAJ/cajuina on Aflatoxin B1(AFB1-induced mutation, using the Salmonella/microsome assay with the experimental approaches of pre-, co- and post-treatments. Both CAJ/cajuina suppress AFB1-induced mutagenesis in strain TA102 when applied in co- and in post-treatment. Possible mechanisms for anti-mutagenicity in co-treatment are (a interaction with S9 enzymes, (b metabolization to non-mutagenic compounds of AFB1 or (c inactivation of S9 potential. Total suppression of AFB1 mutagenicity was observed in co-treatment with both CAJ and cajuina. Post-treatment anti-mutagenicity of both juices suggests a modulation of activity of error-prone DNA repair. CAJ/cajuina may be considered promising candidates for control of genotoxicity of AFB1 and may thus be considered as health foods with anti-carcinogenic potential. This promising characteristic warrants further evaluation with in vivo studies.

  3. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey

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    Nurdan Sarac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The ethanolic extract of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, a wild edible plant in Anatolia was isolated, and its antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity (AA was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, total AA, and phenolic compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were investigated by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. Results: The IC 50 value for DPPH radicals was 7.84 ± 0.603 mg/mL. The total AA increased with an increase in the concentration of the extracts (1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, containing linoleic acid emulsion. The total phenolic content was 284.71 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. The results showed that the ethanolic extract can be considered safe, because it does not have any mutagenic effect at the tested concentrations. As a result, the ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of T. longirostis var. longirostis. These activities are an important topic in the food industry, as well as in the medical field.

  4. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

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    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  5. Antimutagenicity of Propolis Against Some Mutagens in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-YUN FU; YONG XIA; YUN-YAN ZHENG

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the antimutagenicity of propolis in vivo and in vitro. Methods Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used as a test model in vitro against a direct mutagen DMC and an indirect mutagen 2AF with or without S9 mix, and MN formation of mice bone marrow cell and CAs induction of mice testicle cell were applied as a test model in vivo against two mutagens CP and MMC. Results The present study clearly demonstrated that propolis could inhibit mutagenicity of both DMC and 2AF directly in a dose-dependent manner, and significant antimutagenic effects (P<0.05) were obtained in TA98 strain at 2000 and 3000 (g/plate. It also could inhibit mutagenicity of both DMC and 2AF to TA98 strain in a dose-dependent manner, with significant antimutagenic effects (P<0.05) appeared at 1000, 2000, and 3000 (g/plate. The results of antimutagenicity test in vivo revealed that propolis could inhibit MN formation significantly (P<0.05) at the doses of 45.0 and 135.0 mg/kg b. w., and decrease the frequency of chromosome aberrants and chromosome aberrant cells significantly (P<0.05) only at the dose of 135.0 mg/kg b. w. Conclusion The propolis is a good inhibitor for mutagencity of DMC and 2AF in vitro, as well as for CP and MMC in vivo.

  6. Assessment of diphenylcyclopropenone for photochemically induced mutagenicity in the Ames assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, M.G.; Connor, T.H.; Henkin, J.; Wilkin, J.K.; Matney, T.S.

    1987-10-01

    The photochemical conversion of diphenylcyclopropenone to diphenylacetylene has recently been reported. Diphenylcyclopropenone is used in the treatment of alopecia areata and is nonmutagenic in a limited Ames assay. We examined diphenylcyclopropenone and diphenylacetylene, as well as synthetic precursors of diphenylcyclopropenone--dibenzylketone and alpha,alpha'-dibromodibenzylketone--for mutagenicity against TA100, TA98, TA102, UTH8413, and UTH8414. All compounds were nonmutagenic except alpha,alpha'-dibromodibenzylketone, which was a potent mutagen in TA100 with and without S-9 activation. The effect of photochemical activation of diphenylcyclopropenone in the presence of bacteria demonstrated mutagenicity in UTH8413 (two times background) at 10 micrograms/plate with S-9 microsomal activation. 8-Methoxypsoralen produces a mutagenic response in TA102 at 0.1 microgram/plate with 60 seconds of exposure to 350 nm light. In vitro photochemically activated Ames assay with S-9 microsomal fraction may enhance the trapping of short-lived photochemically produced high-energy mutagenic intermediates. This technique offers exciting opportunities to trap high-energy intermediates that may play an important role in mutagenesis. This method can be applied to a variety of topically applied dermatologic agents, potentially subjected to photochemical changes in normal use.

  7. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  8. The improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of Trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens

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    Rashmi Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2% and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3% were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69 U/mL and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9 U/mL. Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%.

  9. Two Simulated-Smog Atmospheres with Different Chemical Compositions Produce Contrasting Mutagenicity in Salmonella**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are criteria pollutants used to evaluate air quality. Using EPA’s Mobile Reaction Chamber (MRC), we generated 2 simulated-smog atmospheres (SSA-1 & SSA-2) with different concentrations of these criteria pol...

  10. Two Simulated-Smog Atmospheres with Different Chemical Compositions Produce Contrasting Mutagenicity in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are criteria pollutants used to evaluate air quality. Using a 14.3-m3 Teflon-lined smog chamber with 120 UV bulbs to simulate solar radiation, we generated 2 simulated-smog atmospheres (SSA-1 & SSA-2) with differ...

  11. Evaluation of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and triticale after using physical and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It was decided to induce mutations separately in rye and triticale to obtain forms resistant to lodging. Seeds of rye cv. 'Dankowskie Zlote' and triticale cv. 'Lasko' were irradiated with fast neutrons and treated with MNH, rye cv. 'LAD 2T80' was treated with only MNH. The mutant selection was made in M3 and the progenies were evaluated with regard to plant height. In total, 226 changed forms were found, most of them shorter than the control. Some of them should be useful as a source of resistance to lodging. (author)

  12. The improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of Trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, Singh; Maurya, Sudarshan; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69U/mL) and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9U/mL). Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA) among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%).

  13. Kinetic Study on Mutagenic Chemical Degradation through Three Pot Synthesiszed Graphene@ZnO Nanocomposite.

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    Mohd Shoeb

    Full Text Available The study was taken up with the objective to synthesize graphene-zinc oxide nano particles (NPs nanocomposite (Gr@ZnO-Nc via In-situ synthesis method. The structural, optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties of the synthesized Gr@ZnO-Nc were studied. The characterization data confirmed that the ZnO NPs were successfully incorporated into the graphene sheets. Further, TGA/DTA results exhibited an enhanced thermal stability of the Gr@ZnO-Nc compared with the graphene. The Gr@ZnO-Nc, graphene sheets were uniformly wrapped by ZnO NPs, which can protect graphene and delay their oxidation in air. The synthesized Gr@ZnO-Nc was used for the efficient photodegradation of a carcinogenic methyl orange (MO dye. The results exhibited promising photodegradation of the MO dye under UV light irradiation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The promising effect of Gr@ZnO-Nc on the photodegradation properties was conferred by the large surface area which increased adsorption capacity, and the strong electron transfer ability. Thus, it is encouraging to conclude that the synthesized Gr@ZnO-Nc has environmental significance with its utility in remediation in the hazardous MO dye.

  14. The improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of Trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, Singh; Maurya, Sudarshan; Upadhyay, Ram Sanmukh

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic potential of Trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. Trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and Trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. To enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. Two mutants, Th-m1 and T. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. The enzymatic activities of the selected parent and mutant strains were assayed, and although both mutants were found to have enhanced enzymatic activities compared to their respective parent strains, Th-m1 possessed the maximum cellulase (5.69U/mL) and β-1,3-glucanase activity (61.9U/mL). Th-m1 also showed high competitive saprophytic ability (CSA) among all of the selected parent and mutant strains, and during field experiments, Th-m1 was found to successfully possess enhanced disease control (82.9%). PMID:26887221

  15. An investigation into pharmaceutically relevant mutagenicity data and the influence on Ames predictive potential

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    McCarren Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In drug discovery, a positive Ames test for bacterial mutation presents a significant hurdle to advancing a drug to clinical trials. In a previous paper, we discussed success in predicting the genotoxicity of reagent-sized aryl-amines (ArNH2, a structure frequently found in marketed drugs and in drug discovery, using quantum mechanics calculations of the energy required to generate the DNA-reactive nitrenium intermediate (ArNH:+. In this paper we approach the question of what molecular descriptors could improve these predictions and whether external data sets are appropriate for further training. Results In trying to extend and improve this model beyond this quantum mechanical reaction energy, we faced considerable difficulty, which was surprising considering the long history and success of QSAR model development for this test. Other quantum mechanics descriptors were compared to this reaction energy including AM1 semi-empirical orbital energies, nitrenium formation with alternative leaving groups, nitrenium charge, and aryl-amine anion formation energy. Nitrenium formation energy, regardless of the starting species, was found to be the most useful single descriptor. External sets used in other QSAR investigations did not present the same difficulty using the same methods and descriptors. When considering all substructures rather than just aryl-amines, we also noted a significantly lower performance for the Novartis set. The performance gap between Novartis and external sets persists across different descriptors and learning methods. The profiles of the Novartis and external data are significantly different both in aryl-amines and considering all substructures. The Novartis and external data sets are easily separated in an unsupervised clustering using chemical fingerprints. The chemical differences are discussed and visualized using Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps trained on chemical fingerprints, mutagenic substructure

  16. Mutagenic potency in Salmonella typhimurium of organic extracts of soil samples originating from urban, suburban, agricultural, forest and natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, Benoit; Le Curieux, Frank; Belkessam, Laurence; Laboudigue, Agnès; Marzin, Daniel

    2008-05-31

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the mutagenic potency of soil samples presumably not contaminated by industrial wastes and discharges. A set of 51 soil samples was collected from areas considered as not contaminated by a known industrial activity: 11 urban samples (collected in cities), 15 suburban samples (collected in villages), 7 agricultural samples, and 18 forest or natural samples. Each soil sample was collected at the surface (0-5cm deep), dried, sieved (2mm), homogenized before organic extraction (dichloromethane/acetone 1/1 (v/v), 37 degrees C, 4h, soil/solvent ratio 1/2, m/v), solvent exchange to DMSO and sterilizing filtration. The micro-method adaptation of the standard bacterial mutagenicity test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was performed with and without a metabolic activation system (rat-liver homogenate S9), and thus detected the effect of pro-mutagens and direct mutagens, respectively. The use of a pre-incubation method increased the sensitivity of the assay. The results obtained showed a wide range of effect levels, from no effect to clear mutagenicity. In particular, the extract of all 11 urban soil samples demonstrated mutagenic activity, while the extracts of 10 of the 15 suburban samples showed mutagenicity. On the other hand, the extract of only one of the 7 agricultural samples studied induced mutations, and none of the 18 natural or forest-soil samples investigated produced mutagenic extracts. These findings seem to indicate the crucial influence of the diffuse pollution originating from different human activities on the mutagenic potency of urban soil samples. These findings make it possible to classify the soils according to their mutagenic potency. No clear correlation was found between the mutagenicity detected in soil extracts and the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the soils investigated. PMID:18440855

  17. Cassia senna inhibits mutagenic activities of benzo[a]-pyrene, aflatoxin B1, shamma and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dakan, A A; al-Tuffail, M; Hannan, M A

    1995-10-01

    Ethanol extract of Senokot tablets (Cassia senna concentrate used as vegetable laxative), was found to be non-mutagenic while it inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, shamma, aflatoxin B1 and methyl methanesulfonate in the Ames histidine reversion assay using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98. While the Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenicity of promutagens (i.e. metabolic activation dependent) like benzo[a]pyrene and shamma, it reduced the mutagenic activity of the direct acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate by only 58%. The mutagen aflatoxin B1 showed a 25-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants per plate at low concentrations (1.0-4.0 micrograms/plate) in the presence of metabolic activation system while at high concentrations (10.0-30.0 micrograms/plate) it proved to be weakly mutagenic (with a 5-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants/plate) without metabolic activation. The Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenic effect of low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of metabolic activation but not that resulting from higher concentrations without metabolic activation. The results obtained with benzo[a]pyrene, shamma and aflatoxin B1 indicated that the antimutagenic effects of Senokot extract could be largely due to an interaction with the metabolic process involved in the activation of procarcinogens. However, the results obtained with methyl methanesulfonate suggested that factors in Senokot may also interact with direct mutagens to produce some antimutagenic effects. An ethanol extract of crude senna leaves found to be weakly mutagenic also inhibited (though less than Senokot) the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene suggesting that the antimutagenic principle is present in the complex plant material itself.

  18. AN INVESTIGATION OF MUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF SOME 9- SUBSTITUEDPHENANTHRENE DERIVATIVES WITH AMES / SALMONELLA / MICROSOME TEST

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    Mehtap KUTLU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three different 9-Substituted phenantrene derivatives that were synthesized to be used as basic matter for drugs were tested for their mutagenic potency in strains TA 98 and TA 100 ofSalmonella typhimurium by using Ames test. Therefore, both strains were tested in the absence or presence of S9 metabolic activation, for five different doses of each test substances in two paralel independent experiments. In the absence of metabolic activation, while only one of the compounds were causing frame-shift mutations, two of them were determined to induce base pair substitution mutations. In the presence of metabolic activation, while two of the compounds were mutagenic for TA 98, base pair substitution mutations were not detected for any of the substances. Each of the compoundstested were found to be mutagenic for at least one strain in the presence or absence of S9.

  19. Development and application of human cell lines engineered to metabolically activate structurally diverse environmental mutagens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, C. I.; Langenbach, Robert; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.; Penman, B. W.

    1993-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 are responsible for the mutagenic/carcinogenic activation of many environmental promutagens/procarcinogens. These enzymes are present at highest concentrations in liver in vivo but are markedly absent in tester organisms for most in vitro mutagenicity test systems. Two approaches have been used to supply needed metabolic activation, incorporation of an extracellular activating system, usually derived from a rodent liver and introduction of activating enzymes into the target cell. The latter approach appears to result in a more sensitive testing system because of the close proximity of the activating enzymes and the target DNA. Human cell lines have been developed which stably express human cytochromes P450 and other cDNAs which have been introduced individually or in combination. The resulting cell lines are exquisitely sensitive to exposure to promutagens and procarcinogens. Mutagenicity is measured at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) and thymidine kinase (tk) gene loci. The most versatile cell line, designated MCL-5, stably express five cDNAs encoding all of the human hepatic P450s known to be principally responsible for known human procarcinogen activation. The induction of mutation is observed in MCL-5 cells upon exposure to ng/ml levels of model compounds such as nitrosamines, aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene. A lower volume mutagenicity assay has been developed for use with samples available in limited amounts. Human lymphoblast mutation assays have been used to screen for mutagenic activity sediment samples from a polluted watershed. Two sediment samples were found to have mutagenic activity to human lymphoblasts.

  20. Intervarietal Differences in Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to Different Mutagenic Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For much of the past century, mutagenesis has gained popularity in plant genetics research as a means of inducing novel genetic variation. Induced mutations have been applied for the past 40 years to produce mutant cultivars in sunflower by changing plant characteristics that significantly increase plant yield and quality. The present study was focused on generating baseline data to elucidate the role of genotypic differences in the response of sunflower to induced mutagenesis with the aim of expanding the applicability of the use of induced mutant stocks in the genetic improvement of the crop and in its functional genomics. The strategy adopted was to estimate the optimal treatment conditions (doses of mutagens) through relating the extent of damage in seedling progeny to the exposure levels of the initiating propagules to mutagens. Seeds of 15 elite sunflower genotypes commonly used as breeding stocks and grown on commercial scales were treated with a range of mutagens: Gamma-rays (γ rays); fast neutrons and with ethyle-methane-sulphonate (EMS) at different treatment doses. The three mutagenic agents affected seedling height, reducing it with increasing dosage. Based on the mutagen damage on seedling height, the 50% and 30% damage indices (D50 and D30, respectively) were estimated for the 15 sunflower genotypes for the three mutagens. The D50 (D30) values for the sunflower lines ranged from 120 to 325Gy (5 to 207Gy) for gamma irradiation; 9 to 21Gy (0.1 to 10Gy) for fast neutrons and 0.69 to 1.55% (0.01 to 0.68%) concentration of EMS. (author)

  1. ASCORBIC ACID REDUCTION OF ACTIVE CHLORINE PRIOR TO DETERMINING AMES MUTAGENICITY OF CHLORINATED NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many potable water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that result from the reaction of natural organic matter (NOM) with oxidizing chlorine are known or suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. The Ames assay is routinely used to assess an overall level of mutagenicity for all com...

  2. Mutagenicity Assessment of Drinking Water in Combination with Flavored Black Tea Bags: a Cross Sectional Study in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebouyeh, Farzaneh; Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Ziarati, Parisa; Heshmati, Masoomeh; Qomi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Diseases related to water impurities may present as major public health burdens. The present study aimed to assess the mutagenicity of drinking water from different zones of Tehran, and evaluate possible health risks through making tea with tea bags, by Ames mutagenicity test using TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. For this purpose, 450 water samples were collected over the period of July to December 2014 from 5 different zones of Tehran. Except for one sample, no mutagenic potential was detected during these two seasons and the MI scores were almost normal (≤ 1-1.6) in TA 100, TA 98 and YG1029 strains. Although no mutagenic effects were considered in TA 98 and TA 100 in the test samples of our three evaluated tea bag brands, one sample from a local company showed mutagenic effects in the YG1029 strain (MI=1.7-1.9 and 2) after prolonged (10-15 min.) steeping. Despite the mild mutagenic effect discovered for one of the brand, this cross sectional study showed relative safety of water samples and black tea bags in Tehran. According to the sensitivity of YG1029 to the mutagenic potential of water and black tea, even without metabolic activation by s9 fraction, this metabolizer strain could be considered as sensitive and applicable to food samples for quantitative analysis of mutagens.

  3. Changeability of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. 1. The action of some mutagenous factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinova, T.M.; Terekhova, V.A.; D' yakov, Yu.T. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Biologo-Pochvennyj Fakul' tet)

    1983-01-01

    The lethal and mutagenous actions of UV rays, nitrozomethylurea, and nitrosoguanidine in respect to Conidia of rice Pyricularia oryzae Cav. agent have been investigated. It has been found out that low doses of UV-radiation, which are not lethal for a three-cell conidia, increase the intensity of two-cell vegetation. All the investigated mutagens cause a formation of mutants which are deficient according to pigment synthesis white and pink colonies and differ by their reduced growth. Auxotrophic mutants were mainly obtained under the action of nitroso compounds.

  4. Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Part I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test

    OpenAIRE

    Wahnschaffe U; Bitsch A; Kielhorn J; Mangelsdorf I

    2005-01-01

    Abstract As part of a larger literature study on transgenic animals in mutagenicity testing, test results from the transgenic mutagenicity assays (lacI model; commercially available as the Big Blue® mouse, and the lacZ model; commercially available as the Muta™Mouse), were compared with the results on the same substances in the more traditional mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. 39 substances were found which had been tested in the micronucleus assay and in the above transgenic mouse system...

  5. 2D/3D-QSAR comparative study on mutagenicity of nitroaromatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaodong; LIN Zhifen; YIN Daqiang; LIU Shushen; WANG Liansheng

    2005-01-01

    Nitroaromatics are typical toxic organic pollutants and are ubiquitous in environment with diverse structures. They are widely used in many industries and formed during many natural and anthropogenic processes. Most of these pollutants are potentially carcinogenic and the assessment and prediction of the mutagenicity of nitroaromatics are of great interest. In this paper the structure-mutagenicity relationships of 219 nitroaromatics are investigated by molecular orbital theory based classic structure-activity relationships and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). A comparison is undertaken in respect of the interpretation of mechanism and predictive ability for these two categories of QSAR approaches and highly predictive QSAR models have been developed.

  6. [Modification of drug mutagenicity by their immobilization. Effect of prostatilen immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V S; Bolonina, V P; Gorbachev, A G

    1992-08-01

    Mutagenic drug effect of prostatilen and the possibility of modification were analysed in the sperm head anomalies (SHA) and the bone marrow cell aberrations (CA) tests in Mus musculus. It was found that intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 micrograms of prostatilen induced no significant increase in SHA and CA frequencies, the dose of 5 micrograms inducing both SHA and CA. Ultrafiltration of prostatilen led to decrease in its mutagenicity in the SHA test. Immobilization of the drug (5 and 10 micrograms) in polyvinyl alcohol reduced SHA and CA frequencies, the former decreasing to the control level.

  7. Fluoro-A-85380 demonstrated no mutagenic properties in in vivo rat micronucleus and Ames tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential mutagenic properties (micronucleus and the Ames tests) of fluoro-A-85380 (2-fluoro-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine) were evaluated as a mandatory pre-clinical step. No statistically significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was found in animals treated at any dose tested. No biologically significant increase in the mean number of revertants was noted in all the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested with fluoro-A-85380. Therefore, fluoro-A-85380 demonstrated no mutagenic properties using these two tests

  8. In vitro mutagenicity testing. II. Silastic 386 Foam Elastomer, Irganox 1010, mixture of Sylgard 184 with Encapsulating Resin and Curing Agent, and dimethylbenzanthracene. [Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.Y.; Smith, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    Four materials, Silastic 386 Foam Elastomer, Irganox 1010, Sylgard 184 with Encapsulating Resin and Curing Agent, and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), were tested for in vitro mutagenicity by the Ames Salmonella assay method. Silastic 386 Foam Elastomer, Irganox 1010, and Sylgard 184 Encapsulating Resin with Curing Agent were not mutagenic; the mutagenicity of DMBA was corroborated.

  9. In vitro mutagenicity testing. I. Kermide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent. [Ames Salmonella assay system used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.Y.; Smith, D.M.

    1978-08-01

    Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent were not mutagenic under the described experimental conditions, while benzo(a)pyrene and acridine orange were both mutagenic.

  10. Transcriptional characterization of Salmonella TA100 in log and stationary phase: influence of growth phase on mutagenicity of MX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William O; Swartz, Carol D; Hanley, Nancy M; DeMarini, David M

    2010-10-13

    The Salmonella mutagenicity assay can be performed using cells that are in different growth phases. Thus, the plate-incorporation assay involves plating stationary-phase cells with the mutagen, after which the cells undergo a brief lag phase and, consequently, are exposed to the mutagen and undergo mutagenesis while in the logarithmic (log) phase. In contrast, a liquid-suspension assay involves exposure of either log- or stationary-phase cells to the mutagen for a specified period of time, sometimes followed by a wash, resulting in the cells growing in medium in the absence of the mutagen. To explore global gene expression in Salmonella, and to test for possible effects of growth phase and transcriptional status on mutagenesis, we performed microarray analysis on cells of Salmonella strain TA100 exposed to the drinking-water mutagen MX in either the log or stationary phase. The genes in functional pathways involving amino acid transport and metabolism and energy metabolism were expressed differentially in log-phase cells, whereas genes in functional pathways involving protein trafficking, cell envelope, and two-component systems using common signal transduction were expressed differentially in stationary-phase cells. More than 90% of the ribosomal-protein biosynthesis genes were up-regulated in stationary- versus log-phase cells. MX was equally mutagenic to cells in log- and stationary-phase growth when the results were expressed as mutant frequencies (revertants/survivors/μM), but it was twice as mutagenic in stationary-phase cells when the results were expressed as mutant yields (revertants/nmole or revertants/μM). There was a complex transcriptional response underlying these results, with mucA/B being greatly up-regulated in log-phase cells but umuC/D up-regulated in stationary-phase cells. The transcriptional state of TA100 cells at the time of mutagen treatment may influence the outcome of mutagen treatment.

  11. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    features of energy transfer of the radiations that affect the character of induced DNA damage, and the efficiency inducible and constitutive cell repair systems. The growth of relative biological efficiency of heavy charged particles is determined by the growth of the damage yield of the DNA participating in the formation of radiation-induced effects, and higher efficiency of inducible repair systems. It was established that the LET value ( L max) for which the maximum (according to the applied irradiation criteria) coefficients of relative biological efficiency are observed varies depending on the character of the registered radiation induced effect. It was demonstrated that for gene mutations and induction of precision excision of mobile elements the values of L max are realized in a LET range of ≈20 keV/μm. For lethal effects of irradiation and induction of deletion mutations the value of L max is ≈ 100 and 50 keV/μm, respectively. The differences in the L max for the studied radiation gene effectis are determined by the different type of DNA damage participating in the mutation process. A molecular model of the formation of gene mutations in Escherichia coli cells under the action of ionizing radiation was proposed. Basic DNA radiation damage and main repair ways were considered in the framework of this model. The basis is the idea of the decisive role of mutagenic, error-prone, branch of SOS repair in fixing premutation DNA damage into point mutations. It was demonstrated that the central mechanism in this process is the formation of an inducible multi-enzymatic complex including the DNA polymerase V (Umu C), RecA-protease, SSB proteins, subunits of DNA polymerase III, performing erroneous DNA synthesis on the damaged matrix. A mathematical model of induction of gene mutations under ultraviolet cell irradiation was developed based on the molecular model.

