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Sample records for chemical master equation

  1. Diffusion approximations to the chemical master equation only have a consistent stochastic thermodynamics at chemical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stochastic thermodynamics of a dilute, well-stirred mixture of chemically reacting species is built on the stochastic trajectories of reaction events obtained from the chemical master equation. However, when the molecular populations are large, the discrete chemical master equation can be approximated with a continuous diffusion process, like the chemical Langevin equation or low noise approximation. In this paper, we investigate to what extent these diffusion approximations inherit the stochastic thermodynamics of the chemical master equation. We find that a stochastic-thermodynamic description is only valid at a detailed-balanced, equilibrium steady state. Away from equilibrium, where there is no consistent stochastic thermodynamics, we show that one can still use the diffusive solutions to approximate the underlying thermodynamics of the chemical master equation

  2. Bistability in the Chemical Master Equation for Dual Phosphorylation Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzani, A; Giampieri, E; Remondini, D; Cooper, L N

    2011-01-01

    Dual phospho/dephosphorylation cycles, as well as covalent enzymatic-catalyzed modifications of substrates, are widely diffused within cellular systems and are crucial for the control of complex responses such as learning, memory and cellular fate determination. Despite the large body of deterministic studies and the increasing work aimed to elucidate the effect of noise in such systems, some aspects remain unclear. Here we study the stationary distribution provided by the two-dimensional Chemical Master Equation for a well known model of a two step phospho/dephosphorylation cycle using the quasi steady state approximation of the enzymatic kinetics. Our aim is to analyze the role of fluctuations and the molecules distribution properties in the transition to a bistable regime. When detailed balance conditions are satisfied it is possible to compute equilibrium distributions in a closed and explicit form. When detailed balance is not satisfied, the stationary non-equilibrium state is strongly influenced by the ...

  3. Order reduction of the chemical master equation via balanced realisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López-Caamal

    Full Text Available We consider a Markov process in continuous time with a finite number of discrete states. The time-dependent probabilities of being in any state of the Markov chain are governed by a set of ordinary differential equations, whose dimension might be large even for trivial systems. Here, we derive a reduced ODE set that accurately approximates the probabilities of subspaces of interest with a known error bound. Our methodology is based on model reduction by balanced truncation and can be considerably more computationally efficient than solving the chemical master equation directly. We show the applicability of our method by analysing stochastic chemical reactions. First, we obtain a reduced order model for the infinitesimal generator of a Markov chain that models a reversible, monomolecular reaction. Later, we obtain a reduced order model for a catalytic conversion of substrate to a product (a so-called Michaelis-Menten mechanism, and compare its dynamics with a rapid equilibrium approximation method. For this example, we highlight the savings on the computational load obtained by means of the reduced-order model. Furthermore, we revisit the substrate catalytic conversion by obtaining a lower-order model that approximates the probability of having predefined ranges of product molecules. In such an example, we obtain an approximation of the output of a model with 5151 states by a reduced model with 16 states. Finally, we obtain a reduced-order model of the Brusselator.

  4. Construction and accuracy of partial differential equation approximations to the chemical master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Ramon

    2011-11-01

    The mesoscopic description of chemical kinetics, the chemical master equation, can be exactly solved in only a few simple cases. The analytical intractability stems from the discrete character of the equation, and hence considerable effort has been invested in the development of Fokker-Planck equations, second-order partial differential equation approximations to the master equation. We here consider two different types of higher-order partial differential approximations, one derived from the system-size expansion and the other from the Kramers-Moyal expansion, and derive the accuracy of their predictions for chemical reactive networks composed of arbitrary numbers of unimolecular and bimolecular reactions. In particular, we show that the partial differential equation approximation of order Q from the Kramers-Moyal expansion leads to estimates of the mean number of molecules accurate to order Ω(-(2Q-3)/2), of the variance of the fluctuations in the number of molecules accurate to order Ω(-(2Q-5)/2), and of skewness accurate to order Ω(-(Q-2)). We also show that for large Q, the accuracy in the estimates can be matched only by a partial differential equation approximation from the system-size expansion of approximate order 2Q. Hence, we conclude that partial differential approximations based on the Kramers-Moyal expansion generally lead to considerably more accurate estimates in the mean, variance, and skewness than approximations of the same order derived from the system-size expansion. PMID:22181475

  5. A Steady-State Approximation to the Two-Dimensional Master Equation for Chemical Kinetics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stanton, John F

    2015-07-16

    In the field of chemical kinetics, the solution of a two-dimensional master equation that depends explicitly on both total internal energy (E) and total angular momentum (J) is a challenging problem. In this work, a weak-E/fixed-J collisional model (i.e., weak-collisional internal energy relaxation/free-collisional angular momentum relaxation) is used along with the steady-state approach to solve the resulting (simplified) two-dimensional (E,J)-grained master equation. The corresponding solutions give thermal rate constants and product branching ratios as functions of both temperature and pressure. We also have developed a program that can be used to predict and analyze experimental chemical kinetics results. This expedient technique, when combined with highly accurate potential energy surfaces, is cable of providing results that may be meaningfully compared to experiments. The reaction of singlet oxygen with methane proceeding through vibrationally excited methanol is used as an illustrative example. PMID:25815602

  6. Dynamics of the chemical master equation, a strip of chains of equations in d-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstyan, Vahe; Saakian, David B

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the multichain version of the chemical master equation, when there are transitions between different states inside the long chains, as well as transitions between (a few) different chains. In the discrete version, such a model can describe the connected diffusion processes with jumps between different types. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation to solve some aspects of the model. We derive exact (in the limit of infinite number of particles) results for the dynamic of the maximum of the distribution and the variance of distribution. PMID:23005386

  7. Computational study of p53 regulation via the chemical master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Huy D.; Sidje, Roger B.

    2016-06-01

    A stochastic model of cellular p53 regulation was established in Leenders, and Tuszynski (2013 Front. Oncol. 3 1–16) to study the interactions of p53 with MDM2 proteins, where the stochastic analysis was done using a Monte Carlo approach. We revisit that model here using an alternative scheme, which is to directly solve the chemical master equation (CME) by an adaptive Krylov-based finite state projection method that combines the stochastic simulation algorithm with other computational strategies, namely Krylov approximation techniques to the matrix exponential, divide and conquer, and aggregation. We report numerical results that demonstrate the extend of tackling the CME with this combination of tools.

  8. Stochastic quasi-steady state approximations for asymptotic solutions of the chemical master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón, Tomás [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica, Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Atonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-14

    In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.

  9. Energy master equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1995-01-01

    energies chosen randomly according to a Gaussian. The random-walk model is here derived from Newton's laws by making a number of simplifying assumptions. In the second part of the paper an approximate low-temperature description of energy fluctuations in the random-walk model—the energy master equation...

  10. Direct solution of the Chemical Master Equation using quantized tensor trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kazeev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical Master Equation (CME is a cornerstone of stochastic analysis and simulation of models of biochemical reaction networks. Yet direct solutions of the CME have remained elusive. Although several approaches overcome the infinite dimensional nature of the CME through projections or other means, a common feature of proposed approaches is their susceptibility to the curse of dimensionality, i.e. the exponential growth in memory and computational requirements in the number of problem dimensions. We present a novel approach that has the potential to "lift" this curse of dimensionality. The approach is based on the use of the recently proposed Quantized Tensor Train (QTT formatted numerical linear algebra for the low parametric, numerical representation of tensors. The QTT decomposition admits both, algorithms for basic tensor arithmetics with complexity scaling linearly in the dimension (number of species and sub-linearly in the mode size (maximum copy number, and a numerical tensor rounding procedure which is stable and quasi-optimal. We show how the CME can be represented in QTT format, then use the exponentially-converging hp-discontinuous Galerkin discretization in time to reduce the CME evolution problem to a set of QTT-structured linear equations to be solved at each time step using an algorithm based on Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG methods from quantum chemistry. Our method automatically adapts the "basis" of the solution at every time step guaranteeing that it is large enough to capture the dynamics of interest but no larger than necessary, as this would increase the computational complexity. Our approach is demonstrated by applying it to three different examples from systems biology: independent birth-death process, an example of enzymatic futile cycle, and a stochastic switch model. The numerical results on these examples demonstrate that the proposed QTT method achieves dramatic speedups and several orders of

  11. Direct solution of the Chemical Master Equation using quantized tensor trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeev, Vladimir; Khammash, Mustafa; Nip, Michael; Schwab, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    The Chemical Master Equation (CME) is a cornerstone of stochastic analysis and simulation of models of biochemical reaction networks. Yet direct solutions of the CME have remained elusive. Although several approaches overcome the infinite dimensional nature of the CME through projections or other means, a common feature of proposed approaches is their susceptibility to the curse of dimensionality, i.e. the exponential growth in memory and computational requirements in the number of problem dimensions. We present a novel approach that has the potential to "lift" this curse of dimensionality. The approach is based on the use of the recently proposed Quantized Tensor Train (QTT) formatted numerical linear algebra for the low parametric, numerical representation of tensors. The QTT decomposition admits both, algorithms for basic tensor arithmetics with complexity scaling linearly in the dimension (number of species) and sub-linearly in the mode size (maximum copy number), and a numerical tensor rounding procedure which is stable and quasi-optimal. We show how the CME can be represented in QTT format, then use the exponentially-converging hp-discontinuous Galerkin discretization in time to reduce the CME evolution problem to a set of QTT-structured linear equations to be solved at each time step using an algorithm based on Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods from quantum chemistry. Our method automatically adapts the "basis" of the solution at every time step guaranteeing that it is large enough to capture the dynamics of interest but no larger than necessary, as this would increase the computational complexity. Our approach is demonstrated by applying it to three different examples from systems biology: independent birth-death process, an example of enzymatic futile cycle, and a stochastic switch model. The numerical results on these examples demonstrate that the proposed QTT method achieves dramatic speedups and several orders of magnitude storage

  12. Thermal Decomposition of NCN: Shock-Tube Study, Quantum Chemical Calculations, and Master-Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Anna; González-García, Núria; Lendvay, György; Olzmann, Matthias

    2015-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of cyanonitrene, NCN, was studied behind reflected shock waves in the temperature range 1790-2960 K at pressures near 1 and 4 bar. Highly diluted mixtures of NCN3 in argon were shock-heated to produce NCN, and concentration-time profiles of C atoms as reaction product were monitored with atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy at 156.1 nm. Calibration was performed with methane pyrolysis experiments. Rate coefficients for the reaction (3)NCN + M → (3)C + N2 + M (R1) were determined from the initial slopes of the C atom concentration-time profiles. Reaction R1 was found to be in the low-pressure regime at the conditions of the experiments. The temperature dependence of the bimolecular rate coefficient can be expressed with the following Arrhenius equation: k1(bim) = (4.2 ± 2.1) × 10(14) exp[-242.3 kJ mol(-1)/(RT)] cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). The rate coefficients were analyzed by using a master equation with specific rate coefficients from RRKM theory. The necessary molecular data and energies were calculated with quantum chemical methods up to the CCSD(T)/CBS//CCSD/cc-pVTZ level of theory. From the topography of the potential energy surface, it follows that reaction R1 proceeds via isomerization of NCN to CNN and subsequent C-N bond fission along a collinear reaction coordinate without a tight transition state. The calculations reproduce the magnitude and temperature dependence of the rate coefficient and confirm that reaction R1 is in the low-pressure regime under our experimental conditions. PMID:25853321

  13. Exact results in the large system size limit for the dynamics of the Chemical Master Equation, a one dimensional chain of equations

    OpenAIRE

    Martirosyan, Arax; Saakian, David B.

    2012-01-01

    We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) formalism to solve the dynamics of the Chemical Master Equation (CME). We found exact analytical expressions (in large system-size limit) for the probability distribution, including explicit expression for the dynamics of variance of distribution. We also give the solution for some simple cases of the model with time-dependent rates. We derived the results of Van Kampen method from HJE approach using a special ansatz. Using the Van Kampen method, we...

  14. State Space Truncation with Quantified Errors for Accurate Solutions to Discrete Chemical Master Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Youfang; Terebus, Anna; Liang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The discrete chemical master equation (dCME) provides a general framework for studying stochasticity in mesoscopic reaction networks. Since its direct solution rapidly becomes intractable due to the increasing size of the state space, truncation of the state space is necessary for solving most dCMEs. It is therefore important to assess the consequences of state space truncations so errors can be quantified and minimized. Here we describe a novel method for state space truncation. By partitioning a reaction network into multiple molecular equivalence groups (MEGs), we truncate the state space by limiting the total molecular copy numbers in each MEG. We further describe a theoretical framework for analysis of the truncation error in the steady-state probability landscape using reflecting boundaries. By aggregating the state space based on the usage of a MEG and constructing an aggregated Markov process, we show that the truncation error of a MEG can be asymptotically bounded by the probability of states on the reflecting boundary of the MEG. Furthermore, truncating states of an arbitrary MEG will not undermine the estimated error of truncating any other MEGs. We then provide an overall error estimate for networks with multiple MEGs. To rapidly determine the appropriate size of an arbitrary MEG, we also introduce an a priori method to estimate the upper bound of its truncation error. This a priori estimate can be rapidly computed from reaction rates of the network, without the need of costly trial solutions of the dCME. As examples, we show results of applying our methods to the four stochastic networks of (1) the birth and death model, (2) the single gene expression model, (3) the genetic toggle switch model, and (4) the phage lambda bistable epigenetic switch model. We demonstrate how truncation errors and steady-state probability landscapes can be computed using different sizes of the MEG(s) and how the results validate our theories. Overall, the novel state space

  15. Exact results in the large system size limit for the dynamics of the chemical master equation, a one dimensional chain of equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, A; Saakian, David B

    2011-08-01

    We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) formalism to solve the dynamics of the chemical master equation (CME). We found exact analytical expressions (in large system-size limit) for the probability distribution, including explicit expression for the dynamics of variance of distribution. We also give the solution for some simple cases of the model with time-dependent rates. We derived the results of the Van Kampen method from the HJE approach using a special ansatz. Using the Van Kampen method, we give a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to define the variance in a two-dimensional case. We performed numerics for the CME with stationary noise. We give analytical criteria for the disappearance of bistability in the case of stationary noise in one-dimensional CMEs. PMID:21928964

  16. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their “far from equilibrium behavior,” hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative “external vector field” whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the “plasticity property” of biological

  17. An Analytical Framework for Studying Small-Number Effects in Catalytic Reaction Networks: A Probability Generating Function Approach to Chemical Master Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masaki; Togashi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Cell activities primarily depend on chemical reactions, especially those mediated by enzymes, and this has led to these activities being modeled as catalytic reaction networks. Although deterministic ordinary differential equations of concentrations (rate equations) have been widely used for modeling purposes in the field of systems biology, it has been pointed out that these catalytic reaction networks may behave in a way that is qualitatively different from such deterministic representation when the number of molecules for certain chemical species in the system is small. Apart from this, representing these phenomena by simple binary (on/off) systems that omit the quantities would also not be feasible. As recent experiments have revealed the existence of rare chemical species in cells, the importance of being able to model potential small-number phenomena is being recognized. However, most preceding studies were based on numerical simulations, and theoretical frameworks to analyze these phenomena have not been sufficiently developed. Motivated by the small-number issue, this work aimed to develop an analytical framework for the chemical master equation describing the distributional behavior of catalytic reaction networks. For simplicity, we considered networks consisting of two-body catalytic reactions. We used the probability generating function method to obtain the steady-state solutions of the chemical master equation without specifying the parameters. We obtained the time evolution equations of the first- and second-order moments of concentrations, and the steady-state analytical solution of the chemical master equation under certain conditions. These results led to the rank conservation law, the connecting state to the winner-takes-all state, and analysis of 2-molecules M-species systems. A possible interpretation of the theoretical conclusion for actual biochemical pathways is also discussed. PMID:27047384

  18. Non-linear corrections to the time-covariance function derived from a multi-state chemical master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M

    2012-08-01

    The time-covariance function captures the dynamics of biochemical fluctuations and contains important information about the underlying kinetic rate parameters. Intrinsic fluctuations in biochemical reaction networks are typically modelled using a master equation formalism. In general, the equation cannot be solved exactly and approximation methods are required. For small fluctuations close to equilibrium, a linearisation of the dynamics provides a very good description of the relaxation of the time-covariance function. As the number of molecules in the system decrease, deviations from the linear theory appear. Carrying out a systematic perturbation expansion of the master equation to capture these effects results in formidable algebra; however, symbolic mathematics packages considerably expedite the computation. The authors demonstrate that non-linear effects can reveal features of the underlying dynamics, such as reaction stoichiometry, not available in linearised theory. Furthermore, in models that exhibit noise-induced oscillations, non-linear corrections result in a shift in the base frequency along with the appearance of a secondary harmonic. PMID:23039692

  19. Master equations and the theory of stochastic path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Markus F

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. We discuss analytical and numerical methods for the solution of master equations, keeping our focus on methods that are applicable even when stochastic fluctuations are strong. The reviewed methods include the generating function technique and the Poisson representation, as well as novel ways of mapping the forward and backward master equations onto linear partial differential equations (PDEs). Spectral methods, WKB approximations, and a variational approach have been proposed for the analysis of the PDE obeyed by the generating function. After outlining these methods, we solve the derived PDEs in terms of two path integrals. The path integrals provide distinct exact representations of the conditional probability distribution solving the master equations. We exemplify both path integrals in analysing elementary chemical reactions. Furthermore, we review a method for the approxima...

  20. Recent developments in the Virasoro master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Virasoro master equation collects all possible Virasoro constructions which are quadratic in the currents of affine Lie g. The solution space of this system is immense, with generically irrational central charge, and solutions which have so far been observed are generically unitary. Other developments reviewed include the exact C-function, the superconformal master equation and partial classification of solutions by graph theory and generalized graph theories. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. From convolutionless generalized master to Pauli master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a continuation of previous work within which it has been proved that time integrals of memory function (i.e. Markovian transfer rates from Pauli Master Equations, PME) in Time-Convolution Generalized Master Equations (TC-GME) for probabilities of finding a state of an asymmetric system interacting with a bath with a continuous spectrum are exactly zero, provided that no approximation is involved, irrespective of the usual finite-perturbation-order correspondence with the Golden Rule transition rates. In this paper, attention is paid to an alternative way of deriving the rigorous PME from the TCL-GME. Arguments are given in favor of the proposition that the long-time limit of coefficients in TCL-GME for the above probabilities, under the same assumption and presuming that this limit exists, is equal to zero. 11 refs

  2. Master equation as a radial constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Uzair; Booth, Ivan; Kunduri, Hari K.

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the problem of perturbations of Schwarzschild-AdS4 black holes by using a combination of the Martel-Poisson formalism for perturbations of four-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetimes [K. Martel and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. D 71, 104003 (2005).] and the Kodama-Ishibashi formalism [H. Kodama and A. Ishibashi, Prog. Theor. Phys. 110, 701 (2003).]. We clarify the relationship between both formalisms and express the Brown-York-Balasubramanian-Krauss boundary stress-energy tensor, T¯μ ν, on a finite-r surface purely in terms of the even and odd master functions. Then, on these surfaces we find that the spacelike components of the conservation equation D¯μT¯μ ν=0 are equivalent to the wave equations for the master functions. The renormalized stress-energy tensor at the boundary r/L lim r →∞ T¯μ ν is calculated directly in terms of the master functions.

  3. Simplified differential equations approach for Master Integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Costas G.

    2014-01-01

    A simplified differential equations approach for Master Integrals is presented. It allows to express them, straightforwardly, in terms of Goncharov Polylogarithms. As a proof-of-concept of the proposed method, results at one and two loops are presented, including the massless one-loop pentagon with up to one off-shell leg at order epsilon.

  4. On the quantum master equation for fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, C. F.; Huang, K. -N.

    2006-01-01

    A quantum master equation is obtained for identical fermions by including a relaxation term in addition to the mean-field Hamiltonian. [Huang C F and Huang K N 2004 Chinese J. Phys. ${\\bf 42}$ 221; Gebauer R and Car R 2004 Phys. Rev. B ${\\bf 70}$ 125324] It is proven in this paper that both the positivity and Pauli's exclusion principle are preserved under this equation when there exists an upper bound for the transition rate. Such an equation can be generalized to model BCS-type quasiparticl...

  5. The Chemical Master Equation Approach to Nonequilibrium Steady-State of Open Biochemical Systems: Linear Single-Molecule Enzyme Kinetics and Nonlinear Biochemical Reaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Bishop

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop the stochastic, chemical master equation as a unifying approach to the dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a mesoscopic volume under a living environment. A living environment provides a continuous chemical energy input that sustains the reaction system in a nonequilibrium steady state with concentration fluctuations. We discuss the linear, unimolecular single-molecule enzyme kinetics, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC with bistability, and network exhibiting oscillations. Emphasis is paid to the comparison between the stochastic dynamics and the prediction based on the traditional approach based on the Law of Mass Action. We introduce the difference between nonlinear bistability and stochastic bistability, the latter has no deterministic counterpart. For systems with nonlinear bistability, there are three different time scales: (a individual biochemical reactions, (b nonlinear network dynamics approaching to attractors, and (c cellular evolution. For mesoscopic systems with size of a living cell, dynamics in (a and (c are stochastic while that with (b is dominantly deterministic. Both (b and (c are emergent properties of a dynamic biochemical network; We suggest that the (c is most relevant to major cellular biochemical processes such as epi-genetic regulation, apoptosis, and cancer immunoediting. The cellular evolution proceeds with transitions among the attractors of (b in a “punctuated equilibrium” manner.

  6. The chemical master equation approach to nonequilibrium steady-state of open biochemical systems: linear single-molecule enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Bishop, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    We develop the stochastic, chemical master equation as a unifying approach to the dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a mesoscopic volume under a living environment. A living environment provides a continuous chemical energy input that sustains the reaction system in a nonequilibrium steady state with concentration fluctuations. We discuss the linear, unimolecular single-molecule enzyme kinetics, phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC) with bistability, and network exhibiting oscillations. Emphasis is paid to the comparison between the stochastic dynamics and the prediction based on the traditional approach based on the Law of Mass Action. We introduce the difference between nonlinear bistability and stochastic bistability, the latter has no deterministic counterpart. For systems with nonlinear bistability, there are three different time scales: (a) individual biochemical reactions, (b) nonlinear network dynamics approaching to attractors, and (c) cellular evolution. For mesoscopic systems with size of a living cell, dynamics in (a) and (c) are stochastic while that with (b) is dominantly deterministic. Both (b) and (c) are emergent properties of a dynamic biochemical network; We suggest that the (c) is most relevant to major cellular biochemical processes such as epi-genetic regulation, apoptosis, and cancer immunoediting. The cellular evolution proceeds with transitions among the attractors of (b) in a "punctuated equilibrium" manner. PMID:20957107

  7. Method of conditional moments (MCM) for the Chemical Master Equation: a unified framework for the method of moments and hybrid stochastic-deterministic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenauer, J; Wolf, V; Kazeroonian, A; Theis, F J

    2014-09-01

    The time-evolution of continuous-time discrete-state biochemical processes is governed by the Chemical Master Equation (CME), which describes the probability of the molecular counts of each chemical species. As the corresponding number of discrete states is, for most processes, large, a direct numerical simulation of the CME is in general infeasible. In this paper we introduce the method of conditional moments (MCM), a novel approximation method for the solution of the CME. The MCM employs a discrete stochastic description for low-copy number species and a moment-based description for medium/high-copy number species. The moments of the medium/high-copy number species are conditioned on the state of the low abundance species, which allows us to capture complex correlation structures arising, e.g., for multi-attractor and oscillatory systems. We prove that the MCM provides a generalization of previous approximations of the CME based on hybrid modeling and moment-based methods. Furthermore, it improves upon these existing methods, as we illustrate using a model for the dynamics of stochastic single-gene expression. This application example shows that due to the more general structure, the MCM allows for the approximation of multi-modal distributions. PMID:23918091

  8. Reducing differential equations for multiloop master integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Roman

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm of the reduction of the differential equations for master integrals the Fuchsian form with the right-hand side matrix linearly depending on dimensional regularization parameter $\\epsilon$. We consider linear transformations of the functions column which are rational in the variable and in $\\epsilon$. Apart from some degenerate cases described below, the algorithm allows one to obtain the required transformation or to ascertain irreducibility to the form required. Degen...

  9. Master equation approach to protein folding

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Henkel, Malte; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of two 12-monomer heteropolymers on the square lattice is studied exactly within the master equation approach. The time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  10. Sensitivity Amplification in the Phosphorylation-Dephosphorylation Cycle: Nonequilibrium steady states, chemical master equation and temporal cooperativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Hao

    2009-01-01

    A new type of cooperativity termed temporal cooperativity [Biophys. Chem. 105 585-593 (2003), Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58 113-142 (2007)], emerges in the signal transduction module of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC). It utilizes multiple kinetic cycles in time, in contrast to allosteric cooperativity that utilizes multiple subunits in a protein. In the present paper, we thoroughly investigate both the deterministic (microscopic) and stochastic (mesoscopic) models, and focus on the identification of the source of temporal cooperativity via comparing with allosteric cooperativity. A thermodynamic analysis confirms again the claim that the chemical equilibrium state exists if and only if the phosphorylation potential $\\triangle G=0$, in which case the amplification of sensitivity is completely abolished. Then we provide comprehensive theoretical and numerical analysis with the first-order and zero-order assumptions in phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle respectively. Furthermore, it is interesti...

  11. On the quantum master equation under feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Bo

    2009-01-01

    The nature of the quantum trajectories,described by stochastic master equations,may be jump-like or diffusive,depending upon different measurement processes.There are many different unravelings corresponding to different types of stochastic master equations for a given master equation.In this paper,we study the relationship between the quantum stochastic master equations and the quantum master equations in the Markovian case under feedback control.We show that the corresponding unraveling no longer exists when we further consider feedback control besides measurement.It is due to the fact that the information gained by the measurement plays an important role in the control process.The master equation governing the evolution of ensemble average cannot be restored simply by eliminating the noise term unlike the case without a control term.By establishing a fundamental limit on performance of the master equation with feedback control,we demonstrate the differences between the stochastic master equation and the master equation via theoretical proof and simulation,and show the superiority of the stochastic master equation for feedback control.

  12. Epidemics in networks: A master equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cotacallapa, M

    2016-01-01

    A problem closely related to epidemiology, where a subgraph of 'infected' links is defined inside a larger network, is investigated. This subgraph is generated from the underlying network by a random variable, which decides whether a link is able to propagate a disease/information. The relaxation timescale of this random variable is examined in both annealed and quenched limits, and the effectiveness of propagation of disease/information is analyzed. The dynamics of the model is governed by a master equation and two types of underlying network are considered: one is scale-free and the other has exponential degree distribution. We have shown that the relaxation timescale of the contagion variable has a major influence on the topology of the subgraph of infected links, which determines the efficiency of spreading of disease/information over the network.

  13. Epidemics in networks: a master equation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem closely related to epidemiology, where a subgraph of ‘infected’ links is defined inside a larger network, is investigated. This subgraph is generated from the underlying network by a random variable, which decides whether a link is able to propagate a disease/information. The relaxation timescale of this random variable is examined in both annealed and quenched limits, and the effectiveness of propagation of disease/information is analyzed. The dynamics of the model is governed by a master equation and two types of underlying network are considered: one is scale-free and the other has exponential degree distribution. We have shown that the relaxation timescale of the contagion variable has a major influence on the topology of the subgraph of infected links, which determines the efficiency of spreading of disease/information over the network. (paper)

  14. A Convergent Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Samuel A

    2012-01-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a lattice stochastic reaction-diffusion model that has been used to study spatially distributed cellular processes. The RDME has been shown to have the drawback of losing bimolecular reactions in the continuum limit that the lattice spacing approaches zero (in two or more dimensions). In this work we derive a new convergent RDME (CRDME) that eliminates this problem. The CRDME is obtained by finite volume discretization of a spatially-continuous stochastic reaction-diffusion model. We demonstrate the empirical numerical convergence of reaction time statistics associated with the CRDME. Although the reaction time statistics of the RDME diverge as the lattice spacing approaches zero, we show they approach those of the CRDME for sufficiently large lattice spacings or slow bimolecular reaction rates. As such, the RDME may be interpreted as an approximation to the CRDME in several asymptotic limits.

  15. Master Equations for Correlated Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, V.; Palma, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    We derive the general form of a master equation describing the reduced time evolution of a sequence of subsystems “propagating” in an environment which can be described as a sequence of subenvironments. The interaction between subsystems and subenvironments is described in terms of a collision model, with the irreversible dynamics of the subenvironments between collisions explicitly taken into account. In the weak coupling regime, we show that the collisional model produces a correlated Markovian evolution for the joint density matrix of the multipartite system. The associated Lindblad superoperator contains pairwise terms describing cross correlation between the different subsystems. Such a model can describe a broad range of physical situations, ranging from quantum channels with memory to photon propagation in concatenated quantum optical systems.

  16. The complex chemical Langevin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical Langevin equation (CLE) is a popular simulation method to probe the stochastic dynamics of chemical systems. The CLE’s main disadvantage is its break down in finite time due to the problem of evaluating square roots of negative quantities whenever the molecule numbers become sufficiently small. We show that this issue is not a numerical integration problem, rather in many systems it is intrinsic to all representations of the CLE. Various methods of correcting the CLE have been proposed which avoid its break down. We show that these methods introduce undesirable artefacts in the CLE’s predictions. In particular, for unimolecular systems, these correction methods lead to CLE predictions for the mean concentrations and variance of fluctuations which disagree with those of the chemical master equation. We show that, by extending the domain of the CLE to complex space, break down is eliminated, and the CLE’s accuracy for unimolecular systems is restored. Although the molecule numbers are generally complex, we show that the “complex CLE” predicts real-valued quantities for the mean concentrations, the moments of intrinsic noise, power spectra, and first passage times, hence admitting a physical interpretation. It is also shown to provide a more accurate approximation of the chemical master equation of simple biochemical circuits involving bimolecular reactions than the various corrected forms of the real-valued CLE, the linear-noise approximation and a commonly used two moment-closure approximation

  17. Decoherence and quantum-classical master equation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Robbie; Kapral, Raymond

    2007-03-01

    The conditions under which quantum-classical Liouville dynamics may be reduced to a master equation are investigated. Systems that can be partitioned into a quantum-classical subsystem interacting with a classical bath are considered. Starting with an exact non-Markovian equation for the diagonal elements of the density matrix, an evolution equation for the subsystem density matrix is derived. One contribution to this equation contains the bath average of a memory kernel that accounts for all coherences in the system. It is shown to be a rapidly decaying function, motivating a Markovian approximation on this term in the evolution equation. The resulting subsystem density matrix equation is still non-Markovian due to the fact that bath degrees of freedom have been projected out of the dynamics. Provided the computation of nonequilibrium average values or correlation functions is considered, the non-Markovian character of this equation can be removed by lifting the equation into the full phase space of the system. This leads to a trajectory description of the dynamics where each fictitious trajectory accounts for decoherence due to the bath degrees of freedom. The results are illustrated by computations of the rate constant of a model nonadiabatic chemical reaction.

  18. Staying positive: going beyond Lindblad with perturbative master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robert S.

    2008-05-01

    The perturbative master equation (Bloch-Redfield) is used extensively to study dissipative quantum mechanics—particularly for qubits—despite the 25-year-old criticism that it violates positivity (generating negative probabilities). We take an arbitrary system coupled to an environment containing many degrees-of-freedom and cast its perturbative master equation (derived from a perturbative treatment of Nakajima-Zwanzig or Schoeller-Schön equations) in the form of a Lindblad master equation. We find that the equation's parameters are time dependent. This time dependence is rarely accounted for and invalidates Lindblad's dynamical semigroup analysis. We analyse one such Bloch-Redfield master equation (for a two-level system coupled to an environment with a short but non-vanishing memory time), which apparently violates positivity. We analytically show that, once the time dependence of the parameters is accounted for, positivity is preserved.

  19. Counting master integrals. Integration by parts vs. functional equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-01-15

    We illustrate the usefulness of functional equations in establishing relationships between master integrals under the integration-by-parts reduction procedure by considering a certain two-loop propagator-type diagram as an example.

  20. Counting master integrals. Integration by parts vs. functional equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We illustrate the usefulness of functional equations in establishing relationships between master integrals under the integration-by-parts reduction procedure by considering a certain two-loop propagator-type diagram as an example.

  1. Counting master integrals: Integration by parts vs. functional equations

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate the usefulness of functional equations in establishing relationships between master integrals under the integration-by-parts reduction procedure by considering a certain two-loop propagator-type diagram as an example.

  2. Master equation for a quantum particle in a gas

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of S-matrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts non-perturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as li...

  3. The Approach to Equilibrium: Detailed Balance and the Master Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Millard H.; Hall, Gregory E.; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The approach to the equilibrium (Boltzmann) distribution of populations of internal states of a molecule is governed by inelastic collisions in the gas phase and with surfaces. The set of differential equations governing the time evolution of the internal state populations is commonly called the master equation. An analytic solution to the master…

  4. Variational master equation approach to dynamics of magnetic moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolubov, N. N.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Non-equilibrium properties of a model system comprised of a subsystem of magnetic moments strongly coupled to a selected Bose field mode and weakly coupled to a heat bath made of a plurality of Bose field modes was studied on the basis of non-equilibrium master equation approach combined with the approximating Hamiltonian method. A variational master equation derived within this approach is tractable numerically and can be readily used to derive a set of ordinary differential equations for various relevant physical variables belonging to the subsystem of magnetic moments. Upon further analysis of the thus obtained variational master equation, an influence of the macroscopic filling of the selected Bose field mode at low enough temperatures on the relaxation dynamics of magnetic moments was revealed.

  5. Master equations for photochemistry with intense infrared light. Pt. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quack, M.

    1981-04-01

    A unified master equation for unimolecular reactions induced by monochromatic infrared radiation (URIMIR) is presented. Its effective rate coefficient matrix covers both case B (Pauli equation) and case C, properly including the nonlinearity of the latter. Exact quantum mechanical model solutions are compared with results from the approximate unified master equation. The exact analytical solutions of the master equation are presented for the URIMIR of some realistic molecular models. The important new properties of the transition range between case B and case C are quantitatively discussed with respect to time dependent and steady state level populations, time dependent and steady state rate coefficients and their nonlinear intensity dependence, and with respect to the influence of molecular properties. The role of case C for the interpretation of static field effects and its importance for efficient isotope separation are pointed out.

  6. Variational master equation approach to dynamics of magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-equilibrium properties of a model system comprised of a subsystem of magnetic moments strongly coupled to a selected Bose field mode and weakly coupled to a heat bath made of a plurality of Bose field modes were studied on the basis of non-equilibrium master equation approach combined with the approximating Hamiltonian method. A variational master equation derived within this approach is tractable numerically and can be readily used to derive a set of ordinary differential equations for various relevant physical variables belonging to the subsystem of magnetic moments. Upon further analysis of the thus obtained variational master equation, an influence of the macroscopic filling of the selected Bose field mode at low enough temperatures on the relaxation dynamics of magnetic moments was revealed.

  7. The pentabox Master Integrals with the Simplified Differential Equations approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Costas G.; Tommasini, Damiano; Wever, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    We present the calculation of massless two-loop Master Integrals relevant to five-point amplitudes with one off-shell external leg and derive the complete set of planar Master Integrals with five on-mass-shell legs, that contribute to many 2 → 3 amplitudes of interest at the LHC, as for instance three jet production, γ , V, H + 2 jets etc., based on the Simplified Differential Equations approach.

  8. The Pentabox Master Integrals with the Simplified Differential Equations approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Costas G; Wever, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present the calculation of massless two-loop Master Integrals relevant to five-point amplitudes with one off-shell external leg and derive the complete set of planar Master Integrals with five on-mass-shell legs, that contribute to many $2\\to 3$ amplitudes of interest at the LHC, as for instance three jet production, $\\gamma, V, H +2$ jets etc., based on the Simplified Differential Equations approach.

  9. Master equation based steady-state cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Martin; Dorn, Gerhard; Dorda, Antonius; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Arrigoni, Enrico

    2015-09-01

    A simple and efficient approximation scheme to study electronic transport characteristics of strongly correlated nanodevices, molecular junctions, or heterostructures out of equilibrium is provided by steady-state cluster perturbation theory. In this work, we improve the starting point of this perturbative, nonequilibrium Green's function based method. Specifically, we employ an improved unperturbed (so-called reference) state ρ̂S, constructed as the steady state of a quantum master equation within the Born-Markov approximation. This resulting hybrid method inherits beneficial aspects of both the quantum master equation as well as the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. We benchmark this scheme on two experimentally relevant systems in the single-electron transistor regime: an electron-electron interaction based quantum diode and a triple quantum dot ring junction, which both feature negative differential conductance. The results of this method improve significantly with respect to the plain quantum master equation treatment at modest additional computational cost.

  10. The Complexity of Relating Quantum Channels to Master Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Toby S.; Eisert, Jens; Wolf, Michael M.

    2012-03-01

    Completely positive, trace preserving (CPT) maps and Lindblad master equations are both widely used to describe the dynamics of open quantum systems. The connection between these two descriptions is a classic topic in mathematical physics. One direction was solved by the now famous result due to Lindblad, Kossakowski, Gorini and Sudarshan, who gave a complete characterisation of the master equations that generate completely positive semi-groups. However, the other direction has remained open: given a CPT map, is there a Lindblad master equation that generates it (and if so, can we find its form)? This is sometimes known as the Markovianity problem. Physically, it is asking how one can deduce underlying physical processes from experimental observations. We give a complexity theoretic answer to this problem: it is NP-hard. We also give an explicit algorithm that reduces the problem to integer semi-definite programming, a well-known NP problem. Together, these results imply that resolving the question of which CPT maps can be generated by master equations is tantamount to solving P = NP: any efficiently computable criterion for Markovianity would imply P = NP; whereas a proof that P = NP would imply that our algorithm already gives an efficiently computable criterion. Thus, unless P does equal NP, there cannot exist any simple criterion for determining when a CPT map has a master equation description. However, we also show that if the system dimension is fixed (relevant for current quantum process tomography experiments), then our algorithm scales efficiently in the required precision, allowing an underlying Lindblad master equation to be determined efficiently from even a single snapshot in this case. Our work also leads to similar complexity-theoretic answers to a related long-standing open problem in probability theory.

  11. A Master Equation Approach to Quantum Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Romanelli, A; Abal, G; Siri, R; Donangelo, R J

    2002-01-01

    We look at quantum diffusion and dynamical localization from a perspective which provides an intuitive framework to interpret known experimental and numerical results. We separate the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation into Markovian and interference terms, and show that the localized or diffusive character of the dynamics results from the competition between those terms. The procedure is illustrated through several examples.

  12. Master Equation for Hydrogen Recombination on Grain Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Biham, O; Pirronello, V; Vidali, G; Biham, Ofer; Furman, Itay; Pirronello, Valerio; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental results on the formation of molecular hydrogen on astrophysically relevant surfaces under conditions similar to those encountered in the interstellar medium provided useful quantitative information about these processes. Rate equation analysis of experiments on olivine and amorphous carbon surfaces provided the activation energy barriers for the diffusion and desorption processes relevant to hydrogen recombination on these surfaces. However, the suitability of rate equations for the simulation of hydrogen recombination on interstellar grains, where there might be very few atoms on a grain at any given time, has been questioned. To resolve this problem, we introduce a master equation that takes into account both the discrete nature of the H atoms and the fluctuations in the number of atoms on a grain. The hydrogen recombination rate on microscopic grains, as a function of grain size and temperature, is then calculated using the master equation. The results are compared to those obtained fro...

  13. Wheeled PROPs, graph complexes and the master equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin; Merkulov, S.; Shadrin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 4 (2009), s. 496-535. ISSN 0022-4049 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : PROP * master equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  14. Limitations on the utility of exact master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low temperature solution of the exact master equation for an oscillator coupled to a linear passive heat bath is known to give rise to serious divergences. We now show that, even in the high temperature regime, problems also exist, notably the fact that the density matrix is not necessarily positive

  15. A Contracted Path Integral Solution of the Discrete Master Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Helbing, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    A new representation of the exact time dependent solution of the discrete master equation is derived. This representation can be considered as contraction of the path integral solution of Haken. It allows the calculation of the probability distribution of the occurence time for each path and is suitable as basis of new computational solution methods.

  16. Maxwell boundary conditions impose non-Lindblad master equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    From the Hamiltonian connecting the inside and outside of an Fabry-Perot cavity, which is derived from the Maxwell boundary conditions at a mirror of the cavity, a master equation of a non-Lindblad form is derived when the cavity embeds matters, although we can transform it to the Lindblad form by performing the rotating-wave approximation to that Hamiltonian. We calculate absorption spectra by these Lindblad and non-Lindblad master equations and also by the Maxwell boundary conditions in framework of the classical electrodynamics, which we consider the most reliable approach. We found that, compared to the Lindblad master equation, the absorption spectra by the non-Lindblad one agree better with those by the Maxwell boundary conditions. Although the discrepancy is highlighted only in the ultra-strong light-matter interaction regime with a relatively large broadening, the master equation of the non-Lindblad form is preferable rather than of the Lindblad one for pursuing the consistency with the classical elec...

  17. Hierarchical quantum master equation with semiclassical Drude dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Tian, Bao-Ling; Xu, Jian; Qiang SHI; Yan, YiJing

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nonperturbative quantum dissipation theory, in term of hierarchical quantum master equation. It may be used with a great degree of confidence to various dynamics systems in condensed phases. The theoretical development is rooted in an improved semiclassical treatment of Drude bath, beyond the conventional high temperature approximations. It leads to the new theory a simple modification but important improvement over the conventional stochastic Liouville equation theory, without e...

  18. Post-Markovian quantum master equations from classical environment fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that two commonly used phenomenological post-Markovian quantum master equations can be derived without using any perturbative approximation. A system coupled to an environment characterized by self-classical configurational fluctuations, the latter obeying a Markovian dynamics, defines the underlying physical model. Both Shabani-Lidar equation [A. Shabani and D. A. Lidar, Phys. Rev. A 71, 020101(R) (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.020101] and its associated approximated integrodifferential kernel master equation are obtained by tracing out two different bipartite Markovian Lindblad dynamics where the environment fluctuations are taken into account by an ancilla system. Furthermore, conditions under which the non-Markovian system dynamics can be unraveled in terms of an ensemble of measurement trajectories are found. In addition, a non-Markovian quantum jump approach is formulated. Contrary to recent analysis [L. Mazzola, E. M. Laine, H. P. Breuer, S. Maniscalco, and J. Piilo, Phys. Rev. A 81, 062120 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.062120], we also demonstrate that these master equations, even with exponential memory functions, may lead to non-Markovian effects such as an environment-to-system backflow of information if the Hamiltonian system does not commutate with the dissipative dynamics.

  19. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics

  20. Master Equation for Electromagnetic Dissipation and Decoherence of Density Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Haba, Z.; Kleinert, H.

    2000-01-01

    We set up a forward--backward path integral for a point particle in a bath of photons to derive a master equation for the density matrix which describes electromagnetic dissipation and decoherence. As an application, we recalculate the Weisskopf-Wigner formula for the natural line width of an atomic state at zero temperature and find, in addition, the temperature broadening caused by the decoherence term.

  1. Random transition-rate matrices for the master equation

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Random-matrix theory is applied to transition-rate matrices in the Pauli master equation. We study the distribution and correlations of eigenvalues, which govern the dynamics of complex stochastic systems. Both the cases of identical and of independent rates of forward and backward transitions are considered. The first case leads to symmetric transition-rate matrices, whereas the second corresponds to general, asymmetric matrices. The resulting matrix ensembles are different from the standard...

  2. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach, in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model and show in two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is of the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules.

  3. Master equation for collective spontaneous emission with quantized atomic motion

    OpenAIRE

    Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John

    2015-01-01

    We derive a markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the effects of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, generalizing those in Ref. [1]. We find closed-form formulas for a numb...

  4. Classes of exact solutions to the Teukolsky master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Teukolsky Master Equation (TME) describes perturbations of the Kerr metric in linear approximation. It admits separation of variables, thus yielding the Teukolsky Radial Equation (TRE) and the Teukolsky Angular Equation (TAE). We present here a unified description of all classes of exact solutions to these equations in terms of the confluent Heun functions and the confluent Heun polynomials. Large classes of new exact solutions are found and described together with their characteristic properties. Special attention is paid to the polynomial solutions which are singular ones and describe collimated one-way-running waves. It is shown that a proper linear combination of such singular solutions can describe bounded one-way-running waves

  5. Control of Stochastic Master Equation Models of Genetic Regulatory Networks by Approximating Their Average Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umut Caglar, Mehmet; Pal, Ranadip

    2010-10-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid.'' However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of data in the cellular level and probabilistic nature of interactions. Probabilistic models like Stochastic Master Equation (SME) or deterministic models like differential equations (DE) can be used to analyze these types of interactions. SME models based on chemical master equation (CME) can provide detailed representation of genetic regulatory system, but their use is restricted by the large data requirements and computational costs of calculations. The differential equations models on the other hand, have low calculation costs and much more adequate to generate control procedures on the system; but they are not adequate to investigate the probabilistic nature of interactions. In this work the success of the mapping between SME and DE is analyzed, and the success of a control policy generated by DE model with respect to SME model is examined. Index Terms--- Stochastic Master Equation models, Differential Equation Models, Control Policy Design, Systems biology

  6. From convolutionless Generalized Master to finite-coupling Pauli Master Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-convolutionless Generalized Master Equations (TCL-GME) for probabilities of finding a system in a general state irrespective of the state of the thermodynamic bath, are investigated. For general systems interacting with a genuine bath with a continuous spectrum described by time-independent system + bath Hamiltonians and after the thermodynamic limit for the bath, the long-time asymptotics of time-dependent coefficients can be taken as counterparts of Pauli-Master-Equation (PME) transfer rates. Here, within TCL-GME, asymptotics of these coefficients is calculated without resorting to any approximation. In the lowest order, these coefficients are known to turn into the usual Fermi Golden Rule transfer rates. Anyway, it is argued that if the exact form of these coefficients has a long-time limit, this limit is inevitably equal to zero. This makes illusory the possibility to derive standard Markovian finite-coupling Pauli, rate or balance equations as long-time asymptotics to TCL-GME. (author)

  7. Random transition-rate matrices for the master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Carsten

    2009-08-01

    Random-matrix theory is applied to transition-rate matrices in the Pauli master equation. We study the distribution and correlations of eigenvalues, which govern the dynamics of complex stochastic systems. Both the cases of identical and of independent rates of forward and backward transitions are considered. The first case leads to symmetric transition-rate matrices, whereas the second corresponds to general asymmetric matrices. The resulting matrix ensembles are different from the standard ensembles and show different eigenvalue distributions. For example, the fraction of real eigenvalues scales anomalously with matrix dimension in the asymmetric case. PMID:19792110

  8. Atom-wall dispersive forces from master equation formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, T. N. C.; Farina, C.

    2007-01-01

    Using the general expressions for level shifts obtained from the master equation for a small system interacting with a large one considered as a reservoir, we calculate the dispersive potentials between an atom and a wall in the dipole approximation. We analyze in detail the particular case of a two-level atom in the presence of a perfectly conducting wall. We study the van der Waals as well as the resonant interactions. All distance regimes as well as the high and low temperature regimes are...

  9. The breakdown of the reaction-diffusion master equation with non-elementary rates

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The chemical master equation (CME) is the exact mathematical formulation of chemical reactions occurring in a dilute and well-mixed volume. The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a stochastic description of reaction-diffusion processes on a spatial lattice, assuming well-mixing only on the length scale of the lattice. It is clear that, for the sake of consistency, the solution of the RDME of a chemical system should converge to the solution of the CME of the same system in the limit of fast diffusion: indeed, this has been tacitly assumed in most literature concerning the RDME. We show that, in the limit of fast diffusion, the RDME indeed converges to a master equation, but not necessarily the CME. We introduce a class of propensity functions, such that if the RDME has propensities exclusively of this class then the RDME converges to the CME of the same system; while if the RDME has propensities not in this class then convergence is not guaranteed. These are revealed to be elementary and non-element...

  10. Operator Approach to the Master Equation for the One-Step Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatič, M.; Eferina, E. G.; Korolkova, A. V.; Kulyabov, D. S.; Sevastyanov, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Background. Presentation of the probability as an intrinsic property of the nature leads researchers to switch from deterministic to stochastic description of the phenomena. The kinetics of the interaction has recently attracted attention because it often occurs in the physical, chemical, technical, biological, environmental, economic, and sociological systems. However, there are no general methods for the direct study of this equation. The expansion of the equation in a formal Taylor series (the so called Kramers-Moyal's expansion) is used in the procedure of stochastization of one-step processes. Purpose. However, this does not eliminate the need for the study of the master equation. Method. It is proposed to use quantum field perturbation theory for the statistical systems (the so-called Doi method). Results: This work is a methodological material that describes the principles of master equation solution based on quantum field perturbation theory methods. The characteristic property of the work is that it is intelligible for non-specialists in quantum field theory. Conclusions: We show the full equivalence of the operator and combinatorial methods of obtaining and study of the one-step process master equation.

  11. A Master Equation for Multi-Dimensional Non-Linear Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1992-01-01

    A master equation ( $n$ dimensional non--Abelian current conservation law with mutually commuting current components ) is introduced for multi-dimensional non-linear field theories. It is shown that the master equation provides a systematic way to understand 2-d integrable non-linear equations as well as 4-d self-dual equations and, more importantly, their generalizations to higher dimensions.

  12. Diffusive Limits of the Master Equation in Inhomogeneous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Sattin, F; Salasnich, L

    2015-01-01

    In inhomogeneous environments several expressions for the flux of a diffusing quantity may apply--from Fick-Fourier's to Fokker-Planck's--depending upon the system studied. The integro-differential Master Equation (ME) provides a fairly generic framework for describing the dynamics of arbitrary systems driven by stochastic rules. Diffusive dynamics does arise as long-wavelength limit of the ME. However, while it is straightforward to obtain a diffusion equation with Fokker-Planck flux, its Fick-Fourier counterpart has never been worked out from the ME. In this work we show under which hypothesis the Fick's flux can actually be recovered from the ME. Analytical considerations are supported by explicit computer models.

  13. Master equations in the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first half of this paper, the authors describe briefly a recent theoretical approach where the mechanism of the large-amplitude dissipative collective motions can be investigated on the basis of the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics. Namely, we derive the general coupled master equations which can disclose, in the framework of the TDHF theory, not only non-linear dynamics among the collective and the single-particle modes of motion but also microscopic dynamics responsible for the dissipative processes. In the latter half, the authors investigate, without relying on any statistical hypothesis, one possible microscopic origin which leads us to the transport equation of the Fokker-Planck type so that usefullness of the general framework is demonstrated. (author)

  14. Thermodynamics of the polaron master equation at finite bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Thilo, E-mail: tkrause@physik.tu-berlin.de; Brandes, Tobias; Schaller, Gernot, E-mail: gernot.schaller@tu-berlin.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Esposito, Massimiliano [Complex Systems and Statistical Mechanics, University of Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2015-04-07

    We study coherent transport through a double quantum dot. Its two electronic leads induce electronic matter and energy transport and a phonon reservoir contributes further energy exchanges. By treating the system-lead couplings perturbatively, whereas the coupling to vibrations is treated non-perturbatively in a polaron-transformed frame, we derive a thermodynamic consistent low-dimensional master equation. When the number of phonon modes is finite, a Markovian description is only possible when these couple symmetrically to both quantum dots. For a continuum of phonon modes however, also asymmetric couplings can be described with a Markovian master equation. We compute the electronic current and dephasing rate. The electronic current enables transport spectroscopy of the phonon frequency and displays signatures of Franck-Condon blockade. For infinite external bias but finite tunneling bandwidths, we find oscillations in the current as a function of the internal bias due to the electron-phonon coupling. Furthermore, we derive the full fluctuation theorem and show its identity to the entropy production in the system.

  15. Master equation approach to DNA breathing in heteropolymer DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Banik, Suman K.; Lomholt, Michael A.; Metzler, Ralf

    2007-02-01

    After crossing an initial barrier to break the first base-pair (bp) in double-stranded DNA, the disruption of further bps is characterized by free energies up to a few kBT . Thermal motion within the DNA double strand therefore causes the opening of intermittent single-stranded denaturation zones, the DNA bubbles. The unzipping and zipping dynamics of bps at the two zipper forks of a bubble, where the single strand of the denatured zone joins the still intact double strand, can be monitored by single molecule fluorescence or NMR methods. We here establish a dynamic description of this DNA breathing in a heteropolymer DNA with given sequence in terms of a master equation that governs the time evolution of the joint probability distribution for the bubble size and position along the sequence. The transfer coefficients are based on the Poland-Scheraga free energy model. We derive the autocorrelation function for the bubble dynamics and the associated relaxation time spectrum. In particular, we show how one can obtain the probability densities of individual bubble lifetimes and of the waiting times between successive bubble events from the master equation. A comparison to results of a stochastic Gillespie simulation shows excellent agreement.

  16. Generalized master equations for exciton dynamics in molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Michael; May, V.

    1995-02-01

    The paper demonstrates the applicability of a special type of density matrix theory for the derivation of generalized Master equations. The density matrix theory has been formulated for the description of the dissipative electron transfer dynamics in molecular complexes. The theoretical approach is based on a representation of the density matrix in appropriately taken diabatic electron-vibrational states. Dissipative effects are taken into account by a coupling of these states to further vibrational modes of the molecular complex as well as to environmental degrees of freedom. The approach is applied to a two-center system as well as to a molecular chain. Memory kernels are derived in second order with respect to the inter-center coupling. The kernels are discussed under the assumption of a quick intra-center relaxation for a part of the vibrational modes as well as for all vibrational modes. Standard expressions for the transition rates between different sites are extended to include finite life times of the vibrational levels. Results which have been obtained in the study of the so-called spin boson model can be simply reproduced. The application of the derived generalized Master equations to the investigation of the motion of Frenkel excitons in molecular chains is also presented.

  17. Derivation of Bloch equations from the time convolution less generalized master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized Bloch equations (GBE) describing the temporal evolution of a single two-level atom interacting with a classical external field of arbitrary intensity and with a thermodynamic bath are obtained from the time convolutionless generalized master equation or equivalently from the Tokuyama-Mori identity. These GBE are then used to calculate the absorption spectrum of a single two-level atom with frequency modulated by dichotomic noise with time-dependent transition probability. (author)

  18. Nonlinear generalized master equations and accounting for initial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, V. F.

    2009-08-01

    We develop a new method based on using a time-dependent operator (generally not a projection operator) converting a distribution function (statistical operator) of a total system into the relevant form that allows deriving new exact nonlinear generalized master equations (GMEs). The derived inhomogeneous nonlinear GME is a generalization of the linear Nakajima-Zwanzig GME and can be viewed as an alternative to the BBGKY chain. It is suitable for obtaining both nonlinear and linear evolution equations. As in the conventional linear GME, there is an inhomogeneous term comprising all multiparticle initial correlations. To include the initial correlations into consideration, we convert the obtained inhomogeneous nonlinear GME into the homogenous form by the previously suggested method. We use no conventional approximation like the random phase approximation (RPA) or the Bogoliubov principle of weakening of initial correlations. The obtained exact homogeneous nonlinear GME describes all evolution stages of the (sub)system of interest and treats initial correlations on an equal footing with collisions via the modified memory kernel. As an application, we obtain a new homogeneous nonlinear equation retaining initial correlations for a one-particle distribution function of the spatially inhomogeneous nonideal gas of classical particles. In contrast to existing approaches, this equation holds for all time scales and takes the influence of pair collisions and initial correlations on the dissipative and nondissipative characteristics of the system into account consistently with the adopted approximation (linear in the gas density). We show that on the kinetic time scale, the time-reversible terms resulting from the initial correlations vanish (if the particle dynamics are endowed with the mixing property) and this equation can be converted into the Vlasov-Landau and Boltzmann equations without any additional commonly used approximations. The entire process of transition can

  19. Continuous monitoring of dynamical systems and master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We illustrate the equivalence between the non-unitary evolution of an open quantum system governed by a Markovian master equation and a process of continuous measurements involving this system. We investigate a system of two coupled modes, only one of them interacting with external degrees of freedom, represented, in the first case, by a finite number of harmonic oscillators, and, in the second, by a sequence of atoms where each one interacts with a single mode during a limited time. Two distinct regimes appear, one of them corresponding to a Zeno-like behavior in the limit of large dissipation. -- Highlights: ► We illustrate the conjecture that non-unitary evolution can be simulated by continuous measurements. ► The relation between unitary and non-unitary couplings define distinct dynamical regimes. ► One regime with large “dissipation constant” is a Zeno-like behavior.

  20. Master equation approach to DNA breathing in heteropolymer DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Banik, Suman K; Lomholt, Michael A;

    2007-01-01

    After crossing an initial barrier to break the first base-pair (bp) in double-stranded DNA, the disruption of further bps is characterized by free energies up to a few k(B)T. Thermal motion within the DNA double strand therefore causes the opening of intermittent single-stranded denaturation zones......, the DNA bubbles. The unzipping and zipping dynamics of bps at the two zipper forks of a bubble, where the single strand of the denatured zone joins the still intact double strand, can be monitored by single molecule fluorescence or NMR methods. We here establish a dynamic description of this DNA breathing...... in a heteropolymer DNA with given sequence in terms of a master equation that governs the time evolution of the joint probability distribution for the bubble size and position along the sequence. The transfer coefficients are based on the Poland-Scheraga free energy model. We derive the autocorrelation function...

  1. Master equation calculations of cluster formation in supersonic jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of cluster formation in supersonic jets is examined by numerical integration of the master equation system. Some general characteristics of cluster kinetics could be formulated. Excellent agreement between experimental curves of p-cresol (H2O)0,1,2,3 formation as function of H2O pressure and the corresponding calculated curves were obtained assuming successive cluster formation. From the kinetic curves, and unambiguous assignment of cluster size was possible which agreed with mass-resolved REMPI measurements. The fit of the rate coefficients shows the formation of p-cresol (H2O)1 to be faster than p-cresol (H2O)2 and p-cresol (H2O)3. (orig.)

  2. Atom-wall dispersive forces from master equation formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, T N C

    2007-01-01

    Using the general expressions for level shifts obtained from the master equation for a small system interacting with a large one considered as a reservoir, we calculate the dispersive potentials between an atom and a wall in the dipole approximation. We analyze in detail the particular case of a two-level atom in the presence of a perfectly conducting wall. We study the van der Waals as well as the resonant interactions. All distance regimes as well as the high and low temperature regimes are considered. We show that the Casimir-Polder interaction can not be considered as a direct result of the vacuum fluctuations only. Concerning the interaction between the atom and the wall at high temperature, which show that a saturation of the potential for all distances occurs. This saturated potential coincides exactly with that obtained in the London-van der Waals limit.

  3. Solution to the Master Equation of a Free Damped Harmonic Oscillator with Linear Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁; 逯怀新; 赵博; 赵梅生; 张永德

    2003-01-01

    We use the Lie algebra representation theory for superoperators to solve the master equation for a harmonic oscillator with a linear driving term in a squeezed thermal reservoir. By using the quantum displacement transformation and squeeze transformation, we show that the master equation has an su(1, 1) Lie algebra structure,with which we obtain the explicit solution to the master equation. A simple but typical example is given to illustrate our method.

  4. Master equation solutions in the linear regime of characteristic formulation of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    M., C E Cedeño

    2015-01-01

    From the field equations in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, Bishop, for a Schwarzschild's background, and M\\"adler, for a Minkowski's background, were able to show that it is possible to derive a fourth order ordinary differential equation, called master equation, for the $J$ metric variable of the Bondi-Sachs metric. Once $\\beta$, another Bondi-Sachs potential, is obtained from the field equations, and $J$ is obtained from the master equation, the other metric variables are solved integrating directly the rest of the field equations. In the past, the master equation was solved for the first multipolar terms, for both the Minkowski's and Schwarzschild's backgrounds. Also, M\\"adler recently reported a generalisation of the exact solutions to the linearised field equations when a Minkowski's background is considered, expressing the master equation family of solutions for the vacuum in terms of Bessel's functions of the first and the second kind. Here, we report new sol...

  5. Master equation simulation analysis of immunostained Bicoid morphogen gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinitz John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concentration gradient of Bicoid protein which determines the developmental pathways in early Drosophila embryo is the best characterized morphogen gradient at the molecular level. Because different developmental fates can be elicited by different concentrations of Bicoid, it is important to probe the limits of this specification by analyzing intrinsic fluctuations of the Bicoid gradient arising from small molecular number. Stochastic simulations can be applied to further the understanding of the dynamics of Bicoid morphogen gradient formation at the molecular number level, and determine the source of the nucleus-to-nucleus expression variation (noise observed in the Bicoid gradient. Results We compared quantitative observations of Bicoid levels in immunostained Drosophila embryos with a spatially extended Master Equation model which represents diffusion, decay, and anterior synthesis. We show that the intrinsic noise of an autonomous reaction-diffusion gradient is Poisson distributed. We demonstrate how experimental noise can be identified in the logarithm domain from single embryo analysis, and then separated from intrinsic noise in the normalized variance domain of an ensemble statistical analysis. We show how measurement sensitivity affects our observations, and how small amounts of rescaling noise can perturb the noise strength (Fano factor observed. We demonstrate that the biological noise level in data can serve as a physical constraint for restricting the model's parameter space, and for predicting the Bicoid molecular number and variation range. An estimate based on a low variance ensemble of embryos suggests that the steady-state Bicoid molecular number in a nucleus should be larger than 300 in the middle of the embryo, and hence the gradient should extend to the posterior end of the embryo, beyond the previously assumed background limit. We exhibit the predicted molecular number gradient together with

  6. A test for two Fokker-Planck modellings of a master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kind of two Fokker-Planck equation modellings of a non-equilibrium system, defined by a two-variable master equation, is studied. We compute explicitly their associated stationary potentials in the weak noise limit, and we compare them with the exact one coming from the master equation. We Find that a recently proposed Fokker-Planck equation is far better than the other coming from the commonly used Kramers-Moyal expansion. (author)

  7. Symmetric and antisymmetric forms of the Pauli master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2016-01-01

    When applied to matter and antimatter states, the Pauli master equation (PME) may have two forms: time-symmetric, which is conventional, and time-antisymmetric, which is suggested in the present work. The symmetric and antisymmetric forms correspond to symmetric and antisymmetric extensions of thermodynamics from matter to antimatter - this is demonstrated by proving the corresponding H-theorem. The two forms are based on the thermodynamic similarity of matter and antimatter and differ only in the directions of thermodynamic time for matter and antimatter (the same in the time-symmetric case and the opposite in the time-antisymmetric case). We demonstrate that, while the symmetric form of PME predicts an equibalance between matter and antimatter, the antisymmetric form of PME favours full conversion of antimatter into matter. At this stage, it is impossible to make an experimentally justified choice in favour of the symmetric or antisymmetric versions of thermodynamics since we have no experience of thermodynamic properties of macroscopic objects made of antimatter, but experiments of this kind may become possible in the future. PMID:27440454

  8. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  9. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Batalin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  10. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    CERN Document Server

    Batalin, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  11. Kinetic limits for pair-interaction driven master equations and biological swarm models

    OpenAIRE

    Carlen, Eric; Degond, Pierre; Wennberg, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    We consider a class of stochastic processes modeling binary interactions in an N-particle system. Examples of such systems can be found in the modeling of biological swarms. They lead to the definition of a class of master equations that we call pair interaction driven master equations. We prove a propagation of chaos result for this class of master equations which generalizes Mark Kac's well know result for the Kac model in kinetic theory. We use this result to study kinetic limits for two b...

  12. Kinetic limits for pair-interaction driven master equations and biological swarm models

    CERN Document Server

    Carlen, Eric; Wennberg, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    We consider a class of stochastic processes modeling binary interactions in an N-particle system. Examples of such systems can be found in the modeling of biological swarms. They lead to the definition of a class of master equations that we call pair interaction driven master equations. We prove a propagation of chaos result for this class of master equations which generalizes Mark Kac's well know result for the Kac model in kinetic theory. We use this result to study kinetic limits for two biological swarm models. We show that propagation of chaos may be lost at large times and we exhibit an example where the invariant density is not chaotic.

  13. Two-loop master integrals with the simplified differential equations approach

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Costas; Tommasini, Damiano; Wever, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the complete set of two-loop Master Integrals with two off mass-shell legs with massless internal propagators, that contribute to amplitudes of diboson $V_1V_2$ production at the LHC. This is done with the Simplified Differential Equations approach to Master Integrals, which was recently proposed by one of the authors.

  14. Exact Solution of the Curved Dirac Equation in Polar Coordinates: Master Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Panahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the (2+1 curved Dirac equation in polar coordinates can be transformed into Schrodinger-like differential equation for upper spinor component. We compare this equation with the Schrodinger equation derived from shape invariance property of second order differential equations of mathematical physics. This formalism enables us to determine the electrostatic potential and relativistic energy in terms of master function and corresponding weight function. We also obtain the spinor wave function in terms of orthogonal polynomials.

  15. Number-conserving master equation theory for a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Schelle, Alexej; Wellens, Thomas; Delande, Dominique; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We describe the transition of $N$ weakly interacting atoms into a Bose-Einstein condensate within a number-conserving quantum master equation theory. Based on the separation of time scales for condensate formation and non-condensate thermalization, we derive a master equation for the condensate subsystem in the presence of the non-condensate environment under the inclusion of all two body interaction processes. We numerically monitor the condensate particle number distribution during condensa...

  16. Modified Bloch-Redfield Master Equation for Incoherent Excitation of Multilevel Quantum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The modified Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an un...

  17. Kraus representation for maps and master equation in spin star model with layered environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdian, Mahmoud; Mehrabpour, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Quantum operations are usually defined as completely positive (CP), trace preserving (TP) maps on quantum states, and can be represented by operator-sum or Kraus representations. In this paper, we calculate operator-sum representation and master equation of an exactly solvable dynamic of one-qubit open system in layered environment . On the other hand, we obtain exact Nakajima-Zwanzig (NZ) and time-convolutionless (TCL) master equation from the maps. Finally, we study a simple example to cons...

  18. Completely positive post-Markovian master equation via a measurement approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A post-Markovian quantum master equation is derived, which includes bath memory effects via a phenomenologically introduced memory kernel k(t). The derivation uses as a formal tool a probabilistic single-shot bath-measurement process performed during the coupled system-bath evolution. The resulting analytically solvable master equation interpolates between the exact Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and the Markovian Lindblad equation. A necessary and sufficient condition for complete positivity in terms of properties of k(t) is presented, in addition to a prescription for the experimental determination of k(t). The formalism is illustrated with examples

  19. A classical Master equation approach to modeling an artificial protein motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspired by biomolecular motors, as well as by theoretical concepts for chemically driven nanomotors, there is significant interest in constructing artificial molecular motors. One driving force is the opportunity to create well-controlled model systems that are simple enough to be modeled in detail. A remaining challenge is the fact that such models need to take into account processes on many different time scales. Here we describe use of a classical Master equation approach, integrated with input from Langevin and molecular dynamics modeling, to stochastically model an existing artificial molecular motor concept, the Tumbleweed, across many time scales. This enables us to study how interdependencies between motor processes, such as center-of-mass diffusion and track binding/unbinding, affect motor performance. Results from our model help guide the experimental realization of the proposed motor, and potentially lead to insights that apply to a wider class of molecular motors.

  20. Generalized Quantum Master Equations In and Out of Equilibrium: When Can One Win?

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Aaron; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. The central quantity in these approaches is the memory kernel, which encodes the effect of the projected dynamical degrees of freedom on the observable of interest. For a large number of problems it has been shown that exact and approximate methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach seems to offer no advantage over a direct evaluation of the property of interest. The development of a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which these methods will offer benefits would thus greatly enhance their utility. Here, we derive exact expressions for the memory kernel obtained from projection operators for systems both in and out of equilibrium, and show the conditions under which these expressions will be guaranteed to return an identical result to...

  1. An algorithm for the numerical solution of the multivariate master equation for stochastic coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, L.

    2015-01-01

    In cloud modeling studies, the time evolution of droplet size distributions due to collision–coalescence events is usually modeled with the Smoluchowski coagulation equation, also known as the kinetic collection equation (KCE). However, the KCE is a deterministic equation with no stochastic fluctuations or correlations. Therefore, the full stochastic description of cloud droplet growth in a coalescing system must be obtained from the solution of the multivariate master equat...

  2. Markovian master equation for a classical particle coupled with arbitrary strength to a harmonic bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Maxim F

    2014-12-01

    We consider a classical point particle bilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath. Assuming that the evolution of the particle is monitored on a timescale which is longer than the characteristic bath correlation time, we derive the Markovian master equation for the probability density of the particle. The relaxation operator of this master equation is evaluated analytically, without invoking the perturbation theory and the approximation of weak system-bath coupling. When the bath correlation time tends to zero, the Fokker-Planck equation is recovered. For a finite bath correlation time, the relaxation operator contains contributions of all orders in the system-bath coupling. PMID:25481131

  3. Dynamics of open quantum spin systems: An assessment of the quantum master equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, P; Miyashita, S; Jin, F; Michielsen, K

    2016-01-01

    Data of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation of a system containing one spin-1/2 particle interacting with a bath of up to 32 spin-1/2 particles is used to construct a Markovian quantum master equation describing the dynamics of the system spin. The procedure of obtaining this quantum master equation, which takes the form of a Bloch equation with time-independent coefficients, accounts for all non-Markovian effects in as much the general structure of the quantum master equation allows. Our simulation results show that, with a few rather exotic exceptions, the Bloch-like equation with time-independent coefficients provides a simple and accurate description of the dynamics of a spin-1/2 particle in contact with a thermal bath. A calculation of the coefficients that appear in the Redfield master equation in the Markovian limit shows that this equation yields a rather poor description of the original data.

  4. Exact analytical solutions to the master equation of quantum Brownian motion for a general environment

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, C H; Hu, B L

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the model of a quantum Brownian oscillator linearly coupled to an environment of quantum oscillators at finite temperature. By introducing a compact and particularly well-suited formulation, we give a rather quick and direct derivation of the master equation and its solutions for general spectral functions and arbitrary temperatures. The flexibility of our approach allows for an immediate generalization to cases with an external force and with an arbitrary number of Brownian oscillators. More importantly, we point out an important mathematical subtlety concerning boundary-value problems for integro-differential equations which led to incorrect master equation coefficients and impacts on the description of nonlocal dissipation effects in all earlier derivations. Furthermore, we provide explicit, exact analytical results for the master equation coefficients and its solutions in a wide variety of cases, including ohmic, sub-ohmic and supra-ohmic environments with a finite cut-off.