  12. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of chosen dyes and surface active compounds used in the textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Barański, B; Spiechowicz, E; Szymczak, W

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic properties of ten dyes and four surface active compounds using Salmonella/microsome assay and the micronucleus test. Five of the investigated dyes (Acid Blue 7, Acid Green 16, Direct Black 19:1, Basic Red 22, Basic Orange 28) possessed mutagenic activity with regard to test strains of Salmonella. In addition, all of them increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice. Three other compounds (Acid Blue 62, Direct Yellow 12, Direct Red 81), which were not mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay, were genotoxic in the micronucleus test. The other two dyes (Reactive Blue 13, Acid Red 213), as well as tested surface active compounds, did not exert mutagenic and genotoxic effects, and therefore, it is most probable that they do not have carcinogenic properties. Besides, it was noted that Acid Blue 62, Direct Black 19:1, Direct Red 81 and Basic Orange 28 cause a significant decrease in the ratio polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of mice, which means that, at the doses used in the experiment, they are toxic to the erythrocyte series cells of bone marrow. The other compounds under consideration have no such effect.

  13. Urinary mutagenicity, CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity in textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlo, Ana; Sinuès, Blanca; Mayayo, Esteban; Bernal, Luisa; Soriano, Antonia; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique

    2004-11-01

    The two major causes of bladder cancer have been recognised to be cigarette smoke and occupational exposure to arylamines. These compounds are present both in tobacco smoke and in the dyes used in textile production. Aromatic amines suffer oxidative metabolism via P450 cytochrome CYP1A2, and detoxification by the polymorphic NAT2. The aim of the present work was to assess the association between occupational-derived exposure to mutagens and CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity. This cross-sectional study included 117 textile workers exposed to dyes and 117 healthy controls. The urinary mutagenicity was determined in 24 h urine using TA98 Salmonella typhimurium strain with microsomal activation S9 (MIS9) or incubation with beta-glucuronidase (MIbeta). Urinary caffeine metabolite ratios: AFMU+1X+1U/17U, and AFMU/AFMU+1X+1U were calculated to assess CYP1A2 and NAT2 activities, respectively. The results show that workers present a strikingly higher urine mutagenicity than controls (p0.05) was compared, and the urinary mutagenicity was not significantly associated with the CYP1A2 activity marker (r=0.04 and r=-0.01 for MIS9 and MIbeta, respectively). This study clearly indicates the need for further protective policies to minimise exposure to the lowest feasible limit in order to avoid unnecessary risks.

  14. Exposure to mutagenic disinfection byproducts leads to increase of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lu; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2014-07-15

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) in drinking water has become a global issue because of its risks on the public health. Usually, the antibiotic concentrations in drinking water are too low to select antibiotic resistant strains effectively, suggesting that factors other than antibiotics would contribute to the emergence of BAR. In the current study, the impacts of mutagenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on BAR were explored, using four typical DBPs: dibromoacetic acid, dichloroacetonitrile, potassium bromate, and 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX). After exposure to DBPs, resistances to 10 individual antibiotics and multiple antibiotics were both raised by various levels, norfloxacin and polymycin B resistances were enhanced even greater than 10-fold compared with control. MX increased the resistance most observably in the selected DBPs, which was consistent with its mutagenic activity. The resistant mutants showed hereditary stability during 5-day culturing. The increase of BAR was caused by the mutagenic activities of DBPs, since mutation frequency declined by adding ROS scavenger. Mutagenesis was further confirmed by sequencing of the related genes. Our study indicated that mutagenic activities of the selected DBPs could induce antibiotic resistance, even multidrug resistance, which may partially explain the lack of agreement between BAR and antibiotic levels in drinking water.

  15. PATTERN RECOGNITION ANALYSIS OF A SET OF MUTAGENIC ALIPHATIC N-NITROSAMINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning ...

  16. [In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides

  17. Mutagenic activation of CL64,855, an anti-Trypanosoma cruzi nitroderivant, by bacterial nitroreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Jr. Marcos Antonio de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available CL64,855 is a nitroimidazole-thiodiazole derivate with high anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity. CL64,855-induced mutagenesis in the Salmonella/microsome test was detected by TA98 and TA98dnp6 strains, but not by the nitroreductase I-deficient TA98nr strain. The lack of mutagenic response of TA98nr was connected with its extreme resistance to the killing effect of the drug. Presence of S9 mix did not restore mutagenic activity of CL64,855 to the TA98nr strain. Additionally, CL64,855 was reduced in vitro by the nitroreductase I-proficient TA98 strain, mainly in the presence of oxygen, but not by the TA98nr strain. Mutagenic activity was detected in serum samples of treated guinea pigs by nitroreductase-proficient strains TA98 and TA98dnp6, but not by nitroductase-deficient strain TA98nr. In the case of urine, mutagenic activity was observed with all three tested strains, suggesting an in vivo metabolic activation of the drug by a distinct metabolic pathway.

  18. Short-term mutagenicity test systems for investigating the genetic toxicity of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of short-term tests for mutagenicity/carcinogenicity as alternatives to the long-term animal feeding tests in the study of genetic toxicology of irradiated foods is discussed in this review. Results of local studies on the toxicological safety of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  19. Onderzoek naar de mutagene werking van stoffen in het kader van de milieu-toxicologische evaluatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd CE; van der Stel JJ; Verharen HW; van Bruchem MC

    1986-01-01

    In het kader van het klassificeren van stoffen op basis van het BCW schema werd de mutagene werking van tri-butylfosfaat, isophoron, cyanuurzuur, 4,4'-dichloorbifenyl, 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxaan, hexamethyldisiloxaan en hexamethyldisilazan met microorganismen in de Ames-test onderzocht. Met

  20. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  1. BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONAL AND SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY OF AUTOMOBILE AND FORKLIFT DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have used anautomobile-generated sample (A-DEP) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast,rnany inutagenicity studies of DEP have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM ...

  2. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of food compounds : Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Cyrille Anna Maria

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of humans to potential mutagenic and carcinogenic food compounds through the diet is unavoidable. On the other hand, there is epidemiological evidence for antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties of food as well (such as vegetables and fruit). The assessment of carcinogenic and cancer

  3. Molecular basis of the mutagenic and lethal effects of ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using bacteria as a model, the molecular basis of the mutagenic and lethal effects of uv radiation is being studied. Attention is focused on the mechanism of action of uv-1 specific endonucleases in the repair of damaged DNA. The isolation and identification of similar enzymes in human cells are being conducted concurrently

  4. Mutagenic activity of sweepings and pigments from a household-wax factory assayed with Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, S D; Pozetti, G L; Vilegas, W; Varanda, E A

    2004-12-01

    The mutagenic activity of garbage originating from a household wax industry was determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay, using the bacterial strains TA100, TA98 and YG1024. The garbage was obtained by sweeping the floor of the factory at the end of the work shift. Organic compounds were extracted by ultrasound for 30 min in dichloromethane or 70% ethanol. After evaporation of solvent, these extracts (HFS: household-wax factory sweepings) were dissolved in DMSO, and were tested for the mutagenic activity at varying concentrations (HFS-ET: 0.08-0.68 mg/plate, HFS-DCM: 0.60-7.31 mg/plate). The colouring agents (pigments) used in the production of the wax were also dissolved in DMSO and tested with the assay. The concentrations tested for each pigment were: Amaranth: 0.46-3.65 mg/plate, Auramine: 0.15-1.2 mg/plate and Rhodamine B: 0.22-1.82 mg/plate. Both ET and DCM organic extracts had mutagenic activity, especially in the YG1024 strain. The pigments behaved in a similar way, demonstrating that YG1024 was the most sensitive strain for the detection of mutagenicity, and that metabolization increased the activity. Human exposure (occupational and non-occupational) to industrial residues generated during the household-wax manufacturing and packaging process should be monitored, since this type of garbage is normally deposited in the environment without any control.

  5. MUTAGENIC PROPERTIES OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH BIG CITY AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hanging technique using Blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planer structures, has advantages over the conventional method of bringing-large volumes of water back to the laboratory for extraction. Therefore, the analysis of many samples from remot...

  6. Mutagenic studies on the effect of Aldicarb "Temik" and vitamin C as antioxidant agent on the white rat:(Chromosomal aberrations and Micronucleus tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M. Hamam* and Ihab H. Foda

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread contamination of the environment due to increased and frequently indiscriminate usage of insecticides during the last two decades has aroused much concern over the possibility of their radiominetic effect. Evidence accumulating over the years emphasized the indisputable link between certain insecticides, chromosomal damage and possibility of gene mutation. There is a wide variety of insecticides, among which the carbamates. Their chemical relationship to ethyl carbamate makes them worthy of study for their possible deleterious effect on biological system. The main object of the present study is to evaluate the mutagenic effect of a carbamate insecticide" Aldicarb" alone and in combination of vitamin C as an antioxidant agent to decrease their mutagenicity. Male albino rats were tested orally for 48 hours , two doses of aldicarb were used in absence and in the presence of viamin C (1/4 and 1/10 LD50. The obtained data showed highly significant increase in the micronucleus (PCEM and in chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells at the two doses of aldicarb compared to control group. (P< 0.0001. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus decreased in rats treated with aldicarb and vitamin C than in aldicarb treated group. From these results we concluded that cytogenetic effect of aldicarb might be decreased by the usage of vitamin as an antioxidant agent.

  7. Mutagenicity and Pollutant Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Schmid, Judith E.; Dye, Janice A.; Linak, William P.; Gilmour, M. Ian; Jetter, James J.; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Emissions from solid fuels used for cooking cause ~4 million premature deaths per year. Advanced solid-fuel cookstoves are a potential solution, but they should be assessed by appropriate performance indicators, including biological effects. Objective: We evaluated two categories of solid-fuel cookstoves for eight pollutant and four mutagenicity emission factors, correlated the mutagenicity emission factors, and compared them to those of other combustion emissions. Methods: We burned red oak in a 3-stone fire (TSF), a natural-draft stove (NDS), and a forced-draft stove (FDS), and we combusted propane as a liquified petroleum gas control fuel. We determined emission factors based on useful energy (megajoules delivered, MJd) for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon, methane, total hydrocarbons, 32 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, levoglucosan (a wood-smoke marker), and mutagenicity in Salmonella. Results: With the exception of NOx, the emission factors per MJd were highly correlated (r ≥ 0.97); the correlation for NOx with the other emission factors was 0.58–0.76. Excluding NOx, the NDS and FDS reduced the emission factors an average of 68 and 92%, respectively, relative to the TSF. Nevertheless, the mutagenicity emission factor based on fuel energy used (MJthermal) for the most efficient stove (FDS) was between those of a large diesel bus engine and a small diesel generator. Conclusions: Both mutagenicity and pollutant emission factors may be informative for characterizing cookstove performance. However, mutagenicity emission factors may be especially useful for characterizing potential health effects and should be evaluated in relation to health outcomes in future research. An FDS operated as intended by the manufacturer is safer than a TSF, but without adequate ventilation, it will still result in poor indoor air quality. Citation: Mutlu E, Warren SH, Ebersviller SM, Kooter IM, Schmid JE, Dye JA, Linak WP, Gilmour MI, Jetter

  8. Atypical Role for PhoU in Mutagenic Break Repair under Stress in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Gibson

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses drive pathogen/host adaptation, antibiotic and anti-fungal-drug resistance, and perhaps much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs by homologous recombination is high fidelity in unstressed cells, but switches to a mutagenic mode using error-prone DNA polymerases when the both the SOS and general (σS stress responses are activated. Additionally, the σE response promotes spontaneous DNA breakage that leads to mutagenic break repair (MBR. We identified the regulatory protein PhoU in a genetic screen for functions required for MBR. PhoU negatively regulates the phosphate-transport and utilization (Pho regulon when phosphate is in excess, including the PstB and PstC subunits of the phosphate-specific ABC transporter PstSCAB. Here, we characterize the PhoU mutation-promoting role. First, some mutations that affect phosphate transport and Pho transcriptional regulation decrease mutagenesis. Second, the mutagenesis and regulon-expression phenotypes do not correspond, revealing an apparent new function(s for PhoU. Third, the PhoU mutagenic role is not via activation of the σS, SOS or σE responses, because mutations (or DSBs that restore mutagenesis to cells defective in these stress responses do not restore mutagenesis to phoU cells. Fourth, the mutagenesis defect in phoU-mutant cells is partially restored by deletion of arcA, a gene normally repressed by PhoU, implying that a gene(s repressed by ArcA promotes mutagenic break repair. The data show a new role for PhoU in regulation, and a new regulatory branch of the stress-response signaling web that activates mutagenic break repair in E. coli.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of dietary intervention: association between level of urinary phenolics and anti-mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, Christian; Fiorini, Laura; Bianchini, Monica; Davico, Laura; Bertinetti, Sabrina; Allegro, Giovanni; Hautefeuille, Agnès; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo

    2004-07-11

    We have undertaken a randomized trial to confirm the ability of a class of phenolics, flavonoids, to increase urinary anti-mutagenicity in smokers. Ninety heavy smokers were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, who were given three different diets. One diet was rich in flavonoids, but not based on supplementation ('flavonoid'), one was a normal iso-caloric diet with an adequate administration of fruit and vegetables ('normal'), and one was based on supplementation of flavonoids in the form of green tea and soy products ('supplement'). The urinary anti-mutagenicity-as inhibiting effect of the urinary extracts on the mutations induced by MeIQx-was measured in Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 in the presence of liver S9 from male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with Aroclor 1254. The amount of total phenolics in the urinary extracts was measured by use of spectrometric analysis. We found that important dietary modifications can be achieved through special recipes and instructions given by a cook during an intensive course. The intervention was focused on increasing the flavonoid intake, and it was successful in that respect. In fact, differences in flavonoid intake were appreciated mainly between the first group (normal diet) and the other two (flavonoid-rich and supplemented diet), suggesting that dietary modification can be as effective as supplementation. However, both urinary anti-mutagenicity and the amounts of urinary phenolics did not change as a consequence of the trial. These results suggest that only a small fraction of urinary phenolics is influenced by dietary changes in the intake of flavonoids, and that most urinary anti-mutagens and phenolics are metabolites of dietary flavonoids, whose formation is more affected by the activity and diversity of bacterial flora in the colon than by the quantity and type of intake. A strong correlation was found between urinary phenolics and anti-mutagenicity in all the groups involved in the trial. Such correlation

  10. Amylenes Do Not Lead to Bacterial Mutagenicity in Contrast to Structurally Related Epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz A. Westphal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons (C5H10, such as 1-pentene, 2-pentene, 2-methyl-but-1-en (3-methyl-1-butene, 2-methyl-but-2-en (isopentene, and 3-methyl-but-1-en. We investigated bacterial mutagenicity of 1-pentene, 2-pentene, and 3-methyl-but-1-en in the Ames test. 2-Pentene was investigated as racemate and as pure diastereomers. We included the methyltransferase deficient Salmonella Typhimurium strain YG7108 and the application of a gas-tight preincubation to reduce the risk of false negative results. 1,2-Epoxypentane which may arise from 1-pentene was used as positive control. None of the investigated amylenes showed mutagenic effects, whereas 1,2-epoxypentane was mutagenic exceeding 100 μg per plate. An exceptional high reverse mutation in the negative control plates in the experiments with 1,2-epoxypentane was obviously caused by evaporation into the incubator which was shown by placing the control plates in a separate apparatus. No differences were seen upon use of YG7108 and its parent strain TA1535. In conclusion, 1,2-epoxypentane is most probably not a substrate of the deleted bacterial methyltransferases. The comparison of the bacterial mutagenicity of the investigated amylenes and 1,2-epoxipentane suggests that epoxidation of amylenes in the S9-mix does not proceed effectively or is counterbalanced by detoxifying reactions. The assessment of mutagenic effects of short chained aliphatic epoxides can be underestimated due to the evaporation of these compounds.

  11. Metal, mutagenicity, and biochemical studies on bivalve molluscs from Spanish coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ariza, A.; Abril, N.; Navas, J.I.; Dorado, G.; Lopez-Barea, J.; Pueyo, C. (Departmento de Genetica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cordoba, (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    Three species of marine bivalve molluscs (Chamelea gallina, Ruditapes decussatus, and Crassostrea gigas) have been studied in order to evaluate the levels of pollution on the South Atlantic Spanish littoral. Several transition metals (Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb) were determined as a general index of total contamination. Animals from putative contaminated areas exhibited higher metal contents than those from cleaner waters. C. gigas showed 5-20-fold higher total metal content than the other two species. The mutagenicity of ethanolic extracts was assayed by using both the His reversion and the Ara forward mutation tests. Mollusc tissues from the three species did not contain genotoxins active on TA98 (frameshift mutations) or TA100 (mainly G:C base-pair substitutions), but did contain direct-acting genotoxins of a polar nature and oxidative type. This was based on the following observations: (1) mammalian metabolic activation was not required for mutagenicity, (2) mutagens were eluted with the polar fraction from XAD-2 columns, and (3) mutagenic responses were observed with Salmonella typhimurium TA102 (base-pair substitutions; sensitive to oxidative damages) and Escherichia coli catalase-deficient (AraR forward mutations) strains. No relevant differences were found in the mutagenicity of mollusc extracts from areas with different pollution levels. Otherwise, our data suggest that, in general, animals living in contaminated environments had fewer genotoxins of oxidative type than those from less polluted areas. Such a result might be explained by the observation of increased levels of a number of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.

  12. Estimation of the contribution of ultrafine particles to lung deposition of particle-bound mutagens in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Youhei; Matsumoto, Emiko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Yun, Sun-Ja

    2011-02-15

    The present study was performed to estimate the contributions of fine and ultrafine particles to the lung deposition of particle-bound mutagens in the atmosphere. This is the first estimation of the respiratory deposition of atmospheric particle-bound mutagens. Direct and S9-mediated mutagenicity of size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) collected at roadside and suburban sites was determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. Regional deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory tract of direct and S9-mediated mutagens in each size fraction were calculated using the LUDEP computer-based model. The model calculations showed that about 95% of the lung deposition of inhaled mutagens is caused by fine particles for both roadside and suburban atmospheres. Importantly, ultrafine particles were shown to contribute to the deposition of mutagens in the alveolar region of the lung by as much as 29% (+S9) and 26% (-S9) for the roadside atmosphere and 11% (+S9) and 13% (-S9) for the suburban atmosphere, although ultrafine particles contribute very little to the PM mass concentration. These results indicated that ultrafine particles play an important role as carriers of mutagens into the lung.

  13. Stability of mutagenic tautomers of uracil and its halogen derivatives: the results of quantum-mechanical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovorun D.M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate using the quantum-mechanical methods uracil (Ura intramolecular tautomerisation and the effect of the thymine (Thy methyl (Me group substitution by the halogen on that process. Methods. Non-empirical quantum mechanic, analysis of the electron density by means of Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM theory and physicochemical kinetics were used. Results. For the first time it has been established that the substitution of thymine Me-group for the halogen (Br, F, Cl has practically no effect on the main physico-chemical characteristics of intramolecular tautomerisation. At the same time, the energy of Ura tautomerisation increases for 3,08 kcal/mol in comparison with corresponding value for Thy under standard conditions. Conclusions. So, Thy, unlike Ura, is obviously able, as a canonical DNA nucleotide base, to provide together with Ade, Gua and Cyt an acceptable mutability degree of the genome from the point of view of its adaptation reserve. Mutagenic action of the Ura halogen derivatives is not directly associated with their tautomerisation.

  14. Soil mutagenicity as a strategy to evaluate environmental and health risks in a contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohren, Roberta de Souza; Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida Vaz; Leal, Karen Alan; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2012-09-01

    Soil can be a storage place and source of pollutants for interfacial environments. This study looked at a site contaminated with wood preservatives as a source of mutagens, defined routes and extent of the dispersion of these contaminants by particle remobilization and atmospheric deposition, considering an evaluation of risk to human health by quantifying mutagenic risk. Soil sampling sites were chosen at gradually increasing distances (150, 500 and 1700m) from SI (industrial area pool) and indoor dust (pool in an area at risk at 385m and at 1700m). Mutagenesis was evaluated in the Salmonella/microsome assay, TA98, TA97a and TA100 strains with and without S9 mix, YGs strains 1041, 1042 and 1024 for nitrocompounds. Acid extracts were analyzed to define the effects of metals and organics for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitroderivates, besides concentrations of these compounds and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Risk to human health was obtained from the relation between the quantified potential of mutagenic risk and estimated soil ingestion for children according to USEPA. Metal concentrations showed a gradient of responses with As, Cr and Cu (total metal) or Cr and Cu (fraction available) higher for SI. However, mutagenic effects of the mixtures did not show this grading. Site SR1700, without a response, was characterized as a reference. In organic extracts, the mutagenesis responses showed the mobility of these compounds from the source. In the surrounding area, a smaller pattern similar to SI was observed at SR150, and at the other sites elevated values of direct mutagenesis at SR500 and diminished effects at SR1700. Tests with YG strains indicated that nitrated compounds have a significant effect on the direct mutagenesis found, except SR500. The investigation of indoor dust in the surrounding area enabled confirmation of the particle resuspension route and atmospheric deposition, showing responses in mutagenicity biomarkers, PAH concentrations and PCP

  15. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Lewisite in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of lewisite was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation method and by the preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TAlOO and TA102. All strains were tested with activation (20 and 50 {micro}l/ plate) and without activation. The lewisite was screened initially for toxicity with TA98 over a range of concentrations from 0.01 to 250 {micro}g of material per plate. However, concentrations selected for mutagenicity testing were adjusted to a range of 0.001 to 5 {micro}g/plate because of the sensitivity of tester strain TA102, which exhibited cytotoxicity at 0.01 ug/plate. No mutagenic response was exhibited by any of the strains in either method used. All other tester strains showed evidence of cytoxicity (reduction in mutagen response or sparse background lawn) at 5.0 {micro}g/plate or lower.

  16. Effect of Diallyl Trisulfide on Induction of UDS by Mutagenic Drugs in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGDa-Jun; KerstlnMUELLER; 等

    1994-01-01

    Most of anticancer drugs are mutagenic A possible exception is diallyl trisulfide(DAT).a component of garlic.Its modifying effect on induction of DS by mutagenic mitomycin C(MMC),cyclophosphamide(CP)and cis-diamine dichloroplatin(DDP0was investigated with the UDS assay in the primary cultures of Wistar rat hepatocytes (hpc) using the autoradiorgaphic technique.Results showed that 1.0-4.0 nmol/ml of DAT did not induce UDS and that MMC,CP and DDP resulted in a significant induction of dose-dependent UDS.DAT enhanced induction of UDS by these drugs.A dose-effect relationship was obsverved between dos of DAT and enhancement of induction of UDS.However,the mechanism of the enhancement is not clear.

  17. Comparative metabolism and mutagenicity of azo and hydrazone dyes in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De France, B F; Carter, M H; Josephy, P D

    1986-02-01

    Enteric bacterial and hepatic azoreductase enzymes are capable of reducing azo dyes to yield the constituent aromatic amines. Azo dyes based on benzidine and benzidine congeners have received particular attention because of their widespread use and the known carcinogenicity of benzidine to humans. Azo dyes based on beta-diketone coupling components exist preferentially as the tautomeric hydrazones. A series of hydrazone dyes based on benzidine and benzidine congeners was prepared and characterized by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. These dyes were tested for mutagenicity using a modified Ames assay and, unlike the true azo dyes, showed no significant mutagenic activity. The hydrazone dyes were resistant to enzymatic reduction by FMN-supplemented hamster-liver post-mitochondrial supernatant (S-9); under identical conditions, azo dyes such as trypan blue were rapidly reduced.