  5. Quantal Brownian Motion from RPA dynamics: The master and Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the purely quantal RPA description of the damped harmonic oscillator and of the corresponding Brownian Motion within the full space (phonon subspace plus reservoir), a master equation (as well as a Fokker-Planck equation) for the reduced density matrix (for the reduced Wigner function, respectively) within the phonon subspace is extracted. The RPA master equation agrees with the master equation derived by the time-dependent perturbative approaches which utilize Tamm-Dancoff Hilbert spaces and invoke the rotating wave approximation. Since the RPA yields a full, as well as a contracted description, it can account for both the kinetic and the unperturbed oscillator momenta. The RPA description of the quantal Brownian Motion contrasts with the descriptions provided by the time perturbative approaches whether they invoke or not the rotating wave approximation. The RPA description also contrasts with the phenomenological phase space quantization. (orig.)

  6. Theory of Electron Transport in Small Semiconductor Devices Using the Pauli Master Equation

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Fischetti

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that the Pauli master equation can be used to simulate electron transport in very small electronic devices under steady-state conditions. Written in a basis of suitable wavefunctions and with the appropriate open boundary conditions, this equation removes some of the approximations which render the Boltzmann equation unsatisfactory at small length-scales. The main problems consist in describing the interaction of the system with the reservoirs and in assessing the ...

  7. An extended master-equation approach applied to aggregation in freeway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Wei; Lin Bo-Liang; Huang Yong-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We restudy the master-equation approach applied to aggregation in a one-dimensional freeway,where the decay transition probabilities for the jump processes are reconstructed based on a car-following model. According to the reconstructed transition probabilities,the clustering behaviours and the stochastic properties of the master equation in a one-lane freeway traffic model are investigated in detail.The numerical results show that the size of the clusters initially below the critical size of the unstable cluster and initially above that of the unstable cluster all enter the same stable state,which also accords with the nucleation theory and is known from the result in earlier work.Moreover,we have obtained more reasonable parameters of the master equation based on some results of cellular automata models.

  8. Master Equation Approach to Current-Voltage Characteristics of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangchul; Zhang, Yiteng; Alharbi, Fahhad; Kais, Sabre

    2015-03-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of solar cells is obtained using quantum master equations for electrons, holes, and excitons, in which generation, recombination, and transport processes are taken into account. As a first example, we simulate a photocell with a molecular aggregate donor to investigate whether a delocalized quantum state could enhance the efficiency. As a second example, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics of conventional p-n junction solar cells and perovskite solar cells using the master equation. The connection between the drift-diffusion model and the master equation method is established. The short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage are calculated numerically as a function of the intensity of the sunlight and material properties such as energy gaps, diffusion constants, etc.

  9. Vibrational energy flow in the villin headpiece subdomain: Master equation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine vibrational energy flow in dehydrated and hydrated villin headpiece subdomain HP36 by master equation simulations. Transition rates used in the simulations are obtained from communication maps calculated for HP36. In addition to energy flow along the main chain, we identify pathways for energy transport in HP36 via hydrogen bonding between residues quite far in sequence space. The results of the master equation simulations compare well with all-atom non-equilibrium simulations to about 1 ps following initial excitation of the protein, and quite well at long times, though for some residues we observe deviations between the master equation and all-atom simulations at intermediate times from about 1–10 ps. Those deviations are less noticeable for hydrated than dehydrated HP36 due to energy flow into the water

  10. Complete positivity of a spin-1/2 master equation with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a non-Markovian spin-1/2 master equation with exponential memory. We derive the conditions under which the dynamical map describing the reduced system dynamics is completely positive, i.e., the nonunitary evolution of the system is compatible with a description in terms of a closed total spin-reservoir system. Our results show that for a zero-T reservoir, the dynamical map of the model here considered is never completely positive. For moderate- and high-T reservoirs, on the contrary, positivity is a necessary and sufficient condition for complete positivity. We also consider the Shabani-Lidar master equation recently introduced [A. Shabani and D.A. Lidar, Phys. Rev. A 71, 020101(R) (2005)] and we demonstrate that such a master equation is always completely positive

  11. Vibrational energy flow in the villin headpiece subdomain: Master equation simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, David M., E-mail: dml@unr.edu, E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Buchenberg, Sebastian; Brettel, Paul [Biomolecular Dynamics, Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Stock, Gerhard, E-mail: dml@unr.edu, E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Biomolecular Dynamics, Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-02-21

    We examine vibrational energy flow in dehydrated and hydrated villin headpiece subdomain HP36 by master equation simulations. Transition rates used in the simulations are obtained from communication maps calculated for HP36. In addition to energy flow along the main chain, we identify pathways for energy transport in HP36 via hydrogen bonding between residues quite far in sequence space. The results of the master equation simulations compare well with all-atom non-equilibrium simulations to about 1 ps following initial excitation of the protein, and quite well at long times, though for some residues we observe deviations between the master equation and all-atom simulations at intermediate times from about 1–10 ps. Those deviations are less noticeable for hydrated than dehydrated HP36 due to energy flow into the water.

  12. Modified Bloch-Redfield Master Equation for Incoherent Excitation of Multilevel Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tscherbul, Timur V

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The modified Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a fi...

  13. A multi-site variational master equation approach to dissipative energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unitary transformations can allow one to study open quantum systems in situations for which standard, weak-coupling type approximations are not valid. We develop here an extension of the variational (polaron) transformation approach to open system dynamics, which applies to arbitrarily large exciton transport networks with local environments. After deriving a time-local master equation in the transformed frame, we go on to compare the population dynamics predicted using our technique with other established master equations. The variational frame dynamics are found to agree with both weak coupling and full polaron master equations in their respective regions of validity. In parameter regimes considered difficult for these methods, the dynamics predicted by our technique are found to interpolate between the two. The variational method thus gives insight, across a broad range of parameters, into the competition between coherent and incoherent processes in determining the dynamical behaviour of energy transfer networks. (paper)

  14. Number-resolved master equation approach to quantum measurement and quantum transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-08-01

    In addition to the well-known Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function technique for mesoscopic transports, an alternative (and very useful) scheme is quantum master equation approach. In this article, we review the particle-number ( n)-resolved master equation ( n-ME) approach and its systematic applications in quantum measurement and quantum transport problems. The n-ME contains rich dynamical information, allowing efficient study of topics such as shot noise and full counting statistics analysis. Moreover, we also review a newly developed master equation approach (and its n-resolved version) under self-consistent Born approximation. The application potential of this new approach is critically examined via its ability to recover the exact results for noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltage and in presence of strong quantum interference, and the challenging non-equilibrium Kondo effect.

  15. Chiral Bosons as solutions of the BV master equation 2D chiral gauge theories

    OpenAIRE

    Braga, N. R. F.; Montani, H.

    1994-01-01

    We construct the chiral Wess-Zumino term as a solution for the Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation for anomalous two-dimensional gauge theories, working in an extended field-antifield space, where the gauge group elements are introduced as additional degrees of freedom. We analyze the Abelian and the non-Abelian cases, calculating in both cases the BRST generator in order to show the physical equivalence between this chiral solution for the master equation and the usual (non-chiral) one.

  16. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, J

    2009-01-01

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^abJ_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^ab$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two f...

  17. Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, J; Halpern, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction $T=L^{ab}J_aJ_b+iD^a \\dif J_a$ in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where $L^{ab}$ is the inverse inertia tensor and $D^a $ is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-t...

  18. An algorithm for the numerical solution of the multivariate master equation for stochastic coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cloud modeling studies, the time evolution of droplet size distributions due to collision-coalescence events is usually modeled with the kinetic collection equation (KCE or Smoluchowski coagulation equation. However, the KCE is a deterministic equation with no stochastic fluctuations or correlations. Therefore, the full stochastic description of cloud droplet growth in a coalescing system must be obtained from the solution of the multivariate master equation, which models the evolution of the state vector for the number of droplets of a given mass. Unfortunately, due to its complexity, only limited results were obtained for certain type of kernels and monodisperse initial conditions. In this work, a novel numerical algorithm for the solution of the multivariate master equation for stochastic coalescence that works for any type of kernels, multivariate initial conditions and small system sizes is introduced. The performance of the method was checked by comparing the numerically calculated particle mass spectrum with analytical solutions of the master equation obtained for the constant and sum kernels. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the turbulent hydrodynamic kernel, and true stochastic averages were compared with numerical solutions of the kinetic collection equation for that case. The results for collection kernels depending on droplet mass demonstrates that the magnitude of correlations are significant, and must be taken into account when modeling the evolution of a finite volume coalescing system.

  19. An algorithm for the numerical solution of the multivariate master equation for stochastic coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L.

    2015-11-01

    In cloud modeling studies, the time evolution of droplet size distributions due to collision-coalescence events is usually modeled with the Smoluchowski coagulation equation, also known as the kinetic collection equation (KCE). However, the KCE is a deterministic equation with no stochastic fluctuations or correlations. Therefore, the full stochastic description of cloud droplet growth in a coalescing system must be obtained from the solution of the multivariate master equation, which models the evolution of the state vector for the number of droplets of a given mass. Unfortunately, due to its complexity, only limited results were obtained for certain types of kernels and monodisperse initial conditions. In this work, a novel numerical algorithm for the solution of the multivariate master equation for stochastic coalescence that works for any type of kernels, multivariate initial conditions and small system sizes is introduced. The performance of the method was seen by comparing the numerically calculated particle mass spectrum with analytical solutions of the master equation obtained for the constant and sum kernels. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the turbulent hydrodynamic kernel, and true stochastic averages were compared with numerical solutions of the kinetic collection equation for that case. The results for collection kernels depending on droplet mass demonstrates that the magnitudes of correlations are significant and must be taken into account when modeling the evolution of a finite volume coalescing system.

  20. The Master Ward Identity and generalized Schwinger-Dyson Equation in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of perturbative quantum field theory a new, universal renormalization condition (called Master Ward Identity) was recently proposed by one of us (M.D.) in a joint paper with F.-M. Boas. The main aim of the present paper is to get a better understanding of the Master Ward Identity by analyzing its meaning in classical field theory. It turns out that it is the most general identity for classical local fields which follows from the field equations. It is equivalent to a generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson Equation and is closely related to the Quantum Action Principle of Lowenstein and Lam. The validity of the Master Ward Identity makes possible a local construction of quantum gauge theories. (orig.)

  1. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Lambert, Neill; Nazir, Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly ...

  2. Quantum dot as a spin-current diode: A master-equation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, F.M.; Egues, J.C.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    We report a study of spin-dependent transport in a system composed of a quantum dot coupled to a normal metal lead and a ferromagnetic lead NM-QD-FM. We use the master equation approach to calculate the spin-resolved currents in the presence of an external bias and an intradot Coulomb interaction...

  3. Solution of the Master Equation for Bak-Sneppen Model of Biological Evolution in Finite Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Pis'mak, Yu. M.

    1996-01-01

    The master equations describing processes of biological evolution in the framework of the random neighbor Bak-Sneppen model are studied. For the eqosystem of $N$ species they are solved exactly and asymptotical behavior of this solution for large $N$ is analyzed.

  4. Fuchsia and master integrals for splitting functions from differential equations in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gituliar, O

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress in reducing differential equations for Feynman master integrals to canonical form with the help of a method proposed by Roman Lee. For the first time, we present Fuchsia --- our open-source implementation of the Lee algorithm written in Python using mathematical routines of a free computer algebra system SageMath. We demonstrate Fuchsia by reducing differential equations for NLO contributions to splitting functions in QCD, which contain both loops and legs integrals.

  5. Quasithermodynamic Representation of the quantum master equations: its existence , advantages and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vol, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new representation for several quantum master equations in so-called quasithermodynamic form. This representation (when it exists) let one to write down dynamical equations both for diagonal and non-diagonal elements of density matrix of the quantum system of interest in unified form by means of nonequilibrium potential ("entropy") that is a certain quadratic function depending on all variables describing the state. We prove that above representation exists for the general Pauli ...

  6. Generalized quantum master equations in and out of equilibrium: When can one win?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aaron; Montoya-Castillo, Andrés; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E.

    2016-05-01

    Generalized quantum master equations (GQMEs) are an important tool in modeling chemical and physical processes. For a large number of problems, it has been shown that exact and approximate quantum dynamics methods can be made dramatically more efficient, and in the latter case more accurate, by proceeding via the GQME formalism. However, there are many situations where utilizing the GQME approach with an approximate method has been observed to return the same dynamics as using that method directly. Here, for systems both in and out of equilibrium, we provide a more detailed understanding of the conditions under which using an approximate method can yield benefits when combined with the GQME formalism. In particular, we demonstrate the necessary manipulations, which are satisfied by exact quantum dynamics, that are required to recast the memory kernel in a form that can be analytically shown to yield the same result as a direct application of the dynamics regardless of the approximation used. By considering the connections between these forms of the kernel, we derive the conditions that approximate methods must satisfy if they are to offer different results when used in conjunction with the GQME formalism. These analytical results thus provide new insights as to when proceeding via the GQME approach can be used to improve the accuracy of simulations.

  7. Rodrigues solution of the Dirac equation for fields obtained from the master function formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the radial Dirac equation with constant electrostatic potential and for a large class of the field potentials which are obtained from the master function formalism can be solved by the Rodrigues representation of the orthogonal polynomials. We also show that the Schrödinger-like differential equation obtained from the Dirac equation satisfies the supersymmetry and shape invariant conditions in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The relativistic energy spectrum for a given potential function is calculated from its corresponding non-relativistic energy spectrum. (paper)

  8. Driven stochastic processes with metastable states: Fokker-Planck versus master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes occurring either in living systems on the cellular or molecular level or in artificial nanoscopic systems are most often strongly influenced by ambient thermal noise. On the other hand, intrinsic nonlinearities of the dynamical laws of these systems typically lead to multistability. The influences of the combined effects of noise and nonlinear intrinsic dynamics can often be described by a Fokker-Planck equation. As a consequence of the interaction of nonlinearities and noise the multistability is changed into metastability , i.e., on sufficiently long time scales transitions occur between the locally stable states of the noiseless dynamics. In a coarse grained description these transitions can be characterized by rates which enter a master equation, the states of which correspond to the metastable states of the system. We will demonstrate that such a description continues to hold even if the parameters of the system change with time either due to some external forcing of the system, for example by periodic or ramp-like forcing. As a prominent effect occurring in the presence of periodic forcing we mention stochastic resonance. Steadily increasing forces are often applied to molecules in order to determine their transition states and activation energies. In such forced systems the rates that determine the master equation change in time. In this talk we will discuss methods to calculate these time dependent rates. These methods also allow one to reconstruct the long time dynamics of the continuous Fokker-Planck process from the master equation. An analytic approximations for the rates will be discussed in the limit of slow driving. We will exemplify this method by a periodically driven bistable Brownian oscillator and demonstrate the use of the master equation in order to determine the point process of subsequent transition times. (author)

  9. On the accuracy of the Padé-resummed master equation approach to dissipative quantum dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Ta; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Reichman, David R

    2016-04-21

    Well-defined criteria are proposed for assessing the accuracy of quantum master equations whose memory functions are approximated by Padé resummation of the first two moments in the electronic coupling. These criteria partition the parameter space into distinct levels of expected accuracy, ranging from quantitatively accurate regimes to regions of parameter space where the approach is not expected to be applicable. Extensive comparison of Padé-resummed master equations with numerically exact results in the context of the spin-boson model demonstrates that the proposed criteria correctly demarcate the regions of parameter space where the Padé approximation is reliable. The applicability analysis we present is not confined to the specifics of the Hamiltonian under consideration and should provide guidelines for other classes of resummation techniques. PMID:27389208

  10. Multi-qubit joint measurements in circuit QED: stochastic master equation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criger, Ben; Ciani, Alessandro [RWTH, JARA Institut fuer Quanteninformation, Aachen (Germany); DiVincenzo, David P. [RWTH, JARA Institut fuer Quanteninformation, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We derive a family of stochastic master equations describing homodyne measurement of multi-qubit diagonal observables in circuit quantum electrodynamics. In the regime where qubit decay can be neglected, our approach replaces the polaron-like transformation of previous work, which required a lengthy calculation for the physically interesting case of three qubits and two resonator modes. The technique introduced here makes this calculation straightforward and manifestly correct. Using this technique, we are able to show that registers larger than one qubit evolve under a non-Markovian master equation. We perform numerical simulations of the three-qubit, two-mode case from previous work, obtaining an average post-measurement state fidelity of ∝94%, limited by measurement-induced decoherence and dephasing. (orig.)

  11. Kraus operator solutions to a fermionic master equation describing a thermal bath and their matrix representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Guo, Meng; Ji-Suo, Wang; Hong-Yi, Fan; Cheng-Wei, Xia

    2016-04-01

    We solve the fermionic master equation for a thermal bath to obtain its explicit Kraus operator solutions via the fermionic state approach. The normalization condition of the Kraus operators is proved. The matrix representation for these solutions is obtained, which is incongruous with the result in the book completed by Nielsen and Chuang [Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge University Press, 2000]. As especial cases, we also present the Kraus operator solutions to master equations for describing the amplitude-decay model and the diffusion process at finite temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11347026), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant Nos. ZR2013AM012 and ZR2012AM004), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program and Scientific Research Project of Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, China.

  12. Simulating open quantum systems by applying SU(4) to quantum master equations

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui; Tieri, D. A.; Holland, M J

    2013-01-01

    We show that open quantum systems of two-level atoms symmetrically coupled to a single-mode photon field can be efficiently simulated by applying a SU(4) group theory to quantum master equations. This is important since many foundational examples in quantum optics fall into this class. We demonstrate the method by finding exact solutions for many-atom open quantum systems such as lasing and steady state superradiance.

  13. The behaviour of quantum mechanical systems under continuous measurement: Watchdog effect and master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the influence of continuously repeting measurement by the environment on a quantum mechanical system is studied. The interaction with the environment which is in principle present for each physical object can have an important influence on the considered system as the ''watchdog'' effect has clearly demonstrated. These situations are however quite special. Of much more importance is the effect of the environment on macroscopical objects for which only regarding this interaction a derivation of master equations can be founded. (HSI)

  14. Master Equation for the Motion of a Polarizable Particle in a Multimode Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hammerer, Klemens; Asenbaum, Peter; Ritsch, Helmut; Arndt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We derive a master equation for the motion of a polarizable particle weakly interacting with one or several strongly pumped cavity modes. We focus here on massive particles with complex internal structure such as large molecules and clusters, for which we assume a linear scalar polarizability mediating the particle-light interaction. The predicted friction and diffusion coefficients are in good agreement with former semiclassical calculations for atoms and small molecules in weakly pumped cav...

  15. Partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation for incoherent excitation of multilevel quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul

    2015-03-01

    We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a first application, we consider the dynamics of excited state coherences arising under incoherent light excitation from a single ground state and observe population-to-coherence transfer and the formation of non-equilibrium quasisteady states in the regime of small excited state splitting. Analytical expressions derived earlier for the V-type system [T. V. Tscherbul and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113601 (2014)] are found to provide a nearly quantitative description of multilevel excited-state populations and coherences in both the small- and large-molecule limits.

  16. Partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation for incoherent excitation of multilevel quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscherbul, Timur V., E-mail: ttscherb@chem.utoronto.ca; Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-03-14

    We present an efficient theoretical method for calculating the time evolution of the density matrix of a multilevel quantum system weakly interacting with incoherent light. The method combines the Bloch-Redfield theory with a partial secular approximation for one-photon coherences, resulting in a master equation that explicitly exposes the reliance on transition rates and the angles between transition dipole moments in the energy basis. The partial secular Bloch-Redfield master equation allows an unambiguous distinction between the regimes of quantum coherent vs. incoherent energy transfer under incoherent light illumination. The fully incoherent regime is characterized by orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis, leading to a dynamical evolution governed by a coherence-free Pauli-type master equation. The coherent regime requires non-orthogonal transition dipole moments in the energy basis and leads to the generation of noise-induced quantum coherences and population-to-coherence couplings. As a first application, we consider the dynamics of excited state coherences arising under incoherent light excitation from a single ground state and observe population-to-coherence transfer and the formation of non-equilibrium quasisteady states in the regime of small excited state splitting. Analytical expressions derived earlier for the V-type system [T. V. Tscherbul and P. Brumer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113601 (2014)] are found to provide a nearly quantitative description of multilevel excited-state populations and coherences in both the small- and large-molecule limits.

  17. Solve the Master Equation by Python-An Introduction to the Python Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Yan; Chen, Bing; Ye, Qianqian

    2011-01-01

    A brief introduction to the Python computing environment is given. By solving the master equation encountered in quantum transport, we give an example of how to solve the ODE problems in Python. The ODE solvers used are the ZVODE routine in Scipy and the bsimp solver in GSL. For the former, the equation can be in its complex-valued form, while for the latter, it has to be rewritten to a real-valued form. The focus is on the detailed workflow of the implementation process, rather than on the s...

  18. Variance estimates for transport in stochastic media by means of the master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The master equation has been used to examine properties of transport in stochastic media. It has been shown previously that not only may the Levermore-Pomraning (LP) model be derived from the master equation for a description of ensemble-averaged transport quantities, but also that equations describing higher-order statistical moments may be obtained. We examine in greater detail the equations governing the second moments of the distribution of the angular fluxes, from which variances may be computed. We introduce a simple closure for these equations, as well as several models for estimating the variances of derived transport quantities. We revisit previous benchmarks for transport in stochastic media in order to examine the error of these new variance models. We find, not surprisingly, that the errors in these variance estimates are at least as large as the corresponding estimates of the average, and sometimes much larger. We also identify patterns in these variance estimates that may help guide the construction of more accurate models. (authors)

  19. Birth and death master equation for the evolution of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martínez, R.; Cocho, G.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Martínez-Mekler, G.

    2014-05-01

    Master equations for the evolution of complex networks with positive (birth) and negative (death) transition probabilities per unit time are analyzed. Explicit equations for the time evolution of the total number of nodes and for the relative node frequencies are given. It is shown that, in the continuous limit, the master equation reduces to a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). The basic dynamical function for its stationary solution is the ratio between its drift and diffusion coefficients. When this ratio is approximated by partial fractions (Padé's approximants), a hierarchy of stationary solutions of the FPE is obtained analytically, which are expressed as an exponential times the product of powers of monomials and binomials. It is also shown that if the difference between birth and death transition probabilities goes asymptotically to zero, the exponential factor in the solution is absent. Fits to real complex network probability distribution functions are shown. Comparison with rank-ordered data shows that, in general, the value of this exponential factor is close to unity, evidencing crossovers among power-law scale invariant regimes which might be associated to an underlying criticality and are related to a generalization of the beta distribution. The time dependent solution is also obtained analytically in terms of hyper-geometric functions. It is also shown that the FPE has similarity solutions. The limitations of the approach here presented are also discussed.

  20. On the validity of non-Markovian master equation approaches for the entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the dissipative dynamics of coupled qubits interacting with independent reservoirs, a comparison between non-Markovian master equation techniques and an exact solution is presented here. We study various regimes in order to find the limits of validity of the Nakajima-Zwanzig and the time-convolutionless master equations in the description of the entanglement dynamics. A comparison between the performances of the concurrence and the negativity as entanglement measures for the system under study is also presented.

  1. Derivation of Hodgkin-Huxley equations for a Na+ channel from a master equation for coupled activation and inactivation

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, S R

    2016-01-01

    The Na+ current in nerve and muscle membranes may be described in terms of the activation variable m(t) and the inactivation variable h(t), which are dependent on the transitions of S4 sensors in each of the ion channel domains DI to DIV. The time-dependence of the Na+ current and the rate equations satisfied by m(t) and h(t) may be derived from the solution to a master equation which describes the coupling between two activation sensors regulating the Na+ channel conductance and a two stage inactivation process. The voltage dependence of the rate functions for inactivation and recovery from inactivation are consistent with the empirically determined Hodgkin-Huxley expressions, and exhibit saturation for both depolarized and hyperpolarized clamp potentials.

  2. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Lambert, Neill; Nazir, Ahsan

    2015-01-01

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed in [J. Iles-Smith, N. Lambert, and A. Nazir, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no ...

  3. Hybrid Numerical Solution of the Chemical Master Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Henzinger, Thomas A.; Mateescu, Maria; Mikeev, Linar; Wolf, Verena

    2010-01-01

    We present a numerical approximation technique for the analysis of continuous-time Markov chains that describe networks of biochemical reactions and play an important role in the stochastic modeling of biological systems. Our approach is based on the construction of a stochastic hybrid model in which certain discrete random variables of the original Markov chain are approximated by continuous deterministic variables. We compute the solution of the stochastic hybrid model using a numeri...

  4. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  5. Master Equation for the Motion of a Polarizable Particle in a Multimode Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Nimmrichter, Stefan; Asenbaum, Peter; Ritsch, Helmut; Arndt, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We derive a master equation for the motion of a polarizable particle weakly interacting with one or several strongly pumped cavity modes. We focus here on massive particles with complex internal structure such as large molecules and clusters, for which we assume a linear scalar polarizability mediating the particle-light interaction. The predicted friction and diffusion coefficients are in good agreement with former semiclassical calculations for atoms and small molecules in weakly pumped cavities, while the current rigorous quantum treatment and numerical assessment sheds a light on the feasibility of experiments that aim at optically manipulating beams of massive molecules with multimode cavities.

  6. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in an open quantum system: Master equation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A master equation approach to the study of environmental effects in the adiabatic population transfer in three-state systems is presented. A systematic comparison with the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian approach [Vitanov and Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A 56, 1463 (1997)] shows that, in the weak-coupling limit, the two treatments lead to essentially the same results. In contrast, in the strong-damping limit the predictions are quite different: In particular, the counterintuitive sequences in the STIRAP scheme turn out to be much more efficient than expected before. This point is explained in terms of quantum Zeno dynamics.

  7. Density matrix operatorial solution of the non--Markovian Master Equation for Quantum Brownian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Intravaia, F; Messina, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    An original method to exactly solve the non-Markovian Master Equation describing the interaction of a single harmonic oscillator with a quantum environment in the weak coupling limit is reported. By using a superoperatorial approach we succeed in deriving the operatorial solution for the density matrix of the system. Our method is independent of the physical properties of the environment. We show the usefulness of our solution deriving explicit expressions for the dissipative time evolution of some observables of physical interest for the system, such as, for example, its mean energy.

  8. Eigenvalues of the Homogeneous Finite Linear One Step Master Equation: Applications to Downhill Folding

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by claims about the nature of the observed timescales in protein systems said to fold downhill, we have studied the finite, linear master equation which is a model of the downhill process. By solving for the system eigenvalues, we prove the often stated claim that in situations where there is no free energy barrier, a transition between single and multi-exponential kinetics occurs at sufficient bias (towards the native state). Consequences for protein folding, especially the downhill folding scenario, are briefly discussed.

  9. Splitting of the rate matrix as a definition of time reversal in master equation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by recent progress in nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, we present a generalized time reversal for stochastic master equation systems with discrete states, which is defined as a splitting of the rate matrix into irreversible and reversible parts. An immediate advantage of this definition is that a variety of fluctuation relations can be attributed to different matrix splittings. Additionally, we find that the accustomed total entropy production formula and conditions of the detailed balance must be modified appropriately to account for the reversible rate part, which was previously ignored. (paper)

  10. Fermionic Stochastic Schr\\"{o}dinger Equation and Master Equation: An Open System Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xinyu; Shi, Wufu; Wu, Lian-Ao; Yu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the extension of the non-Markovian stochastic approach for quantum open systems strongly coupled to a fermionic bath, to the models in which the system operators commute with the fermion bath. This technique can also be a useful tool for studying open quantum systems coupled to a spin-chain environment, which can be further transformed into an effective fermionic bath. We derive an exact stochastic Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (SSE), called fermionic quantum state diffusion (...

  11. General features and master equations for structurization in complex dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust structurization is considered to be typical for complex plasmas. Homogeneous dusty plasmas are shown to be universally unstable. The dusty plasma structurization instability is similar to the gravitational instability and can results in creation of different compact dust structures. A general approach for investigation of the nonlinear stage of structurization in dusty plasmas is proposed and master equations for the description of self-organized structures are formulated in the general form that can be used for any nonlinear model of dust screening. New effects due to the scattering of ions on the nonlinearly screened grains are calculated: nonlinear ion dust drag force and nonlinear ion diffusion. The physics of confinement of dust and plasma components in the equilibria of compact dust structures is presented and is supported by numerical calculations of master equations. The necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium structures are found for an arbitrary nonlinearity in dust screening. Features of compact dust structures observed in recent experiments agree with the numerically calculated ones. Some proposals for future experiments in spherical chamber are given.

  12. A broadened classical master equation approach for nonadiabatic dynamics at metal surfaces: Beyond the weak molecule-metal coupling limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wenjie; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2016-01-14

    A broadened classical master equation (BCME) is proposed for modeling nonadiabatic dynamics for molecules near metal surfaces over a wide range of parameter values and with arbitrary initial conditions. Compared with a standard classical master equation-which is valid in the limit of weak molecule-metal couplings-this BCME should be valid for both weak and strong molecule-metal couplings. (The BCME can be mapped to a Fokker-Planck equation that captures level broadening correctly.) Finally, our BCME can be solved with a simple surface hopping algorithm; numerical tests of equilibrium and dynamical observables look very promising. PMID:26772563

  13. The odd origin of Gerstenhaber brackets, Batalin-Vilkovisky operators, and master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ralph M.; Ward, Benjamin C.; Zúñiga, J. Javier

    2015-10-01

    Using five basic principles, we treat Gerstenhaber/Lie brackets, Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) operators, and master equations appearing in mathematical and physical contexts in a unified way. The different contexts for this are given by the different types of (Feynman) graphs that underlie the particular situation. Two of the maxims we bring forth are (1) that extending to the non-connected graphs gives a commutative multiplication forming a part of the BV structure and (2) that there is a universal odd twist that unifies and explains seemingly ad hoc choices of signs and is responsible for the BV operator being a differential. Our treatment results in uniform, general theorems. These allow us to prove new results and recover and connect many constructions that have appeared independently throughout the literature. The more general point of view also allows us to disentangle the necessary from the circumstantial.

  14. Rapidity window dependences of higher order cumulants and diffusion master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the rapidity window dependences of higher order cumulants of conserved charges observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The time evolution and the rapidity window dependence of the non-Gaussian fluctuations are described by the diffusion master equation. Analytic formulas for the time evolution of cumulants in a rapidity window are obtained for arbitrary initial conditions. We discuss that the rapidity window dependences of the non-Gaussian cumulants have characteristic structures reflecting the non-equilibrium property of fluctuations, which can be observed in relativistic heavy ion collisions with the present detectors. It is argued that various information on the thermal and transport properties of the hot medium can be revealed experimentally by the study of the rapidity window dependences, especially by the combined use, of the higher order cumulants. Formulas of higher order cumulants for a probability distribution composed of sub-probabilities, which are useful for various studies of non-Gaussian cumulants, are also presented

  15. Critical assessment of two-qubit post-Markovian master equations

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, S; Mazzola, L; Gullo, N Lo; Vacchini, B; Busch, Th; Paternostro, M

    2012-01-01

    A post-Markovian master equation has been recently proposed as a tool to describe the evolution of a system coupled to a memory-keeping environment [A. Shabani and D. A. Lidar, Phys. Rev. A 71, 020101 (R) (2005)]. For a single qubit affected by appropriately chosen environmental conditions, the corresponding dynamics is always legitimate and physical. Here we extend such situation to the case of two qubits, only one of which experiences the environmental effects. We show how, despite the innocence of such an extension, the introduction of the second qubit should be done cum grano salis to avoid consequences such as the breaking of the positivity of the associated dynamical map. This hints at the necessity of using care when adopting phenomenologically derived models for evolutions occurring outside the Markovian framework.

  16. Analysis of picosecond laser induced fluorescence phenomena in photosynthetic membranes utilizing a master equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillotin, G; Swenberg, C E; Breton, J; Geacintov, N E

    1979-03-01

    A Pauli master equation is formulated and solved to describe the fluorescence quantum yield, phi, and the fluorescence temporal decay curves. F(t), obtained in picosecond laser excitation experiments of photosynthetic systems. It is assumed that the lowering of phi with increasing pulse intensity is due to bimolecular singlet exciton annihilation processes which compete with the monomolecular exciton decay processes; Poisson statistics are taken into account. Calculated curves of phi as a function of the number of photon hits per domain are compared with experimental data, and it is concluded that these domains contain at least two to four connected photosynthetic units (depending on the temperature), where each photosynthetic unit is assumed to contain approximately 300 pigment molecules. It is shown that under conditions of high excitation intensities, the fluorescence decays approximately according to the (time)1/2 law. PMID:262402

  17. Entropy and Entanglement in Master Equation of Effective Hamiltonian for Jaynes-Cummings Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analytically solve the master equation for Jaynes-Cummings model in the dispersive regime including phase damping and the field is assumed to be initially in a superposition of coherent states. Using an established entanglement measure based on the negativity of the eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix we find a very strong sensitivity of the maximally generated entanglement to the amount of phase damping. Qualitatively this behavior is also reflected in alternative entanglement measures, but the quantitative agreement between different measures depends on the chosen noise model. The phase decoherence for this model results in monotonic increase in the total entropy while the atomic sub-entropy keeps its periodic behaviour without any effect. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iles-Smith, Jake, E-mail: Jakeilessmith@gmail.com [Controlled Quantum Dynamics Theory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Photonics Engineering, DTU Fotonik, Ørsteds Plads, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Dijkstra, Arend G. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Lambert, Neill [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nazir, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.nazir@manchester.ac.uk [Photon Science Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-28

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously. We find that though an enhancement of the dimer energy transfer rate can be obtained when compared to an unstructured environment, its magnitude is rather sensitive to both the dimer-peak resonance conditions and the relative strengths of the underdamped and overdamped contributions.

  19. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously. We find that though an enhancement of the dimer energy transfer rate can be obtained when compared to an unstructured environment, its magnitude is rather sensitive to both the dimer-peak resonance conditions and the relative strengths of the underdamped and overdamped contributions

  20. Nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in the condensed phase via the generalized quantum master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Ka, Being J.; Geva, Eitan

    2006-07-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics, and the inhomogeneous term accounts for initial system-bath correlations. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel and inhomogeneous term for arbitrary initial state and system-bath coupling. The memory kernel and inhomogeneous term are obtained by numerically solving a single inhomogeneous Volterra equation of the second kind for each. The new approach can accommodate a very wide range of projection operators, and requires projection-free two-time correlation functions as input. An application to the case of a two-state system with diagonal coupling to an arbitrary bath is described in detail. Finally, the utility and self-consistency of the formalism are demonstrated by an explicit calculation on a spin-boson model.

  1. Master equation approach to charge injection and transport in organic insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, José A; Voss, Grasiela

    2005-03-22

    We develop a master equation model of a disordered organic insulator sandwiched between metallic electrodes by treating as rate processes both the injection and the internal transport. We show how the master equation model allows for the inclusion of crucial correlation effects in the charge transport, particularly of the Pauli exclusion principle and of space-charge effects, besides, being dependent on just the microscopic form of the transfer rate between the localized electronic states, it allows for the investigation of different microscopic scenarios in the organic, such as polaronic hopping, correlated energy levels, interaction with image charge, etc. The model allows for a separate analysis of the injection and the recombination currents. We find that the disorder, besides increasing the injection current, eliminates the possibility of observation of a Fowler-Nordheim injection current at zero temperature, and that it does not alter the Schottky barrier size of the zero-field thermionic injection current from the value based on the energy difference between the electrode Fermi level and the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels in the organic, but it makes the Arrhenius temperature dependence appear at larger temperatures. We investigate how the I(V) characteristics of a device is affected by the presence of correlations in the site energy distribution and by the form of the internal hopping rate, specifically the Miller-Abrahams rate and the Marcus or small-polaron rate. We show that the disorder does not modify significantly the ebeta square root E field dependence of the net current due to the Schottky barrier lowering caused by the attraction between the charge and its image in the electrode. PMID:15836407

  2. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ˜0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere.

  3. A master equation formalism for macroscopic modeling of asynchronous irregular activity states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Boustani, Sami; Destexhe, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to modeling asynchronous irregular (AI) activity states, which resemble the complex activity states seen in the cerebral cortex of awake animals. Most of models have considered balanced networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons in which AI states are sustained through recurrent sparse connectivity, with or without external input. In this letter we propose a mesoscopic description of such AI states. Using master equation formalism, we derive a second-order mean-field set of ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of randomly connected balanced networks. This formalism takes into account finite size effects and is applicable to any neuron model as long as its transfer function can be characterized. We compare the predictions of this approach with numerical simulations for different network configurations and parameter spaces. Considering the randomly connected network as a unit, this approach could be used to build large-scale networks of such connected units, with an aim to model activity states constrained by macroscopic measurements, such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging. PMID:19210171

  4. On the structure of the master equation for a two-level system coupled to a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a master equation from the exact stochastic Liouville–von-Neumann (SLN) equation (Stockburger and Grabert 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 170407). The latter depends on two correlated noises and describes exactly the dynamics of an oscillator (which can be either harmonic or present an anharmonicity) coupled to an environment at thermal equilibrium. The newly derived master equation is obtained by performing analytically the average over different noise trajectories. It is found to have a complex hierarchical structure that might be helpful to explain the convergence problems occurring when performing numerically the stochastic average of trajectories given by the SLN equation (Koch et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 230402, Koch 2010 PhD thesis Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften der Technischen Universitat Dresden). (paper)

  5. Quantum transport in one-dimensional systems via a master equation approach: Numerics and an exact solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marko Žnidarič

    2011-11-01

    We discuss recent findings about properties of quantum nonequilibrium steady states. In particular we focus on transport properties. It is shown that the time-dependent density matrix renormalization method can be used successfully to find a stationary solution of Lindblad master equation. Furthermore, for a specific model an exact solution is presented.

  6. A semiclassical generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2004-06-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation (GQME) provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a, possibly anharmonic, quantum bath. In this equation, a memory kernel superoperator accounts for the influence of the bath on the dynamics of the system. In a previous paper [Q. Shi and E. Geva, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12045 (2003)] we proposed a new approach to calculating the memory kernel, in the case of arbitrary system-bath coupling. Within this approach, the memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two integral equations, which requires a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions as input. In the present paper, we consider the application of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) approximation for calculating those correlation functions, and subsequently the memory kernel. The new approach is tested on a benchmark spin-boson model. Application of the LSC approximation for calculating the relatively short-lived memory kernel, followed by a numerically exact solution of the GQME, is found to provide an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics. The success of the proposed LSC-GQME methodology is contrasted with the failure of both the direct application of the LSC approximation and the weak coupling treatment to provide an accurate description of the dynamics, for the same model, except at very short times. The feasibility of the new methodology to anharmonic systems is also demonstrated in the case of a two level system coupled to a chain of Lennard-Jones atoms.

  7. Reduced master equation analysis of multiple-tunnel junction single-electron memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, M. B. A.; Wagner, M.

    2000-07-01

    We employ a master equation (ME) approach in the charge transport analysis across a uniform multiple-tunnel junction (MTJ) memory trap, using a much-reduced state list derived from circuit symmetry, and previous assumptions by Jensen and Martinis. This enables all significant single tunneling and higher-order cotunneling sequences to be accounted for, while avoiding the computational cost of the full ME method. The reduced ME method is conceptually simpler and yields greater accuracy, compared with previous approximations based on tunneling probabilities. For an MTJ trap with zero stray capacitance C0, the results obtained are found to agree very closely with the full ME results up to a temperature of T≈3T0/10, where T0=e2/kBC, whereas previous methods break down at T≈T0/10. Furthermore, unlike the earlier methods, the reduced ME approach can be applied to the realistic but less symmetric case of a trap with finite C0, and remains valid up to the trap's maximum operating temperature of T≈T0/100. Finally, our reduced ME results are in close agreement with available experimental data at T

  8. Approximate method for stochastic chemical kinetics with two-time scales by chemical Langevin equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuke; Tian, Tianhai; Rawlings, James B; Yin, George

    2016-05-01

    The frequently used reduction technique is based on the chemical master equation for stochastic chemical kinetics with two-time scales, which yields the modified stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA). For the chemical reaction processes involving a large number of molecular species and reactions, the collection of slow reactions may still include a large number of molecular species and reactions. Consequently, the SSA is still computationally expensive. Because the chemical Langevin equations (CLEs) can effectively work for a large number of molecular species and reactions, this paper develops a reduction method based on the CLE by the stochastic averaging principle developed in the work of Khasminskii and Yin [SIAM J. Appl. Math. 56, 1766-1793 (1996); ibid. 56, 1794-1819 (1996)] to average out the fast-reacting variables. This reduction method leads to a limit averaging system, which is an approximation of the slow reactions. Because in the stochastic chemical kinetics, the CLE is seen as the approximation of the SSA, the limit averaging system can be treated as the approximation of the slow reactions. As an application, we examine the reduction of computation complexity for the gene regulatory networks with two-time scales driven by intrinsic noise. For linear and nonlinear protein production functions, the simulations show that the sample average (expectation) of the limit averaging system is close to that of the slow-reaction process based on the SSA. It demonstrates that the limit averaging system is an efficient approximation of the slow-reaction process in the sense of the weak convergence. PMID:27155630

  9. Neutron fluctuations in accelerator driven and power reactors via backward master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of neutrons in a reactor is a random process, and thus the number of neutrons in a reactor is a random variable. Fluctuations in the number of neutrons in a reactor can be divided into two categories, namely zero noise and power reactor noise. As the name indicates, they dominate (i.e. are observable) at different power levels. The reasons for their occurrences and utilization are also different. In addition, they are described via different mathematical tools, namely master equations and the Langevin equation, respectively. Zero noise carries information about some nuclear properties such as reactor reactivity. Hence methods such as Feynman- and Rossi-alpha methods have been established to determine the subcritical reactivity of a subcritical system. Such methods received a renewed interest recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven systems (ADS). Such systems, intended to be used either for energy production or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those of the traditionally used radioactive sources which were also assumed in the derivation of the Feynman- and Rossi-alpha formulae. Therefore it is necessary to re-derive the Feynman- and Rossi-alpha formulae. Such formulae for ADS have been derived recently but in simpler neutronic models. One subject of this thesis is the extension of such formulae to a more general case in which six groups of delayed neutron precursors are taken into account, and the full joint statistics of the prompt and all delayed groups is included. The involved complexity problems are solved with a combination of effective analytical techniques and symbolic algebra codes. Power reactor noise carries information about parametric perturbation of the system. Langevin technique has been used to extract such information. In such a treatment, zero noise has been neglected. This is a pragmatic

  10. Exact calculation of the time convolutionless master equation generator: Application to the nonequilibrium resonant level model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized quantum master equation provides a powerful tool to describe the dynamics in quantum impurity models driven away from equilibrium. Two complementary approaches, one based on Nakajima–Zwanzig–Mori time-convolution (TC) and the other on the Tokuyama–Mori time-convolutionless (TCL) formulations provide a starting point to describe the time-evolution of the reduced density matrix. A key in both approaches is to obtain the so called “memory kernel” or “generator,” going beyond second or fourth order perturbation techniques. While numerically converged techniques are available for the TC memory kernel, the canonical approach to obtain the TCL generator is based on inverting a super-operator in the full Hilbert space, which is difficult to perform and thus, nearly all applications of the TCL approach rely on a perturbative scheme of some sort. Here, the TCL generator is expressed using a reduced system propagator which can be obtained from system observables alone and requires the calculation of super-operators and their inverse in the reduced Hilbert space rather than the full one. This makes the formulation amenable to quantum impurity solvers or to diagrammatic techniques, such as the nonequilibrium Green’s function. We implement the TCL approach for the resonant level model driven away from equilibrium and compare the time scales for the decay of the generator with that of the memory kernel in the TC approach. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, source-drain bias, and gate potential on the TCL/TC generators are discussed

  11. Application of quantum master equation for long-term prognosis of asset-prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2016-05-01

    This study combines the disciplines of behavioral finance and an extension of econophysics, namely the concepts and mathematical structure of quantum physics. We apply the formalism of quantum theory to model the dynamics of some correlated financial assets, where the proposed model can be potentially applied for developing a long-term prognosis of asset price formation. At the informational level, the asset price states interact with each other by the means of a "financial bath". The latter is composed of agents' expectations about the future developments of asset prices on the finance market, as well as financially important information from mass-media, society, and politicians. One of the essential behavioral factors leading to the quantum-like dynamics of asset prices is the irrationality of agents' expectations operating on the finance market. These expectations lead to a deeper type of uncertainty concerning the future price dynamics of the assets, than given by a classical probability theory, e.g., in the framework of the classical financial mathematics, which is based on the theory of stochastic processes. The quantum dimension of the uncertainty in price dynamics is expressed in the form of the price-states superposition and entanglement between the prices of the different financial assets. In our model, the resolution of this deep quantum uncertainty is mathematically captured with the aid of the quantum master equation (its quantum Markov approximation). We illustrate our model of preparation of a future asset price prognosis by a numerical simulation, involving two correlated assets. Their returns interact more intensively, than understood by a classical statistical correlation. The model predictions can be extended to more complex models to obtain price configuration for multiple assets and portfolios.

  12. Exact calculation of the time convolutionless master equation generator: Application to the nonequilibrium resonant level model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidon, Lyran [School of Chemistry, The Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); The Sackler Center for Computational Molecular and Materials Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Wilner, Eli Y. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Rabani, Eran [The Sackler Center for Computational Molecular and Materials Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Chemistry, University of California and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California 94720-1460 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The generalized quantum master equation provides a powerful tool to describe the dynamics in quantum impurity models driven away from equilibrium. Two complementary approaches, one based on Nakajima–Zwanzig–Mori time-convolution (TC) and the other on the Tokuyama–Mori time-convolutionless (TCL) formulations provide a starting point to describe the time-evolution of the reduced density matrix. A key in both approaches is to obtain the so called “memory kernel” or “generator,” going beyond second or fourth order perturbation techniques. While numerically converged techniques are available for the TC memory kernel, the canonical approach to obtain the TCL generator is based on inverting a super-operator in the full Hilbert space, which is difficult to perform and thus, nearly all applications of the TCL approach rely on a perturbative scheme of some sort. Here, the TCL generator is expressed using a reduced system propagator which can be obtained from system observables alone and requires the calculation of super-operators and their inverse in the reduced Hilbert space rather than the full one. This makes the formulation amenable to quantum impurity solvers or to diagrammatic techniques, such as the nonequilibrium Green’s function. We implement the TCL approach for the resonant level model driven away from equilibrium and compare the time scales for the decay of the generator with that of the memory kernel in the TC approach. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, source-drain bias, and gate potential on the TCL/TC generators are discussed.

  13. Generalized master equation with non-Markovian multichromophoric Förster resonance energy transfer for modular exciton densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Hoyer, Stephan; Fleming, Graham; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2014-10-31

    A generalized master equation (GME) governing quantum evolution of modular exciton density (MED) is derived for large scale light harvesting systems composed of weakly interacting modules of multiple chromophores. The GME-MED offers a practical framework to incorporate real time coherent quantum dynamics calculations of small length scales into dynamics over large length scales, and also provides a non-Markovian generalization and rigorous derivation of the Pauli master equation employing multichromophoric Förster resonance energy transfer rates. A test of the GME-MED for four sites of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex demonstrates how coherent dynamics of excitonic populations over coupled chromophores can be accurately described by transitions between subgroups (modules) of delocalized excitons. Application of the GME-MED to the exciton dynamics between a pair of light harvesting complexes in purple bacteria demonstrates its promise as a computationally efficient tool to investigate large scale exciton dynamics in complex environments. PMID:25396397

  14. Resolution of the vibrational energy distribution function using a direct simulation Monte Carlo-master equation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Iain D., E-mail: iainboyd@umich.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Josyula, Eswar [U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the primary numerical technique for analysis of rarefied gas flows. While recent progress in computational chemistry is beginning to provide vibrationally resolved transition and reaction cross sections that can be employed in DSMC calculations, the particle nature of the standard DSMC method makes it difficult to use this information in a statistically significant way. The current study introduces a new technique that makes it possible to resolve all of the vibrational energy levels by using a master equation approach along with temperature-dependent transition rates. The new method is compared to the standard DSMC technique for several heat bath and shock wave conditions and demonstrates the ability to resolve the full vibrational manifold at the expected overall rates of relaxation. The ability of the new master equation approach to the DSMC method for resolving, in particular, the high-energy states addresses a well-known, longstanding deficiency of the standard DSMC method.

  15. Comparing the Models of Steepest Entropy Ascent Quantum Thermodynamics, Master Equation and the Difference Equation for a Simple Quantum System Interacting with Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest concerning the details about how quantum systems interact with their surroundings. A number of methodologies have been used to describe these interactions, including Master Equations (ME) based on a system-plus-reservoir (S + R) approach, and more recently, Steepest Entropy Ascent Quantum Thermodynamics (SEAQT) which asserts that entropy is a fundamental physical property and that isolated quantum systems that are not at stable equilibrium may spontaneously relax ...

  16. Accurate nonadiabatic quantum dynamics on the cheap: Making the most of mean field theory with master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times

  17. Master equation approach to the intra-urban passenger flow and application to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Jung, Woo-Sung; Choi, M Y; 10.1088/1751-8113/44/11/115007

    2011-01-01

    The master equation approach is proposed to describe the evolution of passengers in a subway system. With the transition rate constructed from simple geographical consideration, the evolution equation for the distribution of subway passengers is found to bear skew distributions including log-normal, Weibull, and power-law distributions. This approach is then applied to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system: Analysis of the trip data of all passengers in a day reveals that the data in most cases fit well to the log-normal distributions. Implications of the results are also discussed.

  18. Master equation approach to the intra-urban passenger flow and application to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The master equation approach is proposed to describe the evolution of passengers in a subway system. With the transition rate constructed from simple geographical consideration, the evolution equation for the distribution of subway passengers is found to bear skew distributions including log-normal, Weibull, and power-law distributions. This approach is then applied to the Metropolitan Seoul Subway system: analysis of the trip data of all passengers in a day reveals that the data in most cases fit well to the log-normal distributions. Implications of the results are also discussed.

  19. From Chemical Langevin Equations to Fokker-Planck Equation: Application of Hodge Decomposition and Klein-Kramers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Wei-Hua; OU-YANG Zhong-Can; Li Xiao-Qing

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic systems without detailed balance are common in various chemical reaction systems, such as metabolic network systems. In studies of these systems, the concept of potential landscape is useful. However, what are the sufficient and necessary conditions of the existence of the potential function is still an open problem. Use Hodge decomposition theorem in differential form theory, we focus on the general chemical Langevin equations, which reflect complex chemical reaction systems. We analysis the conditions for the existence of potential landscape of the systems.By mapping the stochastic differential equations to a Hamiltonian mechanical system, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation of the chemical reaction systems. The obtained Fokker-Planck equation can be used in further studies of other steady properties of complex chemical reaction systems, such as their steady state entropies.

  20. From Chemical Langevin Equations to Fokker-Planck Equation: Application of Hodge Decomposition and Klein-Kramers Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stochastic systems without detailed balance are common in various chemical reaction systems, such as metabolic network systems. In studies of these systems, the concept of potential landscape is useful. However, what are the sufficient and necessary conditions of the existence of the potential function is still an open problem. Use Hodge decomposition theorem in differential form theory, we focus on the general chemical Langevin equations, which reflect complex chemical reaction systems. We analysis the conditions for the existence of potential landscape of the systems. By mapping the stochastic differential equations to a Hamiltonian mechanical system, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation of the chemical reaction systems. The obtained Fokker-Planck equation can be used in further studies of other steady properties of complex chemical reaction systems, such as their steady state entropies. (general)

  1. Sound Absorption in Molecular Gas Mixtures: Master Equation for Rotational and Vibrational Excitation, Relaxation, and Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    gases will have more than one relaxation time constant. Thus we write the chemical kinetics master equation as (1) (d/dt) Nm = Σnpq [ - kmn→pq Nm Nn + kpq→mn Np Nq ] which has the well-known time-dependent solution given by (2) Nm(t) = Σn Cmn exp(-λn t) where the λn values are the decay frequencies and the Cmn coefficients depend on how the gas was initially excited. What we have contributed is the frequency-dependent sound absorption solution to Equation (1): (3) cvint(ω) = Σnk Wn / (1 + i ω/λn) where cvint(ω) is the complex heat capacity (per molecule), ω is the circular sound frequency, 2πf, the λn are the calculated decay frequencies [as in Equation (2)] and k Wn is the real effective heat capacity for decay mode n. As pointed out by Landau and Teller [Phys. Z. Sowjet. 10, 34-43 (1936)], for a simple case when the decay modes correspond to vibrational modes, Wn is the ordinary heat capacity of the vibrational mode. In the more complicated case involving one or more reversible energy-transfer steps, e.g., water and oxygen, the vibrational modes and the decay modes do not correspond to each other, and we need to use the rate coefficients in Equation (1) to calculate both λn and Wn.

  2. Differential equations in the spectral parameter, Darboux transformations and a hierarchy of master symmetries for KdV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a certain family of Schroedinger operators whose eigenfunctions φ(x, λ) satisfy a differential equation in the spectral parameter λ of the form B(λ, dλ)φ=Θ(x)φ. We show that the flows of a hierarchy of master symmetries for KdV are tangent to the manifolds that compose the strata of this class of bispectral potentials. This extends and complements a result of Duistermaat and Gruenbaum concerning a similar property for the Adler and Moser potentials and the flows of the KdV hierarchy. (orig.)

  3. Parameter Estimates in Differential Equation Models for Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the need for devoting time in differential equations courses to modelling and the completion of the modelling process with efforts to estimate the parameters in the models using data. We estimate the parameters present in several differential equation models of chemical reactions of order n, where n = 0, 1, 2, and apply more general…

  4. Comparing the Models of Steepest Entropy Ascent Quantum Thermodynamics, Master Equation and the Difference Equation for a Simple Quantum System Interacting with Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest concerning the details about how quantum systems interact with their surroundings. A number of methodologies have been used to describe these interactions, including Master Equations (ME based on a system-plus-reservoir (S + R approach, and more recently, Steepest Entropy Ascent Quantum Thermodynamics (SEAQT which asserts that entropy is a fundamental physical property and that isolated quantum systems that are not at stable equilibrium may spontaneously relax without environmental influences. In this paper, the ME, SEAQT approaches, and a simple linear difference equation (DE model are compared with each other and experimental data in order to study the behavior of a single trapped ion as it interacts with one or more external heat reservoirs. The comparisons of the models present opportunities for additional study to verify the validity and limitations of these approaches.

  5. Jump-diffusion unravelling of a non-Markovian generalized Lindblad master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''correlated-projection technique'' has been successfully applied to derive a large class of highly non-Markovian dynamics, the so called non-Markovian generalized Lindblad-type equations or Lindblad rate equations. In this article, general unravelings are presented for these equations, described in terms of jump-diffusion stochastic differential equations for wave functions. We show also that the proposed unraveling can be interpreted in terms of measurements continuous in time but with some conceptual restrictions. The main point in the measurement interpretation is that the structure itself of the underlying mathematical theory poses restrictions on what can be considered as observable and what is not; such restrictions can be seen as the effect of some kind of superselection rule. Finally, we develop a concrete example and discuss possible effects on the heterodyne spectrum of a two-level system due to a structured thermal-like bath with memory.

  6. The master equation for the reduced open-system dynamics, including a Lindbladian description of finite-duration measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The most general form for the generator of quantum dynamical semigroups is the one proposed by Lindblad, which can be used in several approaches involving quantum mechanics for open systems, from analysis of noise and dissipation to fundamental aspects of the quantum theory of measurement. When dealing with a system interacting with its environment, the trace of the environmental degrees of freedom using the traditional approach of exponentiation of the Hamiltonian terms, originates prohibitive and difficult calculations. This paper presents an alternative analytic method to derive, through superoperator algebra and Nakajima-Zwanzig thermodynamic projectors, a compact and fairly simple master equation describing the reduced system dynamics. As a simple example of the present approach, we analyze a two-level system in contact with an environment, which allows us to observe the decoherence intensification by the interaction.

  7. Usefulness of an equal-probability assumption for out-of-equilibrium states: A master equation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Nogawa, Tomoaki

    2012-10-18

    We examine the effectiveness of assuming an equal probability for states far from equilibrium. For this aim, we propose a method to construct a master equation for extensive variables describing nonstationary nonequilibrium dynamics. The key point of the method is the assumption that transient states are equivalent to the equilibrium state that has the same extensive variables, i.e., an equal probability holds for microscopic states in nonequilibrium. We demonstrate an application of this method to the critical relaxation of the two-dimensional Potts model by Monte Carlo simulations. While the one-variable description, which is adequate for equilibrium, yields relaxation dynamics that are very fast, the redundant two-variable description well reproduces the true dynamics quantitatively. These results suggest that some class of the nonequilibrium state can be described with a small extension of degrees of freedom, which may lead to an alternative way to understand nonequilibrium phenomena. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  8. Global asymptotic stability for a class of nonlinear chemical equations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David F.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a class of nonlinear differential equations that arises in the study of chemical reaction systems that are known to be locally asymptotically stable and prove that they are in fact globally asymptotically stable. More specifically, we will consider chemical reaction systems that are weakly reversible, have a deficiency of zero, and are equipped with mass action kinetics. We show that if for each $c \\in \\R_{> 0}^m$ the intersection of the stoichiometric compatibility class $c + S$ ...

  9. Chemical Equilibrium and Polynomial Equations: Beware of Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes two easily applied mathematical theorems, Budan's rule and Rolle's theorem, that in addition to Descartes's rule of signs and intermediate-value theorem, are useful in chemical equilibrium. Provides examples that illustrate the use of all four theorems. Discusses limitations of the polynomial equation representation of chemical…

  10. Classification of quantum Markov master equations of spin systems with respect to the symmetry groups of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that many irreversible processes have a high degree of symmetry. Thus, spontaneous emission, thermal collisions, and the collisions of atoms or molecules of a gas with container walls lead to completely isotropic relaxation. The assumption of isotropy is also a good approximation in the presence of an external magnetic field if the energy of the Zeeman level splitting of the system is appreciably less than kT. Relaxation in the presence of a weak fluctuating perturbation, which is typical of liquids and gases, is also isotropic. In the presence of a strong magnetic field the environment is, as a rule, axisymmetric. In this connection, semigroups with different degrees of symmetry are widely used in the phenomenological description of the irreversible evolution of open quantum systems. In this paper, quantum Markov master equations of spin systems are classified (up to conjugation) with respect to the continuous symmetry groups of the environment. The Bloch equations are derived from the general theory of completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups

  11. Non-Markovian Second-Order Quantum Master Equation and Its Markovian Limit: Electronic Energy Transfer in Model Photosynthetic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Navinder

    2011-01-01

    A direct numerical algorithm for solving the time-nonlocal non-Markovian master equation in the second Born approximation is introduced and the range of utility of this approximation, and of the Markov approximation, is analyzed for the traditional dimer system that models excitation energy transfer in photosynthesis. Specifically, the coupled integro-differential equations for the reduced density matrix are solved by an efficient auxiliary function method in both the energy and site representations. In addition to giving exact results to this order, the approach allows us to computationally assess the range of the reorganization energy and decay rates of the phonon auto-correlation function for which the Markovian Redfield theory and the second order approximation is valid. For example, the use of Redfield theory for $\\lambda> 10 \\textrm{cm}^{-1}$ in systems like Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) type systems is shown to be in error. In addition, analytic inequalities are obtained for the regime of validity of the M...

  12. Dielectric function and plasmons in graphene: A self-consistent-field calculation within a Markovian master equation formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, F.; Davoody, A. H.; Knezevic, I.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a method for calculating the dielectric function of nanostructures with an arbitrary band dispersion and Bloch wave functions. The linear response of a dissipative electronic system to an external electromagnetic field is calculated by a self-consistent-field approach within a Markovian master-equation formalism (SCF-MMEF) coupled with full-wave electromagnetic equations. The SCF-MMEF accurately accounts for several concurrent scattering mechanisms. The method captures interband electron-hole-pair generation, as well as the interband and intraband electron scattering with phonons and impurities. We employ the SCF-MMEF to calculate the dielectric function, complex conductivity, and loss function for supported graphene. From the loss-function maximum, we obtain plasmon dispersion and propagation length for different substrate types [nonpolar diamondlike carbon (DLC) and polar SiO2 and hBN], impurity densities, carrier densities, and temperatures. Plasmons on the two polar substrates are suppressed below the highest surface phonon energy, while the spectrum is broad on the nonpolar DLC. Plasmon propagation lengths are comparable on polar and nonpolar substrates and are on the order of tens of nanometers, considerably shorter than previously reported. They improve with fewer impurities, at lower temperatures, and at higher carrier densities.

  13. Comparison of Control Approaches in Genetic Regulatory Networks by Using Stochastic Master Equation Models, Probabilistic Boolean Network Models and Differential Equation Models and Estimated Error Analyzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Mehmet Umut; Pal, Ranadip

    2011-03-01

    Central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid''. However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of cell level data and probabilistic - nonlinear nature of interactions. Several models widely used to analyze and simulate these types of nonlinear interactions. Stochastic Master Equation (SME) models give probabilistic nature of the interactions in a detailed manner, with a high calculation cost. On the other hand Probabilistic Boolean Network (PBN) models give a coarse scale picture of the stochastic processes, with a less calculation cost. Differential Equation (DE) models give the time evolution of mean values of processes in a highly cost effective way. The understanding of the relations between the predictions of these models is important to understand the reliability of the simulations of genetic regulatory networks. In this work the success of the mapping between SME, PBN and DE models is analyzed and the accuracy and affectivity of the control policies generated by using PBN and DE models is compared.

  14. Development of a chlorine chemistry module for the Master Chemical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, T.; Gao, R.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-10-01

    The chlorine atom (Cl·) has a high potential to perturb atmospheric photochemistry by oxidizing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but the exact role it plays in the polluted troposphere remains unclear. The Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) is a near-explicit mechanism that has been widely applied in the atmospheric chemistry research. While it addresses comprehensively the chemistry initiated by the OH, O3 and NO3 radicals, its representation of the Cl· chemistry is incomplete as it only considers the reactions for alkanes. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive Cl· chemistry module that can be directly incorporated within the MCM framework. A suite of 205 chemical reactions describes the Cl·-initiated degradation of alkenes, aromatics, alkynes, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and some organic acids and nitrates, along with the inorganic chemistry involving Cl· and its precursors. To demonstrate the potential influence of the new chemistry module, it was incorporated into a MCM box model to evaluate the impacts of nitryl chloride (ClNO2), a product of nocturnal halogen activation by nitrogen oxides (NOX), on the following day's atmospheric photochemistry. With constraints of recent observations collected at a coastal site in Hong Kong, southern China, the modeling analyses suggest that the Cl· produced from ClNO2 photolysis may substantially enhance the atmospheric oxidative capacity, VOC oxidation and O3 formation, particularly in the early morning period. The results demonstrate the critical need for photochemical models to include more detailed chlorine chemistry in order to better understand the atmospheric photochemistry in polluted environments subject to intense emissions of NOX, VOCs and chlorine-containing constituents.

  15. Boltzmann Equation Solver Adapted to Emergent Chemical Non-equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Birrell, Jeremiah

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method to solve the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic Boltzmann equation. We employ a basis set of orthogonal polynomials dynamically adapted to allow emergence of chemical non-equilibrium. Two time dependent parameters characterize the set of orthogonal polynomials, the effective temperature $T(t)$ and phase space occupation factor $\\Upsilon(t)$. In this first paper we address (effectively) massless fermions and derive dynamical equations for $T(t)$ and $\\Upsilon(t)$ such that the zeroth order term of the basis alone captures the number density and energy density of each particle distribution. We validate our method and illustrate the reduced computational cost and the ability to represent final state chemical non-equilibrium by studying a model problem that is motivated by the physics of the neutrino freeze-out processes in the early Universe, where the essential physical characteristics include reheating from another disappearing particle component ($e^\\pm$-annihilation).

  16. Unraveling of a detailed-balance-preserved quantum master equation and continuous feedback control of a measured qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, JunYan; Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shi-Kuan; Hu, Jing; Huang, Yixiao; He, Xiao-Ling

    2016-03-01

    We present a generic unraveling scheme for a detailed-balance-preserved quantum master equation applicable for stochastic point processes in mesoscopic transport. It enables us to investigate continuous measurement of a qubit on the level of single quantum trajectories, where essential correlations between the inherent dynamics of the qubit and detector current fluctuations are revealed. Based on this unraveling scheme, feedback control of the charge qubit is implemented to achieve a desired pure state in the presence of the detailed-balance condition. With sufficient feedback strength, coherent oscillations of the measured qubit can be maintained for arbitrary qubit-detector coupling. Competition between the loss and restoration of coherence entailed, respectively, by measurement back action and feedback control is reflected in the noise power spectrum of the detector's output. It is demonstrated unambiguously that the signal-to-noise ratio is significantly enhanced with increasing feedback strength and could even exceed the well-known Korotkov-Averin bound in quantum measurement. The proposed unraveling and feedback scheme offers a transparent and straightforward approach to effectively sustaining ideal coherent oscillations of a charge qubit in the field of quantum computation.

  17. Nonequilibrium Shot Noise Spectrum Through a Quantum Dot in the Kondo Regime: A Master Equation Approach under Self-Consistent Born Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a number(n)-resolved master equation (ME) approach under self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA) for noise spectrum calculation. The formulation is essentially non-Markovian and incorporates properly the interlay of the multi-tunneling processes and many-body correlations. We apply this approach to the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo system and predict a profound nonequilibrium Kondo signature in the shot noise spectrum. The proposed n-SCBA-ME scheme goes completely beyond the scope of the Born-Markovian master equation approach, in the sense of being applicable to the shot noise of transport under small bias voltage, in non-Markovian regime, and with strong Coulomb correlations as favorably demonstrated in the nonequilibrium Kondo system. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Retrodictive derivation of the radical-ion-pair master equation and Monte-Carlo simulation with single-molecule quantum trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Kritsotakis, M.; Kominis, I. K.

    2014-01-01

    Radical-ion-pair reactions, central in photosynthesis and the avian magnetic compass mechanism, have recently shown to be a paradigm system for applying quantum information science in a biochemical setting. The fundamental quantum master equation describing radical-ion-pair reactions is still under debate. We here use quantum retrodiction to produce a rigorous refinement of the theory put forward in Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 83}, 056118 (2011). We also provide a rigorous analysis of the measure of si...

  19. Exact derivation and solution of the Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized master equation and discussion of approximate treatments for the coupled coherent and incoherent exciton motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineker, P.; Kühne, R.

    1980-03-01

    Starting from the stochastic Liouville equation of the full Haken-Strobl model, describing the coupled coherent and incoherent motion of excitons in molecular crystals, the Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized master equation (GME) for the probability of finding an exciton at a specific lattice site is derived by an exact straightforward evaluation of its memory function. Various recently derived generalized master equations describing the excition motion are obtained as limiting cases and the Born approximation is discussed. It is shown that, even in the case of nearest-neighbor interaction in the stochastic Liouville equation, in the GME generalized time-dependent transition rates evolve between non-nearest neighbors and that their time behavior shows damped oscillations. Applying the Born approximation to the GME, the range of the generalized transition rates reduces to that of the interaction in the stochastic Liouville equation. Furthermore in this approximation the transition rates show a purely exponential decay with increasing time. Taking into account the interaction with an arbitrary number of neighbors, the mean square displacement of the exciton motion is calculated exactly from the GME. Finally the GME is solved exactly in the general case and several limiting expressions are discussed.

  20. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system

    OpenAIRE

    Brett, Tobias; Galla, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formali...

  1. A new approach to calculating the memory kernel of the generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2003-12-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics. The standard approach is based on using a perturbative treatment of the system-bath coupling for calculating this kernel, and is therefore restricted to systems weakly coupled to the bath. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel for an arbitrary system-bath coupling. The memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two coupled integral equations that relate it to a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the case of an asymetrical two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic bath.

  2. A New Pseudoinverse Matrix Method For Balancing Chemical Equations And Their Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risteski, Ice B. [2 Milepost Place, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    In this work is given a new pseudoniverse matrix method for balancing chemical equations. Here offered method is founded on virtue of the solution of a Diophantine matrix equation by using of a Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse matrix. The method has been tested on several typical chemical equations and found to be very successful for the all equations in our extensive balancing research. This method, which works successfully without any limitations, also has the capability to determine the feasibility of a new chemical reaction, and if it is feasible, then it will balance the equation. Chemical equations treated here possess atoms with fractional oxidation numbers. Also, in the present work are introduced necessary and sufficient criteria for stability of chemical equations over stability of their extended matrices.

  3. Polaron master equation theory of pulse-driven phonon-assisted population inversion and single-photon emission from quantum-dot excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Ross; Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik; Hughes, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an intuitive and semianalytical polaron master equation approach to model pulse-driven population inversion and emitted single photons from a quantum dot exciton. The master equation theory allows one to identify important phonon-induced scattering rates analytically and fully includes the role of the time-dependent pump field. As an application of the theory, we first study a quantum dot driven by a time-varying laser pulse on and off resonance, showing the population inversion caused by acoustic phonon emission in direct agreement with recent experiments of Quilter et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 137401 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.137401]. We then model quantum dots in weakly coupled cavities and show the difference in population response between exciton-driven and cavity-driven systems. Finally, we assess the nonresonant phonon-assisted loading scheme with a quantum dot resonantly coupled to a cavity as a deterministic single-photon source. We also compare and contrast the important single photon figures of merit with direct Rabi oscillation of the population using a resonant π pulse, and show that the resonant scheme is much more efficient.

  4. The effect of memory in the stochastic master equation analyzed using the stochastic Liouville equation of motion. Electronic energy migration transfer between reorienting donor-donor, donor-acceptor chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Pär; Westlund, Per-Olof

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of energy migration transfer within reorientating chromophores using the stochastic master equation (SME) and the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) of motion. We have found that the SME over-estimates the rate of the energy migration compared to the SLE solution for a case of weakly interacting chromophores. This discrepancy between SME and SLE is caused by a memory effect occurring when fluctuations in the dipole-dipole Hamiltonian ( H( t)) are on the same timescale as the intrinsic fast transverse relaxation rate characterized by (1/ T2). Thus the timescale critical for energy-transfer experiments is T2≈10 -13 s. An extended SME is constructed, accounting for the memory effect of the dipole-dipole Hamiltonian dynamics. The influence of memory on the interpretation of experiments is discussed.