  18. Induction of bacterial antibiotic resistance by mutagenic halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lu; Yu, Xin; Xu, Qian; Ye, Chengsong

    2015-10-01

    Halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) raise concerns regarding their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity threatening public health. However, environmental consequence of their mutagenicity has received less attention. In this study, the effect of halogenated N-DBPs on bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) was investigated. After exposure to bromoacetamide (BAcAm), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) or tribromonitromethane (TBNM), the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to both individual and multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, rifampin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin + gentamicin and ciprofloxacin + tetracycline) was increased, which was predominantly ascribed to the overexpression of efflux pumps. The mechanism of this effect was demonstrated to be mutagenesis through sequencing and analyzing antibiotic resistance genes. The same induction phenomena also appeared in Escherichia coli, suggesting this effect may be universal to waterborne pathogens. Therefore, more attention should be given to halogenated N-DBPs, as they could increase not only genotoxicological risks but also epidemiological risks of drinking water.

  19. Mutagenic activity of some coal-derived humic compounds evaluated by the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, F; Ponzanelli, I; Barale, R; Loprieno, N

    1996-07-10

    Two coal-derived humic substances (Sulcis and South Africa, Eniricerche, Italy) have been evaluated for their mutagenic activity on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains, either in presence or in absence of metabolic activation (S9). Both compounds showed no effect on the two strains, as observed with natural humic acid (Fluka). After chlorination, coal-derived humic acids induced a strong dose-related increase in the number of revertants on TA100 without S9, whose extent was directly proportional to the chlorination ratios. Such effect was completely suppressed when a sodium thiosulfate solution (10%) was added at the end of the chlorination period (about 90 h). The analogies with natural humic acid mutagenicity are discussed. PMID:8700175

  20. Mutagenic activity of some coal-derived humic compunds evaluated by the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacchi, F.; Ponzanelli, I.; Barale, R.; Loprieno, N. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa (Italy). Dipt. Scienze dell`Ambiente e del Territorilo

    1996-07-10

    Two coal-derived humic substances were evaluated for their mutagenic activity on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains, either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9). Both compounds showed no effect on the two strains, as observed with natural humic acid (Fluka). After chlorination, coal-derived humic acids induced a strong dose-related increase in the number of revertants on TA100 without S9, whose extent was directly proportional to the chlorination ratios. Such effect was completely suppressed when a sodium thiosulphate solution (10%) was added at the end of the chlorination period (about 90 h). The analogies with natural humic acid mutagenicity are discussed. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Hygienic quality and mutagenicity of minced meats and patties treated by ionizing energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wang Geun; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won June; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institte, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial safety of minced beef, minced pork, beef patties and pork patties irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam at an absorbed dose from 5 to 20 kGy. Also, the mutagenicity of minced beef, minced pork and patties treated with irradiation at 50 kGy was evaluated by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay). The results of the total aerobic bacteria of the minced beef, minced pork and patties showed that the sterilization effect of gamma irradiation was superior to that of electron beam irradiation. The results from Ames test showed that all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Also, no mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation.

  2. Reaction mixtures formed by nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs showed mutagenicity in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Trossero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite, which is present in preserved meat and can be produced in the oral cavity by reduction of nitrate taken from vegetables, could react in stomach with nitrosatable drugs, giving genotoxic-carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC. The mutagenicity of reaction mixtures formed by sodium nitrite and selected sulfa-drugs (sulfathiazole, HST; phtalylsulfathiazole, PhST; complex Co(II-sulfathiazole, Co(II-ST in acidic medium was evaluated using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test, with TA98 and TA 100 strains. The reactions were carried out at room temperature, with a mole ratio [nitrite]/[sulfa-drug] > 1. The three reaction mixtures showed mutagenic effects in the considered range.

  3. New Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models Improve Predictability of Ames Mutagenicity for Aromatic Azo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganelli, Serena; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Kulkarni, Sunil; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-10-01

    Existing Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models have limited predictive capabilities for aromatic azo compounds. In this study, 2 new models were built to predict Ames mutagenicity of this class of compounds. The first one made use of descriptors based on simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES), calculated with the CORAL software. The second model was based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. The statistical quality of the predictions from single models was satisfactory. The performance further improved when the predictions from these models were combined. The prediction results from other QSAR models for mutagenicity were also evaluated. Most of the existing models were found to be good at finding toxic compounds but resulted in many false positive predictions. The 2 new models specific for this class of compounds avoid this problem thanks to a larger set of related compounds as training set and improved algorithms.

  4. Hygienic quality and mutagenicity of minced meats and patties treated by ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial safety of minced beef, minced pork, beef patties and pork patties irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam at an absorbed dose from 5 to 20 kGy. Also, the mutagenicity of minced beef, minced pork and patties treated with irradiation at 50 kGy was evaluated by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay). The results of the total aerobic bacteria of the minced beef, minced pork and patties showed that the sterilization effect of gamma irradiation was superior to that of electron beam irradiation. The results from Ames test showed that all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Also, no mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation

  5. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓薇

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Viciafaba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Viciafaba root tip cells.

  6. Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip cells of Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓徽

    2004-01-01

    In this study on the mutagenic effects of different concentrations of chromium trioxide (CrO3) on Vicia faba root tip, micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay were used to determine the mitotic indexes, micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. The results showed that the effects of CrO3 concentration on the mitotic indexes were complicated. CrO3 increases the micronucleus rate of Vicia faba root tip cells. It was found that within certain range of CrO3 concentration the micronucleus rate increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3, but that the micronucleus rate decreased at higher level of CrO3 and that CrO3 also caused various types of chromosome aberration at a rate which increased systematically with increased concentration of CrO3. We concluded that CrO3 has significant mutagenic effect on Vicia faba root tip cells.

  7. Responses of the L5178Y mouse Lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. V: 27 coded chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D B; Brown, A G; Howgate, S; McBride, D; Riach, C; Caspary, W J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay using procedures based upon those described by McGregor et al. (McGregor DB, Martin R, Cattanach P, Edwards I, McBride D, Caspary WJ (1987): Environ Mol Mutagen 9:143-160). Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 micrograms/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Statistically significant responses were obtained with acid orange 10, aniline, benzaldehyde, o-chloroaniline, chlorodibromomethane, cytembena, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromomethyl) cyclohexane, dieldrin, lithocholic acid, oxytetracycline, phenazopyridine HCl, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, solvent yellow 14, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Apart from phenazopyridine HCl, acid orange 10, and solvent yellow 14, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the mutagenic activity of these compounds. Chemical not identified as mutagens were N-4-acetylaminofluorene, chlorpheniramine maleate, chloropropamide, 1,4-dioxane, endrin, ethylene glycol, iron dextran, methapyrilene, sodium(2-ethylhexyl)alcohol PMID:1902415

  8. 75 FR 4983 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Register of April 24, 1990 (55 FR 17376). Consult that preamble for further information on the objectives... used as a chemical intermediate for the manufacture of a dye in imaging media/ products. Based on test..., developmental toxicity, mutagenicity, cancer, neurotoxicity, skin sensitization, hydrocarbon pneumonia,...

  9. Guidelines of Italian CCTN for classification of some effects of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, N. [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    Definitions of the categories and the criteria for the classification of chemical substances on the basis of their potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic-reproductive effects, elaborated by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1994. Besides all the allocations effected by the CCTN in the period 1977-1995 are reported, updated according to these criteria.

  10. Mutagenic activity associated with by-products of drinking water disinfection by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone and UV-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeteman, B C; Hrubec, J; de Greef, E; Kool, H J

    1982-12-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study in The Netherlands showed a statistical association between chlorination by-products in drinking water and cancer of the esophagus and stomach for males. A pilot-plant study with alternative disinfectants was carried out with stored water of the Rivers Rhine and Meuse. It was demonstrated that the increase of direct acting mutagens after treatment with chlorine dioxide is similar to the effect of chlorination. Ozonation of Rhine water reduced the mutagenic activity for Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 both with and without metabolic activation. UV alone hardly affects the mutagenicity of the stored river water for S. typh. TA 98. In all studies, practically no mutagenic activity for S. typh. TA 100 was found. Although remarkable changes in the concentration of individual organic compounds are reported, the identity of the mutagens detected is yet unclear. Compounds of possible interest due to their removal by ozonation are 1,3,3-trimethyloxindole, dicyclopentadiene and several alkylquinolines. Compounds which might be responsible for the increased mutagenicity after chlorination are two brominated acetonitriles and tri(2-chlorethyl) phosphate. Furthermore, the concentration procedure with adsorption on XAD resin and the subsequent elution step may have affected the results. It is proposed to focus further research more on the less volatile by-products of disinfection than on the trihalomethanes.

  11. Association of the mutagenicity of airborne particles with the direct emission from combustion processes investigated in Osaka, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takayuki; Sanukida, Satoshi; Inazu, Koji; Hisamatsu, Yoshiharu; Maeda, Yasuaki; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi

    The association of the direct-acting mutagenicity of soluble organic fraction of airborne particles toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 strain with the direct emission was investigated at a roadside and at a residential area in Osaka, Japan. The direct-acting mutagenicity was evaluated as mutagenic activity per unit volume of ambient air (rev m -3) and/or that per airborne particulate weight collected on a filter (rev mg -1). The annual or diurnal changes of the mutagenicity of airborne particles at the residential site showed similar patterns to those of some gaseous pollutants such as NO 2 and SO 2, which were emitted from combustion processes. This result indicates that the mutagenicity is mainly attributable to the primary emissions. From the analysis of the relationship between the wind sector and the mutagenic intensity, rev m -3 and rev mg -1 values were strongly affected by the emissions from the fixed sources and from the mobile sources, respectively. The rev m -3 value and concentration of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in unit per m 3 at the roadside were a factor of 2.6 and 2.8 higher than those at the residential site, respectively, but the rev mg -1 value and concentration of 1-NP in unit per mg at the roadside were substantially comparable to those at the residential area. These observations suggest that the characteristics of the airborne particles can be attributed to the automotive emissions even at the suburban area.

  12. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A.; Falcone, E.; Aquilina, G; G. Fabri; Carere, A.

    1985-01-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains...

  13. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  14. 53BP1 mediates productive and mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphoprotein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callen, E.; Wong, N.; Chen, H.-T.;

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) protein 53BP1 protects DNA ends from excessive resection in G1, and thereby favors repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) as opposed to homologous recombination (HR). During S phase, BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 to promote HR. The pro-NHEJ and antirecombinase functions...... productive CSR and suppresses mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphodependent interactions with RIF1 and PTIP. © 2013 Elsevier Inc....

  15. Toxicity and mutagenicity of low-metallic automotive brake pad materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachova, Katerina; Kukutschova, Jana; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Placha, Daniela; Cabanova, Kristina; Filip, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Organic friction materials are standardly used in brakes of small planes, railroad vehicles, trucks and passenger cars. The growing transportation sector requires a better understanding of the negative impact related to the release of potentially hazardous materials into the environment. This includes brakes which can release enormous quantities of wear particulates. This paper addresses in vitro detection of toxic and mutagenic potency of one model and two commercially available low-metallic automotive brake pads used in passenger cars sold in the EU market. The model pad made in the laboratory was also subjected to a standardized brake dynamometer test and the generated non-airborne wear particles were also investigated. Qualitative "organic composition" was determined by GC/MS screening of dichloromethane extracts. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity of four investigated sample types were assessed in vitro by bioluminescence assay using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and by two bacterial bioassays i) Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium His(-) and ii) SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. Screening of organic composition revealed a high variety of organic compounds present in the initial brake pads and also in the generated non-airborne wear debris. Several detected compounds are classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic to humans, e. g. benzene derivatives. Acute toxicity bioassay revealed a response of bacterial cells after exposure to all samples used. Phenolic resin and wear debris were found to be acutely toxic; however in term of mutagenicity the response was negative. All non-friction exposed brake pad samples (a model pad and two commercial pad samples) were mutagenic with metabolic activation in vitro. PMID:27179608

  16. Pattern recognition analysis of a set of mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Nesnow, S; Langenbach, R; Mass, M J

    1985-01-01

    A set of 21 mutagenic aliphatic N-nitrosamines were subjected to a pattern recognition analysis using ADAPT software. Four descriptors based on molecular connectivity, geometry and sigma charge on nitrogen were capable of achieving a 100% classification using the linear learning machine or iterative least squares algorithms. Three descriptors were capable of a 90.5% and two descriptors of a 85.7% overall correct classification. Three of the four descriptors were each capable of classifying 15...

  17. Data in support of the mutagenic potential of the isoflavone irilone in cultured V79 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Scheffler; Annette E. Albrecht; Esch, Harald L.; Leane Lehmann

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone irilone is found in human plasma after ingestion of red clover-based dietary supplements, but information allowing safety assessment is rare. Here, data in support of the mutagenic potential of irilone in cultured V79 cells [1] are presented. These data include (i) a quantitative assessment of irilone in the culture medium during the cell culture experiments, (ii) changes in the mutation spectrum in cDNA of the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus of irilone-tre...

  18. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Reifferscheid; Oepen, Britta v.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  19. Mutagenic effect of radionuclides incorporated into DNA of Drosophila melanogaster. Progress report, 1978-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current progress in studies on the mutagenic effect of 3H incorporated into the DNA of Drosophila melanogaster is reported. It was shown that selected 3H precursors incorporated into DNA are metabolized. The forms (metabolites) of tritium found in the DNA molecules and the mutation frequencies resulting therefrom were identified. An alcohol dehydrogenase system was developed for recovering mutations that is capable of distinguishing between base changes and chain breakage events that may lead to the formation of deletions

  20. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S. Vidal; Adriana M. Alves; Ricardo M. Kuster; Claudia Lage; Leitão, Alvaro C.

    2010-01-01

    Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapéu-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive re...

  1. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the food mutagens IQ and methyl-IQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, A.L.; Rapoport, H. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-03-01

    The mutagens found in cooked meat, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)-quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (Methyl-IQ), have been synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and incorporate specific high level tritium labeling, effected by hydrogenolysis of the appropriately substituted 5-bromo precursors.

  2. Screening tests for determination of cytotoxic agent, mutagens and carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegelberg, T.; Koerdel, W.; Goertz, T.; Thriemer, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is supposed that chemical substances are the primary factors responsible for the development of tumors and genetic damages. From this results the urgend demand to examine at least the frequently applied and suspicious substances on possibly health-affecting effects. The performance of these examinations with experimental animals requires a lot of time and financial support and has increasingly been criticised in public with regard to protection of animals. Experience gained in the U.S.A. revealed that the carcinogenicity test of one single substance performed with animal experiments takes approximately 3 years and costs about 300,000 Dollars. Therefore the application of cell cultures for such examinations and tests has been postulated and discussed for several years. Cell cultures require only little space and generally the observed effects develop after only a short time. Objectification and statistical assessment (due to high cell amounts per test) can be performed without any problems.

  3. 54. The Study on the Mutagenicity of Organic Extracts from Fish Raised in Water Containing Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    objective: To assess the cytogenetic toxicological safety of fish raised in water containing effluent. Methods: Three experimental groups of fish were raised in water that contained effluent. Both fish samples and water samples were collected and analyzed. One group of fish raised in YuQiao reservoir (The source of drinking-water for Tianjin) and a reservoir water sample were collected at the same time as the clean control group. The mutagenicity of organic extracts of the fish was detected using the mice bone marrow micronucleus test and the mutagenicity of the water samples was detected using the micronucleus test of vicia faba root tip cells. Results: The results of the mice bone marrow micronucleus test on organic extracts of the fish showed that the micronucleus rates of the three experimental groups were significantly higher than that of the negative control group (peanut oil) and the clean control group (P0.05) Conclusions: The results indicate that the water containing effluent and the fish raised in this kind of water contain some kinds of organic mutagenic compounds, which might have some potentially hazardous effects on human beings through the food chains.

  4. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test

  5. Potential benefits of sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatments of RNA virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Perales

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lethal mutagenesis is an antiviral strategy consisting of virus extinction associated with enhanced mutagenesis. The use of non-mutagenic antiviral inhibitors has faced the problem of selection of inhibitor-resistant virus mutants. Quasispecies dynamics predicts, and clinical results have confirmed, that combination therapy has an advantage over monotherapy to delay or prevent selection of inhibitor-escape mutants. Using ribavirin-mediated mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, here we show that, contrary to expectations, sequential administration of the antiviral inhibitor guanidine (GU first, followed by ribavirin, is more effective than combination therapy with the two drugs, or than either drug used individually. Coelectroporation experiments suggest that limited inhibition of replication of interfering mutants by GU may contribute to the benefits of the sequential treatment. In lethal mutagenesis, a sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatment can be more effective than the corresponding combination treatment to drive a virus towards extinction. Such an advantage is also supported by a theoretical model for the evolution of a viral population under the action of increased mutagenesis in the presence of an inhibitor of viral replication. The model suggests that benefits of the sequential treatment are due to the involvement of a mutagenic agent, and to competition for susceptible cells exerted by the mutant spectrum. The results may impact lethal mutagenesis-based protocols, as well as current antiviral therapies involving ribavirin.

  6. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent.

  7. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  8. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent. PMID:26710178

  9. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of cola and grape flavored soft drinks in bone marrow cells of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large consumption of soft drinks in Brazil and worldwide in recent years and considering that some of the components present in their composition pose potential risks to human health, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of specific cola and grape-flavored soft drink brands. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were initially treated by gavage with one single dose of Cola or Grape soft drink, which was next offered ad libitum (instead of water for 24 hours. A negative control treatment was performed by administering one single dose of water and a positive control administering cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally. Statistical analysis showed that the Cola and Grape soft drinks studied were not cytotoxic. However, the Cola soft drink proved mutagenic in this experiment treatment time. Therefore, this study serves as a warning about the consumption of Cola-flavored soft drink and for the need for further subchronic and chronic studies on soft drinks in order to evaluate the long term mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these substances.

  10. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  11. Mutagenic, antimutagenic and antioxidant potency of leaf extracts from Nitraria retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Jihed; Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Nitraria retusa; methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane extracts. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. These extracts from leaf parts of N. retusa showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (microsome fraction). The highest protection against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity was observed with chloroform and methanol extracts with inhibition percentages of 44.93% (at 50 microg/plate in the presence of TA102 strain) and 38% (at 10 microg/plate in the presence of TA104 strain), respectively. Whereas Hexane and chloroform extracts reduced the mutagenicity induced by 2-aminoanthracene by 83.4% (using the S. typhimurium TA104 assay system) and 65.3% (using the S. typhimurium TA 102 assay system), respectively. Antioxidant activity of N. retusa extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. Chloroform extract exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damages and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, with 0.95mM trolox equivalent when tested by the ferric reducing/antioxidant method. PMID:20510330

  12. Molecular understanding of mutagenicity using potential energy methods. Progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broyde, S.; Shapiro, R.

    1993-09-01

    Our objective has been to elucidate on a molecular level, at atomic resolution, the structures of DNAs modified by highly mutagenic aromatic amines and hydrocarbons. The underlying hypothesis is that DNA replicates with reduced fidelity when its normal right-handed B-structure is altered, and one result is a higher mutation rate. This change in structure may occur normally at a low incidence but it may be enhanced greatly after covalent modification by a mutagenic substance. The methods that we use to elucidate structures are computational, but we keep in close contact with experimental developments, and we incorporate data from NMR studies in our calculations when they are available. X-ray and low resolution spectroscopic studies have not succeeded in producing atomic resolution views of mutagen and carcinogen-oligonucleotide adducts. Even the high resolution NMR method cannot alone yield molecular views, though it does so in combination with our computations. The specific methods that we employ are minimized potential energy calculations using the torsion angle space molecular mechanics program DUPLEX to yield static views. Molecular dynamics simulations of static structures with solvent and salt can be carried out with the program AMBER; this yields mobile views in a medium that mimics aspects of the natural aqueous environment of the cell.

  13. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hanwool; Lim, Younggap; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02 using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT, chromosome aberration (CA, and micronucleus (MN tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin. The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9. In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight.

  15. Mutagenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of Scandix pecten-veneris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Tayeboon, G S; Miri, A; Sharifi-Rad, M; Setzer, W N; Fallah, F; Kuhestani, K; Tahanzadeh, N; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-05-30

    Scandix pecten-veneris L. or Shepherd's-needle is a weed species used in some countries for medicinal purposes. In this study S. pecten-veneris leaves were shade dried, powdered and extracted with methanol. The purpose of this study was to assay the in vitro mutagenic, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of S. pecten-veneris leaf extract. The methanolic extract indicated no mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Antimutagenic activity was reported with inhibition of mutagenicity in a concentration dependent fashion. The methanolic extract demonstrated antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging test (IC50 = 4.57 mg/mL), comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Moreover, the extract presented a remarkable and potent inhibition against soybean lipoxygenase (IC50 = 641.57 µg/mL). The methanolic extract was examined for its antimicrobial powers against four different bacteria with MIC values >100. Our results introduced this plant as a useful factor for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  16. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  17. Mutagenicity testing with transgenic mice. Part I: Comparison with the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahnschaffe U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of a larger literature study on transgenic animals in mutagenicity testing, test results from the transgenic mutagenicity assays (lacI model; commercially available as the Big Blue® mouse, and the lacZ model; commercially available as the Muta™Mouse, were compared with the results on the same substances in the more traditional mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. 39 substances were found which had been tested in the micronucleus assay and in the above transgenic mouse systems. Although, the transgenic animal mutation assay is not directly comparable with the micronucleus test, because different genetic endpoints are examined: chromosome aberration versus gene mutation, the results for the majority of substances were in agreement. Both test systems, the transgenic mouse assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, have advantages and they complement each other. However, the transgenic animal assay has some distinct advantages over the micronucleus test: it is not restricted to one target organ and detects systemic as well as local mutagenic effects.

  18. Evaluation of extracellular products and mutagenicity in cyanobacteria cultures separated from a eutrophic reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W.-J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: huangwj@sunrise.hk.edu.tw; Lai, C.-H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.-L. [Environmental Toxin and Analysis Laboratory, Hung Kuang University, 34 Chung Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: octling@yahoo.com.tw

    2007-05-15

    The algal extracellular products (ECPs) in three cultures of cyanobacteria species (Anabaena, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) dominating the eutrophic reservoir populations and their toxins have been investigated in the present work. Using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) techniques, more than 20 compounds were found in the algal culture (including cells and filtrates) extracts. The main identified ECPs were classified to polysaccharides, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Odor causing substances such as trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB)were also found in the algal cultures. The potential mutagenicity of the algal suspensions was also studied with the Ames test. The organic extracts of the algal suspension from the axenic cultures were mutagenicity in TA98 without S9 mix and in TA100 with and without S9 mix. The results indicate that the ECPs of three algae species dominating the eutrophic reservoir were mutagenic clearly in the bacterial test.

  19. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3...

  20. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity.

  1. Mutagenicity and Immune Toxicity of Emulsion-type Sausage Cured with Plasma-treated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hanwool; Lim, Younggap; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Cold plasma has been developed to reduce microbial contamination and to improve safety of food and medical products. In addition, the technology can be used in the manufacture of sausages without addition of nitrite. To be applied in food industry commercially, the new technology should be safe and efficient. However, toxicological test of plasma-treated food is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mutagenicity and immune toxicity of the meat products cured with plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source. Emulsion sausages were prepared with no nitrite (control), sodium nitrite (SCS), and PTW (SCP). For a mutagenicity test, the Ames test was performed with the sausage samples. For immune toxicity test, 8-wk-old female Balb/c mice were given free access to the sausages in order to evaluate the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level. As a result, no mutagenicity was detected in the sausages by the Ames test. The serum TNF-α values were less than 10 pg/mL in mice after feeding control and treated samples for 32 d, indicating that no inflammatory response was occurred by feeding the sausages made by PTW. Therefore, the present study opens the possibility of using plasma-treated water as a nitrite source without any toxicity. PMID:27621690

  2. Mutagenic Analysis of Water in The Areas with High-incidence of Esophageal Cancer%部分食管癌高发区水的诱变性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋悦红; 韩建英; 谭家驹; 周舫

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析部分食管癌高发区各种水的致突变性及致癌性.方法 采用蚕豆根尖细胞微核试验作为化学致突变物、致癌物的初筛试验.结果 各种类型的水样诱发的蚕豆根尖细胞微核率分别为:煤矿排污水 14.42‰,红旗渠水8.62‰,河水8.34‰,深机井水2.81‰,自来水3.96‰.结论 煤矿排污水诱变性最高,其次是红旗渠水源水和浊漳河水,而林州市深机井水和自来水诱变性较低.提示,饮用高诱变水可能是食管癌的危险因素之一.%[Objective]To analyze the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of all kinds of water in the areas with high-incidence of esophageal cancer.[Methods]Micronucleus test in Vicia faba root tips cell was adopted for primary screening test of chemical mutagens and carcinogens.[Results]The rate of Vicia faba root tip micronucleus caused by different types of water samples wasl4.42‰ of coal mine waste water, 8.62‰ of Red Flag Canal water, 8.34‰ of river water, 2.81‰ of deep phreatic water, 3.96‰ of tap water, respectively.[Conclusion]Mutagenicity of coal mine waste water is the highest, followed by the Red Flag Canal source water and water of Zhuozhang River.The mutagenicity of deep phreatic water and tap water in LinZhou City is much lower, It indicates that drinking the high mutagenicity water may be a of the risk factor of esophageal cancer.

  3. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of emerging edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, G C; Chen, H Y; Peng, H H

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluates the toxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of emerging edible plants that are consumed as new leafy vegetables in Taiwan. Among eight plant extracts, only the extracts of Sol (Solanum nigrum L.) showed cytotoxicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in the absence of S9 mix. The toxicity of extracts from different parts of the Sol plant, such as leaf and stem, immature fruit and mature fruit, towards S. typhimurium TA100 and human lymphocytes was also assayed. The immature fruit extracts of Sol exhibited strong cytotoxicity with dose dependence and induced significant DNA damage in human lymphocytes based on the comet assay. However, no mutagenicity was found in eight plant extracts to TA98 or TA100 either with or without the S9 mixture. Sol and Sec [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz] extracts showed the strongest inhibitory effect towards the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100; the ID(50) was less then 1 mg/plate. Cra [Crassocephalum creidioides (Benth.) S. Moore] extracts also expressed moderate antimutagenic activities towards IQ and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) either in TA98 or in TA100; the ID(50) was 1.63-2.41 mg/plate. The extracts from Bas (Basella alba L.), Bou (Boussingaultia gracilis Miers var. pseudobaselloides Bailey), Cen (Centella asiatica L. Urban), Cor (Corchorus olitorius L.) and Por (Portulaca oleracea L.) showed weak to moderate inhibition of mutagenicity of IQ. However, the potential antimutagenicity of these plant extracts towards B[a]P was weaker than that towards IQ. For a direct mutagen, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO), only the Sol extracts showed strong inhibitory effects in the TA100 system. The antimutagenic activity of water extracts of Sec was partly reduced by heating at 100 degrees C for 20 min. The heat-stable antimutagens in Sec extracts could be produced in the plant extract preparation process. Fractions with molecular weights above 30,000 showed the

  4. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  5. Effect of mutagens on seed germination in Gloriosa superba LINN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Gloriosa superba were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from (1 kR to 35 kR) at an interval of 5 kR. Lower doses (1 kR and 5 kR) were stimulative while higher doses had inhibitory effect on seed germination. The highest percentage of germination was 29.5 and it was observed at 5 kR as compared to 24 per cent in control. Various concentrations of EMS (0.25 to 1 per cent) and dES (0.05 to 1 per cent) were used for duration of 4 hours. In the treated seeds the maximum percentage of germination was 23 and 17.5 per cent at 0.25 EMS and 0.05 per cent dES respectively. Whereas in control it was 25 per cent. There was proportionate decrease in germination percentage with an increase in concentration of both the chemicals. (author). 3 tables, 3 figs., 38 refs

  6. Dietary phenolics as anti-mutagens and inhibitors of tobacco-related DNA adduction in the urothelium of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaveille, C; Hautefeuille, A; Pignatelli, B; Talaska, G; Vineis, P; Bartsch, H

    1996-10-01

    Human urine is known to contain substances that strongly inhibit bacterial mutagenicity of aromatic and heterocyclic amines in vitro. The biological relevance of these anti-mutagens was examined by comparing levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in exfoliated urothelial cells from smokers with the anti-mutagenic activity in corresponding 24-h urine samples. An inverse relationship was found between the inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-mutagenicity by urine extracts in vitro and two DNA adduct measurements: the level of the putatively identified N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl adduct and the total level of all tobacco-smoke-related carcinogen adducts including those probably derived from PhIP. Urinary anti-mutagenicity in vitro appears thus to be a good indicator of the anti-genotoxicity exerted by substances excreted in urine, that protect the bladder mucosal cells (and possibly other cells) against DNA damage. These substances appear to be dietary phenolics and/or their metabolites because (i) the anti-mutagenic activity of urine extracts (n = 18) was linearly related to their content in phenolics; (ii) the concentration ranges of these substances in urine extracts were similar to those of various plant phenols (quercetin, isorhamnetin and naringenin) for which an inhibitory effect on the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP was obtained; (iii) treatment of urines with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase enhanced both anti-mutagenicity and the levels of phenolics in urinary extracts; (iv) urinary extracts inhibited noncompetitively the liver S9-mediated mutagenicity of PhIP as did quercetin, used as a model phenolics. Several structural features of the flavonoids were identified as necessary for the inhibition of PhIP and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxiline mutagenicity. Fractionation by reverse-phase HPLC and subsequent analysis of two urinary extracts, showed the presence of several anti-mutagenic

  7. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Eric J; DeMarini, David M; Ravuri, Sridevi A; Liberatore, Hannah K; Cuthbertson, Amy A; Thompson-Klemish, Alexis; Byer, Jonathan D; Schmid, Judith E; Afifi, Mehrnaz Z; Blatchley, Ernest R; Richardson, Susan D

    2016-07-01

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from seven sites, we report the first integrated mutagenicity and comprehensive analytical chemistry of spas treated with chlorine, bromine, or ozone, along with pools treated with these same disinfectants. Gas chromatography (GC) with high-resolution mass spectrometry, membrane-introduction mass spectrometry, and GC-electron capture detection were used to comprehensively identify and quantify DBPs and other contaminants. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. More than 100 DBPs were identified, including a new class of DBPs, bromoimidazoles. Organic extracts of brominated pool/spa waters were 1.8× more mutagenic than chlorinated ones; spa waters were 1.7× more mutagenic than pools. Pool and spa samples were 2.4 and 4.1× more mutagenic, respectively, than corresponding tap waters. The concentration of the sum of 21 DBPs measured quantitatively increased from finished to tap to pool to spa; and mutagenic potency increased from finished/tap to pools to spas. Mutagenic potencies of samples from a chlorinated site correlated best with brominated haloacetic acid concentrations (Br-HAAs) (r = 0.98) and nitrogen-containing DBPs (N-DBPs) (r = 0.97) and the least with Br-trihalomethanes (r = 0.29) and Br-N-DBPs (r = 0.04). The mutagenic potencies of samples from a brominated site correlated best (r = 0.82) with the concentrations of the nine HAAs, Br-HAAs, and Br-DBPs. Human use increased significantly the DBP concentrations and mutagenic potencies for most pools and spas. These data provide evidence that human precursors can increase mutagenic potencies of pools and spas and that this increase is associated with increased DBP concentrations. PMID:27124361

  8. Effects of humic acids, para-aminobenzoic acid and ascorbic acid on the N-nitrosation of the carbamate insecticide propoxur and on the mutagenicity of nitrosopropoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichner, T; Badaev, S A; Pospísil, F; Velemínský, J

    1990-03-01

    Nitrosation of the carbamate insecticide propoxur at pH 3 and 37 degrees C was determined colorimetrically and found to be time- and sodium nitrite concentration-dependent. Nitrosated propoxur was mutagenic when exposed to the seeds of the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana but the formation of nitrosopropoxur, the presumed mutagen, was inhibited by humic acids, para-aminobenzoic acid and ascorbic acid. These agents also reduced the mutagenicity of preformed nitrosopropoxur.

  9. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Eric J; DeMarini, David M; Ravuri, Sridevi A; Liberatore, Hannah K; Cuthbertson, Amy A; Thompson-Klemish, Alexis; Byer, Jonathan D; Schmid, Judith E; Afifi, Mehrnaz Z; Blatchley, Ernest R; Richardson, Susan D

    2016-07-01

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from seven sites, we report the first integrated mutagenicity and comprehensive analytical chemistry of spas treated with chlorine, bromine, or ozone, along with pools treated with these same disinfectants. Gas chromatography (GC) with high-resolution mass spectrometry, membrane-introduction mass spectrometry, and GC-electron capture detection were used to comprehensively identify and quantify DBPs and other contaminants. Mutagenicity was assessed by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. More than 100 DBPs were identified, including a new class of DBPs, bromoimidazoles. Organic extracts of brominated pool/spa waters were 1.8× more mutagenic than chlorinated ones; spa waters were 1.7× more mutagenic than pools. Pool and spa samples were 2.4 and 4.1× more mutagenic, respectively, than corresponding tap waters. The concentration of the sum of 21 DBPs measured quantitatively increased from finished to tap to pool to spa; and mutagenic potency increased from finished/tap to pools to spas. Mutagenic potencies of samples from a chlorinated site correlated best with brominated haloacetic acid concentrations (Br-HAAs) (r = 0.98) and nitrogen-containing DBPs (N-DBPs) (r = 0.97) and the least with Br-trihalomethanes (r = 0.29) and Br-N-DBPs (r = 0.04). The mutagenic potencies of samples from a brominated site correlated best (r = 0.82) with the concentrations of the nine HAAs, Br-HAAs, and Br-DBPs. Human use increased significantly the DBP concentrations and mutagenic potencies for most pools and spas. These data provide evidence that human precursors can increase mutagenic potencies of pools and spas and that this increase is associated with increased DBP concentrations.

  10. Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Gerald N; Hecht, Stephen S; Felton, James S; Conney, Allan H; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2004-12-01

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic or mutagenic properties in experimental systems. Exposure can occur exogenously when these agents are present in food, air or water, and also endogenously when they are products of metabolism or pathophysiologic states such as inflammation. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens may contribute significantly to the causation of a sizable fraction, perhaps a majority, of human cancers, when exposures are related to "life-style" factors such as diet, tobacco use, etc. This chapter summarizes several aspects of environmental chemical carcinogenesis that have been extensively studied and illustrates the power of mechanistic investigation combined with molecular epidemiologic approaches in establishing causative linkages between environmental exposures and increased cancer risks. A causative relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, a strongly carcinogenic mold-produced contaminant of dietary staples in Asia and Africa, and elevated risk for primary liver cancer has been demonstrated through the application of well-validated biomarkers in molecular epidemiology. These studies have also identified a striking synergistic interaction between aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus infection in elevating liver cancer risk. Use of tobacco products provides a clear example of cancer causation by a life-style factor involving carcinogen exposure. Tobacco carcinogens and their DNA adducts are central to cancer induction by tobacco products, and the contribution of specific tobacco carcinogens (e.g. PAH and NNK) to tobacco-induced lung cancer, can be evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. Factors considered include presence in tobacco products, carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, human uptake, metabolism and adduct formation, possible role in causing molecular changes in oncogenes or suppressor genes, and other relevant data

  11. The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of the traditional phytoestrogen-rich herbs, Pueraria mirifica and Pueraria lobata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cherdshewasart

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pueraria mirifica is a Thai phytoestrogen-rich herb traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Pueraria lobata is also a phytoestrogen-rich herb traditionally used in Japan, Korea and China for the treatment of hypertension and alcoholism. We evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of the two plant extracts using the Ames test preincubation method plus or minus the rat liver mixture S9 for metabolic activation using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 as indicator strains. The cytotoxicity of the two extracts to the two S. typhimurium indicators was evaluated before the mutagenic and antimutagenic tests. Both extracts at a final concentration of 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/plate exhibited only mild cytotoxic effects. The plant extracts at the concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/plate in the presence and absence of the S9 mixture were negative in the mutagenic Ames test. In contrast, both extracts were positive in the antimutagenic Ames test towards either one or both of the tested mutagens 2-(2-furyl-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl-acrylamide and benzo(apyrene. The absence of mutagenic and the presence of anti-mutagenic activities of the two plant extracts were confirmed in rec-assays and further supported by a micronucleus test where both plant extracts at doses up to 300 mg/kg body weight (equivalent to 16 g/kg body weight plant tuberous powder failed to exhibit significant micronucleus formation in rats. The tests confirmed the non-mutagenic but reasonably antimutagenic activities of the two plant extracts, supporting their current use as safe dietary supplements and cosmetics.

  12. A Comparative Study on Mutagenic Effects of Space Flight and Irradiation of γ-rays on Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li-jun; XU Jian-long; WANG Jun-min; YANG Qian; LUO Rong-ting; ZHANG Ming-xian; BAO Gen-liang; SUN Ye-qing

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the mutagenic effects of space environment on seedling growth in M1 generation and plant height and heading date in M2 generation in rice. Two types of lines of growth promotion (GP) and growth suppression (GS) were selected from the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a sensitive japonica Lemont and a nonsensitive indica Teqing to compare the mutation frequency and mutagenic efficiency for plant height and heading date in the M2 generation. Space environment resulted in 34.9% higher seedling height (SH) in the GP group than in the control, and 39.1% lower in the GS group than in the control, and there was no difference in seed fertility (SF) between the two groups. In M2, mutants of plant height and heading date can be induced by space treatment in both the two groups with lower mutation frequency and mutagenic efficiency in the GP group than in the GS group. There were no significant differences in the physiological damages in M1 between the two groups after γ-rays irradiation treatment.Mutation frequency and mutagenic efficiency of heading date in M2 were higher in the GS group than in the GP group, and the opposite was true for mutagenic efficiency of plant height although the mutation frequency varied between the two groups. The mutation frequencies of plant height and heading date induced by space environment were obviously lower than those by γ-rays irradiation, but the mutagenic efficiency was the opposite for most of the traits. For the GP and GS of seedlings induced by space environment, the GS had higher mutation frequency and mutagenic efficiency for plant height and heading date than the GP in M2.

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between PAH content and mutagenic activity of fumes from roofing and paving asphalts and coal tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M L; Beatty, P W; Fetzer, J C; Glickman, A H; McGinnis, E L

    1993-11-01

    Fume condensates from asphalt and coal tar pitch were evaluated to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition, crude oil source, or temperature at which the fume was generated correlated with mutagenic activity. The fume condensates were tested for mutagenic activity using a modified Ames Test. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and other PAHs were detected in all samples. The concentration of BP in coal tar pitch was 18,100 ppm while the concentration in asphalt was less than 6 ppm. Coal tar fumes contained between two and three orders of magnitude more BP, as well as other PAH species, than asphalt fumes. Coal tar fume condensates were also approximately 100 times more mutagenic than those of asphalt. Generation temperature, crude oil source, and/or process conditions affected the PAH concentrations but not the mutagenicity in roofing asphalt fume condensates. With paving asphalt fumes, PAH content and mutagenicity varied with crude oil source but not with processing conditions; due to limited data, it was not possible to determine the effect of generation temperature. Coal tar pitch fumes generated at 316 degrees C contained significantly higher concentrations of PAHs than those generated at 232 degrees C and the mutagenic activity generally paralleled the PAH content. A subset of the paving asphalts demonstrated good correlation between mutagenicity and three- to seven-ring PAH content. These results indicate that asphalt fumes are far less mutagenic than coal tar fumes. Asphalt fumes differ in their ability to induce mutagenic activity, and, most likely, in their potential carcinogenicity.

  14. Nitrite and hypochlorite treatments in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type heterocyclic amines to the mutagenicities in crude pyrolyzed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, M.; Negishi, C.; Makino, R.; Sato, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.; Hirayama, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1985-12-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines Glu-P-2, MeA alpha C and Phe-P-1, which possess a 2-aminopyridine structure in their molecule (non-IQ-type mutagens), were found to be inactivated by nitrite treatment under acidic conditions, as observed previously with Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C. In contrast, MeIQx, 4,8- and 7,8-DiMeIQx, which were originally isolated from fried beef or heated model mixtures of creatinine, amino acids and glucose, and which have a 2-aminoimidazole moiety in their molecules (IQ-type mutagens), were very resistant to nitrite treatment like IQ and MeIQ. Both types of mutagenic heterocyclic amines were completely inactivated by treatment with hypochlorite. This differential inactivation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by nitrite and hypochlorite was used in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type mutagens to the total mutagenicities of various pyrolyzed materials. The percentage contributions of IQ-type mutagens to the mutagenicities of broiled sardine, fried beef, broiled horse mackerel, cigarette smoke condensate and albumin tar were 88, 75, 48, 6 and 4, respectively.

  15. 几种诱变因子对龟裂链霉菌的诱变效果%Mutagenic Effects of Several Mutagenic Factors on Streptomyces rimosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐广辉; 杨俊青; 田莉瑛; 刘磊; 袁昉; 赵宝华

    2013-01-01

    研究了紫外线(UV),LiCl,微波,NaNO2,NTG,NaN3及N+注入7种诱变方法对龟裂链霉菌186#的诱变效果.从致死率、形态变异率、正变率及诱变幅度4方面对诱变效果进行了统计与分析.结果表明,7种诱变因子对菌株均有诱变效果,其中,LiCl、微波、NaNO2及NTG这4种诱变方法操作简单,耗时短,正变率高,变异幅度大,诱变效果良好.%The mutation breeding of high-yield oxytetracycline-producing strains and the optimization of their ferment conditions were studied.Seven mutagenic methods,including UV-induced mutation,LiCl-indueed mutation,microwave irradiation,ion implantation of NaNO2,NTG,NaN3 and N+,were tested on Streptomyces rimosus 186#,and the mutagenic effects were statistically analyzed from lethality rate,morphological variation rate,positive mutation rate and mutation extent.The results showed that all of the 7 strategies were effective,in which LiCl,microwave,NaNO2 and NTG were easy-operated and less time-consuming with high positive mutation rate,large mutation extent and good mutation effects.

  16. Heterocyclic aromatic amines and their contribution to the bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase of cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Ewald; Meisgen, Thomas; Diekmann, Joerg; Conroy, Lynda; Stabbert, Regina

    2016-01-22

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) rank among the strongest known mutagens. Approximately 30 HAAs have been found in cooked foods (broiled, fried, and grilled) and several HAAs have been characterized as animal carcinogens. Nine HAAs have also been reported to be constituents of cigarette smoke (CS) raising concerns that HAAs might contribute significantly to the known carcinogenicity of CS. As HAAs are found predominantly in the total particulate matter (TPM) of CS, an improved method for the quantification of HAAs in TPM is reported allowing detection and quantification of 8 HAAs in a single run. The mutagenic potency of these HAAs and that of TPM from the reference cigarette 2R4F was determined in the Salmonella Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames assay) with tester strain TA98 and a metabolic activation system. The 8 HAAs, when applied together in the Ames assay, showed a clear sub-additive response. Likewise, the combination of HAAs and TPM, if at all, gave rise to a slight sub-additive response. In both cases, however, the sub-additive response in the Ames assay was observed at HAA doses that are far above the amounts found in CS. The contribution of the individual HAAs to the total mutagenic activity of TPM was calculated and experimentally confirmed to be approximately 1% of the total mutagenic activity. Thus, HAAs do not contribute significantly to the bacterial in vitro mutagenicity of CS TPM. PMID:26724587

  17. Effect of mutagens on the quality characters and disease resistant genes of diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both M1 and M2 plant height decreased with the increase in dose for both the mutagens. The 15 Krad and 0.15M EMS doses increased 122.7 and 128.3 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control respectively while all other doses of both mutagens decreased the yield of seed cotton. The EMS dose 0.10 M drastically decreased 184 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control. There was no larger effect of both mutagens on GOT % whereas staple length was slightly increased and micronaire value decreased as compared to control for all the doses of both mutagens. It was observed in M2 that mutation dose 10 Krad increased 165.6 gm seed cotton yield as compared to control but slight reduction in GOT % was observed. In M2 GOT were increased 3.5 % with 15 Krad and 3.6 % with EMS 0.10 M as compared to control. There were no larger effects for both mutagens in case of staple length, micronaire and uniformity ratio for all the doses as compared to control. respectively. In both M1 and M2 no plant was observed susceptible to cotton leaf curl virus and bacterial blight diseases of cotton

  18. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste. PMID:21901883

  19. Energy-related pollutants in the environment: the use of short-term tests for mutagenicity in the isolation and identification of biohazards. [Escherichia coli, Salmonella, animal cells, Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, J. L.; Larimer, F. W.; Rao, T. K.; Nix, C. E.; Ho, T

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to gather information on the potential genetic hazards of existing or proposed energy generating or conversion systems, we have begun a correlated analytical and genetic analysis of a number of technologies. The work is divided into two phases: one dealing with known compounds expected to occur in the environment through energy production, conversion, or use; and the other dealing with actual samples from existing or experimental processes. To approach the problems of dealing with and the testing of large numbers of compounds, we set up a form of the tier system. Operating units utilizing Salmonella, E. coli, yeast, human leukocytes, mammalian cells, and Drosophila have been initiated. Various liquid-liquid extraction methods and column chromatographic separations have been applied to crude products and effluents from oil shale, coal liquefaction, and coal gasification processes. Mutagenicity of the various fractions is assayed using reversion of histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium and comparative studies are carried out with the other genetic systems. In order to incorporate metabolic activation of these fractions and compounds, rat liver homogenates are used in the various assays. Results implicate chemicals occurring in the basic and the neutral fractions as potential genetic hazards. Chemical constituents of these fractions (identified or predicted) were tested individually for their mutagenic activity and correlated with the genetic monitoring.

  20. Topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Saleta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations are not well understood. Here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues. Results Phylogenetic and PAQ analyses have revealed a highly dynamic variation of intrapopulation diversity of FMDV quasispecies. The population diversity first suffers striking expansions in the presence of mutagens and then compressions either when the presence of the mutagenic analogue was discontinued or when a mutation that decreased sensitivity to a mutagen was selected. The pattern of mutations found in the populations was in agreement with the behavior of the corresponding nucleotide analogues with FMDV in vitro. Mutations accumulated at preferred genomic sites, and dn/ds ratios indicate the operation of negative (or purifying selection in populations subjected to mutagenesis. No evidence of unusually elevated genetic distances has been obtained for FMDV populations approaching extinction. Conclusion Phylogenetic and PAQ analysis provide adequate procedures to describe the evolution of viral sequences subjected to lethal mutagenesis. These methods define the changes of intra-population structure more precisely than mutation frequencies and Shannon entropies. PAQ is very sensitive to variations of intrapopulation genetic distances. Strong negative (or purifying selection operates in FMDV populations subjected to enhanced mutagenesis. The quantifications provide evidence that extinction does not imply unusual increases of intrapopulation complexity, in support of the lethal defection model of virus extinction.

  1. Studies on the Mutagenicity and Teratogenicity of Kuianchun and Its Potential Carcinogenicity Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jian-ping; ZHANG Li; CAO Sui-zhong; ZHOU Li-xia; ZHOU Xue-hui; LIU Zong-ping; WEI Chun-mei; MIAO Xiao-lin; WEI Zeng-quan

    2002-01-01

    Kuianchun is a newly synthesized antibacterial and growth-promoting drug. This paper selected a battery of three short-term tests, including Ames test, micronucleus test and sperm abnormality test, to detect the mutagenicity of Kuianchun. The carcinogenicity prediction and battery selection method (CPBS method) was used to determine the probability of carcinogenicity of Kuianchun based upon the results of shortterm tests mentioned above. In addition, traditional teratogenic test was selected to study teratogenicity of Kuianchun. In Ames test, Kuianchun showed mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 in the absence and presence of microsomal metabolic activation system (S9-mix). However, the mutagenicity was reduced by the addition of S9-mix. In micronucleus test, Kuianchun was administered intra-peritoneally to male mouse 30 hours and 6 hours before they were killed respectively. The result indicated that there was no significant difference on the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in the mouse bone marrow induced by Kuianchun compared with the negative contrast (50% DMSO) (P > 0.05). In sperm abnormality test, Kuianchun was administered through a gastric incubation to male mouse as a suspension in 2% Tween-80. The dosage levels were 450, 750, 1000 and 1500mg/kg per day for 5 days. The result indicated that the percentage of abnormal sperms induced by Kuianchun was not significant compared with the negative contrast (P>0.05). In traditional teratogenic test, Kuianchun was given orally to pregnant mouse at 1/30,1/20 and 1/15 LDs0 during 6 - 15days of pregnancy period (the LD50 = 9000mg/kg). No toxicity was found either on mother and embryo in mouse, and teratogenic effects were also not observed at all tested dosages. The probability of carcinogenicity of Kuianchun is 23.8 % (θ = 0.238). The result demonstrated that Kuianchun is a non-carcinogen.