  5. Modeling Fluid’s Dynamics with Master Equations in Ultrametric Spaces Representing the Treelike Structure of Capillary Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new conceptual approach for modeling of fluid flows in random porous media based on explicit exploration of the treelike geometry of complex capillary networks. Such patterns can be represented mathematically as ultrametric spaces and the dynamics of fluids by ultrametric diffusion. The images of p-adic fields, extracted from the real multiscale rock samples and from some reference images, are depicted. In this model the porous background is treated as the environment contributing to the coefficients of evolutionary equations. For the simplest trees, these equations are essentially less complicated than those with fractional differential operators which are commonly applied in geological studies looking for some fractional analogs to conventional Euclidean space but with anomalous scaling and diffusion properties. It is possible to solve the former equation analytically and, in particular, to find stationary solutions. The main aim of this paper is to attract the attention of researchers working on modeling of geological processes to the novel utrametric approach and to show some examples from the petroleum reservoir static and dynamic characterization, able to integrate the p-adic approach with multifractals, thermodynamics and scaling. We also present a non-mathematician friendly review of trees and ultrametric spaces and pseudo-differential operators on such spaces.

  6. OPS Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OPS Master is a management tool and database for integrated financial planning and portfolio management in USAID Missions. Using OPS Master, the three principal...

  7. Uses and abuses of the Langevin equation for chemical reactions in condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations are useful in the description of many classical and quantum mechanical systems. However, these equations are justifiable from molecular considerations under very restricted conditions. These conditions include weak coupling. Brownian motion, and systems with special Hamiltonians. The application of these equations to chemical reactions in condensed phases is fraught with peril, particularly for fluid systems. The authors examine the molecular derivations of these equations and describe the conditions under which they are justifiable. It is, of course, possible that the equations are useful under other conditions

  8. Exact solution of Markovian master equations for quadratic fermi systems: thermal baths, open XY spin chains, and non-equilibrium phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the method of third quantization to a unified exact treatment of Redfield and Lindblad master equations for open quadratic systems of n fermions in terms of diagonalization of 4n x 4n matrix. Non-equilibrium thermal driving in terms of the Redfield equation is analyzed in detail. We explain how to compute all physically relevant quantities, such as non-equilibrium expectation values of local observables, various entropies or information measures, or time evolution and properties of relaxation. We also discuss how to exactly treat explicitly time dependent problems. The general formalism is then applied to study a thermally driven open XY spin 1/2 chain. We find that recently proposed non-equilibrium quantum phase transition in the open XY chain survives the thermal driving within the Redfield model. In particular, the phase of long-range magnetic correlations can be characterized by hypersensitivity of the non-equilibrium-steady state to external (bath or bulk) parameters. Studying the heat tran...

  9. The equation of state of QCD at finite chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sourendu; Majumdar, Pushan

    2014-01-01

    We obtain the baryon number density, n, and the excess contribution to the pressure, Delta P, at finite chemical potential, mu_B, and temperature, T, by resumming the Taylor series expansion in a lattice computation with lattice spacing of 1/(4T) and two flavours of quarks at three different quark masses. The method proceeds by giving a critical mu_B and limits on the critical exponent, and permits reliable estimations of the errors in resummed quantities. We find that n and Delta P are insensitive to the quark mass. We also report the bulk isothermal compressibility, kappa, over a range of T and mu_B.

  10. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: Chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.brett@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Galla, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.galla@manchester.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-28

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period.

  11. Gaussian approximations for stochastic systems with delay: Chemical Langevin equation and application to a Brusselator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a heuristic derivation of Gaussian approximations for stochastic chemical reaction systems with distributed delay. In particular, we derive the corresponding chemical Langevin equation. Due to the non-Markovian character of the underlying dynamics, these equations are integro-differential equations, and the noise in the Gaussian approximation is coloured. Following on from the chemical Langevin equation, a further reduction leads to the linear-noise approximation. We apply the formalism to a delay variant of the celebrated Brusselator model, and show how it can be used to characterise noise-driven quasi-cycles, as well as noise-triggered spiking. We find surprisingly intricate dependence of the typical frequency of quasi-cycles on the delay period

  12. Transport through an Anderson impurity: Current ringing, nonlinear magnetization, and a direct comparison of continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo and hierarchical quantum master equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtle, R.; Cohen, G.; Reichman, D. R.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    We give a detailed comparison of the hierarchical quantum master equation (HQME) method to a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) approach, assessing the usability of these numerically exact schemes as impurity solvers in practical nonequilibrium calculations. We review the main characteristics of the methods and discuss the scaling of the associated numerical effort. We substantiate our discussion with explicit numerical results for the nonequilibrium transport properties of a single-site Anderson impurity. The numerical effort of the HQME scheme scales linearly with the simulation time but increases (at worst exponentially) with decreasing temperature. In contrast, CT-QMC is less restricted by temperature at short times, but in general the cost of going to longer times is also exponential. After establishing the numerical exactness of the HQME scheme, we use it to elucidate the influence of different ways to induce transport through the impurity on the initial dynamics, discuss the phenomenon of coherent current oscillations, known as current ringing, and explain the nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the steady-state magnetization as a result of competing broadening effects. We also elucidate the pronounced nonlinear magnetization dynamics, which appears on intermediate time scales in the presence of an asymmetric coupling to the electrodes.

  13. Chemical oceanography of the Indian Ocean, north of the equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. Sen; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    Chemical oceanographic studies in the North Indian Ocean have revealed several interesting and unique features. These are caused by the diverse conditions prevailing in the area which include immense river runoff in the northeast (Bay of Bengal) and a large excess of evaporation over precipitation and runoff in the northwest (Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and Red Sea), resulting in the formation of several low- and high-salinity water masses. The occurrence of coastal upwelling seasonally makes the region highly fertile, and the existence of Asian landmass, forming the northern boundary, prevents quick renewal of subsurface layers. Consequently, dissolved oxygen gets severely depleted below the thermocline and reducing conditions prevail at intermediate depths (ca. 150-1200m) resulting in the reduction of nitrate (denitrification). The North Indian Ocean may contribute up to 10% of the global marine denitrification. The "denitrified" nitrogen, when combined with the rate of photosynthetic production reaching below the euphotic zone, gives the average residence time of water between 75 and 1200m as 43-51 years. The inorganic nutrient concentrations in the subsurface layers are very high in close proximity of the euphotic zone. The two-layered circulation leads to an active recycling of nutrients. The presence of organic fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus in significant concentrations in the deep water suggest that oxidation of organic matter is incomplete even great depths. The relationships between the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and nutrients and the stoichiometric composition of organic matter, deduced from the oxidative ratios and by analysis of plankton, are not very different from other oceanic areas. Higher nutrients and lower oxygen concentrations occur in the bottom layer as compared to the overlying water column in deep waters of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, suggesting that considerable quantities of organic matter reach the deep-sea floor

  14. A New Mathematical Formulation of the Governing Equations for the Chemical Compositional Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen E; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen

    2015-01-01

    It is the purpose of this work to develop new approach for chemical compositional reservoir simulation, which may be regarded as a sequential method. The development process can be roughly divided into the following two stages: (1) development of a new mathematical formulation for the sequential chemical compositional reservoir simulation, (2) implementation of a sequential solution approach for chemical compositional reservoir simulation based on the formulation described in this paper. This paper addresses the first stage of the development process by presenting a new mathematical formulation of the chemical compositional reservoir flow equations for the sequential simulation. The newly developed mathematical formulation is extended from the model formulation used in existing chemical compositional simulators. During the model development process, it was discovered that the currently used chemical compositional model estimates the adsorption effect on the transport of a component reasonably well but it viol...

  15. Amendment of Master equation and its calculation for degree distribution of the model BA%Master方程的修正及其对BA模型度分布的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双进; 李凌云; 张建

    2011-01-01

    An amendment to the original Master equation was put forward, and a mechanism for node increases was introduced. The modified Master equation was of discreteness, which was more accurate, more efficient to calculate the evolution law of degree distribution of real complex network. The analysis formula of degree distribution of model BA and its calculation by the modified Master equation were discussed. From this. the logarithmic figure of degree distribution of model BA was gotlen. Then a compassion was made between the discrete Master equation and mean - field theory, and logarithmic figure was gotten, that of degree distribution of model BA wich two kinds calculative theory in the same coordinate system.%Master方程是计算无标度网络度分布演化规律的一种常用方法.提出了对原始的Master方程进行修正,加入了节点增长机制,修正后的Master方程具有离散性,能够更精确、更有效的计算真实复杂网络的度分布演化规律.用修正的Master方程分析BA模型度分布的解析武并计算,由此得到BA模型度分布对数图.把离散性的Master方程与连续性的平均场理论进行对比分析,并在同一坐标系下分别做出用两种理论计算的BA模型度分布的对数图.

  16. Calculation for Degree Distribution of the Model BA by Amendment of Master Equation%用修正后的主方程计算BA模型度分布的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双进; 李凌云; 李佳

    2011-01-01

    An amendment to the original Master equation and add a mechanism for node increases is be put for ward. The modified Master equation is of discreteness, which is more accurate, more efficient to calculate the evo lution law of degree distribution of real complex network. The analysis formula of degree distribution of model BA and its calculation by the modified Master equation is discussed. From this we get the logarithmic figure of degree distribution of model BA. Then we make a compassion between the discrete Master equation and mean-field theory, and get logarithmic figure of degree distribution of model BA with two kinds calculative theory in the same coor dinate system.%提出了对原始的Master方程进行修正,加入了节点增长机制,修正后的Master方程具有离散性,能够更精确、更有效地计算真实复杂网络的度分布演化规律.用修正的Master方程分析BA模型度分布的解析式并计算,由此得出BA模型度分布对数图.把离散性的Master方程与连续性的平均场理论进行对比分析,并在同一坐标系下分别作出用2种理论计算的BA模型度分布的对数图.

  17. Development of an Electrolyte CPA Equation of state for Applications in the Petroleum and Chemical Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn

    This thesis extends the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS) to handle mixtures containing ions from fully dissociated salts. The CPA EoS has during the past 18 years been applied to thermodynamic modeling of a wide range of industrially important chemicals, mainly in relation to ...

  18. Discrete formulation of mixed finite element methods for vapor deposition chemical reaction equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhen-dong; ZHOU Yan-jie; ZHU Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The vapor deposition chemical reaction processes, which are of extremely extensive applications, can be classified as a mathematical modes by the following governing nonlinear partial differential equations containing velocity vector,temperature field,pressure field,and gas mass field.The mixed finite element(MFE)method is employed to study the system of equations for the vapor deposition chemical reaction processes.The semidiscrete and fully discrete MFE formulations are derived.And the existence and convergence(error estimate)of the semidiscrete and fully discrete MFE solutions are deposition chemical reaction processes,the numerical solutions of the velocity vector,the temperature field,the pressure field,and the gas mass field can be found out simultaneonsly.Thus,these researches are not only of important theoretical means,but also of extremely extensive applied vistas.

  19. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  20. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH93JR, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  1. On Validity of Linear Phenomenological Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Equations in Chemical Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical equilibrium state is treated as a fundamental ''reference frame'' in description of chemical reaction. In a definition of reactive absolute activities for components in chemical reaction the difference of chemical potential and its value in the equilibrium is used. The chemical reaction rate is shown to be proportional to the force Xnew defined as the difference of reactive absolute activities of reactants and products. The force Xnew is shown to be equivalent to the force following from chemical kinetics equations and compared with the reduced affinity X as well as with the force of Ross and Mazur XRM = 1 - exp(-X). The force Xnew coincides with X and XRM near to the chemical equilibrium state. A range of the molar fraction of product, in which a difference between the forces Xnew and X is relatively small, is larger than it would be for the forces XRM and X. It means that for some chemical reactions the formalism of linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be used in wider ranges than usually expected. Particular analysis is presented for simple reactions. (author)

  2. Momentum balance equation for nonelectrolytes in models of coupling between chemical reaction and diffusion in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałdzicki, Z; Miekisz, S

    1984-04-01

    The role of viscosity in coupling between chemical reaction (complex formation) and diffusion in membranes has been investigated. The Fick law was replaced by the momentum balance equation with the viscous term. The irreversible thermodynamics admits coupling of the chemical reaction rate with the gradient of velocity. The proposed model has shown the contrary effect of viscosity and confirmed the experimental results. The chemical reaction rate increases only above the limit value of viscosity. The parameter Q (degree of complex formation) was introduced to investigate coupling. Q equals to the ratio of the chemical contribution into the flux of the complex to the total flux of the substance transported. For different values of the parameters of the model the dependence of Q upon position inside the membrane has been numerically calculated. The assumptions of the model limit it to a specific case and they only roughly model the biological situation. PMID:6537360

  3. Hot QCD equation of state and quark-gluon plasma-- finite quark chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    We explore the relevance of a hot QCD equation of state of $O[g^6\\ln(1/g)]$, which has been obtained\\cite{avrn} for non-vanishing quark-chemical potentials to heavy ion collisions. Employing a method proposed in a recent paper \\cite{chandra1}, we use the EOS to determine a host of thermodynamic quantities, the energy density, specific heat, entropy dnesity, and the temperature dependence of screening lengths, with the behaviour of QGP at RHIC and LHC in mind. We also investigate the sensitivity of these observables to the quark chemical potential.

  4. Fast stochastic simulation of biochemical reaction systems by alternative formulations of the chemical Langevin equation

    KAUST Repository

    Mélykúti, Bence

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Langevin Equation (CLE), which is a stochastic differential equation driven by a multidimensional Wiener process, acts as a bridge between the discrete stochastic simulation algorithm and the deterministic reaction rate equation when simulating (bio)chemical kinetics. The CLE model is valid in the regime where molecular populations are abundant enough to assume their concentrations change continuously, but stochastic fluctuations still play a major role. The contribution of this work is that we observe and explore that the CLE is not a single equation, but a parametric family of equations, all of which give the same finite-dimensional distribution of the variables. On the theoretical side, we prove that as many Wiener processes are sufficient to formulate the CLE as there are independent variables in the equation, which is just the rank of the stoichiometric matrix. On the practical side, we show that in the case where there are m1 pairs of reversible reactions and m2 irreversible reactions there is another, simple formulation of the CLE with only m1 + m2 Wiener processes, whereas the standard approach uses 2 m1 + m2. We demonstrate that there are considerable computational savings when using this latter formulation. Such transformations of the CLE do not cause a loss of accuracy and are therefore distinct from model reduction techniques. We illustrate our findings by considering alternative formulations of the CLE for a human ether a-go-go related gene ion channel model and the Goldbeter-Koshland switch. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  5. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: New Approach for Solving Master Equations in Quantum Optics and Quantum Statistics by Virtue of Thermo-Entangled State Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Yi; Hu, Li-Yun

    2009-04-01

    By introducing a fictitious mode to be a counterpart mode of the system mode under review we introduce the entangled state representation langleη|, which can arrange master equations of density operators ρ(t) in quantum statistics as state-vector evolution equations due to the elegant properties of langleη|. In this way many master equations (respectively describing damping oscillator, laser, phase sensitive, and phase diffusion processes with different initial density operators) can be concisely solved. Specially, for a damping process characteristic of the decay constant κ we find that the matrix element of ρ(t) at time t in langleη| representation is proportional to that of the initial ρ0 in the decayed entangled state langleηe-κt| representation, accompanying with a Gaussian damping factor. Thus we have a new insight about the nature of the dissipative process. We also set up the so-called thermo-entangled state representation of density operators, ρ = ∫(d2η/π)langleη|ρrangleD(η), which is different from all the previous known representations.

  6. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part A: tropospheric degradation of non-aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Saunders

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the production of secondary pollutants, have previously been used to define a protocol which underpinned the construction of a near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism. In this paper, an update to the previous protocol is presented, which has been used to define degradation schemes for 107 non-aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. The treatment of 18 aromatic VOC is described in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the reactions of the radical intermediates and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on updating the previous information, and outlining the methodology which is specifically applicable to VOC not considered previously (e.g. a- and b-pinene. The present protocol aims to take into consideration work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Application of MCM v3 in appropriate box models indicates that the representation of isoprene degradation provides a good description of the speciated distribution of oxygenated organic products observed in reported field studies where isoprene was the dominant emitted hydrocarbon, and that the a-pinene degradation chemistry provides a good description of the time dependence of key gas phase species in a-pinene/NOX photo-oxidation experiments carried out in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 106 non-aromatic non-methane VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. Where applicable, the values are compared with

  7. Mastering Grunt

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This easy-to-understand tutorial provides you with several engaging projects that show you how to utilize Grunt with various web technologies, teaching you how to master build automation and testing with Grunt in your applications.If you are a JavaScript developer who is looking to streamline their workflow with build-automation, then this book will give you a kick start in fully understanding the importance of the described web technologies and automate their processes using Grunt.

  8. Numerical kinetic model including equilibrium and rate equations for chemical reactions of actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation method was examined for chemical reactions of actinide elements U, Pu, Np, and Tc etc. in an aqueous nitric acid solution. It is known that the numerical calculation for the Purex process with chemical reactions and liquid flow becomes stiff, because time constant for the chemical reactions is two to three order of magnitude smaller due to the very fast reactions than that of mass transfer or of reaching distribution equilibrium. Recently in order to increase a time step Δt the partial equilibrium (P.E.) model, in which some very fast reactions are treated by the equilibrium law whereas other reactions are by the rate law, has been proposed. In the present study concentration change of the solutes in an aqueous solution with 30 chemical reactions, of which 4 are expressed by equilibrium equations, has been calculated. Description of the P.E. model and the comparison of the results and cpu time between the kinetic and the P.E. models are given. (author)

  9. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part A: tropospheric degradation of non-aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Saunders

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the production of secondary pollutants, have previously been used to define a protocol which underpinned the construction of a near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism. In this paper, an update to the previous protocol is presented, which has been used to define degradation schemes for 107 non-aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. The treatment of 18 aromatic VOC is described in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the reactions of the radical intermediates and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on updating the previous information, and outlining the methodology which is specifically applicable to VOC not considered previously (e.g. a- and b-pinene. The present protocol aims to take into consideration work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Application of MCM v3 in appropriate box models indicates that the representation of isoprene degradation provides a good description of the speciated distribution of oxygenated organic products observed in reported field studies where isoprene was the dominant emitted hydrocarbon, and that the a-pinene degradation chemistry provides a good description of the time dependence of key gas phase species in a-pinene/NOX photo-oxidation experiments carried out in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 106 non-aromatic non-methane VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP

  10. Molecular finite-size effects in stochastic models of equilibrium chemical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cianci, Claudia; Smith, Stephen; Grima, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a standard modelling approach for understanding stochastic and spatial chemical kinetics. An inherent assumption is that molecules are point-like. Here, we introduce the excluded volume reaction-diffusion master equation (vRDME) which takes into account volume exclusion effects on stochastic kinetics due to a finite molecular radius. We obtain an exact closed form solution of the RDME and of the vRDME for a general chemical system in equilibriu...

  11. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part B: tropospheric degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Jenkin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC have been used to define a mechanism development protocol, which has been used to construct degradation schemes for 18 aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. This is complementary to the treatment of 107 non-aromatic VOC, presented in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the degradation chemistry to first generation products via a number of competitive routes, and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on describing where the treatment differs from that applied to the non-aromatic VOC. The protocol is based on work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 18 aromatic VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. These show distinct differences from POCP values calculated previously for the aromatics, using earlier versions of the MCM, and reasons for these differences are discussed.

  12. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part B: tropospheric degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Jenkin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOC have been used to define a mechanism development protocol, which has been used to construct degradation schemes for 18 aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. This is complementary to the treatment of 107 non-aromatic VOC, presented in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the degradation chemistry to first generation products via a number of competitive routes, and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on describing where the treatment differs from that applied to the non-aromatic VOC. The protocol is based on work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 18 aromatic VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. These show distinct differences from POCP values calculated previously for the aromatics, using earlier versions of the MCM, and reasons for these differences are discussed.

  13. Validity conditions for moment closure approximations in stochastic chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximations based on moment-closure (MA) are commonly used to obtain estimates of the mean molecule numbers and of the variance of fluctuations in the number of molecules of chemical systems. The advantage of this approach is that it can be far less computationally expensive than exact stochastic simulations of the chemical master equation. Here, we numerically study the conditions under which the MA equations yield results reflecting the true stochastic dynamics of the system. We show that for bistable and oscillatory chemical systems with deterministic initial conditions, the solution of the MA equations can be interpreted as a valid approximation to the true moments of the chemical master equation, only when the steady-state mean molecule numbers obtained from the chemical master equation fall within a certain finite range. The same validity criterion for monostable systems implies that the steady-state mean molecule numbers obtained from the chemical master equation must be above a certain threshold. For mean molecule numbers outside of this range of validity, the MA equations lead to either qualitatively wrong oscillatory dynamics or to unphysical predictions such as negative variances in the molecule numbers or multiple steady-state moments of the stationary distribution as the initial conditions are varied. Our results clarify the range of validity of the MA approach and show that pitfalls in the interpretation of the results can only be overcome through the systematic comparison of the solutions of the MA equations of a certain order with those of higher orders

  14. Noise-induced multistability in chemical systems: Discrete versus continuum modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duncan, A.; Liao, S.; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Erban, R.; Grima, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 4 (2015), s. 042111. ISSN 1539-3755 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 328008 - STOCHDETBIOMODEL Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : chemical master equation * chemical Fokker-Planck equation * multimodality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014 http://journals.aps.org/pre/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevE.91.042111

  15. Ab initio studies of equations of state and chemical reactions of reactive structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Roussislava

    subject of studies of the shock or thermally induced chemical reactions of the two solids comprising these reactive materials, from first principles, is a relatively new field of study. The published literature on ab initio techniques or quantum mechanics based approaches consists of the ab initio or ab initio-molecular dynamics studies in related fields that contain a solid and a gas. One such study in the literature involves a gas and a solid. This is an investigation of the adsorption of gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO) on Tungsten. The motivation for these studies is to synthesize alternate or synthetic fuel technology by Fischer-Tropsch process. In this thesis these studies are first to establish the procedure for solid-solid reaction and then to extend that to consider the effects of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energy and chemisorptions of CO on tungsten. Then in this thesis, similar studies are also conducted on the effect of mechanical strain and temperature on the binding energies of Titanium and hydrogen. The motivations are again to understand the method and extend the method to such solid-solid reactions. A second motivation is to seek strained conditions that favor hydrogen storage and strain conditions that release hydrogen easily when needed. Following the establishment of ab initio and ab initio studies of chemical reactions between a solid and a gas, the next step of research is to study thermally induced chemical reaction between two solids (Ni+Al). Thus, specific new studies of the thesis are as follows: (1) Ab initio Studies of Binding energies associated with chemisorption of (a) CO on W surfaces (111, and 100) at elevated temperatures and strains and (b) adsorption of hydrogen in titanium base. (2) Equations of state of mixtures of reactive material structures from ab initio methods. (3) Ab initio studies of the reaction initiation, transition states and reaction products of intermetallic mixtures of (Ni+Al) at elevated

  16. Numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation for use in calculating pumping rates in a CO sub 2 discharge laser. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honey, D.A.

    1989-12-01

    The collisional Boltzmann equation was solved numerically to obtain excitation rates for use in a CO{sub 2} laser design program. The program was written in Microsoft QuickBasic for use on the IBM Personal Computer or equivalent. Program validation involved comparisons of computed transport coefficients with experimental data and previous theoretical work. Four different numerical algorithms were evaluated in terms of accuracy and efficiency. L-U decomposition was identified as the preferred approach. The calculated transport coefficients were found to agree with empirical data within one to five percent. The program was integrated into a CO{sub 2} laser design program. Studies were then performed to evaluate the effects on predicted laser output power and energy density as parameters affecting electron kinetics were changed. Plotting routines were written for both programs.

  17. Assessing chemistry schemes and constraints in air quality models used to predict ozone in London against the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Heard, Dwayne E; Hood, Christina; Stocker, Jenny; Carruthers, David; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Vieno, Massimo; Lee, James; Kleffmann, Jörg; Laufs, Sebastian; Whalley, Lisa K

    2016-07-18

    Air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on human health in Europe. Understanding the key processes driving air quality across the relevant spatial scales, especially during pollution exceedances and episodes, is essential to provide effective predictions for both policymakers and the public. It is particularly important for policy regulators to understand the drivers of local air quality that can be regulated by national policies versus the contribution from regional pollution transported from mainland Europe or elsewhere. One of the main objectives of the Coupled Urban and Regional processes: Effects on AIR quality (CUREAIR) project is to determine local and regional contributions to ozone events. A detailed zero-dimensional (0-D) box model run with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2) is used as the benchmark model against which the less explicit chemistry mechanisms of the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and the Common Representative Intermediates (CRIv2-R5) schemes are evaluated. GRS and CRI are used by the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) and the regional chemistry transport model EMEP4UK, respectively. The MCM model uses a near-explicit chemical scheme for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is constrained to observations of VOCs, NOx, CO, HONO (nitrous acid), photolysis frequencies and meteorological parameters measured during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) campaign. The sensitivity of the less explicit chemistry schemes to different model inputs has been investigated: Constraining GRS to the total VOC observed during ClearfLo as opposed to VOC derived from ADMS-Urban dispersion calculations, including emissions and background concentrations, led to a significant increase (674% during winter) in modelled ozone. The inclusion of HONO chemistry in this mechanism, particularly during wintertime when other radical sources are limited, led to substantial increases in the ozone levels predicted

  18. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  19. Microscale Procedure for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis with Emphasis on Writing Equations: Chemical Fingerprinting Applied to the "n"-bottle Problem of Matching Samples with Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattsangi, Prem D.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory method for teaching inorganic qualitative analysis and chemical equations is described. The experiment has been designed to focus attention on cations and anions that react to form products. This leads to a logical approach to understand and write chemical equations. The procedure uses 3 mL plastic micropipettes to store and deliver…

  20. Family name distributions: Master equation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seung Ki; Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Kim, Beom Jun

    2008-01-01

    Although cumulative family name distributions in many countries exhibit power-law forms, there also exist counterexamples. The origin of different family name distributions across countries is discussed analytically in the framework of a population dynamics model. Combined with empirical observations made, it is suggested that those differences in distributions are closely related with the rate of appearance of new family names.

  1. Master equation as a radial constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Uzair; Kunduri, Hari K

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the problem of perturbations of Schwarzschild-AdS$_4$ black holes by using a combination of the Martel-Poisson formalism for perturbations of four-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetimes and the Kodama-Ishibashi formalism. We clarify the relationship between both formalisms and express the Brown-York-Balasubramanian-Krauss boundary stress-energy tensor, $\\bar{T}_{\\mu\

  2. Are safe results obtained when SAFT equations are applied to ordinary chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privat, Romain; Conte, Elisa; Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    In a previous work, some irregular behaviours of the PC-SAFT EoS – and more generally of SAFT-type EoS – were pointed out for pure components at low temperatures. In particular, it was shown that for pure fluids at a fixed temperature and pressure, these equations of state were likely to exhibit ...

  3. An Innovative Approach to Balancing Chemical-Reaction Equations: A Simplified Matrix-Inversion Technique for Determining The Matrix Null Space

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, Lawrence R

    2011-01-01

    I propose a novel approach to balancing equations that is applicable to all chemical-reaction equations; it is readily accessible to students via scientific calculators and basic computer spreadsheets that have a matrix-inversion application. The new approach utilizes the familiar matrix-inversion operation in an unfamiliar and innovative way; its purpose is not to identify undetermined coefficients as usual, but, instead, to compute a matrix null space (or matrix kernel). The null space then provides the coefficients that balance the equation. Indeed, the null space contains everything there is to know about balancing any chemical-reaction equation!

  4. Validity conditions for moment closure approximations in stochastic chemical kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schnoerr, David; Sanguinetti, Guido; Grima, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Approximations based on moment-closure (MA) are commonly used to obtain estimates of the mean molecule numbers and of the variance of fluctuations in the number of molecules of chemical systems. The advantage of this approach is that it can be far less computationally expensive than exact stochastic simulations of the chemical master equation. Here, we numerically study the conditions under which the MA equations yield results reflecting the true stochastic dynamics of the system. We show tha...

  5. Mastering mathematics geometry & measures

    CERN Document Server

    Various

    2014-01-01

    Deliver outstanding lessons that build fluency, problem-solving and mathematical reasoning skills to enable sustained progress at Key Stage 3, in preparation for GCSE. Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics . Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or exte

  6. Mastering mathematics statistics & probability

    CERN Document Server

    Various

    2014-01-01

    Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and eBooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions that develop fluen

  7. Mastering mathematics number

    CERN Document Server

    Various

    2014-01-01

    Mastering Mathematics provides flexible online and print teaching and learning resources. The service focuses on strands within the curriculum to improve progression throughout Secondary Mathematics. Mastering Mathematics Student Books and Whiteboard eTextbooks are organised into progression strands in line with Mastering Mathematics Teaching and Learning Resources:. - Enable students to identify appropriate remediation or extension steps they need in order to progress, through easy to follow progression charts. - Clear explanations of the tools needed for the chapter followed by questions tha

  8. Masters Colors -meikkisarjan lanseeraus

    OpenAIRE

    Muhonen, Veera; Renlund, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa Masters Colors –meikkisarjan lanseeraustoimenpiteet. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin yhteistyössä hoitolakosmetiikan maahantuontiyritys Benecom Oy:n kanssa. Yrityksen päätoimisena maahantuontisarjana toimii Guinot-hoitolakosmetiikkasarja, jonka lisäksi Benecom Oy tuo maahan Guinot-konsernin Masters Colors –meikkisarjaa sekä Cosmecology –kosmetiikkaa. Masters Colors on kehitetty laajentamaan Guinot-kauneushoitoloiden palveluvali...

  9. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  10. Celestial Burial Masters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQIAN

    2004-01-01

    Celestial burial is worshipped in Tibet as the highest pursuit of life. Of three elements indispensable for celestial burial-celestial rock (also known as altar), cinereous vultures, and masters of celestial burial, celestial burial masters are the most mysteriously important.

  11. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  12. Stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedl, Tim; Seifert, Udo

    2006-01-01

    For chemical reaction networks described by a master equation, we define energy and entropy on a stochastic trajectory and develop a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamic description along a single stochastic trajectory of reaction events. A first-law like energy balance relates internal energy, applied (chemical) work and dissipated heat for every single reaction. Entropy production along a single trajectory involves a sum over changes in the entropy of the network itself and the entropy o...

  13. Solving stochastic chemical kinetics by Metropolis Hastings sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Azam S. Zavar; Tranquilli, Paul; Sandu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This study considers using Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for stochastic simulation of chemical reactions. The proposed method uses SSA (Stochastic Simulation Algorithm) distribution which is a standard method for solving well-stirred chemically reacting systems as a desired distribution. A new numerical solvers based on exponential form of exact and approximate solutions of CME (Chemical Master Equation) is employed for obtaining target and proposal distributions in Metropolis-Hastings algori...

  14. Modified master curve of ultra high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical Master Curve approach covers the ferritic steels with a yield strength range of 275 MPa–825 MPa. The ultra high strength steel S960 QC is out of this range, and it does not follow the formula determined in the ASTM E1921-05 Standard. In this paper, the results of the research program are presented, and a new Master-like curve is derived. The new curve preserves the basic features of the classical Master Curve; it simply widens the family of Master Curves. - Highlights: ► Fracture toughness of the S960 QC steel was analyzed at the ductile–cleavage transition region. ► The S960 QC steel does not follow the classical Master Curve equation. ► No thickness effect on fracture toughness was observed in the thicknesses range tested. ► New Master Curve for the ultra high strength steel was determined.

  15. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  16. Master in Urban Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Development and content of an international Master in Urban Quality development and management. The work has been done in a cooperation between Berlage institut, Holland; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Mahidol University, Thailand; University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; og Aalborg...

  17. Acronym master list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  18. Mastering Lumion 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This book is designed for all levels of Lumion users; from beginner to advanced, you will find useful insights and professional techniques to improve and develop your skills in order to fully control and master Lumion.

  19. Master Thesis Chao Xu

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Xu Jr

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with the research question of the changes of terrorism, especially after “9, 11”, what the role of mass media plays and how internet is changing terrorism both in international society and China so far.

  20. IDC Integrated Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This is the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project Integrated Master Plan (IMP). The IMP presents the major accomplishments planned over time to re-engineer the IDC system. The IMP and the associate Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) are used for planning, scheduling, executing, and tracking the project technical work efforts. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  1. Fluctuations in reactive networks subject to extrinsic noise studied in the framework of the Chemical Langevin Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Berthoumieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the fluctuations of in vivo systems break the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. One can thus ask what information is contained in the correlation functions of protein concentrations and how they relate to the response of the reactive network to a perturbation. Answers to these questions are of prime importance to extract meaningful parameters from the in vivo fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data. In this paper we study the fluctuations of the concentration of a reactive species involved in a cyclic network that is in a non-equilibrium steady state perturbed by a noisy force, taking into account both the breaking of detailed balance and extrinsic noises. Using a generic model for the network and the extrinsic noise, we derive a Chemical Langevin Equation that describes the dynamics of the system, we determine the expressions of the correlation functions of the concentrations, estimate the deviation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the range of...

  2. Application of the CPA equation of state to reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    The complex phase equilibrium between reservoir fluids and associating compounds like water, methanol and glycols has become more and more important as the increasing global energy demand pushes the oil industry to target reservoirs with extreme or complicated conditions, such as deep or offshore...... reservoirs. Conventional equation of state (EoS) with classical mixing rules cannot satisfactorily predict or even correlate the phase equilibrium of those systems. A promising model for such systems is the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) EoS, which has been successfully applied to well-defined systems...... reservoir fluids in presence of water and polar chemical Such as methanol and monoethylene glycol. With a minimum number of adjustable parameters from binary pairs, satisfactory results have been obtained for different types of phase equilibria in reservoir fluid systems and several relevant model...

  3. A Master Action for D=11 Supergravity in the Component Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Michishita, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    We give a solution to the classical master equation of D=11 supergravity in the conventional component formulation. Based on a careful investigation of the symmetry algebra including terms proportional to the equation of motion, we construct an explicit expression of the master action in an order-by-order manner.

  4. The Change Masters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    1984-01-01

    The change masters are identified as corporate managers who have the resources and the vision to effect an economic renaissance in the United States. Strategies for change should emphasize horizontal as well as vertical communication, and should reward enterprise and innovation at all levels. (JB)

  5. Mastering Unity scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Mastering Unity Scripting is an advanced book intended for students, educators, and professionals familiar with the Unity basics as well as the basics of scripting. Whether you've been using Unity for a short time or are an experienced user, this book has something important and valuable to offer to help you improve your game development workflow.

  6. Hvorfor master i medborgerskab?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2002-01-01

    Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet planlægger i samarbejde med Syddansk Universitet at udbyde en master i medborgerskab: etisk og demokratisk dannelse. Artiklens forfatter gør rede for nogle af de tanker, der ligger bag uddannelsen, og belyser, hvorfor medborgerskab er blevet et nøglebegreb i nyere...