  2. Assessment of mutagenic potential of propoxur and its modulation by indole-3-carbinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R C; Mehrotra, N k

    1997-01-01

    Propoxur is a widely used dithiocarbamate pesticide. In the present set of investigations, mutagenicity of propoxur (in formulation) was studied using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of Swiss mice. Single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 25 mg/kg body weight dose of propoxur, which is a maximum tolerated dose (MTD), significantly induced the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells after a 24- and 48-hr exposure. A half and a quarter of the MTD (12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg) were found ineffective to induce the micronuclei formation after 24- and 48-hr time periods by the i.p. route. However, the PCE:NCE ratio was inhibited significantly with all the dose levels at both time periods. Oral administration of propoxur at different dose levels also induced micronuclei formation. A single application of 50 and 25 mg/kg dose levels of propoxur, which are MTD and 50% of MTD, also significantly induced micronuclei formation after 24- and 48-hr time periods in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice as compared with solvent control group, whereas a 12.5 mg/kg dose of propoxur was ineffective in inducing micronuclei formation. Single application of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a glucobrassicin derivative present in cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibited the propoxur-induced micronuclei formation when it was given at the dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight 48 hr before the single application of propoxur. Therefore, it seems that propoxur is mutagenic in the above test systems and I3C inhibited the mutagenicity of propoxur significantly.

  3. Genome editing. The mutagenic chain reaction: a method for converting heterozygous to homozygous mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Valentino M; Bier, Ethan

    2015-04-24

    An organism with a single recessive loss-of-function allele will typically have a wild-type phenotype, whereas individuals homozygous for two copies of the allele will display a mutant phenotype. We have developed a method called the mutagenic chain reaction (MCR), which is based on the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system for generating autocatalytic mutations, to produce homozygous loss-of-function mutations. In Drosophila, we found that MCR mutations efficiently spread from their chromosome of origin to the homologous chromosome, thereby converting heterozygous mutations to homozygosity in the vast majority of somatic and germline cells. MCR technology should have broad applications in diverse organisms. PMID:25908821

  4. Comparison of BTX Profiles and Their Mutagenicity Assessment at Two Sites of Agra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyoma Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the concentrations of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs, namely, acronym for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX were assessed because of their role in the tropospheric chemistry. Two representative sites, a roadside and a petrol pump, were chosen for sample collection. VOCs were collected using SKC-activated charcoal tubes and SKC personal sampler and characterized by gas chromatograph using flame ionization detector. Among BTX, benzene had the highest concentration. At the roadside, mean concentration of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene, and p-xylene were 14.7 ± 2.4 μgm−3, 8.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, 2.1 ± 0.8 μgm−3, and 5.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, respectively. At the petrol pump, the mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene and p-xylene were 19.5 ± 3.7 μgm−3, 12.9 ± 1.1 μgm−3, 3.6 ± 0.5 μgm−3 and 11.1 ± 1.5 μgm−3, respectively, and were numerically higher by a fraction of 2. Monthly variation of BTX showed maximum concentration in winter. Inter-species ratios and inter-species correlation indicated traffic as the major source of BTX. Extracts of samples were positive in both Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation suggesting the presence of direct mutagens in ambient air that can cause both frame-shift and base-pair mutation. The mutagenic response was greater for TA100 than TA98 suggesting greater activity for base-pair mutagenicity than frame-shift mutagenicity and was found to be statistically significant.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations suggestive of mutagen-related leukemia after 21 years of therapeutic radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 68-year-old woman with acute myelomonocytic leukemia, who was treated annually for 21 consecutive years by therapeutic low-dose radon gas radiation because of spondyloarthritis, is described. The karyotype of the malignant clone was 45,XX, -17, -18,del(5)(q15q33), +t(17;18)(q11.2q23). In 45% of the metaphases, the modal number was between hyperdiploid to near tetraploid. Double minute chromosomes were demonstrated in 60% of the cells. These chromosomal aberrations are suggestive of mutagen-related leukemia

  6. Stability of necatorin, a highly mutagenic compound from Lactarius necator mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suortti, T

    1984-07-01

    The mutagenic compound necatorin [7-hydroxycoumaro(5,6-c)cinnoline] was present in fresh Lactarius necator mushrooms at concentrations ranging from 3 to 20 mg/kg. Blanching decreased the concentration of necatorin in the mushrooms to about 25% of the original value. Pure necatorin was shown to be susceptible to decomposition by light, especially at high pH. The destruction of pure necatorin by boiling was most effective at pH 5.0, whereas at the other pH values studied (0.5 and 13.5) necatorin was relatively stable during boiling.

  7. Analysis of mutagenic and carcinogenic risks: nitrates, nitrites, N-Nitroso compounds. Comparison with radioactive risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report comes within the scope of the general studies on mutagenic and carcinogenic agents other than ionizing radiations. Through feeding, way of life and working activities, man is exposed to genotoxic risks of N-nitroso compounds (NNC). In spite of differences in the molecular modes of action, there exists some analogy between the effects of radiation exposures and those of NNC: DNA is the target in either instance. Unlike radiations, NNC are alkylating agents. The whole activation process of carcinogens arises from mechanisms leading to DNA repair

  8. Evaluation of the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of saponins from Hedera colchica K. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Mshvildadze, V.; De Méo, M.; Dumenil, G; Dekanosidze, G.; Kemertelidze, E.; Elias, R; Balansard, G. (ed.)

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Introduction Hedera colchica K. Kock. (Araliaceae) is an endemic plant in Georgia. The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine as bronchospasmolitic, secretolytic and anti-inflammatory remedies. (Sakartvelos Floras, 1984; Rastitllnie and col., 1988) The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of 7 mon...

  9. Mutagenic properties of the 8-amino-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA adduct in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    X. Tan; Suzuki, N; Johnson, F; Grollman, A P; Shibutani, S

    1999-01-01

    The DNA adduct 8-amino-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-amino-dG) is found in liver DNA of rats treated with the hepatocarcinogen 2-nitropropane. Site-specifically modified oligodeoxynucleotides were used to explore the mutagenic potential of 8-amino-dG in simian kidney (COS-7) cells. Oligodeoxynucleotides (5'-TCCTCCTX1G2CCTCTC and 5'-TCCTCCTG1X2CCTCTC, X = dG or 8-amino-dG) with the lesion positioned at codon 60 or 61 of the non-coding strand of the human c-Ha- ras1 gene were inserted into single-strand...

  10. Bacterial Metabolism in Humans of the Carcinogen IQ to the Direct Acting Mutagen Hydroxy-IQ

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tassell, R L; Carman, R. J.; Kingston, D. G. I.; Wilkins, T D

    2011-01-01

    7-hydroxy-IQ is the major product of the bacterial metabolism of IQ, a potent dietary carcinogen. Yet, unlike IQ, hydroxy-IQ is directly active in the salmonella/microsomal mutagenicity assay. Two subjects consumed a meal of fried meats containing IQ but no detectable hydroxy-IQ. Hydroxy-IQ was isolated from the subjects’ faeces collected within 30 h following the fried meat meal; it was absent from the subjects’ faeces before and after the meal. This is the first evidence that hy...

  11. Study of the mutagenic potential of low power microwaves by direct DNA analyzis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man is constantly exposed to electromagnetic radiation which is a constituent part of the biosphere. Due to the technological progress and numerous man-made sources such as those used in industry, traffic, medicine, defence, communication network as well as some home appliances, the character of the natural electromagnetic field has altered significantly. These sources of nonionizing radiation cause atmospheric pollution similar to the pollution from various industrial sources. Unambiguous detection of the mutagenic potential of these radiations is necessary for genetic well being of future generations. (author)

  12. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  13. Chemical analysis and mutational assay of distilled oils from the H-coal direct liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from the H-Coal process, a catalytic, single-stage, coal liquefaction technology, were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. For these investigations, a blend of light and heavy H-Coal process oils was fractionally distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling point cuts. The chemical analyses and biological testing results presented in this status report deal primarily with the blended material and the distillate fractions boiling above 650/sup 0/F. Results from the microbial mutagenicity assays indicated that onset of biological activity in the crude materials occurred above 700/sup 0/F. Similar trends have been observed for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) I, SRC II, Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) and Exxon EDS process materials. After chemical class fractionation, the primary source of microbial mutagenicity of the crude boiling point cuts was the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) fractions. Amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino-PAH) were present at sufficient concentration levels in the N-PAC fractions to account for the observed mutagenic responses. In general, the chemical composition of the H-Coal materials studied was similar to that of other single-stage liquefaction materials. The degree of alkylation in these materials was determined to be greater than in the SRC and less than in the EDS process distillate cuts. 13 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Combining QSAR Modeling and Text-Mining Techniques to Link Chemical Structures and Carcinogenic Modes of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamokos, George; Silins, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new reliable non-animal based methods to predict and test toxicity of chemicals. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), a computer-based method linking chemical structures with biological activities, is used in predictive toxicology. In this study, we tested the approach to combine QSAR data with literature profiles of carcinogenic modes of action automatically generated by a text-mining tool. The aim was to generate data patterns to identify associations between chemical structures and biological mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Using these two methods, individually and combined, we evaluated 96 rat carcinogens of the hematopoietic system, liver, lung, and skin. We found that skin and lung rat carcinogens were mainly mutagenic, while the group of carcinogens affecting the hematopoietic system and the liver also included a large proportion of non-mutagens. The automatic literature analysis showed that mutagenicity was a frequently reported endpoint in the literature of these carcinogens, however, less common endpoints such as immunosuppression and hormonal receptor-mediated effects were also found in connection with some of the carcinogens, results of potential importance for certain target organs. The combined approach, using QSAR and text-mining techniques, could be useful for identifying more detailed information on biological mechanisms and the relation with chemical structures. The method can be particularly useful in increasing the understanding of structure and activity relationships for non-mutagens. PMID:27625608

  15. INDUCTION OF MUTATIONS BY CHEMICAL AGENTS AT THE HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE LOCUS IN HUMAN EPITHELIAL TERATOMA CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance by chemical mutagens was examined in a line of cells derived from a human epithelial teratocarcinoma cell clone. The cells, designated as P3 cells, have a stable diploid karyotype with 46(XX) chromosomes, including a translocation betwee...

  16. Differential effects of chronic alcohol administration to rats on the activation of aromatic amines to mutagens in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C M; Ioannides, C

    1986-05-01

    Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on alcohol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations derived from these animals were more efficient than control in activating 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-aminofluorene to mutagens in the Ames test. The alcohol-induced enhancement in mutagenicity was not inhibited by dimethylsulphoxide indicating that the generation of hydroxyl radicals is not involved. The activation of 2-naphthylamine was not affected by the treatment with alcohol but the mutagenicities of 2-aminoanthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene were inhibited. The same treatment markedly increased hepatic microsomal aniline p-hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities and to a lesser extent benzphetamine N-demethylase and microsomal levels of total cytochromes P-450. It is concluded that chronic alcohol administration to rats modulates the metabolic activation of pre-carcinogens to their reactive intermediates presumably by causing the redistribution of cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3009048

  17. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  18. Mutagenicity of bile and pancreatic juice from patients with pancreatico-biliary maljunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, T; Tsuji, T; Miyama, A; Yamaguchi, H; Funabiki, T

    1995-04-01

    We attempted to detect mutagenic activity in bile and pancreatic juice from patients with biliary tract disease using the spore rec assay and wild (H17) and mutant (M45) strains. Three bile samples out of 5 obtained from patients with pancreatico-biliary maljunction showed positive reaction in the spore rec assay, and all contained a high level of amylase activity, while 300 microliters of bile samples obtained from 10 control patients without pancreatico-biliary maljunction did not show any positive reaction. Moreover, 300 microliters of the in vitro mixture of bile with an equal volume of pancreatic juice also showed a positive reaction after treatment for 12 days at 37 degrees C or for 10 min at 100 degrees C, suggesting that they were very stable and long-acting in vivo. These data suggest that possible mutagens might be formed by the mixing of bile with pancreatic juice regurgitated into the biliary tract, and that there might be a relationship to biliary tract cancer which often accompanies pancreatico-biliary maljunction.

  19. Cytotoxicity But No Mutagenicity In Bacteria With Externally Generated Singlet Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midden, W. Robert; Dahl, Thomas A.; Hartman, Philip E.

    1988-02-01

    Singlet oxygen is believed to be an important intermediate responsible for the cytotoxicity of HpD phototherapy. It has been recognized as a possible intermediate in photosensitization for more than 20 years. However, it has been difficult to obtain conclusive evidence of its biological characteristics in the past because most of the methods available for its generation that are compatible with biological systems also generate other reactive intermediates whose effects are difficult to distinguish from singlet oxygen. We have used a recently devised separated-surface-sensi-tizer (S-S-S) system for singlet oxygen generation' to measure the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of singlet oxygen in bacteria. The S-S-S system employs rose bengal as a sensitizer immobilized on one surface of a glass plate. The glass plate is placed sensitizer-side down a small distance (Salmonella bacteria than hydrogen peroxide, on a molar basis. We have not observed mutagenicity in these bacteria exposed to sufficient singlet oxygen to kill 60-90% using a variety of bacterial strains and assays.

  20. Screening for the familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 R3500W by mutagenic primers PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯纪安; 冯铮

    2002-01-01

    Objective A method combining the mutagenic primers PCR and restriction enzyme digestion was designed to facilitate the detection of gene mutation in familial defective apolipoprotein B-1O0 R3500W. Methods A pair of primer was designed and a mismatch nucleotide was introduced in its upstream primer. A segment of target DNA including the possibly mutated nucleotide was amplified by PCR and the products were digested by restriction enzyme Nco 1. To overcome the potential false negative results due to improper digestion conditions, a segment of DNA with Ncol cut size was added as reference.Results The target sequence was successfully amplified by PCR, producing a 144 bp DNA fragment as expected. When incubated with Ncol, the enzyme could digest the DNA, producing a 114 bp segment,only if it was amplified from the mutated gene, but not from the normal allele. This difference in length of DNA could be separated by electrophoresis on a 2 %agarose gel. Thus we successfully detected two carriers of heterozygous FDB R3500W in 162 hypercholesterolemic patients. Conclusions Mutagenic primers PCR can be used to detect the gene mutation of apo B-100 R3500W, two cases were detected among 162patients with hypercholesterolemia. It suggests that this mutation is not rare in mainland China.

  1. Protective Effect of Prolactin against Methylmercury-Induced Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity on Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Carmem Silva-Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exhibits cytotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of its effect on tubulin. This toxicity mechanism is related to the production of free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Methylmercury (MeHg is one of the most toxic of the mercury compounds. It accumulates in the aquatic food chain, eventually reaching the human diet. Several studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL may be differently affected by inorganic and organic mercury based on interference with various neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of PRL secretion. This study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of PRL on human lymphocytes exposed to MeHg in vitro, including observation of the kinetics of HL-60 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia lineage treated with MeHg and PRL at different concentrations, with both treatments with the individual compounds and combined treatments. All treatments with MeHg produced a significant increase in the frequency of chromatid gaps, however, no significant difference was observed in the chromosomal breaks with any treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the mitotic index was observed for treatments with PRL, which also acts as a co-mitogenic factor, regulating proliferation by modulating the expression of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression and cytoskeleton organization. These properties contribute to the protective action of PRL against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of MeHg.

  2. Examination of Mutagenic Effects of GAL-57 Herbicide (Bentazone+Dicamba Using Mouse Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Karan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A micronucleus test was run to investigate mutagenic potential of the herbicide GAL-57, a formulated mixture of bentazone and dicamba.The test was applied to mice of both sexes (strain: CRL: NMRI BR and the herbicide (product was administered by gavage at 2000 mg/kg rate, twice within 24 hs. Cyclophosphamide (positive control was administered at 60 mg/kg, while distilled water as a solvent was negative control. The animals were sacrificed 24 hs after second treatment, their bone marrow cells isolated from femur, and effects evaluated.The data acquired showed that repeated treatment of mice with GAL-57 caused neither biological nor significant statistical increase in the number of micronuclei in treated animals. At the same time, the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of animals treated with cyclophosphamide (positive control showed a significant statistical increase. The results suggest that the herbicide product tested did not show any mutagenic activity under the conditions of mouse micronucleus test.

  3. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the analysis of chromosome aberrations in mutagen tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on exposed individuals, and on cultured cells, have shown that the human peripheral blood lymphocyte is an extremely sensitive indicator of both in vivo and in vitro induced chromosome structural change. These changes in chromosome structure offer readily scored morphological evidence of damage to the genetic material. Although problems exist in the extrapolation from in vitro results to the in vivo situation, the lymphocyte offers several advantages as a test system. The types of chromosome damage which can be cytologically distinguished at metaphase can be divided into two main groups: chromosome type and chromatid type. The circulating lymphocyte is in the G/sub 0/ or G/sub 1/ phase of mitosis and exposure to ionising radiations and certain other mutagenic agents during this stage produces chromosome-type damage where the unit of breakage and reunion is the whole chromosome (i.e. both chromatids at the same locus). However, cells exposed to these agents while in the S or G/sub 2/ stages of the cell cycle, after the chromosome has divided into two sister chromatids, yield chromatid-type aberrations and only the single chromatid is involved in breakage or exchange. Other agents (e.g. some of the alkylating agents) will usually produce only chromatid-type aberrations in cells in cycle although the cells are exposed to the mutagen whilst in G/sub 1/

  4. 42. The Report of Antimutagenicity and Mutagenicity of 7 Kinds Natrual Edible Plants and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: With improvement of living standard, environmental quality become more and more seriously damaged. While the SOS bacterioplage induction methed is nearly a high-speed and reliable method to detect genetic toxins. The SOS syndronous test make an improvement on the above method. On the one hand, we are reducing the environmental pollution, on the other hand, we are attempt to find antimugens and some ways against cancer. Using the natrual edible plants against mutage and cancer is one of the important topic on preventing carcinogenic factors. The study examed 7 kinds natrual edible plants and vegetables. Method: We adopted the test of the Antimutagenicity and mutagenicity with S9 (rat liver microsomal enzymes system) and without S9 and repeat test. Result: The results showed all samples had no mutagenicity. Scallion seed, sweet potato and pomegranate peel were antimutagens against Mitomicy(MMC) with S9 and without S9. They are well worth of devoloping and using further. Pea seedling, crowndaisy chrysanthemum. alon and romaine had no antimutagenicity with and without S9. The people can eat usually.

  5. Mutagenic roles of DNA "repair" proteins in antibody diversity and disease-associated trinucleotide repeat instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slean, Meghan M; Panigrahi, Gagan B; Ranum, Laura P; Pearson, Christopher E

    2008-07-01

    While DNA repair proteins are generally thought to maintain the integrity of the whole genome by correctly repairing mutagenic DNA intermediates, there are cases where DNA "repair" proteins are involved in causing mutations instead. For instance, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) require the contribution of various DNA repair proteins, including UNG, MSH2 and MSH6 to mutate certain regions of immunoglobulin genes in order to generate antibodies of increased antigen affinity and altered effector functions. Another instance where "repair" proteins drive mutations is the instability of gene-specific trinucleotide repeats (TNR), the causative mutations of numerous diseases including Fragile X mental retardation syndrome (FRAXA), Huntington's disease (HD), myotonic dystrophy (DM1) and several spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) all of which arise via various modes of pathogenesis. These healthy and deleterious mutations that are induced by repair proteins are distinct from the genome-wide mutations that arise in the absence of repair proteins: they occur at specific loci, are sensitive to cis-elements (sequence context and/or epigenetic marks) and transcription, occur in specific tissues during distinct developmental windows, and are age-dependent. Here we review and compare the mutagenic role of DNA "repair" proteins in the processes of SHM, CSR and TNR instability.

  6. Organ-targeted mutagenicity of nitrofurantoin in Big Blue transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillardet, Philippe; Arrault, Xavier; Michel, Valérie; Touati, Eliette

    2006-09-01

    Nitrofurans are widely used in human medicine, as nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, still prescribed for long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis of urinary tract and gastrointestinal infection in humans respectively. Recent experiments in mammals, as well as reports mentioning toxic effects in humans associated with a long-term use, specially in the case of nitrofurantoin, raised the need for reevaluating their genotoxicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether these two compounds induce a mutagenic effect in the Big Blue transgenic mouse mutation assay. Mice were orally treated either with nitrofurantoin or nifuroxazide for five consecutive days and sacrificed 3 weeks later. In order to optimize the genotoxic response, the doses used for each compound were 25-fold higher as the posology in humans. They corresponded to 50% of the highest doses tolerated by mice. The mutant frequency was determined from kidney, lung, bladder, caecum, colon, small intestine, spleen and stomach. A weak mutagenic response of nitrofurantoin-treated mice specifically in the kidney was observed. As in the case of other nitrofuran compounds, the mutation spectra determined from treated samples exhibited slightly more GC-->TA transversions as compared with untreated conditions. These data are relevant to the targeted action of nitrofurantoin as a urinary antimicrobial agent. No significant increase of mutants was detected in the case of nifuroxazide-treated mice whatever the organs analysed. PMID:16895946

  7. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of solutions exposed to cold atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Daniela; Heslin, Caitlin; Cullen, Patrick J; Bourke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of aqueous solutions to atmospheric plasmas results in the generation of relatively long-lived secondary products such as hydrogen peroxide which are biologically active and have demonstrated anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity. The use of plasma-activated solutions in applications such as microbial decontamination or anti-cancer treatments requires not only adequate performance on target cells but also a safe operating window regarding the impact on surrounding tissues. Furthermore the generation of plasma-activated fluids needs to be considered as a by-stander effect of subjecting tissue to plasma discharges. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays using mammalian cell lines were used to elucidate the effects of solutions treated with di-electric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma. Plasma-treated PBS inhibited cell growth in a treatment time-dependent manner showing a linear correlation to the solutions' peroxide concentration which remained stable over several weeks. Plasma-treated foetal bovine serum (FBS) acting as a model for complex bio-fluids showed not only cytotoxic effects but also exhibited increased mutagenic potential as determined using the mammalian HPRT assay. Further studies are warranted to determine the nature, causes and effects of the cyto- and genotoxic potential of solutions exposed to plasma discharges to ensure long-term safety of novel plasma applications in medicine and healthcare.

  8. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Ko, Ying-Chin [Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, Pei-Fen [Department of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Tajen Junior College of Pharmacy, Ping-Tung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang, Li-Fang [School of Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Huei [Department of Biochemistry, Chung San Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Chien-Hung [School of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(a,h)A) and benz(a)anthracene (B(a)A). Concentration of DB(a,h)A and B(a)A were 1.9 and 2.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer

  9. Induction of bacterial antibiotic resistance by mutagenic halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halogenated nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) raise concerns regarding their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity threatening public health. However, environmental consequence of their mutagenicity has received less attention. In this study, the effect of halogenated N-DBPs on bacterial antibiotic resistance (BAR) was investigated. After exposure to bromoacetamide (BAcAm), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) or tribromonitromethane (TBNM), the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to both individual and multiple antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, rifampin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin + gentamicin and ciprofloxacin + tetracycline) was increased, which was predominantly ascribed to the overexpression of efflux pumps. The mechanism of this effect was demonstrated to be mutagenesis through sequencing and analyzing antibiotic resistance genes. The same induction phenomena also appeared in Escherichia coli, suggesting this effect may be universal to waterborne pathogens. Therefore, more attention should be given to halogenated N-DBPs, as they could increase not only genotoxicological risks but also epidemiological risks of drinking water. - Highlights: • The halogenated N-DBPs could induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. • Both individual and multiple resistances could be induced. • Efflux mechanism played an important role in the induced antibiotic resistance. • The halogenated N-DBPs induced bacterial antibiotic resistance via mutagenesis. • Effects of N-DBPs on antibiotic resistance may be universal to waterborne pathogens. - Halogenated N-DBPs could increase antibiotic resistance, even multidrug resistance via mutagenesis, contributing to the enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria in drinking water

  10. Toxicologic assessment of Paecilomyces tenuipes in rats: renal toxicity and mutagenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jeong-Hwan; Yun, Jun-Won; Cho, Eun-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yun-Soon; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes is entomogenous fungus that is called snow-flake Dongchunghacho in Korea. Although it is widely used in traditional medicines, its safety has not yet been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity of P. tenuipes. The acute oral LD50 of P. tenuipes extract in rats was estimated to be greater than 2000mg/kg of body weight. In the subchronic study, the oral treatment of rats with 500, 1000 or 2000mg/kg P. tenuipes extract daily for 13weeks did not induce any dose-related changes (body weight, food consumption, clinical observation, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry and organ weight). In contrast, histopathological observation revealed that P. tenuipes extract induced karyomegaly in outer medulla of kidney in all treated rats. Importantly, P. tenuipes extract exerted the mutagenic potential in Ames assay. Since karyomegalic alterations have been known to be associated with carcinogenicity, our finding on the mutagenicity of P. tenuipes extract supports the possibility on the potential involvement of P. tenuipes in carcinogenicity at least partially. In conclusion, the subchronic oral exposure of P. tenuipes may induce kidney abnormality at the concentration higher than 500mg/kg body weight, although further studies using other animal models are needed to identify the toxicity of P. tenuipes.

  11. Recent Perspectives on the Relations between Fecal Mutagenicity, Genotoxicity, and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Silvia W; Wallace, R John; El-Nezami, Hani S

    2011-01-01

    DNA damage is an essential component of the genesis of colonic cancer. Gut microbial products and food components are thought to be principally responsible for the damage that initiates disease progression. Modified Ames tests and Comet assays have been developed for measuring mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Their relevance to oncogenesis remains to be confirmed, as does the relative importance of different mutagenic and genotoxic compounds present in fecal water and the bacteria involved in their metabolism. Dietary intervention studies provide clues to the likely risks of oncogenesis. High-protein diets lead to increases in N-nitroso compounds in fecal water and greater DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay, for example. Other dietary interventions, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and probiotics, may lead to lower fecal genotoxicity. In order to make recommendations to the general public, we must develop a better understanding of how genotoxic compounds are formed in the colon, how accurate the Ames and Comet assays are, and how diet affects genotoxicity. PMID:21779247

  12. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of acid yellow 17 and its biodegradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hedi Ben; Mosrati, Ridha; Corroler, David; Ghedira, Kamel; Barillier, Daniel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Acid yellow 17 (AY17), a very important commercial azo dye used in the textile industry, was degraded by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 at a concentration of up to 200 mg/L. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the biodegradation media revealed the presence of 4-aminobenzensulfonic acid (4-ABS) derived from AY17 azoreduction, which attests the expression of an azoreductase by this bacterium. This amine was identified only in the medium of static incubation, which is consistent with its biotransformation under shaken incubation (i.e., aerobic conditions). The mutagenicity of AY17 and its biodegradation products was evaluated by using Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA104. No mutagenicity was observed in the presence or absence of a metabolic activation system (S9). In addition, the ability of tested compounds to induce DNA damage in vitro with the DNA strand scission assay was evaluated. Results showed that only static decolorization culture of AY17 showed a significant ability to induce the pKS plasmid DNA opening. The present study showed that P. putida mt-2, cultivated under aerobic conditions, was able to decolorize, and especially to detoxify, AY17.

  13. The Hermes transposon of Musca domestica and its use as a mutagen of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung M; Evertts, Adam G; Levin, Henry L

    2009-11-01

    Transposon mutagenesis allows for the discovery and characterization of genes by creating mutations that can be easily mapped and sequenced. Moreover, this method allows for a relatively unbiased approach to isolating genes of interest. Recently, a system of transposon based mutagenesis for Schizosaccharomyces pombe became available. This mutagenesis relies on Hermes, a DNA transposon from the house fly that readily integrates into the chromosomes of S. pombe. The Hermes system is distinct from the retrotransposons of S. pombe because it efficiently integrates into open reading frames. To mutagenize S. pombe, cells are transformed with a plasmid that contains a drug resistance marker flanked by the terminal inverted repeats of Hermes. The Hermes transposase expressed from a second plasmid excises the resistance marker with the inverted repeats and inserts this DNA into chromosomal sites. After S. pombe with these two plasmids grow 25 generations, approximately 2% of the cells contain insertions. Of the cells with insertions, 68% contain single integration events. The protocols listed here provide the detailed information necessary to mutagenize a strain of interest, screen for specific phenotypes, and sequence the positions of insertion. PMID:19450689

  14. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of solutions exposed to cold atmospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Daniela; Heslin, Caitlin; Cullen, Patrick J.; Bourke, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of aqueous solutions to atmospheric plasmas results in the generation of relatively long-lived secondary products such as hydrogen peroxide which are biologically active and have demonstrated anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity. The use of plasma-activated solutions in applications such as microbial decontamination or anti-cancer treatments requires not only adequate performance on target cells but also a safe operating window regarding the impact on surrounding tissues. Furthermore the generation of plasma-activated fluids needs to be considered as a by-stander effect of subjecting tissue to plasma discharges. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays using mammalian cell lines were used to elucidate the effects of solutions treated with di-electric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma. Plasma-treated PBS inhibited cell growth in a treatment time-dependent manner showing a linear correlation to the solutions’ peroxide concentration which remained stable over several weeks. Plasma-treated foetal bovine serum (FBS) acting as a model for complex bio-fluids showed not only cytotoxic effects but also exhibited increased mutagenic potential as determined using the mammalian HPRT assay. Further studies are warranted to determine the nature, causes and effects of the cyto- and genotoxic potential of solutions exposed to plasma discharges to ensure long-term safety of novel plasma applications in medicine and healthcare. PMID:26908060

  15. Diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Cohn, Corey Alexander;

    2008-01-01

    /ml DEP (NIST SRM 1650) in the FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cell line. We measured DEP-induced acellular and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and compared with ROS production induced by carbon black, which we have previously shown is mutagenic in this cell line [N.R. Jacobsen, A.......T. Saber, P. White, P. Moller, G. Pojana, U. Vogel, S. Loft, J. Gingerich, L. Soper, G.R. Douglas, H. Wallin. Increased mutant frequency by carbon black, but not quartz, in the lacZ and cII transgenes of mutamouse lung epithelial cells, Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 48(6) (2007) 451-461]. The mutant frequency...... was marginally elevated in cells treated with 37.5 microg/ml DEP (1.29-fold [95% CI: 0.96-1.60], p=0.08) and significantly increased in cells treated with 75 microg/ml DEP (1.55-fold [95% CI: 1.23-1.87], p cells and in acellular systems when compared...

  16. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S. Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapéu-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive result in the SOS chromotest with an increase of 12-fold in β-Galactosidase enzymatic units. There was a strong trend towards base substitutions and frameshifts at purine sites in the mutations induced by the extract in Escherichia coli (CC103 and CC104 strains and Salmonella typhimurium test strains (22-fold increase in histidine revertants in TA98 strain. Since reactive oxygen species may be implicated in aging process and in degenerative diseases, we used antioxidant compounds as catalase, thiourea and dipyridyl in the lysogenic induction test. All this compounds were able to reduce the induction factor observed in the treatment with chapéu-de-couro, thus suggesting that the genotoxicity and mutagenicity were attributable to the production of reactive oxygen species that targeted DNA purines.

  17. Recent perspectives on the relations between faecal mutagenicity, genotoxicity and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGratz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is an essential component of the genesis of colonic cancer. Gut microbial products and food components are thought to be principally responsible for the damage that initiates disease progression. Modified Ames tests and Comet assays have been developed for measuring mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Their relevance to oncogenesis remains to be confirmed, as does the relative importance of different mutagenic and genotoxic compounds present in faecal water and the bacteria involved in their metabolism. Dietary intervention studies provide clues to the likely risks of oncogenesis. High-protein diets lead to increases in N-nitroso compounds in faecal water and greater DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay, for example. Other dietary interventions, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and probiotics, may lead to lower faecal genotoxicity. In order to make recommendations to the general public, we must develop a better understanding of how genotoxic compounds are formed in the colon, how accurate the Ames and Comet assays are, and how diet affects genotoxicity.

  18. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance. PMID:27173326

  19. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  20. Responses of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. V: 27 coded chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.G.; Howgate, S.; McBride, D.; Riach, C. (Inveresk Research International Limited, Musselburgh (Scotland)); Caspary, W.J. (National Inst. of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk{sup +}/tk{sup {minus}} mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 {mu}g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Statistically significant responses were obtained with acid orange 10, aniline, benzaldehyde o-chloroaniline, chlorodibromomethane, cytembena, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromomethyl) cyclohexane, dieldrin, lithocholic acid, oxytetracycline, phenazopyridine HCl, 1phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, solvent yellow 14, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (disulfiram), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate. Apart from phenazopyridine HCl, acid orange 10, and solvent yellow 14, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the mutagenic activity of these compounds.

  1. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  2. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  3. 5. MUTAGEN SENSITIVITY AND DNA REPAIR CAPACITY (DRC) AS RISK FACTORS FOR NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@An alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay has been standardised by which mutagen sensitivity and DNA repair capacity (DRC) can be measured in cryopreserved peripheral blood lymphocytes following induction and repair of DNA damage induced by bleomycin. In an ongoing case-control study, we have applied this assay to Caucasian

  4. INVESTIGATION OF THE MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF EMISSIONS FROM ASPHALT FORMULATIONS WITH AND WITHOUT CRUMB-RUBBER MODIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    INVESTIGATION OF THE MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF EMISSIONS FROM ASPHALT FORMULATIONS WITH AND WITHOUT CRUMB-RUBBER MODIFICATIONLarry D. Olsen', Virginia S. Houk2, Sarah H. Warren2, Larry D. Claxton2, Kevin W. Hanley', Aubrey K. Miller3, Gregory A Burr', Daniel Almaguer', Grego...

  5. INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

  6. Ectopic expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 increases mutagenic but not physiological non-homologous end joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Dali; Callén, Elsa; Pegoraro, Gianluca;

    2015-01-01

    BP1 and BRCA1 regulate the balance between NHEJ and HR. 53BP1 promotes CSR in part by mediating synapsis of distal DNA ends, and in addition, inhibits 5' end resection. BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 dependent DNA end-blocking activity during S phase, which would otherwise promote mutagenic NHEJ and genome...

  7. Investigating the Mutagenicity of a Cold Argon-Plasma Jet in an HET-MN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Claudia; Benkhai, Hicham; Sckell, Axel; Below, Harald; Stope, Matthias B.; Kramer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Objective So-called cold physical plasmas for biomedical applications generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the latter can trigger DNA damage at high concentrations. Therefore, the mutagenic risks of a certified atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen MED) and its predecessor model (kINPen 09) were assessed. Methods Inner egg membranes of fertilized chicken eggs received a single treatment with either the kINPen 09 (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 min) or the kINPen MED (3, 4, 5, or 10 min). After three days of incubation, blood smears (panoptic May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) were performed, and 1000 erythrocytes per egg were evaluated for the presence of polychromatic and normochromic nuclear staining as well as nuclear aberrations and binucleated cells (hen’s egg test for micronuclei induction, HET-MN). At the same time, the embryo mortality was documented. For each experiment, positive controls (cyclophosphamide and methotrexate) and negative controls (NaCl-solution, argon gas) were included. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the blood plasma was assessed by ascorbic acid oxidation assay after treatment. Results For both plasma sources, there was no evidence of genotoxicity, although at the longest plasma exposure time of 10 min the mortality of the embryos exceeded 40%. The antioxidant potential in the egg’s blood plasma was not significantly reduced immediately (p = 0.32) or 1 h (p = 0.19) post exposure to cold plasma. Conclusion The longest plasma treatment time with the kINPen MED was 5–10 fold above the recommended limit for treatment of chronic wounds in clinics. We did not find mutagenic effects for any plasma treatment time using the either kINPen 09 or kINPen MED. The data provided with the current study seem to confirm the lack of a genotoxic potential suggesting that a veterinary or clinical application of these argon plasma jets does not pose mutagenic risks. PMID:27584003

  8. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R., E-mail: l.ferguson@auckland.ac.nz [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Harris, Philip J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Kestell, Philip [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Zhu, Shuotun [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M. [Agresearch, Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2011-11-01

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen {sup 14}C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  9. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen 14C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  10. Microsomal biotransformation of benzo[ghi]perylene, a mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon without a "classic" bay region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Karl L; Grupe, Stefanie

    2005-04-01

    Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), possess a bay region comprising an ortho-fused benzene ring. Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) represents the group of PAHs lacking such a "classic" bay region and hence cannot be metabolically converted like BaP to bay region dihydrodiol epoxides considered as ultimate mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolites of PAH. BghiP exhibits bacterial mutagenicity in strains TA98 (1.3 his(+)-revertant colonies/nmol) and TA100 (4.3 his(+)-revertant colonies/nmol) of Salmonella typhimurium after metabolic activation by the postmitochondrial hepatic fraction of CD rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Inhibition of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) with 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propene oxide raised the bacterial mutagenicity of BghiP in TA98 almost 4-fold indicating arene oxides as ultimate mutagens. To confirm this assumption, the biotransformation of BghiP was elucidated. Incubation of BghiP with liver microsomes of CD rats treated with Aroclor 1254 yielded 17 ethyl acetate extractable metabolic products. Twelve metabolites were identified by a combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biochemical methods. The microsomal biotransformation of BghiP proceeds by two pathways: Pathway I starts with the monooxygenase attack at the 7-position leading to the 7-phenol, which is transformed to the 7,8- and 7,10-diphenols followed by oxidation to the 7,8- and 7,10-quinones. On pathway II, the K regions of BghiP are successively converted to arene oxides yielding the indirectly identified 3,4-oxide and the 3,4,11,12-bisoxides. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the 3,4-oxide leads to the trans-3,4-dihydrodiol, which is oxidized to the 3,4-quinone. Similarly, the trans-3,4-trans-11,12-bisdihydrodiols and the trans-3,4-dihydrodiol 11,12-quinone are generated from the 3,4,11,12-bisoxides. The trans-3,4-dihydrodiol and the trans-3,4-trans-11,12-bisdihydrodiols are preferentially formed as R,R and R,R,R,R enantiomers

  11. Mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Bazo, Ana Paula; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Rech, Célia Maria; de Palma Oliveira, Danielle; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2007-01-10

    Recently a textile azo dye processing plant effluent was identified as one of the sources of mutagenic activity detected in the Cristais River, a drinking water source in Brazil [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597]. Besides presenting high mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay, the mutagenic nitro-aminoazobenzenes dyes CI Disperse Blue 373, CI Disperse Violet 93, and CI Disperse Orange 37 [G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais river, Chemosphere 60 (2005) 55-64] as well as benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound [T.M. Mazzo, A.A. Saczk, G.A. Umbuzeiro, M.V.B. Zanoni, Analysis of aromatic amines in surface waters receiving wastewater from textile industry by liquid chromatographic with eletrochemical detection, Anal. Lett., in press] were found in this effluent. After approximately 6 km from the discharge of this effluent, a drinking water treatment plant treats and distributes the water to a population of approximate 60,000. As shown previously, the mutagens in the DWTP intake water are not completely removed by the treatment. The water used for human consumption presented mutagenic activity related to nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines compounds probably derived from the cited textile processing plant effluent discharge [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597; G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais

  12. Two nitro derivatives of azabenzo[a]pyrene N-oxide: Electronic properties and their relation to mutagenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojić, Bojana D., E-mail: bostojic@chem.bg.ac.rs; Đorđević, Dragana S.

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Molecular properties of nitro isomers of azabenzo[a]pyrene N-oxide are investigated. • Stability, ionization potential, electron affinity, and polarizability are determined. • High quality DFT methods are employed. • Nitroreduction, oxidation, and polarizability are not crucial for mutagenicity. • Dipole moment and electronic charge distribution are important for characterization. - Abstract: The equilibrium geometries, relative energies, IR and Raman spectra, vertical ionization potentials (IP), vertical electron affinities (EA), dipole moments (μ), electronic dipole polarizabilities (α), and molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP) of two species that show very high mutagenicity, 1-nitro-6-azabenzo[a]pyrene N-oxide (1-N-6-ABPO) and 3-nitro-6-azabenzo[a]pyrene N-oxide (3-N-6-ABPO), are investigated by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with different basis sets. The 3-N-6-ABPO isomer was estimated to be much more mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 (396 000 revertants/nmol) than 1-N-6-ABPO (36 100 revertants/nmol) (Fukuhara et al., 1992). The results show that for both isomers the structural, energetic, and vibrational properties are similar. The orientation of the nitro group with respect to the plane of the aromatic system as well as the nitroreduction and oxidation reaction and polarizability seem not be important for the determination of different mutagenic behavior of these isomers. However, the dipole moment of 3-N-6-ABPO is about 3 times that of 1-N-6-ABPO. The larger dipole moment and the different electronic charge distribution of 3-N-6-ABPO compared to 1-N-6-ABPO imply stronger electrostatic and inductive molecular interactions so that the active site of the enzyme involved in the mutagenic activation can more effectively bind 3-N-6-ABPO compared to 1-N-6-ABPO.

  13. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of (−-hinokinin a trypanosomicidal compound measured by Salmonella microsome and comet assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Flávia Aparecida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan (−-hinokinin (HK was derived by partial synthesis from (−-cubebin, isolated from the dry seeds of the pepper, Piper cubeba. Considering the good trypanosomicidal activity of HK and recalling that natural products are promising starting points for the discovery of novel potentially therapeutic agents, the aim of the present study was to investigate the (anti mutagenic∕ genotoxic activities of HK. Methods The mutagenic∕ genotoxic activities were evaluated by the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and the comet assay, so as to assess the safe use of HK in the treatment of Chagas’ disease. The antimutagenic ∕antigenotoxic potential of HK were also tested against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens, such as 4- nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, sodium azide (SA, mitomycin C (MMC, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF, by the Ames test, and doxorubicin (DXR by the comet assay. Results The mutagenicity∕genotoxicity tests showed that HK did not induce any increase in the number of revertants or extent of DNA damage, demonstrating the absence of mutagenic and genotoxic activities. On the other hand, the results on the antimutagenic potential of HK showed a strong inhibitory effect against some direct and indirect-acting mutagens. Conclusions Regarding the use of HK as an antichagasic drug, the absence of mutagenic effects in animal cell and bacterial systems is encouraging. In addition, HK may be a new potential antigenotoxic ∕ antimutagenic agent from natural sources. However, the protective activity of HK is not general and varies with the type of DNA damage-inducing agent used.

  14. Comparative Studies of the (Anti Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Varanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenylphenyl}-2(E-propenoic acid, is the main compound of interest in the leaves. This study was undertaken to assess the mutagenic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE: 11.4–182.8 µg/plate and ArtC (0.69–10.99 µg/plate by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and to compare the protective effects of Bd-EAE and ArtC against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens such as 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminofluorene.The mutagenicity test showed that Bd-EAE and ArtC did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies indicating absence of mutagenic activity. ArtC showed a similar antimutagenic effect to that of Bd-EAE in some strains of S. typhimurium, demonstrating that the antimutagenic activity of Bd-EAE can be partially attributed to ArtC. The present results showed that the protective effect of whole plant extracts is due to the combined and synergistic effects of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, the total activity of which may result in health benefits.

  15. Use of chemical mutagen for induction of useful genetic variation in different oil seed rape (brassica napus L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre soaked seeds for 16 hrs of oil seed Rape cvs. Tower and Wester were treated with 1-3% concentrations of ethylene methane sulphonate (EMS) for 4 hrs with the objective to generate variation in characters of importance such as, early maturity, semi dwarf stature, lodging resistance and different yield components. After post washing (4 hrs) the seeds were filter dried and planted directly in the field as M1. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and a number of mutants with desirable traits were selected during 1990-91. The mutants were tested for stability of the selected traits in plant to progenies in M3/M4 during 1992 and 1993. The stable 17 mutants were evaluated for yield and other agronomic characters in M5, in preliminary yield trials, during 1993-94. Eleven mutants exhibited early maturity and high yield potential than parent and local commercial variety. The promising mutants will be further tested in yield trials in future for confirmation of results. (author)

  16. Bioassay-Directed Fractionation and Sub-fractionation for Mutagenicity and Chemical Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several types of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have been used for toxicology studies, including a high-organic automobile DEP (A-DEP) from Japan, and a low-organic forklift DEP developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (N-DEP). However, these DEPs were no...

  17. Mutagenicity and Induction of Drug—metabolizing Enzyme Activity by LPG Combustion Particulates in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINXue-Jun; LIUJun-Zhuo; 等

    1994-01-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of particulates from liquefied petroleum gas(LPG)combustion appliance were studied by using Ames test,micronucleus test and inducibility of pulmonary and hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase(AHH)and glutathione S-transferase(GST)in rats.The extracts showed mutagenicity for Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and its derivatives TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 with or without S9 mix.The revertants in strains TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 were less than 40%and 50% of than in strain TA98 without S9 mix,respectively.Positive results were obtained in mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.Intratracheal instillation of the extracts led to increase in pulmonary(but not hepatic)AHH and GST activities in rats.In was seen that AHH was more sensitive than GST to induction by the extracts.

  18. The mutagenic chain reaction: a method for converting heterozygous to homozygous mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Valentino M.; Bier, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    An organism with a single recessive loss-of-function allele will typically have a wild-type phenotype while individuals homozygous for two copies of the allele will display a mutant phenotype. Here, we develop a method that we refer to as the mutagenic chain reaction (MCR), which is based on the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system for generating autocatalytic mutations to generate homozygous loss-of-function mutations. We demonstrate in Drosophila that MCR mutations efficiently spread from their chromosome of origin to the homologous chromosome thereby converting heterozygous mutations to homozygosity in the vast majority of somatic and germline cells. MCR technology should have broad applications in diverse organisms. PMID:25908821

  19. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  20. Mutagenic effects of Brassica napus by 12C6+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of Brassica napus were irradiated by 12C6+ ion beams with 30, 90, and 180 Gy, and the mutagenic effects of M1 generation were investigated. In comparison to the control group, the irradiated seeds showed positive changes in emerged seedling rate, plant height and blooming rate, with obvious inhibitive effects on pollen vitality, 1000-seed weight and seed oil content. The 30 Gy irradiation group outperformed the others in pods per plant and seed yield per plant. By means of RAPD method, the results showed specific bands, such as increasing bands, flawing bands and bands with different fluorescence intensity were observed in 13 primers selected. The variation rates under 30 Gy, 90 Gy and 180 Gy 12C6+ irradiation were 22.1%, 23.7% and 36.2%, respectively. The research is valuable to the application of 12C6+ heavy ion beam in improving Brassica napus breeding. (authors)

  1. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail

  2. A comprehensive survey of the mutagenic impact of common cancer cytotoxics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szikriszt, Bernadett; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genomic mutations caused by cytotoxic agents used in cancer chemotherapy may cause secondary malignancies as well as contribute to the evolution of treatment-resistant tumour cells. The stable diploid genome of the chicken DT40 lymphoblast cell line, an established DNA repair model...... system, is well suited to accurately assay genomic mutations. Results: We use whole genome sequencing of multiple DT40 clones to determine the mutagenic effect of eight common cytotoxics used for the treatment of millions of patients worldwide. We determine the spontaneous mutagenesis rate at 2.3 x 10......-10 per base per cell division and find that cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide induce extra base substitutions with distinct spectra. After four cycles of exposure, cisplatin induces 0.8 mutations per Mb, equivalent to the median mutational burden in common leukaemias. Cisplatin-induced mutations...

  3. Further characterization of chinese hamster mutagen sensitive mutants using calicheamycin and neocarcinostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To further characterize mutagen sensitive Chinese hamster V79 mutant cell lines two new radiomimetic agents i.e. calicheamycin (CAL) and neocarcinostatin (NCS) were used. Whereas X-rays produces a variety of non-specific lesions in the DNA, mainly single strand breaks (SSB), CAL induces only double strand breaks (DSB) at sequence specific sites (TCCT). NCS, on the other hand, causes SSB and to a much lesser extent apurinic sites at AGC sequences in the DNA. The obtained results demonstrate in most of the mutants and expected parallelism between X-ray sensitivity and sensitivity to the antitumor antibiotics CAL and NCS. Furthermore, enhanced sensitivities for chromosomal aberrations are overall and not due to specific types of aberrations. At present an explanation for the recorded chromosomal hypo-sensitivity of V-H1 cells for NCS awaits further experimentation. (authors)

  4. EMS induced mutagenicity in pollen mother cells of Sesbania Pea (Sesbania cannabina Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girjesh Kumar and Nitisha Srivastava

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutagenic effect of EMS on pollen mother cells of Sesbania cannabina has been investigated in the present cytogeneticalobservation. The progenies were obtained from seeds treated with four different time durations (1, 3, 5, and 7 hours of 0.5%solution of ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS. Study revealed various types of chromosomal aberrations at different doses ofEMS. Increase in chromosomal aberrations was dose dependent manner. Pollen mother cells of Sesbania cannabina exhibited anincreased incidence of chromosomal bridges, unorientation, laggards and precocious movement etc. at each dose of treatment.Anaphasic and telophasic bridges were major abnormalities and found to be highest at 3 hr dose of treatment. Anaphasic bridgeswere more prominent than telophasic bridges and percentages of different types of bridges at anaphase and telophase were alsostudied and scored.