  7. Mastering Ext JS

    CERN Document Server

    Groner, Loiane

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be a structured guide, Mastering Ext JS is full of engaging examples to help you learn in a practical context.This book is for developers who are familiar with using Ext JS who want to augment their skills to create even better web applications.

  8. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  9. Comparison of different moment-closure approximations for stochastic chemical kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Schnoerr, David; Sanguinetti, Guido; Grima, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, moment-closure approximations (MAs) of the chemical master equation have become a popular method for the study of stochastic effects in chemical reaction systems. Several different MA methods have been proposed and applied in the literature, but it remains unclear how they perform with respect to each other. In this paper, we study the normal, Poisson, log-normal, and central-moment-neglect MAs by applying them to understand the stochastic properties of chemical systems whose...

  10. Mastering Apache Cassandra

    CERN Document Server

    Neeraj, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Apache Cassandra is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. The smooth and easy tutorial approach focuses on showing people how to utilize Cassandra to its full potential.This book is aimed at intermediate Cassandra users. It is best suited for startups where developers have to wear multiple hats: programmer, DevOps, release manager, convincing clients, and handling failures. No prior knowledge of Cassandra is required.

  11. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  12. Are safe results obtained when the PC-SAFT equation of state is applied to ordinary pure chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privat, Romain; Gani, Rafiqul; Jaubert, Jean-Noël

    2010-01-01

    The PC-SAFT equation of state is a very popular and promising model for fluids that employs a complicated pressure-explicit mathematical function (and can therefore not be solved analytically at a specified pressure and temperature, contrary to classical cubic equations). In this work, we......, most of the algorithms used for solving equations of state only search for three roots at the most and are thus likely to be inefficient when an equation of state gives more than three volume-roots. To overcome this limitation, a simple procedure allowing to identify all the possible volume-roots of an...

  13. Quantum logics and chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, C. I.

    1981-06-01

    A statistical theory of chemical kinetics is presented based on the quantum logical concept of chemical observables. The apparatus of Boolean algebra B is applied for the construction of appropriate composition polynomials referring to any stipulated arrangement of the atomic constituents. A physically motivated probability measure μ( F) is introduced on the field B of chemical observables, which considers the occurrence of the yes response of a given F ɛ B. The equations for the time evolution of the species density operators and the master equations for the corresponding number densities are derived. The general treatment is applied to a superposition of elementary substitution reactions (AB) α + C ⇄ (AC) β + B. The expressions for the reaction rate coefficients are established.

  14. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  15. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A beautifully-packaged, advanced reference on the very latest version of Maya. If you already know the basics of Maya, the latest version of this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, this book will help you master the entire CG production pipeline.: Provides professional-level instruction on Maya, the industry-leading

  16. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The exclusive, official guide to the very latest version of Maya Get extensive, hands-on, intermediate to advanced coverage of Autodesk Maya 2012, the top-selling 3D software on the market. If you already know Maya basics, this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, author Todd Palamar will help you master the entire CG

  17. Mastering the land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    as Europeans. This fact makes their success in forging cultural landscapes from the new land all the more interesting for students of environmental history. As an example of such processes, New Zealand illustrates the way human newcomers learn to master an environment, change the land and its resources...... resources which change as the society itself changes. Newcomers to any environment meet it with a set of technologies and a culture which they bring with them and which changes continuously, as it aligns with experience gathered in that environment. The environmental histories told from a multiplicity...

  18. MASTER- an indigenous nuclear design code of KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has recently developed the nuclear design code MASTER for the application to reactor physics analyses for pressurized water reactors. Its neutronics model solves the space-time dependent neutron diffusion equations with the advanced nodal methods. The major calculation categories of MASTER consist of microscopic depletion, steady-state and transient solution, xenon dynamics, adjoint solution and pin power and burnup reconstruction. The MASTER validation analyses, which are in progress aiming to submit the Uncertainty Topical Report to KINS in the first half of 1996, include global reactivity calculations and detailed pin-by-pin power distributions as well as in-core detector reaction rate calculations. The objective of this paper is to give an overall description of the CASMO/MASTER code system whose verification results are in details presented in the separate papers

  19. Masters in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuing global efforts to improve the security of nuclear and other radioactive material against the threat of malicious acts are being assisted by a new initiative, the development of a corps of professional experts to strengthen nuclear security. The IAEA, the European Commission, universities, research institutions and other bodies working in collaboration have established an International Nuclear Security Education Network (INSEN). In 2011, six European academic institutions, the Vienna University of Technology, the Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences, the Demokritos National Centre for Scientific Research in Greece, the Reactor Institute Delft of the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, the University of Oslo, and the University of Manchester Dalton Nuclear Institute, started developing a European Master of Science Programme in Nuclear Security Management. In March 2013, the masters project was inaugurated when ten students commenced studies at the Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences in Germany for two weeks. In April, they moved to the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands for a further two weeks of studies. The pilot programme consists of six teaching sessions in different academic institutions. At the inauguration in Delft, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano commended this effort to train a new generation of experts who can help to improve global nuclear security. ''It is clear that we will need a new generation of policy-makers and nuclear professionals - people like you - who will have a proper understanding of the importance of nuclear security,'' Mr. Amano told students and faculty members. ''The IAEA's goal is to support the development of such programmes on a global basis,'' said David Lambert, Senior Training Officer in the IAEA's Office of Nuclear Security. ''An existing postgraduate degree programme focused on nuclear security at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS) is currently supported by

  20. Application of the cubic-plus-association equation of state to mixtures with polar chemicals and high pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state has been previously applied to vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibria of mixtures containing associating compounds (water, alcohols, glycols, acids, amines). Although some high-pressure applications have been presented, emphasis...

  1. Mastering jQuery mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Chip

    2015-01-01

    You've started down the path of jQuery Mobile, now begin mastering some of jQuery Mobile's higher level topics. Go beyond jQuery Mobile's documentation and master one of the hottest mobile technologies out there. Previous JavaScript and PHP experience can help you get the most out of this book.

  2. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  3. Learning profiles of Master students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Hemmingsen, Lis

    2005-01-01

    at DPU in 2001 several evaluations and research have been carried out on several topics relating to form, content, and didactics, but one important focus is missing: the research about the psychological profile and learning style of the master student. Knowledge is lacking on how teaching methods and...... programme designs relate to and support the learning profiles and learning styles of the master students. In other words: What are the consequences of the students' learning styles in terms of planning and teaching in the master programme?...

  4. 硕士学位论文质量的影响因素及其提升路径研究——基于结构方程模型的实证分析%A study on the influencing factors and improving path of master degree thesis quality——Empirical analysis based on structural equation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华茵; 肖新成

    2015-01-01

    硕士学位论文的质量不仅是硕士研究生个人写作与努力的行为,而且与导师的指导作用、学校的科研条件和学科发展水平、研究生培养管理机制等密切相关.论文在相关文献的基础上,梳理了硕士学位论文质量的相关影响因素,利用江西省部分高校硕士生和硕士生导师的调查数据,构建结构方程模型,识别影响硕士学位论文质量的6个关键影响因素.研究结果表明:学术基础、学术意识和学习态度是硕士研究生自身因素的主要影响因子;论文的盲评和学位预答辩是评审与答辩制度的主要影响因子;前沿学科、文献资源和科研经费是学科发展水平与科研条件的主要影响因子;生源质量和培养方式是选拔与培养机制的主要影响因子;团队学术报告和学习氛围是学术氛围的主要影响因子;导师的责任意识是导师因素的重要影响因子.基于以上结论,论文最后提出从关键影响因素入手,提升硕士学位论文质量,进而提高硕士为研究生的教育质量.%Master's degree thesis quality is not only the behavior of individual writing and hard work,but also closely related to the guiding role of the teacher,the school's scientific research condition and the development level of the discipline,the graduate students training management mechanism. This paper summarizes the relevant factors which affect master's degree thesis quality,constructs the structural equation model and identifies key factors affect-ing the quality of master's degree thesis based on the surveys data of the Jiangxi Province by the review of the rele-vant literature. The research results show that the academic foundation,academic awareness and learning attitude are the main factors of influencing postgraduates' own factors. The anonymous thesis judgment and the degree of the pre defense are the main factors affecting the evaluation and defense system. Frontier science

  5. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  6. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a daily compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database,...

  7. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented

  8. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  9. TMS320C31 master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are explanation of basic conception for DSP, perfect a complete master of TMS320C31, I/O interface design and memory, practice with PC print port, basic programing skill, assembly and C programing technique, timer and interrupt application skill, serial communication programing technique, application of digital conditioning and application of digital servo control. This book is divided into two parts, which is about TMS320C31 master of theory and application.

  10. Master in ICT and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The Master in ICT and Learning (MIL)was started in 2000, and it is owned in collaboration by five Danish universities. It is an accredited virtual part-time 2-year education. MIL is unique in that it builds on the pedagogical framework of project pedagogy and is based in virtual collaboration. It...... is organized around ICT and Learning. This is illustrated through a presentation of the study program, the four modules, the projects and the master thesis....

  11. Calculation of the second term of the exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for diffusion-controlled chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik

    2016-01-01

    The exact Green's function of the diffusion equation (GFDE) is often considered to be the gold standard for the simulation of partially diffusion-controlled reactions. As the GFDE with angular dependency is quite complex, the radial GFDE is more often used. Indeed, the exact GFDE is expressed as a Legendre expansion, the coefficients of which are given in terms of an integral comprising Bessel functions. This integral does not seem to have been evaluated analytically in existing literature. While the integral can be evaluated numerically, the Bessel functions make the integral oscillate and convergence is difficult to obtain. Therefore it would be of great interest to evaluate the integral analytically. The first term was evaluated previously, and was found to be equal to the radial GFDE. In this work, the second term of this expansion was evaluated. As this work has shown that the first two terms of the Legendre polynomial expansion can be calculated analytically, it raises the question of the possibility that an analytical solution exists for the other terms.

  12. Marcus equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-21

    In the late 1950s to early 1960s Rudolph A. Marcus developed a theory for treating the rates of outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Outer-sphere reactions are reactions in which an electron is transferred from a donor to an acceptor without any chemical bonds being made or broken. (Electron-transfer reactions in which bonds are made or broken are referred to as inner-sphere reactions.) Marcus derived several very useful expressions, one of which has come to be known as the Marcus cross-relation or, more simply, as the Marcus equation. It is widely used for correlating and predicting electron-transfer rates. For his contributions to the understanding of electron-transfer reactions, Marcus received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This paper discusses the development and use of the Marcus equation. Topics include self-exchange reactions; net electron-transfer reactions; Marcus cross-relation; and proton, hydride, atom and group transfers.

  13. The master T-operator for vertex models with trigonometric R-matrices as a classical τ-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodin, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    We apply the recently proposed construction of the master T-operator to integrable vertex models and the associated quantum spin chains with trigonometric R-matrices. The master T-operator is a generating function for commuting transfer matrices of integrable vertex models depending on infinitely many parameters. It also turns out to be the τ-function of an integrable hierarchy of classical soliton equations in the sense that it satisfies the same bilinear Hirota equations. We characterize the class of solutions of the Hirota equations that correspond to eigenvalues of the master T-operator and discuss its relation to the classical Ruijsenaars-Schneider system of particles.

  14. Quantum Master Equation for QED in Exact Renormalization Group

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Yuji; Itoh, Katsumi; Sonoda, Hidenori

    2007-01-01

    Recently, one of us (H.S.) gave an explicit form of the Ward-Takahashi identity for the Wilson action of QED. We first rederive the identity using a functional method. The identity makes it possible to realize the gauge symmetry even in the presence of a momentum cutoff. In the cutoff dependent realization, the abelian nature of the gauge symmetry is lost, breaking the nilpotency of the BRS transformation. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, we extend the Wilson action by including the an...

  15. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Advanced light source master oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of ± 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs

  17. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  18. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  19. Master/Programmable-Slave Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaistrla, David; Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Unique modular computer features compactness, low power, mass storage of data, multiprocessing, and choice of various input/output modes. Master processor communicates with user via usual keyboard and video display terminal. Coordinates operations of as many as 24 slave processors, each dedicated to different experiment. Each slave circuit card includes slave microprocessor and assortment of input/output circuits for communication with external equipment, with master processor, and with other slave processors. Adaptable to industrial process control with selectable degrees of automatic control, automatic and/or manual monitoring, and manual intervention.

  20. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for $gg \\to h$ at NNLO and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Höschele, Maik; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  1. Pit Profile Simulation for HD DVD Mastering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryousuke; Matsumaru, Masaaki; Nakamura, Naomasa

    2007-06-01

    We constructed an HD DVD mastering process simulator on the basis of the cell removal model. In the exposure process, we simulated the exposure profile in the photoresist film. In the development process, we defined the density and development rate of the unit cell. We carried out iterative calculation for each unit cell dissolution. The development rate was approximated as the function of the exposure intensity profile. From the results, we were able to simulate the three-dimension (3D) pit profiles of HD DVD-ROM (read only memory). We clarified that our development rate equation is similar to Hirai et al. and Trefonas and Daniels’ type equation in semiconductor lithography.

  2. Constructing stochastic models from deterministic process equations by propensity adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jialiang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA for chemical reactions admits three kinds of elementary processes, namely, mass action reactions of 0th, 1st or 2nd order. All other types of reaction processes, for instance those containing non-integer kinetic orders or following other types of kinetic laws, are assumed to be convertible to one of the three elementary kinds, so that SSA can validly be applied. However, the conversion to elementary reactions is often difficult, if not impossible. Within deterministic contexts, a strategy of model reduction is often used. Such a reduction simplifies the actual system of reactions by merging or approximating intermediate steps and omitting reactants such as transient complexes. It would be valuable to adopt a similar reduction strategy to stochastic modelling. Indeed, efforts have been devoted to manipulating the chemical master equation (CME in order to achieve a proper propensity function for a reduced stochastic system. However, manipulations of CME are almost always complicated, and successes have been limited to relative simple cases. Results We propose a rather general strategy for converting a deterministic process model into a corresponding stochastic model and characterize the mathematical connections between the two. The deterministic framework is assumed to be a generalized mass action system and the stochastic analogue is in the format of the chemical master equation. The analysis identifies situations: where a direct conversion is valid; where internal noise affecting the system needs to be taken into account; and where the propensity function must be mathematically adjusted. The conversion from deterministic to stochastic models is illustrated with several representative examples, including reversible reactions with feedback controls, Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, a genetic regulatory motif, and stochastic focusing. Conclusions The construction of a stochastic

  3. Evolution of Master Planning of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>1.Review on previous master planning of Tianjin From 1953 to 1999,with thanks to the great attention of the Municipal Government of Tianjin to the work of master planning,there had been 21 draft master plans finished successively for Tianjin,

  4. Homeland Security Master's Degree Program

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's National Preparedness Directorate, FEMA, and the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security have partnered to offer the nation’s premier master’s degree program in homeland security. The Master of Arts in Security Studies is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and is awarded by the Naval Postgraduate School.

  5. Konseptutvikling av frangible flyplass master

    OpenAIRE

    Storhaug, Thomas Angell

    2014-01-01

    GJennom å studere rapporter og dokumenter rundt brekkbare flyplassmaster prøver denne teksten å foreslå metoder for å bygge en Finite Element Analysis modell for å teste flyplass master mot ICAO's krave til brekkbarhet. Dette gjøres ved å studere ICAO's krav, samt studere eksisterende løsninger og tester utført på disse mastene.

  6. Stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Barchielli, A; Pellegrini, C; Petruccione, F

    2010-01-01

    By starting from the stochastic Schr\\"odinger equation and quantum trajectory theory, we introduce memory effects by considering stochastic adapted coefficients. As an example of a natural non-Markovian extension of the theory of white noise quantum trajectories we use an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck coloured noise as the output driving process. Under certain conditions a random Hamiltonian evolution is recovered. Moreover, we show that our non-Markovian stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations unravel some master equations with memory kernels.

  7. Master Cup 2011: The 2nd Master Cup International Illustration Biennial, Master Illustrators Federation, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Master Illustrators Federation, Beijing Ziteng Gallery with joint hosts Beijing Yingbao Printmaking House, Beijing Cartoon Centre, Caijing Visual Arts Center, Sachen Publishing House and Red Man Art International. International cartoon and illustration biennial with theme Noah's Ark: New World, New Age, New Hope. World entry winner, best work prize for illustration, honorary prize, excellent prize and selected prize. Best work is awarded a medal and a cash prize. Prize judges: Duchhuan Xia, C...

  8. Comparison of Space Debris Environment Models: ORDEM2000, MASTER-2001, MASTER-2005 and MASTER-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemitsu, Yuki; 赤星, 保浩; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; 鳴海, 智博; Narumi, Tomohiro; Faure, Pauline; 松本, 晴久; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; 北澤, 幸人; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2012-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact by space debris on spacecraft is one of the most important issues for space development and operation, especially considering the growing amount of space debris in recent years. It is therefore important for spacecraft design to evaluate the impact risk by using environment models. In this paper, the authors compared the results of the debris impact flux in low Earth orbit, as calculated by four debris environment engineering models -NASA's ORDEM2000 and ESA's MASTER-2001...

  9. User's manual for SIN: a one-dimensional hydrodynamic code for problems that include chemical reactions, elastic--plastic flow, spalling, phase transitions, melting, Forest Fire, detonation build-up, and Sesame tabular equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CDC 7600 or CRAY computer FORTRAN code for computing one-dimensional hydrodynamic problems in slab, cylindrical, or spherical geometry with realistic equations of state is described. Features available in the code include chemical reactions using an Arrhenius rate law, the C-J volume burn, or, for slabs, a gamma-law Taylor wave; sharp-shock burn, Forest Fire; elastic--plastic flow using the Hooke's law--Von Mises yield model and Kennedy melt law; and spalling using the Whiteman and Skidmore model of the tensile stress at spalling as a linear function of the square root of the stress rate. The HOM equation of state is used to compute the equation of state for detonation products, undecomposed explosives, mixtures of the two, and condensed components which may have an instantaneous phase change. The Sesame tabular equation of state, Barnes equation of state, explosive build-up equation of state, and a solid-foam equation of state are included. Sample input and output are given for several typical types of problems. 2 tables

  10. The use of synthetic master events for waveform cross correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    It has been clearly demonstrated that waveform cross correlation substantially improves signal detection, phase association and event building. These processes are inherently related to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The workhorse of cross correlation is the set of seismic master events (earthquakes or explosions) with high quality waveform templates recorded at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). For the monitoring to be globally uniform, these master events have to be evenly distributed and their template waveforms should be representative and pure. However, global seismicity is characterized by a non-uniform distribution. Therefore, the master events selected from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) produced by the International Data Centre (IDC) can be found in the areas constrained by the global seismicity. There are two principal possibilities to populate the globe with master events: to replicate real REB events or to build synthetic events. Here we compare the performance of these two approaches as applied to the aftershock sequence of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera earthquake. To compute synthetic waveforms, we use AK135 teleseismic velocity model and local CRUST-2 models for source and receiver, and four different source functions representing three different source mechanisms for earthquakes and one for explosion. The synthetic modeling is performed for teleseismic events and based on the stationary phase approximation to a wave equation solution developed by J. Hudson. The grid covering the aftershock area consists of 16 points. For each grid point, we find detections associated with real, replicated, and four versions of synthetic master events at seven IMS array stations, and then build event hypothesis using the Local Association (LA) procedure based on the clustering of origin times as estimated by back projection of the relevant arrival times with known master/station travel times. Then all

  11. Binomial moment equations for stochastic reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer

    2011-04-15

    A highly efficient formulation of moment equations for stochastic reaction networks is introduced. It is based on a set of binomial moments that capture the combinatorics of the reaction processes. The resulting set of equations can be easily truncated to include moments up to any desired order. The number of equations is dramatically reduced compared to the master equation. This formulation enables the simulation of complex reaction networks, involving a large number of reactive species much beyond the feasibility limit of any existing method. It provides an equation-based paradigm to the analysis of stochastic networks, complementing the commonly used Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:21568538

  12. Mastering VBA for Office 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the language used to customize Microsoft Office. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is the language used for writing macros, automating Office applications, and creating custom applications in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Access. This complete guide shows both IT professionals and novice developers how to master VBA in order to customize the entire Office suite for specific business needs.: Office 2010 is the leading productivity suite, and the VBA language enables customizations of all the Office programs; this complete guide gives both novice and experience

  13. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  14. A Dog And Its Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Mr Smith was a boss of a butcher's shop(肉店). One day a hungry dog came to the shop. The dog wagged(摇动) its tail again and again. The boss gave it some meat to eat. So later on, the dog always stayed with the owner and looked upon him as its own master. When the people found that the boss was friendly(友好) to the dog, they thought Mr Smith could be trusted. As time passed by, more and more customers(顾客) came to buy fresh meat(鲜肉). And he was getting richer and richer.

  15. The master plan for Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Lobnik

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maribor Town plan project began in 1995. The elaborate analytical part was directed into recognising and establishing key problems in the town and guidelines for their solution. Expert guidelines were elaborated and presented as conceptual ideas, easily understood by professionals and lay-people. The concept of the master plan or town plan as such is based on the division and connection of the four parts of the town. In the concluding remarks certain ideas on improving the planning system are presented.

  16. Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation. -- Highlights: •A method to model uncertainty on stochastic systems was developed. •The method is based on the Chemical Master Equation. •Uncertainty in an isomerization reaction and a gene regulation network was modelled. •Effects were significant and dependent on the uncertain input and reaction system. •The model was computationally more efficient than Kinetic Monte Carlo

  17. Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R. David [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A., E-mail: laricardezsandoval@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation. -- Highlights: •A method to model uncertainty on stochastic systems was developed. •The method is based on the Chemical Master Equation. •Uncertainty in an isomerization reaction and a gene regulation network was modelled. •Effects were significant and dependent on the uncertain input and reaction system. •The model was computationally more efficient than Kinetic Monte Carlo.

  18. Classes of Exact Solutions to Regge-Wheeler and Teukolsky Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Fiziev, P. P.

    2009-01-01

    The Regge-Wheeler equation describes axial perturbations of Schwarzschild metric in linear approximation. Teukolsky Master Equation describes perturbations of Kerr metric in the same approximation. We present here unified description of all classes of exact solutions to these equations in terms of the confluent Heun's functions. Special attention is paid to the polynomial solutions, which yield novel applications of Teukolsky Master Equation for description of relativistic jets and astrophysi...

  19. Cubic Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of 16th century, mathematicians found it easy to solve equations of the first degree(linear equations, involving x) and of the second degree(quadratic equatiorts, involving x2). Equations of the third degree(cubic equations, involving x3)defeated them.

  20. Symmetries and conservation laws of the ABS equations and corresponding differential-difference equations of Volterra type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequence of canonical conservation laws for all the Adler-Bobenko-Suris (ABS) equations is derived and is employed in the construction of a hierarchy of master symmetries for equations H1-H3, Q1-Q3. For the discrete potential and Schwarzian KdV equations it is shown that their local generalized symmetries and nonlocal master symmetries in each lattice direction form centerless Virasoro-type algebras. In particular, for the discrete potential KdV, the structure of its symmetry algebra is explicitly given. Interpreting the hierarchies of symmetries of equations H1-H3, Q1-Q3 as differential-difference equations of Yamilov's discretization of Krichever-Novikov equation, corresponding hierarchies of master symmetries along with isospectral and nonisospectral zero curvature representations are derived for all of them. (paper)

  1. EVALUATION OF THE MASTER MARKETER NEWSLETTER

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkle, Dean A.; Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Smith, Jackie; Bevers, Stanley J.; Borchardt, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Several support programs have been developed to help support, reinforce, enhance, and improve the effectiveness of the educational experience of Master Marketer graduates and other marketing club participants. One of those products, the Master Marketer Newsletter, is currently mailed to over 700 Master Marketer graduates and Extension faculty on a quarterly basis. In the June 2000 newsletter, a questionnaire was sent to newsletter recipients asking them to evaluate the various sections of the...

  2. Master's thesis policies in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K M; Holzemer, W L

    1985-01-01

    A telephone survey of 25 schools of nursing with doctoral programs was conducted to inquire about their master's thesis policies. Six programs require a thesis. Sixteen programs provide both thesis and other options, described in the paper. Other policy issues are discussed which include: relation of thesis to faculty research, criteria for serving on a master's thesis committee, and requirements for doctoral admission. Responses to the survey indicate a variety of types and degrees of research experience in master's programs. PMID:2981987

  3. The features and solution methodologies of the KAERI nuclear design code MASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has recently developed the nuclear design code MASTER for the application to reactor physics analyses for pressurized water reactors. Its neutronics model solves the space-time dependent neutron diffusion equations with the advanced nodal methods. The major calculation categories of MASTER consist of microscopic depletion, steady-state and transient solution, xenon dynamics, adjoint solution and pin power and burnup reconstruction. The MASTER Uncertainty Topical Report which includes global reactivity calculations and detailed pin-by-pin power distributions as well as in-core detector reaction rate calculations was transmitted in June 1996 as part of a license agreement to Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). The objective of this paper is to give an overall description of the CASMO/MASTER code system whose verification and validation results are in details presented in the separate paper. (author)

  4. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Volpert, Vitaly

    If we had to formulate in one sentence what this book is about it might be "How partial differential equations can help to understand heat explosion, tumor growth or evolution of biological species". These and many other applications are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The theory of reaction-diffusion equations appeared in the first half of the last century. In the present time, it is widely used in population dynamics, chemical physics, biomedical modelling. The purpose of this book is to present the mathematical theory of reaction-diffusion equations in the context of their numerous applications. We will go from the general mathematical theory to specific equations and then to their applications. Mathematical anaylsis of reaction-diffusion equations will be based on the theory of Fredholm operators presented in the first volume. Existence, stability and bifurcations of solutions will be studied for bounded domains and in the case of travelling waves. The classical theory of reaction-diffusion equ...

  5. Noise-induced multistability in chemical systems: Discrete versus continuum modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Liao, Shuohao; Vejchodský, Tomáš; Erban, Radek; Grima, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The noisy dynamics of chemical systems is commonly studied using either the chemical master equation (CME) or the chemical Fokker-Planck equation (CFPE). The latter is a continuum approximation of the discrete CME approach. It has recently been shown that for a particular system, the CFPE captures noise-induced multistability predicted by the CME. This phenomenon involves the CME's marginal probability distribution changing from unimodal to multimodal as the system size decreases below a critical value. We here show that the CFPE does not always capture noise-induced multistability. In particular we find simple chemical systems for which the CME predicts noise-induced multistability, whereas the CFPE predicts monostability for all system sizes. PMID:25974443

  6. Separability of test fields equations on the C -metric background

    Science.gov (United States)

    KofroÅ, David

    2015-12-01

    In the Kerr-Newman spacetime the Teukolsky master equation, governing the fundamental test fields, is of great importance. We derive an analogous master equation for the nonrotating C -metric which encompasses a massless Klein-Gordon field, neutrino field, Maxwell field, Rarita-Schwinger field and gravitational perturbations. This equation is shown to be separable in terms of "accelerated spin-weighted spherical harmonics." It is shown that, contrary to ordinary spin-weighted spherical harmonics, the "accelerated" ones are different for different spins. In some cases, the equations for eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are explicitly solved.

  7. Practice Oriented Master's in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, John O.

    1998-01-01

    The development of an interdisciplinary Masters Program with a concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology has been is described. This program was developed under the U.S. Manufacturing Education and Training Activity of the Technology Reinvestment Project. This development was a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Alabama A&M University, Northwest Shoals Community College, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Missile Command, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Advanced Optical Systems Inc., Dynetics, Inc., Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc., Nichols Research and Speedring Inc. These organizations as well as the National Institute for Standards and Technology and SCI, Inc. have been participating fully in the design, development and implementation of this program. This goal of the program is to produce highly trained graduates who can also solve practical problems. To this end, the program includes an on-site practicum at a manufacturing location. The broad curriculum of this program emphasizes the fundamentals of optics, optical systems manufacturing and testing, and the principles of design and manufacturing to cost for commercial products. The Master's of Science (MS) in Physics and Master's of Science in Engineering (MSE) in Electrical Engineering Degrees with concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology are offered by the respective UAH academic departments with support from and in consultation with a Steering Committee composed of representatives from each of the participating organizations, and a student representative from UAH. The origins of the programs are described. The curricula of the programs is described. The course outlines of the new courses which were developed for the new curriculum are included. Also included are samples of on-site practicums which the students have been involved in. Also included as attachments are samples of the advertisements, which includes flyers, and

  8. RENEWAL OF BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES FOR POLAR CONTINUUM THEORIES (Ⅹ)--MASTER BALANCE LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tian-min

    2006-01-01

    Through a comparison between the expressions of master balance laws and the conservation laws derived by Noether's theorem, a unified master balance law and six physically possible balance equations for micropolar continuum mechanics are naturally deduced. Among them, by extending the well-known conventional concept of energymomentum tensor, the rather general conservation laws and balance equations named after energy-momentum, energy-angular momentum and energy-energy are obtained. It is clear that the forms of the physical field quantities in the master balance law for the last three cases could not be assumed directly by perceiving through the intuition. Finally,some existing results are reduced immediately as special cases.

  9. Nuclear safety research master plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output

  10. Nuclear safety research master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output.

  11. Diophantine approximations and Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M

    1991-01-01

    "This book by a leading researcher and masterly expositor of the subject studies diophantine approximations to algebraic numbers and their applications to diophantine equations. The methods are classical, and the results stressed can be obtained without much background in algebraic geometry. In particular, Thue equations, norm form equations and S-unit equations, with emphasis on recent explicit bounds on the number of solutions, are included. The book will be useful for graduate students and researchers." (L'Enseignement Mathematique) "The rich Bibliography includes more than hundred references. The book is easy to read, it may be a useful piece of reading not only for experts but for students as well." Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum

  12. SOLUTION OF HARMONIC OSCILLATOR OF NONLINEAR MASTER SCHRÖDINGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T B Prayitno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have computed the solution of a nonrelativistic particle motion in a harmonic oscillator potential of the nonlinear master Schrödinger equation. The equation itself is based on two classical conservation laws, the Hamilton-Jacobi and the continuity equations. Those two equations give each contribution for the definition of quantum particle. We also prove that the solution can’t be normalized.   Keywords : harmonic oscillator, nonlinear Schrödinger.

  13. Listening and Learning in a Master Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions offering programmes in music performance organise master classes for their students. It is commonly agreed that master classes offer valuable learning opportunities for the students performing, but what do they offer for students in the audience? In this article, theories of learning by observation as well as…

  14. Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER's major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram

  15. Problem Solving Environment for Partial Differential Equations in Python

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This master thesis presents a collection of tools for solving partial differential equations using Python. Three different Python modules make up the majority of the thesis. When solving partial differential equations using the finite difference method, the resulting code can get quite complicated, for instance when trying to solve a 3D wave equation with a variable diffusion coefficient. Fdmgen is a Python module that helps solving such equations by generating the code ...

  16. String equation from field equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gurovich, V T

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the string equation can be obtain from field equations. Such work is performed to scalar field. The equation obtained in nonrelativistic limit describes the nonlinear string. Such string has the effective elasticity connencted with the local string curvature. Some examples of the movement such nonlinear elastic string are considered.

  17. Fractional Fokker-Planck Equations for Subdiffusion with Space-and-Time-Dependent Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M; Straka, P.

    2010-01-01

    We have derived a fractional Fokker-Planck equation for subdiffusion in a general space-and- time-dependent force field from power law waiting time continuous time random walks biased by Boltzmann weights. The governing equation is derived from a generalized master equation and is shown to be equivalent to a subordinated stochastic Langevin equation.

  18. Second Line of Defense Master Spares Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Dale L.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-11-20

    This catalog is intended to be a comprehensive listing of repair parts, components, kits, and consumable items used on the equipment deployed at SLD sites worldwide. The catalog covers detection, CAS, network, ancillary equipment, and tools. The catalog is backed by a Master Parts Database which is used to generate the standard report views of the catalog. The master parts database is a relational database containing a record for every part in the master parts catalog along with supporting tables for normalizing fields in the records. The database also includes supporting queries, database maintenance forms, and reports.

  19. Existence of a solution to an equation arising from the theory of Mean Field Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangbo, Wilfrid; Święch, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    We construct a small time strong solution to a nonlocal Hamilton-Jacobi equation (1.1) introduced in [48], the so-called master equation, originating from the theory of Mean Field Games. We discover a link between metric viscosity solutions to local Hamilton-Jacobi equations studied in [2,19,20] and solutions to (1.1). As a consequence we recover the existence of solutions to the First Order Mean Field Games equations (1.2), first proved in [48], and make a more rigorous connection between the master equation (1.1) and the Mean Field Games equations (1.2).

  20. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  1. The master T-operator for inhomogeneous XXX spin chain and mKP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Zabrodin, A

    2014-01-01

    Following the approach of [1], we show how to construct the master T-operator for the quantum GL(N)-invariant inhomogeneous XXX spin chain with twisted boundary conditions. It satisfiesthe bilinear identity and Hirota equations for the classical mKP hierarchy. We also characterize the class of solutions to the mKP hierarchy that correspond to eigenvalues of the master T-operator and study dynamics of their zeros as functions of the spectral parameter. This implies a remarkable connection between the quantum spin chain and the classical Ruijsenaars-Schneider system of particles.

  2. A Better Way to Master English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU XIAOYAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Disney English recently held a meeting for parents to communicate with experts on how to master English better by Multiple Intelligences (MI) method. MI is an internationally advocated teaching theory founded by Harvard University.

  3. Master Plan: Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Brigantine Division of Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan guides the longrange development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate...

  4. Master Plan Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Master Plan is to give overall guidance for the protection, use, and development of Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge during the next ten to...

  5. Master Plan for Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This master plan presents the development and management requirements needed to make Iroquois Refuge one of the most important breeding-migration areas in the...

  6. The master T-operator for vertex models with trigonometric $R$-matrices as classical tau-function

    CERN Document Server

    Zabrodin, A

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the master T-operator recently suggested in \\cite{AKLTZ11} is applied to integrable vertex models and associated quantum spin chains with trigonometric R-matrices. The master T-operator is a generating function for commuting transfer matrices of integrable vertex models depending on infinitely many parameters. At the same time it turns out to be the tau-function of an integrable hierarchy of classical soliton equations in the sense that it satisfies the the same bilinear Hirota equations. The class of solutions of the Hirota equations that correspond to eigenvalues of the master T-operator is characterized and its relation to the classical Ruijsenaars-Schneider system of particles is discussed.

  7. Counterweight system for master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A counterweight system is described for use in a remote control master-slave manipulator. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. Within the support there is a means of translating linear motion to rotary motion for transfer through the barrier wall and retranslating to linear motion. (U.K.)