  5. Transcriptional Activity of rRNA Genes in Barley Cells after Mutagenic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Jaskowiak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the combination of the micronucleus test with analysis of the activity of the rRNA genes in mutagen-treated Hordeum vulgare (barley) by maleic hydrazide (MH) cells was performed. Simultaneously fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 25S rDNA as probes and an analysis of the transcriptional activity of 35S rRNA genes with silver staining were performed. The results showed that transcriptional activity is always maintained in the micronuclei although they are eliminated during the next cell cycle. The analysis of the transcriptional activity was extended to barley nuclei. MH influenced the fusion of the nucleoli in barley nuclei. The silver staining enabled detection of the nuclear bodies which arose after MH treatment. The results confirmed the usefulness of cytogenetic techniques in the characterization of micronuclei. Similar analyses can be now extended to other abiotic stresses to study the response of plant cells to the environment. PMID:27257817

  6. Study on Mutagenic Breeding of Bacillus Subtilis and Properties of Its Antifungal Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 姚建铭

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus subtitles JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi,such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our studay. After B. Subtitles JA was implanted by N+ ions,a strain designated as B. Subtitles JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%,the precipitate-enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein.

  7. Study on mutagenic breeding of bacillus subtilis and properties of its antifungal substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus subtilis JA isolated by our laboratory produced a large amount of antifungal substances, which had strong inhibitory activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum and so on. Ion beam implantation as a new mutagenic methods was applied in our study. After B. subtilis JA was implanted by N+ ions, a strain designated as B. Subtilis JA-026 was screened and obtained, which had a higher ability to produce those antifungal substances. A series of experiments indicated that the antifungal substances were thermostable and partially sensitive to proteinases K and tryproteinase. When the fermentating broth was fractionated with ammonium sulphate of a final saturation of 70%, the precipitate enhanced inhibitory activity while the supernatant lost this activity. It appeared that the antifungal substances were likely to be protein. (authors)

  8. Preliminary study on mutagenic effects of heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study mutagenic effects of different heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines,corn seeds of Zheng58, Lu9801, Jinxiang4C-1, CSR24001, 308 and 478 were irradiated with 12C6+ and 36Ar18+ ions. The experimental results showed that the germination rate and planting percent were different after irradiation. The wettish seeds had higher sensibility to heavy ion irradiation. The leaf type of the plant appeared visible changes in M1 generation. In M2 generation, great changes had taken place in economic traits, many of which are beneficial mutation. Some beneficia1 mutation could be stably inherited in M3 generation. From the above, it can be predicted that heavy ions irradiation is an effective means of genetic improvement of maize. (authors)

  9. Bench and Full Scale Study of Removal Effect and Mutagenicity on Mesocyclops Leukarti with Chlorine Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; YANG Wei; LIU Yan-an; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops Leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it can not be effectively inactivated by the conventional process in drinking waterworks for its special surface structure. In this paper, a study of removal efficiency on Mesocyclops Leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a drinking waterworks was performed.Bench scale results showed that chlorine dioxide is more effective against Mesocyclops Leukarti. And Mesocyclops Leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperated with the conventional process during the full scale study. The chlorite, by-preduct of prechlorine dioxide, was constant at 0.45 mg/L after filtration, which was lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test showed that the quantity of organics and the mutagenicity in the water treated by chlorine dioxide is obviously less than that of prechlorination.

  10. The equidosimetric approach to comparing the action of radioactive and chemical pollutions on natural populations of hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the equidosimetric assessment of ionizing radiation and chemical pollutants, it is proposed to compare effects in mutagenically equivalent doses (i.e., those inducing the equal number of cells with chromosome aberrations) by using such criteria as the distribution of chromosome aberrations in cells and the number of aberrations per aberrant cell. On the basis of this approach, the equidosimetric assessment of radioactive and chemical pollution in two water bodies from the ChNPP zone is made

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce genotoxicity but not mutagenicity in golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardello, Francine; Custódio Leite, Camila; Vianna Villela, Izabel; da Silva Machado, Miriana; Luiz Mendes Juchem, André; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Neves Fernandes, Andreia; Salvador, Mirian; Antonio Pêgas Henriques, João

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) in consumer products is the cause of its appearance in wastewater and effluents, reaching the aquatic environment. The evaluation of the biological impact of TiO2-NP and the need to understand its ecotoxicological impact to the aquatic ecosystem are of major concern. Bivalve mollusks may represent a target group for nanoparticle toxicity. Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel), a freshwater bivalve organism that has been employed in biomonitoring environmental conditions. Comet assay, micronucleus test and oxidative damage to lipids and proteins were performed after the golden mussel was exposed to TiO2-NP (1, 5, 10 and 50μgmL(-1)). The results demonstrate that TiO2-NP can damage the DNA of haemocytes after 2h of exposure and the genotoxic activity significantly increased after 4h exposure to TiO2-NP, at all the TiO2-NP concentrations. TiO2-NP was ineffective in causing mutagenicity in the haemolymph cells of golden mussel. The increase in the lipid peroxidation levels and carbonyl proteins after the exposure to TiO2-NP indicates the induction of oxidative stress at 2h exposure with similar results to all TiO2-NP concentrations, but these effects did not occur at 4h exposure. These results demonstrated that, although TiO2-NP is not mutagenic to golden mussel, it does induce DNA damage and oxidative stress in these organisms.

  12. Regulation of Mutagenic DNA Polymerase V Activation in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew; McDonald, John P; Caldas, Victor E A; Patel, Meghna; Wood, Elizabeth A; Punter, Christiaan M; Ghodke, Harshad; Cox, Michael M; Woodgate, Roger; Goodman, Myron F; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2015-08-01

    Spatial regulation is often encountered as a component of multi-tiered regulatory systems in eukaryotes, where processes are readily segregated by organelle boundaries. Well-characterized examples of spatial regulation are less common in bacteria. Low-fidelity DNA polymerase V (UmuD'2C) is produced in Escherichia coli as part of the bacterial SOS response to DNA damage. Due to the mutagenic potential of this enzyme, pol V activity is controlled by means of an elaborate regulatory system at transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to visualize UmuC inside living cells in space and time, we now show that pol V is also subject to a novel form of spatial regulation. After an initial delay (~ 45 min) post UV irradiation, UmuC is synthesized, but is not immediately activated. Instead, it is sequestered at the inner cell membrane. The release of UmuC into the cytosol requires the RecA* nucleoprotein filament-mediated cleavage of UmuD→UmuD'. Classic SOS damage response mutants either block [umuD(K97A)] or constitutively stimulate [recA(E38K)] UmuC release from the membrane. Foci of mutagenically active pol V Mut (UmuD'2C-RecA-ATP) formed in the cytosol after UV irradiation do not co-localize with pol III replisomes, suggesting a capacity to promote translesion DNA synthesis at lesions skipped over by DNA polymerase III. In effect, at least three molecular mechanisms limit the amount of time that pol V has to access DNA: (1) transcriptional and posttranslational regulation that initially keep the intracellular levels of pol V to a minimum; (2) spatial regulation via transient sequestration of UmuC at the membrane, which further delays pol V activation; and (3) the hydrolytic activity of a recently discovered pol V Mut ATPase function that limits active polymerase time on the chromosomal template.

  13. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19 bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5 and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F, the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide.

  14. A novel antifungal is active against Candida albicans biofilms and inhibits mutagenic acetaldehyde production in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T Nieminen

    Full Text Available The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms is a major virulence factor and a challenge for management. This is evident in biofilm-associated chronic oral-oesophageal candidosis, which has been shown to be potentially carcinogenic in vivo. We have previously shown that most Candida spp. can produce significant levels of mutagenic acetaldehyde (ACH. ACH is also an important mediator of candidal biofilm formation. We have also reported that D,L-2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA significantly inhibits planktonic growth of C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HICA on C. albicans biofilm formation and ACH production in vitro. Inhibition of biofilm formation by HICA, analogous control compounds or caspofungin was measured using XTT to measure biofilm metabolic activity and PicoGreen as a marker of biomass. Biofilms were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. ACH levels were measured by gas chromatography. Transcriptional changes in the genes involved in ACH metabolism were measured using RT-qPCR. The mean metabolic activity and biomass of all pre-grown (4, 24, 48 h biofilms were significantly reduced after exposure to HICA (p40 µM of ACH were detected in 24 and 48 h biofilms at both pHs. Interestingly, no ACH production was detected from D-glucose in the presence of HICA at acidic pH (p<0.05. Expression of genes responsible for ACH catabolism was up-regulated by HICA but down-regulated by caspofungin. SEM showed aberrant hyphae and collapsed hyphal structures during incubation with HICA at acidic pH. We conclude that HICA has potential as an antifungal agent with ability to inhibit C. albicans cell growth and biofilm formation. HICA also significantly reduces the mutagenic potential of C. albicans biofilms, which may be important when treating bacterial-fungal biofilm infections.

  15. DNA polymerases κ and ζ cooperatively perform mutagenic translesion synthesis of the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct of the dietary mutagen IQ in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arindam; Pande, Paritosh; Jasti, Vijay P; Millsap, Amy D; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Basu, Ashis K

    2015-09-30

    The roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in bypassing the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct (dG-C8-IQ) formed by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), a highly mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, were investigated. Three plasmid vectors containing the dG-C8-IQ adduct at the G1-, G2- or G3-positions of the NarI site (5'-G1G2CG3CC-3') were replicated in HEK293T cells. Fifty percent of the progeny from the G3 construct were mutants, largely G→T, compared to 18% and 24% from the G1 and G2 constructs, respectively. Mutation frequency (MF) of dG-C8-IQ was reduced by 38-67% upon siRNA knockdown of pol κ, whereas it was increased by 10-24% in pol η knockdown cells. When pol κ and pol ζ were simultaneously knocked down, MF of the G1 and G3 constructs was reduced from 18% and 50%, respectively, to <3%, whereas it was reduced from 24% to <1% in the G2 construct. In vitro TLS using yeast pol ζ showed that it can extend G3*:A pair more efficiently than G3*:C pair, but it is inefficient at nucleotide incorporation opposite dG-C8-IQ. We conclude that pol κ and pol ζ cooperatively carry out the majority of the error-prone TLS of dG-C8-IQ, whereas pol η is involved primarily in its error-free bypass. PMID:26220181

  16. Chemical models for cytochrome P450 as a biomimetic metabolic activation system in mutation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keiko; Mochizuki, Masataka

    2002-08-26

    DNA damage is a critical factor in carcinogenesis. The Ames assay is a short-term test that screens for DNA-damaging agents. To be detected in the assay, most carcinogens require oxidation by cytochrome P450, a component of the liver homogenate preparation (S9 mix) that is traditionally used to metabolize promutagens to an active form in vitro. A combination of iron(III) porphyrin plus an oxidant activates many promutagens by mimicking cytochrome P450 metabolism. We previously reported that the mutagenicity of the N-nitrosodialkylamines was detected following reaction with tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinatoiron(III) chloride (Fe(F(5)P)Cl) plus tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), which yielded the same alcohols and aldehydes as the enzymatic reaction. In the present study, to extend the scope of biomimetic models, we tested the mutagenicity of other carcinogens exposed to chemical oxidation systems.We investigated the optimal assay conditions for the models in Salmonella typhimurium TA1538, a strain sensitive to frame-shift mutagens. We activated 2-aminofluorene (AF), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a tryptophane pyrolysate 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) with Fe(F(5)P)Cl plus an oxidant-t-BuOOH, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), or magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MPPT)-and we noted the effect of three solvents-acetonitrile (CH(3)CN),1,4-dioxane, and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-on AF activation. All the promutagens became mutagenic in the presence of Fe(F(5)P)Cl plus an oxidant, with the effectiveness of the oxidant varying with the chemical. Aromatic amines, for example, showed the strongest mutagenicity with t-BuOOH whereas polycyclic hydrocarbons showed the strongest mutagenicity with mCPBA. All the promutagens were mutagenic in the presence of Fe(F(5)P)Cl plus MPPT. For AF activation, the order of effectiveness of the solvents was CH(3)CN>1,4-dioxane>DMF. The results suggested that these systems would serve as

  17. Physical and chemical mutagenesis of early mutant of indica restorers in ''WA'' (wild abortion) hybrid rice system and genetic analysis of mutants in heterosis utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four indica restorers in the wild abortion hybrid rice system were treated with physical and chemical mutagens, and the mutation frequency in the M2 generation and the correlation between the heading date of the mutants and other characters were investigated

  18. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

    2014-10-15

    Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5μg/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates.

  20. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects, particle size and concentration analysis of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and petrol diesel as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, J.; Mueller, M.M.; Westphal, G.; Ruhnau, P.; Schulz, T.G.; Hallier, E. [Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin, Georg-August-Univ., Goettingen (Germany); Krahl, J.; Baum, K.; Schroeder, O. [Inst. fuer Technologie und Biosystemtechnik, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    Diesel engine exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient air pollution. They cause acute and chronic adverse health effects in humans. Biodiesel (rapeseed oil methyl ester, RME) is used as a ''green fuel'' in several countries. For a preliminary assessment of environmental and health effects of RME, the particulate-associated emissions from the DEP of RME and common fossil diesel fuel (DF) and their in vitro cytotoxic and mutagenic effects were compared. A test tractor was fuelled with RME and DF and driven in a European standard test cycle (ECE R49) on an engine dynamometer. Particle numbers and size distributions of the exhausts were determined at the load modes ''idling'' and ''rated power''. Filter-sampled particles were extracted and their cytotoxic properties tested using the neutral red assay. Mutagenicity was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome assay. Despite higher total particle emissions, solid particulate matter (soot) in the emissions from RME was lower than in the emissions from DF. While the size distributions and the numbers of emitted particles at ''rated power'' were nearly identical for the two fuels, at ''idling'' DF emitted substantially higher numbers of smaller particles than RME. The RME extracts caused fourfold stronger toxic effects on mouse fibroblasts at ''idling'' but not at ''rated power'' than DF extracts. The extracts at both load modes were significantly mutagenic in TA98 and TA100. However, extracts of DF showed a fourfold higher mutagenic effect in TA98 (and twofold in TA100) than extracts of RME. These results indicate benefits as well as disadvantages for humans and the environment from the use of RME as a fuel for tractors. The lower mutagenic potency of DEP from RME compared to DEP from DF is probably due to lower emissions of polycyclic aromatic compounds

  1. 二硝酰胺铵的致突变性和致畸性研究%Study on mutagenicity and teratogenicity of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文霞; 王玉玲; 孙苑菡; 谢锋; 常志强; 邢亚飞; 张延巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the mutagenicity and teratogenicity induced by ammonium dinitramide (ADN).Methods According to technical specifications for toxicity determination of chemicals,Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames assay),in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test,sperm malformation test and teratogenesis test were used to detect the mutagenicity and teratogenicity induced by AND.Results When the exposure doses of AND were 8~5000 μg/plate,the result of Ames assay was negative.As compared with control group,the micronucleus rate of mice exposed to 113.8 mg/kg AND significantly increased (P<0.05),the sperm malformation rates of mice exposed to 54.4~272.0 mg/kg AND did not increased significantly.The survival rate of fetuses decreased,the rate of assimilated fetuses increased,the rate of fetus sternum agenesis enhanced in mice exposed to 319 mg/kg AND,as compared with controls.The rates of in the 4th-6th fetus sternum agenesis in groups exposed to 21.3,79.7 and 319 mg/kg AND were higher than that in control group.The malformation rate of fetus bowels in groups exposed to 319 mg/kg AND was higher than that in control group.The teratogenic index of ADN was 30.Conclusion AND may be a mutagen and induce the teratogenic effect.%目的 对新型含能材料二硝酰胺铵(ADN)的致突变性和致畸性进行研究,为进一步研究ADN对人体健康影响和制订职业接触限值提供依据.方法 根据《化学品毒性鉴定技术规范》,采用鼠伤寒沙门杆菌回复突变试验(Ames试验)、体内哺乳动物骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验、精子畸形试验和致畸试验研究ADN的致突变性和致畸性.结果 (1)ADN在8~5000 μg/皿剂量范围内未发现诱变作用;113.8mg/kg剂量染毒组与阴性对照相比,诱发小鼠的微核率明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);54.4~272.0 mg/kg剂量范围内小鼠精子畸形试验结果为阴性.(2)319 mg/kg剂量组活胎率低于阴性对照组,吸

  2. Mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in urine of workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in an anode plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, P; Clonfero, E; Cottica, D; Gava, C; Zordan, M; Pozzoli, L; Levis, A G

    1985-05-01

    The mutagenicity of urinary extracts and the excretion of PAH from workers occupationally exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in an anode plant were analyzed. Mutagenicity of the urinary extracts was measured by means of the plate test using S. typhimurium strain TA 98. After concentration, hydrolysis and reduction of the urine samples, PAH levels were measured by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. No significant difference was found in the mutagenicity of the urinary extracts of non-smokers occupationally exposed to PAH as compared with the controls. Low PAH concentrations were found in the urine of the exposed subjects, which lends further support to the negative results obtained with the Ames' test. The increase of urinary PAH excretion, in relation to occupational exposure, was mainly due to the less mutagenic, low molecular weight compounds.

  3. About evolution of alive orgamisms in conditions of radioactive and chemical stress (biophysical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of evolution of living organisms in conditions of radioactive and chemical stress are considered. Tendencies of development of the world community are evidence of global anthropogenic influence increase on biosphere, which is caused by many components, the main of them being radiation contamination and chemical pollution. The possible mechanisms of new species appearance are discussed on molecular level taking into account mutagenic factors caused by radiation and chemical stress. The quantum field hypothesis on the basis of Landau-Ginzburg equation of molecular mechanisms of mutations connected with new species appearance is presented.(A.A.D.)

  4. Genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and mode of action of the fried food mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ).

    OpenAIRE

    Weisburger, J H; Barnes, W S; Lovelette, C A; Tong, C; Tanaka, T; Williams, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Because mutagens typified by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) observed in cooked foods are widely consumed, detailed studies of their biochemical and biological properties including carcinogenicity are most important. IQ induces unscheduled DNA synthesis in liver cells, which when taken together with its powerful mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium test system, predicts carcinogenicity. In female Sprague-Dawley rats, IQ did exhibit potent carcinogenicity for the mammary gla...

  5. Influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust treatment by an oxidation catalytic converter on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Juergen; Bruening, Thomas [Ruhr University Bochum, Research Institute for Occupational Medicine of the Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Krahl, Juergen; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Biosystems Engineering, Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Andreas; Mueller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Goetz [University of Goettingen, Department of Occupational and Social Medicine, Gottingen (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Particle emissions of diesel engines (DEP) content polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) these compounds cause a strong mutagenicity of solvent extracts of DEP. We investigated the influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on the mutagenic effects of DEP. The engine was fuelled with common diesel fuel (DF), low-sulphur diesel fuel (LSDF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), and soybean oil methyl ester (SME) and run at five different load modes in two series with and without installation of an OCC in the exhaust pipe. Particles from the cooled and diluted exhaust were sampled onto glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Without OCC the number of revertant colonies was lower in extracts of LSDF than in extracts of DF. The lowest numbers of revertant colonies were induced by the plant oil derived fuels. In three load modes, operation with the OCC led to a reduction of the mutagenicity. However, direct mutagenic effects under heavy duty conditions (load mode A) were significantly increased for RME (TA98, TA100) and SME (TA98). A consistent but not significant increase in direct mutagenicity was observed for DF and LSDF at load mode A, and for DF at idling (load mode E) when emissions were treated with the OCC. These results raise concern over the use of oxidation catalytic converters with diesel engines. We hypothesise that the OCC increases formation of direct acting mutagens under certain conditions by the reaction of NO{sub x} with PAH resulting in the formation of nitrated-PAH. Most of these compounds are powerful direct acting mutagens. (orig.)

  6. Influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust treatment by an oxidation catalytic converter on the mutagenicity of diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Weigel, Andreas; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz

    2006-08-01

    Particle emissions of diesel engines (DEP) content polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) these compounds cause a strong mutagenicity of solvent extracts of DEP. We investigated the influence of fuel properties, nitrogen oxides (NO( x )), and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on the mutagenic effects of DEP. The engine was fuelled with common diesel fuel (DF), low-sulphur diesel fuel (LSDF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), and soybean oil methyl ester (SME) and run at five different load modes in two series with and without installation of an OCC in the exhaust pipe. Particles from the cooled and diluted exhaust were sampled onto glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The mutagenicity of the extracts was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Without OCC the number of revertant colonies was lower in extracts of LSDF than in extracts of DF. The lowest numbers of revertant colonies were induced by the plant oil derived fuels. In three load modes, operation with the OCC led to a reduction of the mutagenicity. However, direct mutagenic effects under heavy duty conditions (load mode A) were significantly increased for RME (TA98, TA100) and SME (TA98). A consistent but not significant increase in direct mutagenicity was observed for DF and LSDF at load mode A, and for DF at idling (load mode E) when emissions were treated with the OCC. These results raise concern over the use of oxidation catalytic converters with diesel engines. We hypothesise that the OCC increases formation of direct acting mutagens under certain conditions by the reaction of NO( x ) with PAH resulting in the formation of nitrated-PAH. Most of these compounds are powerful direct acting mutagens. PMID:16555046

  7. Test-methods on the test-bench: a comparison of complete exhaust and exhaust particle extracts for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Sandro; Heeb, Norbert V.; Czerwinski, Jan; Comte, Pierre; Mayer, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    With the growing number of new exhaust after-treatment systems, fuels and fuel additives for internal combustion engines, efficient and reliable methods for detecting exhaust genotoxicity and mutagenicity are needed to avoid the widespread application of technologies with undesirable effects toward public health. In a commonly used approach, organic extracts of particulates rather than complete exhaust is used for genotoxicity/mutagenicity assessment, which may reduce the reliability of the r...

  8. Binding of 14C-labeled food mutagens (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx) by dietary fiber in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of three mutagens, known to occur in fried or broiled foods, by thirteen different types of dietary fiber was investigated in vitro. Nonspecific binding by other food polymers was minimized by using protease and amylase treatment. Water-insoluble fiber components were responsible for most of the binding capacity. Generally, a slightly larger proportion of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) than of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo] -4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was bound. There was a significant correlation between Klason lignin content and binding of mutagens. Optimum pH for binding was between 4 and 6. Dietary fiber from sorghum had the highest binding capacity, which could be due to the presence of a large Klason lignin fraction

  9. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).

  10. Hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase activity in ethanol-treated hamsters and its consequences on the bioactivation of aromatic amines to mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, C; Steele, C M

    1986-09-01

    Male golden Syrian hamsters were maintained on ethanol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks, corresponding to an average daily intake of 17 g/kg body wt. The p-hydroxylation of aniline was markedly enhanced by this treatment while minimal effects were seen in benzphetamine N-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities; there was no change in the microsomal levels of cytochromes P-450. Hepatic microsomal preparations from the ethanol-treated hamsters were more efficient than controls fed isocaloric diets in converting 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine and 2-acetylaminofluorene into mutagens in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. The same treatment had no effect on the metabolic activation of 2-naphthylamine and even inhibited the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene. No increase was seen in the activation of the two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene to mutagens and an inhibitory effect was seen with the former. The ethanol-induced increase in the mutagenicity of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by 2-butanol but not by the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethylsulphoxide. It is concluded that chronic ethanol ingestion modulates the bioactivation of aromatic amines and amides to mutagens, the effect being substrate dependent. This effect of ethanol may be catalysed by unique form(s) of cytochrome P-450 whose synthesis is induced by such treatment. PMID:3021347

  11. Biological monitoring of human exposure to coal tar. Urinary mutagenicity assays and analytical determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Jongeneelen, F; Zordan, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenicity of urine extracts from anode plant workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles and non-smoking psoriatic patients treated with coal tar applications and UV light (Goeckermann regimen), was determined by the plate incorporation assay and the fluctuation test employing Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of rat liver post-mitochondrial fractions and deconjugating enzymes. The levels of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and of a marker metabolite of pyrene (1-hydroxypyrene) were determined in the urine of the same subjects. Both the occupational and in particular the therapeutic exposure to coal tar resulted in clear increases in urinary levels of PAH metabolites as compared to unexposed subjects. The level of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine samples was comparable to or even greater than the corresponding level of total PAHs, indicating a poor recovery of PAH metabolites for this method. Following treatment with coal tar, most of the psoriatic patients excreted clearly increased levels of mutagens in their urine, while non-smoking anode plant workers showed no increase in urinary mutagenicity. The minimum levels of PAH metabolites corresponding to a significant increase in urinary mutagenicity varied from sample to sample, presumably depending on interfering factors present in different amounts in the extracts. Nonetheless the urine samples which were clearly mutagenic presented elevated levels of PAH metabolites, suggesting that the mutagenicity assays lack sufficient sensitivity to allow their application in the biological monitoring of most occupational exposures to coal tar.

  12. In vitro effects of fluor-hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite on colony formation, DNA damage and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantová, S; Theiszová, M; Letasiová, S; Birosová, L; Palou, T M

    2008-04-30

    The number of biomaterials used in biomedical applications has rapidly increased in the past two decades. Fluorapatite (FA) is one of the inorganic constituents of bone or teeth used for hard-tissue repairs and replacements. Fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) is a new synthetically prepared composite that in its structure contains the same molecular concentration of OH(-) groups and F(-) ions. The aim of this experimental investigation was to evaluate cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of FHA and FA eluates on Chinese hamster V79 cells and to compare them with the effects of hydroxyapatite (HA) eluate. Cytotoxicity of the biomaterials tested was evaluated by use of the cell colony-formation assay and by direct counting of the cells in each colony. Genotoxicity was assessed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and mutagenicity was evaluated by the Hprt gene-mutation assay and in bacterial mutagenicity tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA100. The results show that the highest test concentrations of the biomaterials (100% and 75% eluates) induced very weak inhibition of colony growth (about 10%). On the other hand, the reduction of cell number per colony induced by these concentrations was in the range from 43% to 31%. The comet assay showed that biomaterials induced DNA breaks, which increased with increasing test concentrations in the order HAmutagenic effects compared with the positive control (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine), and DNA breakage was probably the reason for the inhibition of cell division in V79 cell colonies.

  13. Mutagenicity of automobile workshop soil leachate and tobacco industry wastewater using the Ames Salmonella fluctuation and the SOS chromotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunola, Alabi A; Babatunde, Esan E; Chinwe, Duru; Pelumi, Oyedele; Ramatu, Salihu G

    2016-06-01

    Environmental management of industrial solid wastes and wastewater is an important economic and environmental health problem globally. This study evaluated the mutagenic potential of automobile workshop soil-simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater using the SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation. Physicochemical parameters of the samples were also analyzed. The result of the Ames test showed mutagenicity of the test samples. However, the TA100 was the more responsive strain for both the simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater in terms of mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest results were in agreement with those of the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test. Nevertheless, the E. coli PQ37 system was slightly more sensitive than the Salmonella assay for detecting genotoxins in the tested samples. Iron, cadmium, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic, zinc, and lead contents analyzed in the samples were believed to play significant role in the observed mutagenicity in the microbial assays. The results of this study showed that the simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater showed strong indication of a genotoxic risk. Further studies would be required in the analytical field in order to identify and quantify other compounds not analyzed for in this study, some of which could be responsible for the observed genotoxicity. This will be necessary in order to identify the sources of toxicants and thus to take preventive and/or curative measures to limit the toxicity of these types of wastes.

  14. Data mining and machine learning techniques for the identification of mutagenicity inducing substructures and structure activity relationships of noncongeneric compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Helma, Christoph; Cramer, Tobias; Kramer, Stefan; De Raedt, Luc

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the utility of data mining and machine learning algorithms for the induction of mutagenicity structure-activity relationships (SARs) from noncongeneric data sets. We compare (i) a newly developed algorithm (MOLFEA) for the generation of descriptors (molecular fragments) for noncongeneric compounds with traditional SAR approaches (molecular properties) and (ii) different machine learning algorithms for the induction of SARs from these descriptors. In addition we investigate...

  15. Changes in Protein Domains outside the Catalytic Site of the Bacteriophage Qβ Replicase Reduce the Mutagenic Effect of 5-Azacytidine

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanillas, Laura; Sanjuán, Rafael; Lázaro, Ester

    2014-01-01

    The high genetic heterogeneity and great adaptability of RNA viruses are ultimately caused by the low replication fidelity of their polymerases. However, single amino acid substitutions that modify replication fidelity can evolve in response to mutagenic treatments with nucleoside analogues. Here, we investigated how two independent mutants of the bacteriophage Qβ replicase (Thr210Ala and Tyr410His) reduce sensitivity to the nucleoside analogue 5-azacytidine (AZC). Despite being located outsi...

  16. Mutagenicity of automobile workshop soil leachate and tobacco industry wastewater using the Ames Salmonella fluctuation and the SOS chromotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunola, Alabi A; Babatunde, Esan E; Chinwe, Duru; Pelumi, Oyedele; Ramatu, Salihu G

    2016-06-01

    Environmental management of industrial solid wastes and wastewater is an important economic and environmental health problem globally. This study evaluated the mutagenic potential of automobile workshop soil-simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater using the SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation. Physicochemical parameters of the samples were also analyzed. The result of the Ames test showed mutagenicity of the test samples. However, the TA100 was the more responsive strain for both the simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater in terms of mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest results were in agreement with those of the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test. Nevertheless, the E. coli PQ37 system was slightly more sensitive than the Salmonella assay for detecting genotoxins in the tested samples. Iron, cadmium, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic, zinc, and lead contents analyzed in the samples were believed to play significant role in the observed mutagenicity in the microbial assays. The results of this study showed that the simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater showed strong indication of a genotoxic risk. Further studies would be required in the analytical field in order to identify and quantify other compounds not analyzed for in this study, some of which could be responsible for the observed genotoxicity. This will be necessary in order to identify the sources of toxicants and thus to take preventive and/or curative measures to limit the toxicity of these types of wastes. PMID:25187319

  17. Thai generic-brand dry canine foods: mutagenicity and the effects of feeding in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Khuntamoon, Tanyalak; Thepouyporn, Apanchanid; Kaewprasert, Sarunya; Prangthip, Pattaneeya; Pooudoung, Somchai; Chaisri, Urai; Maneesai, Phudit; Kwanbunjan, Karunee

    2016-01-01

    Background The commercial pet-food industry and the market value of the pet industry have increased. Most owners are concerned about their pets’ health, and prefer commercial pet foods as their regular diet. This study thus aimed to determine whether a selection of local generic-brand dry canine foods had any potential to promote chronic disease. Methods Five local, generic-brand, dry canine foods were studied for potential mutagenicity; the effects of long-term consumption were also observed...

  18. Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, T M; van Faassen, A; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A; ten Hoor, F; Kleinjans, J C

    1992-02-14

    Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians. Consumption of cereal fiber, calcium and carotene as well as fecal concentrations of iso-lithocholic acid were found to correlate positively with excreted concentrations of one or more fecapentaene analogues. On average, 22% of excreted fecapentaene concentrations was found to be related to nutrient intake in stepwise regression models. Dietary calcium intake was found to be the most significant factor positively correlating with excreted fecapentaene concentrations. Intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or fiber from vegetables and fruit could be shown to correlate with fecapentaene excretion to a lesser degree. Despite high fecapentaene concentrations in fecal dichloromethane extracts, only 1 out of 20 samples revealed significant mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Further, aqueous extracts of feces from omnivores appeared to be equally mutagenic as feces from vegetarians and contained non-detectable concentrations of fecapentaenes. It is concluded that dietary factors do affect excreted fecapentaene levels, but only to a relatively minor extent. Since vegetarians at low risk for colorectal cancer excrete higher concentrations of fecapentaenes, it could be hypothesized that relatively increased fecapentaene excretion in combination with antimutagenic compounds in feces represents colon cancer prevention. PMID:1540928

  19. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of vigabatrin, a γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitor, in Wistar rats submitted to rotarod task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, V R; Sousa, K; Pires, T R; Papke, Dkm; Vieira, C G; de Souza, L P; Leal, M B; Schunck, Rva; Picada, J N; Pereira, P

    2016-09-01

    Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug thatincreases brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels through irreversible inhibition of GABA transaminase. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxicological effects of VGB measuring motor activity and genotoxic and mutagenic effects after a single and repeated administration. Male Wistar rats received saline, VGB 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg by gavage for acute and subchronic (14 days) treatments and evaluated in the rotarod task. Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline version of the comet assay in samples of blood, liver, hippocampus, and brain cortex after both treatments. Mutagenicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in bone marrow of the same animals that received subchronic treatment. The groups treated with VGB showed similar performance in rotarod compared with the saline group. Regarding the acute treatment, it was observed that only higher VGB doses induced DNA damage in blood and hippocampus. After the subchronic treatment, VGB did not show genotoxic or mutagenic effects. In brief, VGB did not impair motor activities in rats after acute and subchronic treatments. It showed a repairable genotoxic potential in the central nervous system since genotoxicity was observed in the acute treatment group. PMID:26500220

  20. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  1. Genome-wide screening for genes whose deletions confer sensitivity to mutagenic purine base analogs in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozmin Stanislav G

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-hydroxylated base analogs, such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP and 2-amino-6-hydroxylaminopurine (AHA, are strong mutagens in various organisms due to their ambiguous base-pairing properties. The systems protecting cells from HAP and related noncanonical purines in Escherichia coli include specialized deoxyribonucleoside triphosphatase RdgB, DNA repair endonuclease V, and a molybdenum cofactor-dependent system. Fewer HAP-detoxification systems have been identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Cellular systems protecting from AHA are unknown. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide search for genes whose deletions confer sensitivity to HAP and AHA in yeast. Results We screened the library of yeast deletion mutants for sensitivity to the toxic and mutagenic action of HAP and AHA. We identified novel genes involved in the genetic control of base analogs sensitivity, including genes controlling purine metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, and amino acid metabolism. Conclusion We developed a method for screening the yeast deletion library for sensitivity to the mutagenic and toxic action of base analogs and identified 16 novel genes controlling pathways of protection from HAP. Three of them also protect from AHA.

  2. Mutagenic and Estrogenic Effects of Organic Compounds in Water Treated by Different Processes:A Pilot Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; LYU Xue Min; XIAO San Hua; YANG Xiao Ming; WANG Ya Zhou; TANG Fei

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, a pilot-scale investigation was conducted to examine and compare the biotoxicity of the organic compounds in effluents from five treatment processes (P1-P5) where each process was combination of preoxidation (O3), coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation, granular activated carbon, biological activated carbon and chlorination (NaClO). Methods Organic compounds were extracted by XAD-2 resins and eluted with acetone and dichlormethane (DCM). The eluents were evaporated and redissolved with DMSO or DCM. The mutagenicity and estrogenicity of the extracts were assayed with the Ames test and yeast estrogen screen (YES assay), respectively. The organic compounds were detected by GC-MS. Results The results indicated that the mutation ratio (MR) of organic compounds in source water was higher than that for treated water. GC-MS showed that more than 48 organic compounds were identified in all samples and that treated water had significantly fewer types and concentrations of organic compounds than source water. Conclusion To different extents, all water treatment processes could reduce both the mutagenicity and estrogenicity, relative to source water. P2, P3, and P5 reduced mutagenicity more effectively, while P1 reduced estrogenicity, most effectively. Water treatment processes in this pilot plant had weak abilities to remove Di-n-butyl phthalate or 1, 2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid.

  3. Mutagenicity of New Lead Compounds to Treat Sickle Cell Disease Symptoms in a Salmonella/Microsome Assay

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    Chung Man Chin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of phthalimide derivatives planned as drugs candidates to treat the symptoms of sickle cell anemia were evaluated in a mutagenicity test using strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA102, without and with addition of S9 mixture, with the aim to identify the best structural requirements for a drug candidate without genotoxic activity. The compounds (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-ylmethyl nitrate (1; (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-ylethyl nitrate (2; 3-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-iso-indol-2-ylbenzyl nitrate (3; 4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl-N-hydroxy-benzenesulfonamide (4; 4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-ylbenzyl nitrate (5 and 2-[4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-ylphenyl]ethyl nitrate (6 presented mutagenic potency ranging between 0-4,803 revertants/μmol. These results allowed us to propose that a methyl spacer linked to a nitrate ester subunit associated to meta aromatic substitution decreases mutagenicity.

  4. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  5. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Buendia Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume 700 mOsmol/kg. Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary.

  6. A comparative evaluation of mutagenic, antimutagenic, radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Pituranthos chloranthus (Coss. et Dur.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Aicha; Limem, Ilef; Kilani, Soumaya; Bouhlel, Ines; Skandrani, Ines; Bhouri, Wissem; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Boubaker, Jihed; Ledauphin, Jerome; Barillier, Daniel; Ghedira, Leila Chekir; Ghedira, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    The Salmonella typhimurium/microsome assay is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities with and without the addition of an extrinsic metabolic activation system of essential oils obtained from an aerial part of Pituranthos chloranthus harvested from different stations in Tunisia. The oils showed no mutagenicity when tested with S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. On the other hand, we showed that these essential oils reduced significantly Benzo [a] pyrene (B[a] P) and sodium-azide-induced mutagenicity. The scavenging capacity of these essential oils was also estimated by evaluating the inhibition of DPPH radical. Essential oils harvested at Medenine and Gabes in November were more effective in scavenging activity. The essential oils were tested for their antimicrobial properties against five different bacteria, and were found to be weakly active, with MIC and MBC values in the range 0.6-4 and 2.2-5 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:19793030

  7. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  8. Ultimate carcinogenic metabolites from aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic amines: a computational study in relation to their mutagenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borosky, Gabriela L

    2007-02-01

    The formation of nitrenium ions from their precursors was examined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the role of these electrophilic intermediates on the mutagenic activity of the parent amines. The relative reactivities for N-O bond dissociation from the N-hydroxy, N-acetoxy and N-sulfate derivatives of aniline were evaluated. Furthermore, the N-acetoxy esters from a set of 17 aromatic and heteroaromatic amines of diverse structure were considered, and correlations were sought between the calculated properties and the reported mutagenic potencies. The mutagenic activity was found to increase when a more negative charge developed at the exocyclic nitrogen of the nitrenium ion (qN) and with nitrenium ion stability. Different functional correlations were observed for the amine derivatives grouped according to their classification as aromatic (Ar), imidazo-carbocyclic (Imi-C), and imidazo-heterocyclic (Imi-H). The formation of N-acetyl nitrenium ions from aromatic amides was also considered and found to be less favorable than nitrenium ion generation from the corresponding amines. PMID:17261035

  9. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume 700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  10. Responses of the L5178Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay. II. 18 coded chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Caspary, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L5178Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay by the use of procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before plating in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with benzofuran, benzyl chloride, bromodichloromethane, butylated hydroxytoluene, chlorendic acid, o-chlorobenzalmalonitrile, 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl hydrogen phosphite, furfural, glutaraldehyde, hydroquinone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and resorcinol. Apart from bromodichloromethane, butylated hydroxytoluene and dimethyl hydrogen phosphite, rat liver S9 mix was not a requirement for the activity of any of these compounds. Chemicals not identified as mutagens were water, tert-butyl alcohol, pyridine, and witch hazel.

  11. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

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    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus (BPV is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA and comet assay (CA. Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control. Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine.

  12. The Mutation Breeding and Mutagenic Effect of Air Plasma on Penicillium Chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Fang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Peng; Liu, Hui; Cai, Xiaochun; Hu, Yihua; Yuan, Chengling; Zheng, Zhiming

    2012-04-01

    Low temperature air plasma was used as the mutation tool for penicillin-producing strain Penicillium chrysogenum. The discharge conditions were RF power of 360 W, temperature of 40°C in a sealed chamber, and pressure of 10 Pa to 30 Pa. The result showed that the kinetics of the survival rate followed a typical saddle-shaped curve. Based on a statistic analysis, at the treating duration of 10 min, the positive mutation rate was as high as 37.5% while the negative mutation rate was low. The colonial morphology changed obviously when the plasma treating duration reached or exceeded 45 min. After both primary and secondary screening, a mutant designated as aPc051310 with high productivity of penicillin was obtained, and a strong mutagenic effect on P. chrysogenum was observed in the process. It was proved that after five generations, the mutant aPc051310 still exhibits a high productivity. All the results prove that the plasma mutation method could be developed as a convenient and effective tool to breed high-yield strains in the fermentation industry, while expanding the plasm application at the same time.

  13. Modeling the Manipulation of Natural Populations by the Mutagenic Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unckless, Robert L; Messer, Philipp W; Connallon, Tim; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    The use of recombinant genetic technologies for population manipulation has mostly remained an abstract idea due to the lack of a suitable means to drive novel gene constructs to high frequency in populations. Recently Gantz and Bier showed that the use of CRISPR/Cas9 technology could provide an artificial drive mechanism, the so-called mutagenic chain reaction (MCR), which could lead to rapid fixation of even a deleterious introduced allele. We establish the near equivalence of this system to other gene drive models and review the results of simple models showing that, when there is a fitness cost to the MCR allele, an internal equilibrium may exist that is usually unstable. In this case, introductions must be at a frequency above this critical point for the successful invasion of the MCR allele. We obtain estimates of fixation and invasion probabilities for the appropriate scenarios. Finally, we discuss how polymorphism in natural populations may introduce sources of natural resistance to MCR invasion. These modeling results have important implications for application of MCR in natural populations. PMID:26232409

  14. Mutagenic Effects of a Single and an Exact Number of α Particles in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Tom K.; Wu, Li-Jun; Liu, Su-Xian; Vannais, Diane; Waldren, Charles A.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard

    1997-04-01

    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single α particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human--hamster hybrid (AL) cells by either a single or an exact number of α particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 α particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/μ m consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to AL cells (survival fraction ≈ 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 105 survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single α particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses.

  15. The mutagenicities of alkaloids and N-nitrosoguvacoline from betel quid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Peng, C H

    1996-08-01

    In Taiwan, betel quid is a natural masticatory, which is composed of fresh green areca fruit, Piper betle and slaked lime paste. Areca fruit contains some alkaloids, of which arecoline is the major one. N-Nitrosoguvacoline (NG), one of the N-nitrosation products of arecoline, is the only one N-nitrosamine found in Taiwanese betel quid chewing saliva. The mutagenic studies in Ames Salmonella microsome test showed that crude alkaloid extracts of areca fruit and arecoline were active in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, and NG was weakly active in TA98 and TA100. The activities in both arecoline and NG decreased further in the presence of rat liver S9 mix. Nitrite was significantly consumed during the N-nitrosation of arecoline and sodium nitrite at acidic condition (pH 3), whereas the formation of NG was favored at neutral condition (pH 7). Crude phenolic extracts of leaf and inflorescence of Piper betle inhibited the formation of NG by blocking the nitrite. However, a high amount of crude phenolic extracts of areca fruit enhanced the formation of NG. PMID:8692215

  16. Impaired recovery and mutagenic SOS-like responses in ataxia telangiectasia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, G. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Abrahams, P.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Chen, Y.Q. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)); Schouten, R. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Cornelis, J.J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France)); Lowe, J.E. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)); Eb, A.J. van der (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)); Rommelaere, J. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France))

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitive fibroblasts from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) were studied for their proficiency in two putative eukaryotic SOS-like responses, namely the enhanced reactivation (ER) and enhanced mutagenesis of damaged viruses infecting pre-irradiated versus mock-treated cells. A previous report indicated that, unlike normal human cells, a line of AT fibroblasts (AT5BIVA) could not be induced to express ER of damaged parvovirus H-1, a single-stranded DNA virus, by UV- or X-irradiation. In the present study, AT5BIVA fibroblasts were also distinguished from normal cells by the inability of the former to achieve enhanced mutagenesis of damaged H-1 virus upon cell UV-irradiation. In contrast, dose-response and time-course experiments revealed normal levels of ER of Herpes simplex virus 1, a double-stranded DNA virus, in X- or UV-irradiated AT5BIVA cells. Taken together, these data point to a possible deficiency of AT cells in a conditioned mutagenic process that contributes to a greater extent to the recovery of damaged single-stranded than double-stranded DNA. Such a defect may concern the replication of damaged DNA or the generation of signals promoting the latter process and may be related to the lack of radiation-induced delay that is typical of AT cell DNA synthesis. (author).

  17. Effects of pH on the in Vitro Sorption of Mutagens to Dietary Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, C; Nagai, T; Yano, T

    1992-01-01

    Dietary fibers, alginate and defatted corn fiber, sorbed food mutagens, Trp-P-1 and Glu-P-1, which are heterocyclic amines formed in the cooking process. The sorption behavior of the heterocyclic amines to defatted corn fiber and alginates was analyzed under pH-controlled conditions. Glu-P-1 and alginic acid had pKa values of 4.2 and 3.6, respectively, whereas Trp-P-1, which showed alkaline in solution, possessed two pKa values of 4.8 and 7.7. Defatted corn fiber, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, did not show a significant pKa value. The amount of sorbed Trp-P-1 to the alginates increased as the pH value of the buffer was elevated, and was much more than that sorbed to defatted corn fiber at each pH condition. These results suggest that the alginates held the amino group of Trp-P-1 or Glu-P-1 on their carboxyl group as a cation exchanger. PMID:27286385

  18. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity.

  19. Proanthocyanidins Produce Significant Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Mutagenicity via Suppression of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry M. Attia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been initiated to determine whether proanthocyanidins can protect against doxorubicin-induced mutagenicity in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism of this protection. Pretreatment of mice with proanthocyanidins (100 mg/kg/day, orally for 7 days and simultaneously with doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, i.p. for another day, significantly reduced the frequency of bone marrow DNA strand breaks and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared to doxorubicin-treated mice alone. Furthermore, proanthocyanidins caused a reduction in bone marrow suppression induced by doxorubicin treatment. In male germline, orally administration of proanthocyanidins (100 mg/kg/day, orally for 7 consecutive days before and 7 consecutive days after treatment with doxorubicin (12 mg/ kg, i.p., significantly elevated the levels of sperm count and motility reduced by doxorubicin treatment. Furthermore, proanthocyanidins significantly decreased the elevated levels of spermatogonial and spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations and sperm head abnormality induced by doxorubicin. Prior administration of proanthocyanidins ahead of doxorubicin reduced the doxorubicin induced testicular lipid peroxidation and prevented the reduction in testicularnonprotein sulfhydryl significantly. Conclusively, this study provides for the first time that proanthocyanidins have a protective role in the abatement of doxorubicin-induced mutagenesis and cell proliferation changes in germinal cells of mice that reside, at least in part, in their radical scavengeractivity. Therefore, proanthocyanidins can be a promising chemopreventive agent to avert secondary malignancy and abnormal reproductive outcomes risks in cancer patients receiving doxorubicin-involved treatment.

  20. Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

    2007-03-21

    The present work was undertaken to determine safety parameters of selected Mexican medicinal plants chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance. The medicinal herbs included Amphipteryngium adstringens, Hintonia standleyana, Hintonia latiflora, Piper sanctum, Haemathoxylon brasiletto, Iostephane heterophylla, Valeriana procera, Arracacia tolucensis, Brickellia veronicaefolia, Scaphyglottis livida, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri, Poliomintha longiflora and Gnaphalium sp. In the acute toxicity studies in mice performed according to the Lorke procedure, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri and Poliomintha longiflora were the most toxic with LD(50) values between 1085 and 2mg/kg. The Ames test revealed that Gnaphalium sp. and Valeriana procera extracts induced mutations of S. typhimurium TA98 with or without the S9 microsomal fraction, and TA100 in the presence of the enzymatic fraction, respectively. The tincture of Valeriana procera, however, was non-mutagenic. Finally, in the Artemia salina lethality test Brickellia veronicaefolia, Arracacia tolucensis, Poliomintha longiflora and Piper sanctum caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC(50) in the range of 37-227 microg/mL. PMID:17101253