  8. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  9. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  10. Generalized Scaling and the Master Variable for Brownian Magnetic Nanoparticle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Daniel B.; Shi, Yipeng; Weaver, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of magnetic particles can help to advance several biomedical nanotechnologies. Previously, scaling relationships have been used in magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB) to measure biologically relevant properties (e.g., temperature, viscosity, bound state) surrounding nanoparticles in vivo. Those scaling relationships can be generalized with the introduction of a master variable found from non-dimensionalizing the dynamical Langevin equation. The variable encapsulates the dynamical variables of the surroundings and additionally includes the particles’ size distribution and moment and the applied field’s amplitude and frequency. From an applied perspective, the master variable allows tuning to an optimal MSB biosensing sensitivity range by manipulating both frequency and field amplitude. Calculation of magnetization harmonics in an oscillating applied field is also possible with an approximate closed-form solution in terms of the master variable and a single free parameter. PMID:26959493

  11. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2012-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and differential

  12. The influence of the carbon surface chemical composition on Dubinin-Astakhov equation parameters calculated from SF{sub 6} adsorption data-grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Terzyk, Artur P; Gauden, Piotr A [Department of Chemistry, Physicochemistry of Carbon Materials Research Group, N Copernicus University, Gagarin Street 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Kowalczyk, Piotr [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin University, PO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Harris, Peter J F, E-mail: aterzyk@chem.uni.torun.pl [Centre for Advanced Microscopy, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-05

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation we show, for the first time, the influence of the carbon porosity and surface oxidation on the parameters of the Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) adsorption isotherm equation. We conclude that upon carbon surface oxidation, the adsorption decreases for all carbons studied. Moreover, the parameters of the DA model depend on the number of surface oxygen groups. That is why in the case of carbons containing surface polar groups, SF{sub 6} adsorption isotherm data cannot be used for characterization of the porosity. (paper)

  13. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network Analyzer—A Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Fröhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J.; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/. PMID:26807911

  14. Testing the master constraint programme for loop quantum gravity: I. General framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the master constraint programme for loop quantum gravity (LQG) was proposed as a classically equivalent way to impose the infinite number of Wheeler-DeWitt constraint equations in terms of a single master equation. While the proposal has some promising abstract features, it was until now barely tested in known models. In this series of five papers we fill this gap, thereby adding confidence to the proposal. We consider a wide range of models with increasingly more complicated constraint algebras, beginning with a finite-dimensional, Abelian algebra of constraint operators which are linear in the momenta and ending with an infinite-dimensional, non-Abelian algebra of constraint operators which closes with structure functions only and which are not even polynomial in the momenta. In all these models, we apply the master constraint programme successfully; however, the full flexibility of the method must be exploited in order to complete our task. This shows that the master constraint programme has a wide range of applicability but that there are many, physically interesting subtleties that must be taken care of in doing so. In particular, as we will see, that we can possibly construct a master constraint operator for a nonlinear, that is, interacting quantum field theory underlines the strength of the background-independent formulation of LQG. In this first paper, we prepare the analysis of our test models by outlining the general framework of the master constraint programme. The models themselves will be studied in the remaining four papers. As a side result, we develop the direct integral decomposition (DID) programme for solving quantum constraints as an alternative to refined algebraic quantization (RAQ)

  15. Molecular finite-size effects in stochastic models of equilibrium chemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Claudia; Smith, Stephen; Grima, Ramon

    2016-02-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a standard modelling approach for understanding stochastic and spatial chemical kinetics. An inherent assumption is that molecules are point-like. Here, we introduce the excluded volume reaction-diffusion master equation (vRDME) which takes into account volume exclusion effects on stochastic kinetics due to a finite molecular radius. We obtain an exact closed form solution of the RDME and of the vRDME for a general chemical system in equilibrium conditions. The difference between the two solutions increases with the ratio of molecular diameter to the compartment length scale. We show that an increase in the fraction of excluded space can (i) lead to deviations from the classical inverse square root law for the noise-strength, (ii) flip the skewness of the probability distribution from right to left-skewed, (iii) shift the equilibrium of bimolecular reactions so that more product molecules are formed, and (iv) strongly modulate the Fano factors and coefficients of variation. These volume exclusion effects are found to be particularly pronounced for chemical species not involved in chemical conservation laws. Finally, we show that statistics obtained using the vRDME are in good agreement with those obtained from Brownian dynamics with excluded volume interactions.

  16. Phenomenological equations for reacting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlocal phenomenological equation is introduced for a multicomponent fluid where chemical or nuclear reactions are taking place. The reciprocity between the nonlocal linear-coefficients is examined closely. An approximation reduces the nonlocal equation to the ordinary phenomenological relation with correction terms which show clearly a coupling of the reaction with the diffusion and the thermal conduction in an isotropic system. (auth.)

  17. A 4-DOF haptic master using ER fluid for minimally invasive surgery system application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Rock; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master using a electrorheological (ER) fluid which is applicable to minimally invasive surgery (MIS) systems. By adopting a controllable ER fluid, the master can easily generate 4-DOF repulsive forces with the advantages of a simple mechanism and continuous force control capability. The proposed master consists of two actuators: an ER spherical joint for 3-DOF rotational motion and an ER piston device for 1-DOF translational motion. The generated torque/force models are mathematically derived by analyzing the mechanism geometry and using the Bingham characteristics of an ER Fluid. The haptic master is optimally designed and manufactured based on the mathematical torque/force models. The repulsive torque/force responses are experimentally evaluated and expressed by the first-order and second-order dynamic equations for each motion. A sliding mode controller (SMC), which is known to be robust to uncertainties, is then designed and empirically implemented to achieve the desired torque/force trajectories. It is demonstrated by presenting torque/force tracking results of both rotational and translational motions that the proposed 4-DOF ER haptic master integrated with the SMC can provide an effective haptic control performance for MIS applications.

  18. A 4-DOF haptic master using ER fluid for minimally invasive surgery system application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master using a electrorheological (ER) fluid which is applicable to minimally invasive surgery (MIS) systems. By adopting a controllable ER fluid, the master can easily generate 4-DOF repulsive forces with the advantages of a simple mechanism and continuous force control capability. The proposed master consists of two actuators: an ER spherical joint for 3-DOF rotational motion and an ER piston device for 1-DOF translational motion. The generated torque/force models are mathematically derived by analyzing the mechanism geometry and using the Bingham characteristics of an ER Fluid. The haptic master is optimally designed and manufactured based on the mathematical torque/force models. The repulsive torque/force responses are experimentally evaluated and expressed by the first-order and second-order dynamic equations for each motion. A sliding mode controller (SMC), which is known to be robust to uncertainties, is then designed and empirically implemented to achieve the desired torque/force trajectories. It is demonstrated by presenting torque/force tracking results of both rotational and translational motions that the proposed 4-DOF ER haptic master integrated with the SMC can provide an effective haptic control performance for MIS applications. (paper)

  19. Monitoring derivation of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, Klaus; Vacchini, Bassano

    2007-01-01

    We show how the effective equation of motion for a distinguished quantum particle in an ideal gas environment can be obtained by means of the monitoring approach introduced in [EPL 77, 50007 (2007)]. The resulting Lindblad master equation accounts for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics in a non-perturbative fashion and it describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. It incorporates various established equations as limiting cases and reduces to the classical linear...

  20. Stabilization of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate from the Reaction between Ozone and Ethylene: A High-Level Quantum Chemical and Kinetic Analysis of Ozonolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Lee, Hyunwoo; Matthews, Devin A; McCarthy, Michael C; Stanton, John F

    2015-06-01

    The fraction of the collisionally stabilized Criegee species CH2OO produced from the ozonolysis of ethylene is calculated using a two-dimensional (E, J)-grained master equation technique and semiclassical transition-state theory based on the potential energy surface obtained from high-accuracy quantum chemical calculations. Our calculated yield of 42 ± 6% for the stabilized CH2OO agrees well, within experimental error, with available (indirect) experimental results. Inclusion of angular momentum in the master equation is found to play an essential role in bringing the theoretical results into agreement with the experiment. Additionally, yields of HO and HO2 radical products are predicted to be 13 ± 6% and 17 ± 6%, respectively. In the kinetic simulation, the HO radical product is produced mostly from the stepwise decomposition mechanism of primary ozonide rather than from dissociation of hot CH2OO. PMID:25945650

  1. Master alloy for manufacture of stainless and refractory steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The master alloy contains iron, 0.01 to 0.03% carbon, 0.1 to 2.0% manganese, 0.01 to 0.2% silicon, possibly impurities, such as traces of up to 0.015% sulphur, up to 0.01% phosphorus, 0.01%. nitrogen, 0.1% copper, up to 0.01% cobalt and traces of up to 0.05% arsenic, tin, lead, zinc or bismuth separate or in combination. The master alloy is used in the manufacture of steels and alloys for the chemical industry and for nuclear power. (B.S.)

  2. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  3. Master-slave robot force telepresence technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to make the manipulators useful, some force-feedback is required to enable the operator to sense the robot's feelings. Without force-feedback, many tasks will not be able to be carried out. For these rea sons, a master-slave system with different kinematics has been developed. The system permits us to vary the ra tio of the position/attitude, to design a master manipulator without considering the kinematics of the slave ma nipulator, and so on. To overcome the difficulties, a master-slave manipulator system with different kinematics is proposed. The master manipulator is force-controlled via a force torque sensor in the handle. As to master slave manipulator system with two way force feedback is concerned, the force goes to the actuator from the oper ator, and come back to the operator from the actuator. The working situation is viewed by the stereo TV supervi sory system. The force and vision telepresence are thus achieved. In order to ensure the maneuverability, direct drive DC motors and PWM servo units are adopted to improve the response speed. It can provide force response in a wide range. A lot of experiments were performed with the master-slave manipulator system force telepres ence to study the force response under restricted environment. By two force sensors, the force-position bilateral force response system effectively decreases the affection of friction and inertia force, and increases the authen ticity of bilateral force response. When the slave manipulator ann is encountered with soft-object(sponge), in the experiments, the operator can clearly have the fine feeling as if he himself is contacted with the object.

  4. Damages in Master Oil Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Domínguez Domínguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an approach to the study of chemical causes responsible for deep damages in oil pipeline in the last few years. These phenomena are responsible for significant direct and indirect economical enterprise loses and cause extensive environmental damage along thetrace. Leaning on laboratory and field tests about fluid properties, characteristic of surrendersoils and pipeline state, performed by several recognize national a foreign institutions the physicochemical causes of the damages, basic corrosion mechanism and main wear direction were proposed. It‘s quite evident the under deposit localized corrosion phenomenon with lowor medium penetration degree, along the tube bottom for firsts 30 km of the installation. Continuous emulsified water segregation from oil phase becomes the main cause of the strongmetal losses. This study followed by technological, mechanical and anti-corrosion evaluations will allow to fine proper solutions for this problem.

  5. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  6. Mastering VMware vSphere 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new and updated edition of bestselling Mastering VMware vSphere 4 Written by leading VMware expert, this book covers all the features and capabilities of VMware vSphere. You'll learn how to install, configure, operate, manage, and secure the latest release.Covers all the new features and capabilities of the much-anticipated new release of VMware vSphereDiscusses the planning, installation, operation, and management for the latest releaseReviews migration to the latest vSphere softwareOffers hands-on instruction and clear explanations with real-world examples Mastering VMware vSphere is the

  7. Critical points and number of master integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Roman N

    2013-01-01

    We consider the question about the number of master integrals for a multiloop Feynman diagram. We show that, for a given set of denominators, this number is totally determined by the critical points of the polynomials entering either of the two representations: the parametric representation and the Baikov representation. In particular, for the parametric representation the corresponding polynomial is just the sum of Symanzik polynomials. The relevant topological invariant is the sum of the Milnor numbers of the proper critical points. We present a Mathematica package Mint to automatize the counting of the master integrals.

  8. Master of the House Blu-Ray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Casper

    2014-01-01

    In this interview, produced by the Criterion Collection in 2014, Danish film historian Casper Tybjerg discusses how Master of the House went from being a popular stage play to a film, one that was a major stepping-stone in director Carl Theodor Dreyer's career.......In this interview, produced by the Criterion Collection in 2014, Danish film historian Casper Tybjerg discusses how Master of the House went from being a popular stage play to a film, one that was a major stepping-stone in director Carl Theodor Dreyer's career....

  9. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  10. A generalization of the Zerilli master variable for a dynamical spherical spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Brizuela, David

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of polar perturbations on a spherical background spacetime is analyzed. The matter content is assumed to be a massless scalar field.This provides a nontrivial dynamics to the background and the linearized equations of motion become much more involved than in the vacuum case. The analysis is performed in a Hamiltonian framework, which makes explicit the dynamical role of each of the variables. After performing a number of canonical transformations, it is possible to completely decouple the different perturbative degrees of freedom into constrained, pure-gauge and gauge-invariant variables. In particular, two master variables are obtained: one corresponding to the polar mode of the gravitational wave, whereas the other encodes the complete physical information about the perturbative matter degree of freedom. The evolution equations for these master variables are obtained and simplified.

  11. Generalized Scaling and the Master Variable for Brownian Magnetic Nanoparticle Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Daniel B.; Yipeng Shi; Weaver, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of magnetic particles can help to advance several biomedical nanotechnologies. Previously, scaling relationships have been used in magnetic spectroscopy of nanoparticle Brownian motion (MSB) to measure biologically relevant properties (e.g., temperature, viscosity, bound state) surrounding nanoparticles in vivo. Those scaling relationships can be generalized with the introduction of a master variable found from non-dimensionalizing the dynamical Langevin equation. T...

  12. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hochstadt, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Modern approach to differential equations presents subject in terms of ideas and concepts rather than special cases and tricks which traditional courses emphasized. No prerequisites needed other than a good calculus course. Certain concepts from linear algebra used throughout. Problem section at end of each chapter.

  13. Beautiful equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljamaa, Panu; Jacobs, J. Richard; Chris; JamesHyman; Halma, Matthew; EricNolan; Coxon, Paul

    2014-07-01

    In reply to a Physics World infographic (part of which is given above) about a study showing that Euler's equation was deemed most beautiful by a group of mathematicians who had been hooked up to a functional magnetic-resonance image (fMRI) machine while viewing mathematical expressions (14 May, http://ow.ly/xHUFi).

  14. Equations for static vacuum solutions arising from trace dynamics modifications to gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    We derive the equations governing static, spherically symmetric vacuum solutions to the Einstein equations as modified by the frame-dependent effective action arising from trace dynamics. We give several equivalent forms of the master second order, nonlinear differential equation implied by the trace dynamics effective action, and calculate the leading perturbative correction to the Schwarzschild metric. We then analyze the master equation in the regimes $r \\to 0$, $r \\to \\infty$, and $0master equation. Turning to the axially symmetric case, we calculate the leading effective action corrections to the spatial components of the Einstein equations, which furnish the starting point for a similar analysis (yet ...

  15. Executive Master of Business Administration, Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2014-01-01

    Screenshot of EMBA Program Introduction. The Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) is a defense-focused general management program for senior Department of Navy officers and senior Department of Navy civilians. The program design and course work capitalizes on the current managerial and leadership experience of program participants.

  16. The Master's Thesis in Applied Psychology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Kottke, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)

  17. Evaluating the Georgia Master Naturalist Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Lauren; Mengak, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the Georgia Master Naturalist Program using an online survey. Survey participation was voluntary, and the survey addressed areas such as satisfaction, volunteerism, and future training. The program received high scores from survey respondents. They appreciated training on native plants, environmental awareness, and ecological…

  18. The Four Master Tropes: Analogues of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a rhetorical competence theory that is primarily concerned with an abstract understanding of the rhetorical and cognitive processes that underlie rhetorical acts. Presents the theory as an analogical system based on the four master tropes: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony. Draws upon the systems of analogical reasoning, problem…

  19. Master in nuclear engineering from the UPC (Master UPC-ENDESA); Master Universitario en Ingenieria Nuclear por la UPC (Master UPC-ENDESA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batet, L.; Duch, M. A.; Calvino, F.; Val, L. del; Fernandez-Olano, P.

    2011-07-01

    The new Masters in Nuclear Engineering offers the UPC is the result of the confluence of wills and synergies between different units of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) and Endesa. The paper describes the objectives of the proposal along with the program and the learning methodology.

  20. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which is...

  1. Mastering SQL Server 2014 data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Bassan, Amarpreet Singh

    2014-01-01

    If you are a developer who is working on data mining for large companies and would like to enhance your knowledge of SQL Server Data Mining Suite, this book is for you. Whether you are brand new to data mining or are a seasoned expert, you will be able to master the skills needed to build a data mining solution.

  2. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Claude, Jr., Ed.; Moore, Beverly, Ed.

    This master plan for Colorado academic libraries assesses current strengths and weaknesses of public and private academic libraries in the state and forecasts the role of academic libraries in support of higher education. The plan consists of a series of recommendations divided into six related and overlapping sections: access, collection…

  3. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  4. Stochastic Runge-Kutta Software Package for Stochastic Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorkyan, M N; Korolkova, A V; Kulyabov, D S; Sevastyanov, L A

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the application of a technique of multistep processes stochastic models construction the range of models, implemented as a self-consistent differential equations, was obtained. These are partial differential equations (master equation, the Fokker--Planck equation) and stochastic differential equations (Langevin equation). However, analytical methods do not always allow to research these equations adequately. It is proposed to use the combined analytical and numerical approach studying these equations. For this purpose the numerical part is realized within the framework of symbolic computation. It is recommended to apply stochastic Runge--Kutta methods for numerical study of stochastic differential equations in the form of the Langevin. Under this approach, a program complex on the basis of analytical calculations metasystem Sage is developed. For model verification logarithmic walks and Black--Scholes two-dimensional model are used. To illustrate the stochastic "predator--prey" type model is us...

  5. Constraints on the central density and chemical composition of the white dwarf RX J0648.0-4418 with a record period of rotation in a model with the equation of state of an ideal degenerate electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, S. A.; Tsvetkov, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    A system of equations and inequalities that allows one to determine the constraints on central density ρ c and the chemical composition, which is governed by parameter μ e , of the white dwarf RX J0648.0- 4418 with a record short period of rotation T = 13.18s and mass m = (1.28 ± 0.05) m⊙, has been derived. The analysis of numerical solutions of this system reveal a complex dependence of μ e on ρ c . The intervals of variation of μ e and ρ c are as follows: 1.09 ≤ μ e ≤ 1.21 and 9.04 ≤ μ e /ρ0 ≤ 103 (ρ0 = 0.98 × 106 g/cm3). This range of μ e values suggests that the white dwarf RX J0648.0-4418 is not made of pure hydrogen and should contain 9-21% of heavy elements. Calculations have been performed with the equation of state of an ideal degenerate electron gas. Approximate analytic expressions (with an accuracy of 10-3) for the minimum period T min and mass m of the white dwarf are obtained. It is demonstrated that the white-dwarf mass is almost doubled (compared to the case of no rotation at a fixed central density) as period T approaches T min.

  6. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan/Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the updated Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan and Environmental Assessment. It replaces the former Master Plan Technical Report that was prepared...

  7. An introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Coddington, Earl A

    1989-01-01

    ""Written in an admirably cleancut and economical style."" - Mathematical Reviews. This concise text offers undergraduates in mathematics and science a thorough and systematic first course in elementary differential equations. Presuming a knowledge of basic calculus, the book first reviews the mathematical essentials required to master the materials to be presented. The next four chapters take up linear equations, those of the first order and those with constant coefficients, variable coefficients, and regular singular points. The last two chapters address the existence and uniqueness of solu

  8. Separability of test fields equations on the C-metric background

    CERN Document Server

    Kofroň, David

    2016-01-01

    In the Kerr-Newman spacetime the Teukolsky master equation, governing the fundamental test fields, is of great importance. We derive an analogous master equation for the non-rotating C-metric which encompass massless Klein-Gordon field, neutrino field, Maxwell field, Rarita-Schwinger field and gravitational perturbations. This equation is shown to be separable in terms of "accelerated spin weighted spherical harmonics". It is shown that, contrary to ordinary spin weighted spherical harmonics, the "accelerated" ones are different for different spins. In some cases, the equation for eigenfunctions and eigenvalues are explicitly solved.

  9. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  10. Achieving Reliability in Master-worker Computing via Evolutionary Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Fernández Anta, Antonio; Georgiou, Chryssis; Mosteiro, Miguel A.; Sánchez, Angel

    2012-01-01

    This work considers Internet-based task computations in which a master process assigns tasks, over the Internet, to rational workers and collect their responses. The objective is for the master to obtain the correct task outcomes. For this purpose we formulate and study the dynamics of evolution of Internet-based master-worker computations through reinforcement learning.

  11. “三传”唯象方程在《化工原理》教学中的应用%The Application of "Momentum,Heat and Mass Transfer" Phenomenological Equation in Chemical Engineering Principles Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青云

    2011-01-01

    《化工原理》以化工单元操作为研究对象,需要用工程方法处理实际问题。初学者面对课程中出现的大量的公式、参数往往会感到无所适从。文章选取传热和吸收两个单元操作为例,介绍了用"三传"唯象方程连接各个章节主要公式、知识点的方法,希望能起到化繁为简的作用。%The Chemical Engineering Principles studies chemical unit operations,which should solve engineering problem.Facing so many formulae and parameter,the beginners often feel puzzled.The paper selects two unit operations,heat transfer and absorption,for example,to describe the use of the " Momentum,Heat and Mass Transfer " phenomenological equation which connecting the various sections of the main formula and knowledge points,and hoping to play a role in simplifying.

  12. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Francesco Giacomo

    1957-01-01

    This classic text on integral equations by the late Professor F. G. Tricomi, of the Mathematics Faculty of the University of Turin, Italy, presents an authoritative, well-written treatment of the subject at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. To render the book accessible to as wide an audience as possible, the author has kept the mathematical knowledge required on the part of the reader to a minimum; a solid foundation in differential and integral calculus, together with some knowledge of the theory of functions is sufficient. The book is divided into four chapters, with two useful

  13. Qualification of McCARD/MASTER Code System for Yonggwang Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we have developed the new two-step procedure based on the Monte Carlo (MC) methods. In this procedure, one can generate the few group constants including the few-group diffusion constants by the MC method augmented by the critical spectrum, which is provided by the solution to the homogeneous 0-dimensional B1 equation. In order to examine the qualification of the few-group constants generated by MC method, we combine MASTER with McCARD to form McCARD/MASTER code system for two-step core neutronics calculations. In the fictitious PWR system problems, the core design parameters calculated by the two-step McCARD/MASTER analysis agree well with those from the direct MC calculations. In this paper, a neutronic design analysis for the initial core of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4 (YGN4) is conducted using McCARD/MASTER two-step procedure to examine the qualification of two group constants from McCARD in terms of a real PWR core problem. To compare with the results, the nuclear design report and measured data are chosen as the reference solutions

  14. Mastering cloud computing foundations and applications programming

    CERN Document Server

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Selvi, SThamarai

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Cloud Computing is designed for undergraduate students learning to develop cloud computing applications. Tomorrow's applications won't live on a single computer but will be deployed from and reside on a virtual server, accessible anywhere, any time. Tomorrow's application developers need to understand the requirements of building apps for these virtual systems, including concurrent programming, high-performance computing, and data-intensive systems. The book introduces the principles of distributed and parallel computing underlying cloud architectures and specifical

  15. Master Symmetry for Holographic Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Thomas; Munkler, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    We identify the symmetry underlying the recently observed spectral-parameter transformations of holographic Wilson loops alias minimal surfaces in AdS/CFT. The generator of this nonlocal symmetry is shown to furnish a raising operator on the classical Yangian-type charges of symmetric coset models. We explicitly demonstrate how this master symmetry acts on strong-coupling Wilson loops and indicate a possible extension to arbitrary coupling.

  16. Mastering Emotions: The Emotional Politics of Slavery

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Mastering Emotions: The Emotional Politics of Slavery explores how the emotions and affective norms of the Antebellum South were conditioned upon and constructed through the institution of slavery. Though slavery is a subject wrought with emotion, there has been no focus in recent historical scholarship on the affective dimensions of slavery. Studies in the history of emotion have also largely ignored slavery. My intervention in these fields reveals the ways that both slaveholders and slaves ...

  17. The Master of Ceremonies : Dramaturgies of Power

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Laura Anne

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation argues that the theatrical master of ceremonies, an entity seen in many genres of popular theatre across centuries, exists in every instance as the expression of specific understandings of (and anxieties about) coercive social power. By examining key dramaturgical components of this entity, and comparing them to attributes of several modes of real power, I will show how the MC adapts the presentational techniques of power for the stage, producing a phenomenon I call "synthet...

  18. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possi...

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Joshua; Fox, William P.; Varazo, Kristofoland

    2007-01-01

    In beginning chemistry classes, students are taught a variety of techniques for balancing chemical equations. The most common method is inspection. This paper addresses using a system of linear mathematical equations to solve for the stoichiometric coefficients. Many linear algebra books carry the standard balancing of chemical equations as an…

  20. Non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems: Stochastic equations and their perturbative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treat several key stochastic equations for non-Markovian open quantum system dynamics and present a formalism for finding solutions to them via canonical perturbation theory, without making the Born–Markov or rotating wave approximations (RWA). This includes master equations of the (asymptotically) stationary, periodic, and time-nonlocal type. We provide proofs on the validity and meaningfulness of the late-time perturbative master equation and on the preservation of complete positivity despite a general lack of Lindblad form. More specifically, we show how the algebraic generators satisfy the theorem of Lindblad and Gorini, Kossakowski and Sudarshan, even though the dynamical generators do not. These proofs ensure the mathematical viability and physical soundness of solutions to non-Markovian processes. Within the same formalism we also expand upon known results for non-Markovian corrections to the quantum regression theorem. Several directions where these results can be usefully applied to are also described, including the analysis of near-resonant systems where the RWA is inapplicable and the calculation of the reduced equilibrium state of open systems. - Highlights: ► We derive perturbative master equations for general multivariate couplings. ► We calculate perturbative solutions to non-Markovian master equations without RWA. ► We compare the time-local and nonlocal master equation representations. ► We derive the non-Markovian quantum regression theorem corrections. ► We derive the generalized multivariate quantum Langevin equation.

  1. Surface phenomena during the early stages of sintering in steels modified with Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oro, Raquel, E-mail: raqueld@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Campos, Mónica, E-mail: campos@ing.uc3m.es [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Hryha, Eduard, E-mail: hryha@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Torralba, José Manuel, E-mail: torralba@ing.uc3m.es [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Nyborg, Lars, E-mail: lars.nyborg@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    The characteristics of the metallic powder surface play a critical role in the development of strong bonds between particles during sintering, especially when introducing elements with a high affinity for oxygen. In this study, Mn and Si have been combined in a Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloy powder in order to reduce their chemical activity and prevent oxidation during the heating stage of the sintering process. However, when this master alloy powder is mixed with an iron base powder, differences in chemical activity between both components can lead to an oxygen transfer from the iron base powder to the surface of the master alloy particles. The present research is focused on studying the evolution of the master alloy particle surface during the early stages of sintering. Surface characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the master alloy powder surface is mostly covered by a thin easily reducible iron oxide layer (∼ 1 nm). Mn–Si particulate oxides are found as inclusions in specific areas of the surface. Evolution of oxides during sintering was studied on green compacts containing iron powder, graphite and Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloy powder that were heat treated in vacuum (10{sup −6} mbar) at different temperatures (from 400, 600, 800 to 1000 °C) and analyzed by means of XPS. Vacuum sintering provides the necessary conditions to remove manganese and silicon oxides from the powder surface in the range of temperatures between 600 °C and 1000 °C. When sintering in vacuum, since the gaseous products from reduction processes are continuously eliminated, oxidation of master alloy particles due to oxygen transfer through the atmosphere is minimized. - Highlights: • Mn and Si were introduced in sintered steels using a master alloy powder. • Surface of the master alloy is mainly covered by an easily reducible iron oxide. • Temperature ranges for oxidation/reduction are identified. • Vacuum conditions avoid oxygen transfer to

  2. Surface phenomena during the early stages of sintering in steels modified with Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the metallic powder surface play a critical role in the development of strong bonds between particles during sintering, especially when introducing elements with a high affinity for oxygen. In this study, Mn and Si have been combined in a Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloy powder in order to reduce their chemical activity and prevent oxidation during the heating stage of the sintering process. However, when this master alloy powder is mixed with an iron base powder, differences in chemical activity between both components can lead to an oxygen transfer from the iron base powder to the surface of the master alloy particles. The present research is focused on studying the evolution of the master alloy particle surface during the early stages of sintering. Surface characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the master alloy powder surface is mostly covered by a thin easily reducible iron oxide layer (∼ 1 nm). Mn–Si particulate oxides are found as inclusions in specific areas of the surface. Evolution of oxides during sintering was studied on green compacts containing iron powder, graphite and Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloy powder that were heat treated in vacuum (10−6 mbar) at different temperatures (from 400, 600, 800 to 1000 °C) and analyzed by means of XPS. Vacuum sintering provides the necessary conditions to remove manganese and silicon oxides from the powder surface in the range of temperatures between 600 °C and 1000 °C. When sintering in vacuum, since the gaseous products from reduction processes are continuously eliminated, oxidation of master alloy particles due to oxygen transfer through the atmosphere is minimized. - Highlights: • Mn and Si were introduced in sintered steels using a master alloy powder. • Surface of the master alloy is mainly covered by an easily reducible iron oxide. • Temperature ranges for oxidation/reduction are identified. • Vacuum conditions avoid oxygen transfer to

  3. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: January-June 1980. [OLECULES; VIRIAL EQUATION; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DEUTERIUM; TRITIUM; CALCIUM NITRATES; HEAVY WATER; THERMAL DIFFUSION; WATER; CROSS SECTIONS; MOLECULAR BEAMS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; CHELATING AGENTS; CHLOROFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    I. Low temperature research covered Hydrogen Intermolecular Potential Functions: five potentials have been compared to bound state energies, second virial coefficients, and total and differential scattering cross sections, but none of them consistently fits all of the data. Using a Hartree-Fock-Dispersion form with a modified damping function, three out of the four sets of data can be represented with a single potential function. Reaction Rates of Deuterium-Tritium Mixtures: two mixing chambers are being designed and built for studying D/sub 2/-T/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/-T/sub 2/. Low Temperature Trennschaukel: a bench model trennschaukel has been instrumented. II. Separation research covered Liquid Thermal Diffusion: Isotopic separations as functions of time were measured for methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane and 1-chlorobutane. The campaign to enrich chlorine-37 by liquid thermal diffusion of methyl chloride was concluded after 240 g of enriched isotope had been produced. Calcium Isotope Separation: Calcium isotope separation in the Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O and -D/sub 2/O systems was measured using a 36.5 cm liquid phase thermal diffusion column. The largest separation was a 15% change in the calcium-48 abundance. Molecular Beam Scattering: a supersonic Ne beam through a cell containing Ar was used to measure low-energy, elastic, total cross sections of neon/argon in the velocity range of 4 to 10 (x 10/sup 4/) cm/s. Cross sections at onset of clustering were 7% higher than at minimum cluster conditions. Mutual Diffusion: Study continues on the temperature dependence of the mutal diffusion coefficients for binary noble gas mixtures, particularly argon with helium, neon, and xenon. Metal Chemical Exchange With Macrocyclic Ligands: The equilibrium single-stage separation factor was determined for two additional LiTFA/221 cryptand/CHCl/sub 3/ and two LiTFA/211 cryptand/CHCl/sub 3/ exchange systems.

  4. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  5. Effective vs. Efficient: Teaching Methods of Solving Linear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kathy M. C.

    2003-01-01

    The choice of teaching an effective method--one that most students can master--or an efficient method--one that takes the fewest steps--occurs daily in Algebra I classrooms. This decision may not be made in the abstract, however, but rather in a ready-to-hand mode. This study examines how teachers solve linear equations when the purpose is…

  6. Weighted particle method for solving the Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new, deterministic, method of solution of the nuclear Boltzmann equation. In this Weighted Particle Method two-body collisions are treated by a Master equation for an occupation probability of each numerical particle. We apply the method to the quadrupole motion of 12C. A comparison with usual stochastic methods is made. Advantages and disadvantages of the Weighted Particle Method are discussed

  7. Stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations with coloured noise

    CERN Document Server

    Barchielli, A; Petruccione, F

    2009-01-01

    A natural non-Markovian extension of the theory of white noise quantum trajectories is presented. In order to introduce memory effects in the formalism an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck coloured noise is considered as the output driving process. Under certain conditions a random Hamiltonian evolution is recovered. Moreover, non-Markovian stochastic Schr\\"odinger equations which unravel non-Markovian master equations are derived.

  8. The Master T-Operator for Inhomogeneous XXX Spin Chain and mKP Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodin, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Following the approach of [Alexandrov A., Kazakov V., Leurent S., Tsuboi Z., Zabrodin A., J. High Energy Phys. 2013 (2013), no. 9, 064, 65 pages, arXiv:1112.3310], we show how to construct the master T-operator for the quantum inhomogeneous GL(N) XXX spin chain with twisted boundary conditions. It satisfies the bilinear identity and Hirota equations for the classical mKP hierarchy. We also characterize the class of solutions to the mKP hierarchy that correspond to eigenvalues of the master T-operator and study dynamics of their zeros as functions of the spectral parameter. This implies a remarkable connection between the quantum spin chain and the classical Ruijsenaars-Schneider system of particles.

  9. What Is Chemical Stoichiometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is discussed free from kinetic or thermodynamic considerations. The means for determining the following are presented: the number of stoichiometric degrees of freedom, the number of components, a permissible set of chemical equations, and a permissible set of components, for a closed system undergoing chemical reaction.…

  10. Setting the stage for master's level success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Donna

    Comprehensive reading, writing, research, and study skills play a critical role in a graduate student's success and ability to contribute to a field of study effectively. The literature indicated a need to support graduate student success in the areas of mentoring, navigation, as well as research and writing. The purpose of this two-phased mixed methods explanatory study was to examine factors that characterize student success at the Master's level in the fields of education, sociology and social work. The study was grounded in a transformational learning framework which focused on three levels of learning: technical knowledge, practical or communicative knowledge, and emancipatory knowledge. The study included two data collection points. Phase one consisted of a Master's Level Success questionnaire that was sent via Qualtrics to graduate level students at three colleges and universities in the Central Valley of California: a California State University campus, a University of California campus, and a private college campus. The results of the chi-square indicated that seven questionnaire items were significant with p values less than .05. Phase two in the data collection included semi-structured interview questions that resulted in three themes emerged using Dedoose software: (1) the need for more language and writing support at the Master's level, (2) the need for mentoring, especially for second-language learners, and (3) utilizing the strong influence of faculty in student success. It is recommended that institutions continually assess and strengthen their programs to meet the full range of learners and to support students to degree completion.

  11. Recent advances in Master Curve technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Curve (MC) methodology has evolved, from only being a brittle fracture testing and analysis procedure, to a technological tool capable of addressing many more structural integrity issues like constraint and parameter transferability. One issue that not yet has been covered by the MC is the warm pre-stress (WPS) effect. This effect, which is known to produce an effective increase in fracture toughness may be of great importance for some structural safety assessment situations, where thermal transients are involved. Here, the WPS effect is re-examined and implemented into the MC methodology. (orig.)

  12. The Alchemist in Fiction: The Master Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslynn Haynes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Western culture, as expressed in fiction and film, the master narrative concerning science and the pursuit of knowledge perpetuates the archetype of the alchemist/scientist as sinister, dangerous, and possibly mad. Like all myths this story may appear simplistic but its recurrence suggests that it embodies complex ideas and suppressed desires and fears that each generation must work through. This paper explores some of the most influential examples of such characterization, links them to contemporary correlatives of the basic promises of alchemy and suggests reasons for the continuing power of such images.

  13. The Survivor Master Narrative in Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures. PMID:26721902

  14. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO, is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials.

  15. Personal health benefits of Masters athletics competition.

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, R. J.; Kavanagh, T.; Mertens, D J; Qureshi, S; Clark, M.

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires (750 respondents, 44.4% response rate) examined the long-term health value of endurance exercise training in older age-classed competitors ('Masters Athletes', 551 men and 199 women) over a 7-year period (1985-1992). The majority had initially completed maximal exercise tests. The weekly time devoted to training, competition and exercise-related travel was 10 to 30 h, and the annual expenditure on clothing, equipment and entrance fees was typically in the range Canadian $500-15...

  16. Master stability analysis in transient spatiotemporal chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerbauer, Renate

    2007-11-01

    The asymptotic stability of spatiotemporal chaos is difficult to determine, since transient spatiotemporal chaos may be extremely long lived. A master stability analysis reveals that the asymptotic state of transient spatiotemporal chaos in the Gray-Scott system and in the Bär-Eiswirth system is characterized by negative transverse Lyapunov exponents on the attractor of the invariant synchronization manifold. The average lifetime of transient spatiotemporal chaos depends on the number of transverse directions that are unstable along a typical excitation cycle. PMID:18233739

  17. Mastering Microsoft Forefront UAG 2010 Customization

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Ari, Erez

    2012-01-01

    "Mastering Microsoft Forefront UAG 2010 Customization" is a hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions for enhancing the functionality of UAG through customization. Each topic details one key aspect of functionality and the operative mechanism behind it, and suggests functionality that can be achieved with customization, along with helpful code samples. Whether you are a seasoned UAG consultant, deployment and support engineer or a UAG customer, this book is for you. Consultants will be able to enhance the services you can provide for UAG customization, while the book helps customers to ach

  18. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  19. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  20. SAS essentials mastering SAS for data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step introduction to using SAS® statistical software as a foundational approach to data analysis and interpretation Presenting a straightforward introduction from the ground up, SAS® Essentials: Mastering SAS for Data Analytics, Second Edition illustrates SAS using hands-on learning techniques and numerous real-world examples. Keeping different experience levels in mind, the highly-qualified author team has developed the book over 20 years of teaching introductory SAS courses. Divided into two sections, the first part of the book provides an introduction to data manipulation, st

  1. Exact solutions of some coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations using auxiliary equation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjit Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Travelling and solitary wave solutions of certain coupled nonlinear diffusion-reaction equations have been constructed using the auxiliary equation method. These equations arise in a variety of contexts not only in biological, chemical and physical sciences but also in ecological and social sciences.

  2. Statistical Theory for the Stochastic Burgers Equation in the Inviscid Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Weinan, E; Eijnden, Eric Vanden

    1999-01-01

    A statistical theory is developed for the stochastic Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. Master equations for the probability density functions of velocity, velocity difference and velocity gradient are derived. No closure assumptions are made. Instead closure is achieved through a dimension reduction process, namely the unclosed terms are expressed in terms of statistical quantities for the singular structures of the velocity field, here the shocks. Master equations for the environment of the shocks are further expressed in terms of the statistics of singular structures on the shocks, namely the points of shock generation and collisions. The scaling laws of the structure functions are derived through the analysis of the master equations. Rigorous bounds on the decay of the tail probabilities for the velocity gradient are obtained using realizability constraints. We also establish that the probability density function of the velocity gradient has a left power tail with exponent -7/2.

  3. Dissecting microregulation of a master regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimal Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The master regulator p53 tumor-suppressor protein through coordination of several downstream target genes and upstream transcription factors controls many pathways important for tumor suppression. While it has been reported that some of the p53's functions are microRNA-mediated, it is not known as to how many other microRNAs might contribute to the p53-mediated tumorigenesis. Results Here, we use bioinformatics-based integrative approach to identify and prioritize putative p53-regulated miRNAs, and unravel the miRNA-based microregulation of the p53 master regulatory network. Specifically, we identify putative microRNA regulators of a transcription factors that are upstream or downstream to p53 and b p53 interactants. The putative p53-miRs and their targets are prioritized using current knowledge of cancer biology and literature-reported cancer-miRNAs. Conclusion Our predicted p53-miRNA-gene networks strongly suggest that coordinated transcriptional and p53-miR mediated networks could be integral to tumorigenesis and the underlying processes and pathways.

  4. Experimental testing of an ABB Master application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype dynamic testing harness for programmable automation systems has been specified and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). In order to get experience on the methodology and equipment for the testing of systems important to the safety of nuclear power plants, where the safety and reliability requirements often are very high, two different pilot systems have been tested. One system was an ABB Master application, which was loaned for testing from ABB Atom by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). Another system, loaned from Siemens AG (SAG) by IVO International Oy (IVO), was an application realized with SAG's digital SILT technology. The report describes the experiences gained in testing an APRM pilot system realized with ABB Master technology. The testing of the pilot application took place in the VTT Automation laboratory in Otaniemi in September-October 1994. The purpose of the testing was not to assess the quality of the pilot system, but to get experience in the testing methodology and find out the further development needs and potentials of the test methodology and equipment. (7 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.)

  5. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals. PMID:24323888

  6. Uniqueness of two-loop master contours

    CERN Document Server

    Caron-Huot, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Generalized-unitarity calculations of two-loop amplitudes are performed by expanding the amplitude in a basis of master integrals and then determining the coefficients by taking a number of generalized cuts. In this paper, we present a complete classification of the solutions to the maximal cut of integrals with the double-box topology. The ideas presented here are expected to be relevant for all two-loop topologies as well. We find that these maximal-cut solutions are naturally associated with Riemann surfaces whose topology is determined by the number of states at the vertices of the double-box graph. In the case of four massless external momenta we find that, once the geometry of these Riemann surfaces is properly understood, there are uniquely defined master contours producing the coefficients of the double-box integrals in the basis decomposition of the two-loop amplitude. This is in perfect analogy with the situation in one-loop generalized unitarity. In addition, we point out that the chiral integrals ...

  7. MYC2: the master in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

    2013-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones with essential roles in plant defense and development. The basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) MYC2 has recently emerged as a master regulator of most aspects of the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. MYC2 coordinates JA-mediated defense responses by antagonistically regulating two different branches of the JA signaling pathway that determine resistance to pests and pathogens, respectively. MYC2 is required for induced systemic resistance (ISR) triggered by beneficial soil microbes while MYC2 function is targeted by pathogens during effector-mediated suppression of innate immunity in roots. Another notable function of MYC2 is the regulation of crosstalk between the signaling pathways of JA and those of other phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), gibberellins (GAs), and auxin (IAA). MYC2 also regulates interactions between JA signaling and light, phytochrome signaling, and the circadian clock. MYC2 is involved in JA-regulated plant development, lateral and adventitious root formation, flowering time, and shade avoidance syndrome. Related bHLH TFs MYC3 and MYC4 also regulate both overlapping and distinct MYC2-regulated functions in Arabidopsis while MYC2 orthologs act as 'master switches' that regulate JA-mediated biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Here, we briefly review recent studies that revealed mechanistic new insights into the mode of action of this versatile TF. PMID:23142764

  8. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  9. Stochastic analysis of complex reaction networks using binomial moment equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer

    2012-09-01

    The stochastic analysis of complex reaction networks is a difficult problem because the number of microscopic states in such systems increases exponentially with the number of reactive species. Direct integration of the master equation is thus infeasible and is most often replaced by Monte Carlo simulations. While Monte Carlo simulations are a highly effective tool, equation-based formulations are more amenable to analytical treatment and may provide deeper insight into the dynamics of the network. Here, we present a highly efficient equation-based method for the analysis of stochastic reaction networks. The method is based on the recently introduced binomial moment equations [Barzel and Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 150602 (2011)]. The binomial moments are linear combinations of the ordinary moments of the probability distribution function of the population sizes of the interacting species. They capture the essential combinatorics of the reaction processes reflecting their stoichiometric structure. This leads to a simple and transparent form of the equations, and allows a highly efficient and surprisingly simple truncation scheme. Unlike ordinary moment equations, in which the inclusion of high order moments is prohibitively complicated, the binomial moment equations can be easily constructed up to any desired order. The result is a set of equations that enables the stochastic analysis of complex reaction networks under a broad range of conditions. The number of equations is dramatically reduced from the exponential proliferation of the master equation to a polynomial (and often quadratic) dependence on the number of reactive species in the binomial moment equations. The aim of this paper is twofold: to present a complete derivation of the binomial moment equations; to demonstrate the applicability of the moment equations for a representative set of example networks, in which stochastic effects play an important role. PMID:23030885

  10. Fokker-Planck equation for a test particle weakly coupled to a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the derivation of a kinetic equation for a charged test particle weakly interacting with an electrostatic plasma in thermal equilibrium, subject to a uniform external magnetic field. The Liouville equation leads to a generalized master equation to second order in the 'weak' interaction; a Fokker-Planck-type equation then follows as a 'Markovian' approximation. It is shown that such an equation does not preserve the positivity of the distribution function f(x,v;t). By applying techniques developed in the theory of open systems, a correct Fokker-Planck equation is derived. Explicit expressions for the diffusion and drift coefficients, depending on the magnetic field, are obtained. (author)

  11. On a theory of stability for nonlinear stochastic chemical reaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present elements of a stability theory for small, stochastic, nonlinear chemical reaction networks. Steady state probability distributions are computed with zero-information (ZI) closure, a closure algorithm that solves chemical master equations of small arbitrary nonlinear reactions. Stochastic models can be linearized around the steady state with ZI-closure, and the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix can be readily computed. Eigenvalues govern the relaxation of fluctuation autocorrelation functions at steady state. Autocorrelation functions reveal the time scales of phenomena underlying the dynamics of nonlinear reaction networks. In accord with the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, these functions are found to be congruent to response functions to small perturbations. Significant differences are observed in the stability of nonlinear reacting systems between deterministic and stochastic modeling formalisms

  12. Master environmental plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Peters, R.W.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1991-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a master environmental plan (MEP) for Fort Devens, Massachusetts, for the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. The MEP is an assessment based on environmental laws and regulations of both the federal government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MEP assess the physical and environmental status of 58 potential hazardous waste sites, including 54 study areas (SAs) that pose a potential for releasing contamination into the environment and 4 areas of concern (AOCs) that are known to have substantial contamination. For each SA or AOC, this MEP describes the known history and environment, identifies additional data needs, and proposes possible response actions. Most recommended response actions consist of environmental sampling and monitoring and other characterization studies. 74 refs., 63 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. A Joint Master Program in Remote Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ursutiu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Within an EU funded SOCRATES project universities from Austria, Germany, Ireland, Romania and Slovenia develop a “Joint European Master Program Remote Engineering” (MARE. Remote Engineering (or more common Online Engineering is one of the future directions for advanced teleworking/e working environments especially in engineering and science (economics, informatics but also in all other fields of society. In the last two – three years in Europe, a lot of projects and works in designing and developing remote and virtual labs were done. We can see the same trend overseas. This is related to the growing technical possibilities of the internet (bandwidth and new models of e- and distance learning and e-work. The forerunners in this area are engineering disciplines and natural sciences. Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation are very future trends in engineering and science.

  14. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  15. "Master and Slave" fluidic amplifier cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesař Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available No-moving-part fluidics recently found interesting application in generation of gas microbubbles by oscillating the inlet flow of the gas into the aerator. The oscillation frequency has to be high and this calls for small size of the oscillator. On the other hand, most microbubble applications require a large total gas flow. This calls for large fluidic device – a les expensive alternative than “numbering up” (several oscillators in parallel. The contradiction of the large and small scale is solved by the “MASTER & SLAVE” fluidic circuit: large output device controlled by a small oscillator. Paper discusses basic problems encountered in designing the circuit which requires matching the characteristics of the two devices.

  16. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  17. Master-Slave Manipulators vs. Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical development and salient characteristics of Master-Slave Manipulators are reviewed, emphasizing the extension of a human operator's manipulative, sensory, and cognitive functions to a remote, usually hostile, and unstructured environment, to perform a wide variety of tasks in a long-accustomed, natural manner. Although they are crude compared to a human arm, the versatility of these devices allows them to be guided in ''real time'' by a human operator in a normal, safe environment, to cope with unplanned and unforseeable circumstances in the remote workplace. Robots capable of mimicking and surpassing the mechanical performance of any human-controlled manipulator are nevertheless dependent (at least until now) on human guidance, not in ''real time'' but by ''teaching'' or programming, to either perform a fixed repertoire of operations in a highly structured, pre-planned environment or, at best, to respond to a limited repertoire of forseeable conditions to which robotic sensors may respond

  18. European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to preserve, enhance or strengthen nuclear knowledge is worldwide recognised since a couple of years. It appears that within the European university education and training network, nuclear engineering is presently sufficiently covered, although somewhat fragmented. To take up the challenges of offering top quality, new, attractive and relevant curricula, higher education institutions should cooperate with industry, regulatory bodies and research centres, and more appropriate funding a.o. from public and private is to be re-established. More, European nuclear education and training should benefit from links with international organisations like IAEA, OECD-NEA and others, and should include world-wide cooperation with academic institutions and research centres. The European master in nuclear engineering guarantees a high quality nuclear education in Europe by means of stimulating student and instructor exchange, through mutual checks of the quality of the programmes offered, by close collaboration with renowned nuclear-research groups at universities and laboratories. The concept for a nuclear master programme consists of a solid basket of recommended basic nuclear science and engineering courses, but also contains advanced courses as well as practical training. Some of the advanced courses also serve as part of the curricula for doctoral programmes. A second important issue identified is Continued Professional Development. In order to achieve the objectives and practical goals described above, the ENEN association was formed. This international, non-profit association is be considered as a step towards a virtual European Nuclear University symbolising the active collaboration between various national institutions pursuing nuclear education. (author)

  19. Boundary value problems and partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, David L

    2005-01-01

    Boundary Value Problems is the leading text on boundary value problems and Fourier series. The author, David Powers, (Clarkson) has written a thorough, theoretical overview of solving boundary value problems involving partial differential equations by the methods of separation of variables. Professors and students agree that the author is a master at creating linear problems that adroitly illustrate the techniques of separation of variables used to solve science and engineering.* CD with animations and graphics of solutions, additional exercises and chapter review questions* Nearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty* Many fully worked examples

  20. Enhancing the Academic Experiences of First-Generation Master's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, Laura M.; Kwong, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Is being "first generation" significant for undergraduates only? The narratives of 25 first-generation master's students in this phenomenological study suggest not. Participants experienced challenges pursuing their master's degrees, yet these were counterbalanced by other factors. The authors identified five areas that educators may address to…

  1. Trends in Exiting Physics Master's. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    A physics master's degree provides the recipient with a variety of career options. Some master's recipients will continue their education at the graduate level in physics or another field, where others enter the workforce pursuing a wide range of employment opportunities. This "Focus On" provides an in-depth analysis of physics…

  2. Teaching Communications Online Using the Master Teacher Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Indiana State University's business school online education program uses the Master Teacher Model adopted from the Open University. The model employs a hierarchy of instructors: program director, master teacher, and adjunct faculty. Methods include case analyses, threaded discussions, and e-mail for interactive group communication. (Contains 10…

  3. 78 FR 61373 - Animal Center Master Plan Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Animal Center Master Plan Record of Decision SUMMARY: The... Decision The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) requires that NIH facilities have a Master Plan... resulting from the Selected Alternative that the NIH considered when making its decision. No...

  4. The UK Postgraduate Masters Dissertation: An "Elusive Chameleon"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Many studies into the process of producing and supervising dissertations exist, yet little research into the "product" of the Masters dissertation, or into how Masters supervision changes over time exist. Drawing on 62 semi-structured interviews with 31 Maths and Computer Science supervisors over a two-year period, this paper explores the Masters…

  5. MD3M: The Master Data Management Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Marco; Pietzka, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to assess the master data maturity of an organization. It is based on thorough literature study to derive the main concepts and best practices in master data maturity assessment. A maturity matrix relating 13 focus areas and 65 capabilities was designed and validated. Furthermore,

  6. Mastering Inflectional Suffixes: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning Writers' Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Deacon, S. Helene; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining

    2011-01-01

    This study tracked the order in which ten beginning spellers (M age = 5 ; 05; SD = 0.21 years) mastered the correct spellings of common inflectional suffixes in English. Spellings from children's journals from kindergarten and grade 1 were coded. An inflectional suffix was judged to be mastered when children spelled it accurately in 90 percent of…

  7. MASTER: very bright OT in Large Magellanic cloud direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Vlasenko, D.; Kuvshinov, D.; Potter, S.

    2016-05-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 05h 10m 32.58s -69d 21m 30.4s on 2016-05-10.72797 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 17.6m).

  8. Possible Orphan Transient Detection at PGC143111 galaxy by MASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Lodieu, N.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Kornilov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Samus, N.; Gress, O.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Knyazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Krushinskiy, V.; Sergienko, Yu.; Gabovich, A.; Yurkov, V.

    2015-10-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 00m 08.72s -33d 41m 56.5s on 2015-10-13.98017 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.6m (the limit is 19.9m).

  9. Assessing Changes in Virginia Master Gardener Volunteer Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Sheri T.

    1999-01-01

    ASSESSING CHANGES IN VIRGINIA MASTER GARDENER VOLUNTEER MANAGEMENT Sheri T. Dorn ABSTRACT Master Gardener (MG) volunteers are nonpaid, education partners with Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE). VCE MGs have assisted Extension agents in meeting VCE's educational goals and mission by following the Sustainable Landscape Management educational program objectives within the VCE Plan of Work. Local MG volunteer programs must be managed appropriately so that vol...

  10. International Master Erasmus Mundus Quaternary and Prehistory, Master Theses 2006-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Buonsanto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of the Annals of the University of Ferrara presents a rich collection of research carried out by a group of young scholars from around the world gathered in the Erasmus Mundus Master-Prehistory and Quaternary.This is a selection of the arguments put forward by students who participated in the first two years of this extraordinary course financed by the European Union. The first point to make as a synthesis of this advanced course is light here in these pages written in many different languages but that speak all the only language of international research.This book gives us evidence of a University that has become fully European, first of all because the institutions have invested in advanced studies and frontier research, bringing together universities from across the Continent that, in a common effort here have joined with us to give us the best possible conditions to enable young people, not only in Europe but coming from all over the world to play together a basic research on the origins of life in our common Earth.Just beware the origin of these authors to be affected: Jordan, Italy, Senegal, Spain, France, Brazil, Argentina, China, Algeria, Cambodia, Ivory Coast, Georgia, Indonesia.This volume contains the research results conducted by the master students of the first two years of training. The results represent an integral part of the final Master thesis defended before the last discussion in front of the International Commission.

  11. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  12. Evaluating four-loop conformal Feynman integrals by D-dimensional differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate a four-loop conformal integral, i.e. an integral over four four-dimensional coordinates, by turning to its dimensionally regularized version and applying differential equations for the set of the corresponding 213 master integrals. To solve these linear differential equations we follow the strategy suggested by Henn and switch to a uniformly transcendental basis of master integrals. We find a solution to these equations up to weight eight in terms of multiple polylogarithms. Further, we present an analytical result for the given four-loop conformal integral considered in four-dimensional space-time in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms. As a by-product, we obtain analytical results for all the other 212 master integrals within dimensional regularization, i.e. considered in D dimensions.

  13. European master of science in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The need to preserve, enhance or strengthen nuclear knowledge is worldwide recognised since a couple of years. Among others, 'networking to maintain nuclear competence through education and training', was recommended in 2001 by an expert panel to the European Commission. (EUR 19150 EN). It appears that within the European university education and training framework, nuclear engineering is presently still sufficiently covered, although somewhat fragmented. However it has been observed that several areas are at risk in the very near future including safety relevant fields such as reactor physics and nuclear thermal-hydraulics. Furthermore, in some countries deficiencies have been identified in areas such as the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management and decommissioning. To overcome these risks and deficiencies, it is of very high importance that European countries work more closely together. Harmonisation and improvement of the nuclear education and training have to take place at an international level in order to maintain the knowledge properly and to transfer it throughout Europe for the safe and economic design, operation and dismantling of present and future nuclear systems. To take up the challenges of offering top quality, new, attractive and relevant curricula, higher education institutions should cooperate with industry, regulatory bodies and research centres, and more appropriate funding from public and private sources. In addition, European nuclear education and training should benefit from links with international organisations like IAEA, OECD-NEA and others, and should include world-wide cooperation with academic institutions and research centres. The first and central issue is to establish a European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. The concept envisaged is compatible with the projected harmonised European architecture for higher education defining Bachelors and Masters degrees. The basic goal is to guarantee a high

  14. European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to preserve, enhance or strengthen nuclear knowledge is worldwide recognised since a couple of years. Among others, 'networking to maintain nuclear competence through education and training', was recommended in 2001 by an expert panel to the European Commission [EUR, 19150 EN, Strategic issues related to a 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006). Scientific and Technical Committee Euratom, pp. 14]. It appears that within the European University education and training framework, nuclear engineering is presently still sufficiently covered, although somewhat fragmented. However, it has been observed that several areas are at risk in the very near future including safety relevant fields such as reactor physics and nuclear thermal-hydraulics. Furthermore, in some countries deficiencies have been identified in areas such as the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management and decommissioning. To overcome these risks and deficiencies, it is of very high importance that European countries work more closely together. Harmonisation and improvement of the nuclear education and training have to take place at an international level in order to maintain the knowledge properly and to transfer it throughout Europe for the safe and economic design, operation and dismantling of present and future nuclear systems. To take up the challenges of offering top quality, new, attractive and relevant curricula, higher education institutions should cooperate with industry, regulatory bodies and research centres, and more appropriate funding from public and private sources. In addition, European nuclear education and training should benefit from links with international organisations like IAEA, OECD-NEA and others, and should include worldwide cooperation with academic institutions and research centres. The first and central issue is to establish a European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. The concept envisaged is compatible with the projected harmonised European

  15. A classical master equation for excitonic transport under the influence of an environment

    CERN Document Server

    Eisfeld, A

    2011-01-01

    In a previous paper [Phys.Rev.E 83, 051911] we have shown that the results of a quantum-mechanical calculation of electronic energy transfer (EET) over aggregates of coupled monomers can be described also by a model of interacting classical electric dipoles in a weak-coupling approximation, which we referred to as the realistic coupling approximation (RCA). The method was illustrated by EET on a simple linear chain of molecules and also by energy transfer on the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex relevant for photosynthesis. The study was limited to electronic degrees of freedom since this is the origin of coherent EET in the quantum case. Nevertheless, more realistic models of EET require the inclusion of the de-cohering effects of coupling to an environment, when the molecular aggregate becomes an open quantum system. Here we consider the quantum description of EET on a linear chain and on the FMO complex, incorporating environment coupling and construct the classical version of the same systems in the dens...

  16. Optical manipulation of a multilevel nuclear spin in ZnO: Master equation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buß, J. H.; Rudolph, J.; Wassner, T. A.; Eickhoff, M.; Hägele, D.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the dynamics and optical control of a large quantum mechanical solid state spin system consisting of a donor electron spin strongly coupled to the 9/2 nuclear spin of 115In in the semiconductor ZnO. Comparison of electron spin dynamics observed by time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy with density matrix theory reveals nuclear spin pumping via optically oriented electron spins, coherent spin-spin interaction, and quantization effects of the ten nuclear spin levels. Modulation of the optical electron spin orientation at frequencies above 1 MHz gives evidence for fast optical manipulation of the nuclear spin state.

  17. Notes on the Lumped Backward Master Equation for the Neutron Extinction/Survival Probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, Anil K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-02

    The expected or mean neutron number (or density) provides an adequate characterization of the neutron population and its dynamical excursions in most neutronic applications, in particular power reactors. Fluctuations in the neutron number, originating from the inherent randomness of neutron interactions and fission neutron multiplicities, are relatively small and ignorable for operational purposes, although measurements of the variance and time correlations provide valuable diagnostic information on fundamental reactor physics parameters. However, it is well known that there exist situations of great interest and importance in which a strictly deterministic description, or even one supplemented with a knowledge of low order statistical averages (variance, correlation), provides an incomplete and very unsatisfactory description of the state of the neutron population. These situations are marked by persistent large fluctuations in the neutron number where the emergence of a deterministic phase is suppressed. Such situations are strongly stochastic and therefore unpredictable (i.e., the mean is not representative of the actual population), and can arise either by design or by accident. Examples where the stochastic behavior of neutron populations must be taken into account include: nuclear weapon single-point safety assessment; criticality excursions in spent fuel storage and in the handling of fissile solutions in fuel fabrication and reprocessing; approach to critical under suboptimal reactor start-up conditions; preinitiation in fast burst research reactors; and weak nuclear signatures in the passive detection of nuclear materials. What distinguishes strongly stochastic neutronic systems from strongly deterministic systems is that, in the former, neutron multiplication occurs in the presence of weak neutron sources, such as spontaneous fission and background (cosmic) radiation. Weak sources (in a sense that can be made quite precise) lead to well separated fission chains (a fission chain is defined as the initial source neutron and all its subsequent progeny) in which some chains are short lived while others propagate for unusually long times. Under these conditions, fission chains do not overlap strongly and this precludes the cancellation of neutron number fluctuations necessary for the mean to become established as the dominant measure of the neutron population. The fate of individual chains then plays a defining role in the evolution of the neutron population in strongly stochastic systems, and of particular interest and importance in supercritical systems is the extinction probability, defined as the probability that the neutron chain (initiating neutron and its progeny) will be extinguished at a particular time, or its complement, the time-dependent survival probability. The time-asymptotic limit of the latter, the probability of divergence, gives the probability that the neutron population will grow without bound, and is more commonly known as the probability of initiation or just POI. The ability to numerically compute these probabilities, with high accuracy and without overly restricting the underlying physics (e.g., fission neutron multiplicity, reactivity variation) is clearly essential in developing an understanding of the behavior of strongly stochastic systems.

  18. Alignment of master and sample in comparative digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Xavier; Meister, Eugen; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    A comparative digital holography system suitable for shape and deformation comparisons between master and sample objects with rough surfaces is described. The innovative aspect of comparative digital holography is the illumination of the sample by the conjugated wavefront of the master, as a type of coherent mask, using a liquid crystal display (LCD). The resulting interferogram indicates directly the shape or the deformation differences between the master and sample. As it is not necessary that both objects to be compared are located at the same place for this technique, remote shape or deformation comparison between a master and a sample is possible. A current research topic is the precise alignment of the sample and the reconstructed master wavefront so that the resulting phase map only contains information of the differences in shape or deformation. The reconstructed master wavefront can be adjusted digitally to correctly illuminate the sample object, by introducing an artificial phase-shift. This phase-shift is induced by the LCD, and offers also the possibility of calibrating precisely the set-up. The value for the phase-shift is obtained by a comparison of the resulting interferogram with a database containing fringes from simulations of misalignments between master and sample objects. Using the iterative algorithm described here, the correction of the sample position can be controlled by an automatic adaptation of the coherent mask.

  19. MIDAS (Master Information and Data Acquisition System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Master Information and Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) is a computerized work control system that provides 24-hour, real-time access to plant equipment information and work package status. It is used in the 400 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. MIDAS was originally created to aid in the release and control of work at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE. After MIDAS performed that function at FFTF successfully for over two years, its role was expanded to provide similar functions for other facilities supporting the LMR mission. Through its ability to provide online, accurate information on plant components, safety criteria, and work package status, MIDAS reinforces Operations functions and the control and authorization of maintenance activities in the FFTF plant and in other related facilities. Thus, MIDAS enhances the operational safety, as well as the planning and scheduling process for these facilities. MIDAS consists of three parts: The Plant Tracking System (PTS), the Work Control Log (WCL), and the MIDAS Component Indices (MCI).

  20. MIDAS [Master Information and Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Information and Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) is a computerized work control system that provides 24-hour, real-time access to plant equipment information and work package status. It is used in the 400 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. MIDAS was originally created to aid in the release and control of work at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the DOE. After MIDAS performed that function at FFTF successfully for over two years, its role was expanded to provide similar functions for other facilities supporting the LMR mission. Through its ability to provide online, accurate information on plant components, safety criteria, and work package status, MIDAS reinforces Operations functions and the control and authorization of maintenance activities in the FFTF plant and in other related facilities. Thus, MIDAS enhances the operational safety, as well as the planning and scheduling process for these facilities. MIDAS consists of three parts: The Plant Tracking System (PTS), the Work Control Log (WCL), and the MIDAS Component Indices

  1. Color silver halide hologram production and mastering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Huang, Qiang

    1997-04-01

    Color reflection holograms recorded with the Denisyuk geometry have been demonstrated by the recently formed HOLOS Corporation in New Hampshire. The Slavich red-green-blue (RGB) sensitized ultra-high resolution silver halide emulsion was used for the hologram recording. The employed laser wavelengths were 647 nm, 532 nm, and 476 nm, generated by an argon ion, a frequency doubled Nd:YAG, and a krypton ion laser, respectively. A beam combination mechanism with dichroic filters enabled a simultaneous RGB exposure, which made the color balance and overall exposure energy easy to control as well as simplifying the recording procedure. HOLOS has been producing limited edition color holograms in various sizes from 4' X 5' to 12' X 16'. A 30 foot long optical table and high power lasers will enable HOLOS to record color holograms up to the size of one meter square in the near future. Various approaches have been investigated in generating color hologram masters which have sufficiently high diffraction efficiency to contact copy the color images onto photopolymer materials. A specially designed test object including the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, a rainbow ribbon cable, pure yellow dots, and a cloisonne elephant was used for color recording experiments. In addition, the Macbeth Color Checker chart was used. Both colorimetric evaluation and scattering noise measurements were performed using the PR-650 Photo Research SpectraScan SpectraCalorimeter.

  2. A cleavage toughness master curve model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of fusion power will require a fracture toughness database, derived largely from small specimen tests, closely integrated with methods to assess first wall and blanket structural integrities. A master curve-shift (MC-ΔT) method has been proposed as an engineering expedient to treat the effects of structural geometry, irradiation, loading rates and safety margins. However, a number of issues related to the MC-ΔT method remain to be resolved, including the universality of MC shapes. A new micromechanical model of fracture toughness in the cleavage transition regime is proposed that combines analytical representations of finite element analysis simulations of crack-tip stress fields with a local critical stress-critical stressed area (σ*-A*) fracture criterion. This model, has been successful in predicting geometry effects, as well as high loading rate and irradiation hardening-induced Charpy shifts. By incorporating a modest temperature dependence in σ*(T), an inconsistency between model predictions and an observed universal-type MC shape is resolved

  3. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  4. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  5. Dual Diagonalization of Reactive Transport Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, G.; Tsai, C.

    2013-12-01

    One solves a system of species transport equations in the primitive approach to reactive transport modeling. This approach is not able to decouple equilibrium reaction rates from species concentrations. This problem has been overcome with the approach to diagonalizing the reaction matrix since mid 1990's, which yields the same number of transport equations for reaction-extents. In the diagonalization approach, first, a subset of reaction- extent transport equations is solved for concentrations of components and kinetic-variables. Then, the component, kinetic-variable, and mass action equations are solved for all species concentrations. Finally, the equilibrium reaction rates are posterior computed. The difficulty in this approach is that the solution of species concentrations in the second step is a stiff problem when the concentrations of master species are small compared to those of equilibrium species. To overcome the problem of stiffness, we propose a dual diagonalization approach. Here, a second diagonalization is performed on the decomposed unit matrix to yield species concentrations, each as a linear function of reaction extents. In this dual diagonalization approach, four steps are needed to complete the modeling. First, component and kinetic-variable transport equations are solved for the concentrations of components (a subset of reaction-extents) and kinetic-variables (another subset of reaction-extents). Second, the set of mass action equations written in terms of reaction extents are solved for equilibrium-variables (yet another subset of reaction-extents). Third, species concentrations are posterior obtained by solving the set of linear equations defining reaction-extents. Fourth, equilibrium rates are posterior calculated with transport equations for equilibrium-variables. Several example problems will be used to demonstrate the efficiency of this approach. Keywords: Reactive Transport, Reaction-Extent, Component, Kinetic-Variable, Equilibrium

  6. Multicomponent equations of state for electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; Thomsen, Kaj; Hemptinne, Jean-Charles de

    2007-01-01

    Four equations of state have been implemented and evaluated for multicomponent electrolyte solutions at 298.15 K and 1 bar. The equations contain terms accounting for short-range and long-range interactions in electrolyte solutions. Short range interactions are described by one of the three equat...... reproduce the experimental data is demonstrated. The performance of the equations of state for multi component systems is compared and analyzed in view of the various short-range and long-range terms employed. (c) 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  7. Revisiting the master-signifier, or, Mandela and repression

    OpenAIRE

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or “empty”) signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the o...

  8. Master's Degree in sustainable development in Switzerland, the first master course comprising three faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Chebbi, Camelia

    2008-03-01

    Sustainable development has become a key aspect in society, economics and environment. Therefore, experts dealing with questions relating to people, the environment and its resources are more and more requested. This paper presents the concept and first experiences of a specialised Master's Degree in Sustainable Development (MSD). This is a pioneer course as it is equally anchored in three faculties (Human science, Natural science, Business and Economy) at the University of Basel, Switzerland. It aims to transmit knowledge, teach methodology and enable practical work experience in the field of sustainable development. This interdisciplinary master's degree is composed of several modules. At first, the attendance of modules providing a basic understanding in the disciplines not yet covered by the former Bachelor degree, is mandatory. In optional modules, the acquired knowledge of the compulsory modules is further enhanced, focussing on four different topics and are titled as: Agglomeration and Ecosystems; Conservation and Utilisation of Natural Resources; Environment, Values, Societal Transformation and Health; and Environmental Problems in a Globalised World. In another optional module, students may complete an internship in which they can apply theoretical and thematic knowledge. To work independently on a problem in the context of, interdisciplinary projects are a central request in the MSD. Finally, the master thesis has to be planned and realized by a plying the scientific methods and skills acquired in the previous modules. Since the beginning of the programme in the winter of 2005/2006, 45 students have enrolled. They received degrees at 25 different universities, 13 of which are from abroad. Some already have several years of working experience, while others have only just completed their Bachelor's degrees. A analysis has shown that the graduates will have excellent chances in the employment market, since they are well qualified to take over sought

  9. Robust Exponential Synchronization for a Class of Master-Slave Distributed Parameter Systems with Spatially Variable Coefficients and Nonlinear Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the exponential synchronization problem of a class of master-slave distributed parameter systems (DPSs with spatially variable coefficients and spatiotemporally variable nonlinear perturbation, modeled by a couple of semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs. With a locally Lipschitz constraint, the perturbation is a continuous function of time, space, and system state. Firstly, a sufficient condition for the robust exponential synchronization of the unforced semilinear master-slave PDE systems is investigated for all admissible nonlinear perturbations. Secondly, a robust distributed proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD state feedback controller is desired such that the closed-loop master-slave PDE systems achieve exponential synchronization. Using Lyapunov’s direct method and the technique of integration by parts, the main results of this paper are presented in terms of spatial differential linear matrix inequalities (SDLMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods applied to the robust exponential synchronization problem of master-slave PDE systems with nonlinear perturbation.

  10. Difference equations by differential equation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hydon, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Most well-known solution techniques for differential equations exploit symmetry in some form. Systematic methods have been developed for finding and using symmetries, first integrals and conservation laws of a given differential equation. Here the author explains how to extend these powerful methods to difference equations, greatly increasing the range of solvable problems. Beginning with an introduction to elementary solution methods, the book gives readers a clear explanation of exact techniques for ordinary and partial difference equations. The informal presentation is suitable for anyone who is familiar with standard differential equation methods. No prior knowledge of difference equations or symmetry is assumed. The author uses worked examples to help readers grasp new concepts easily. There are 120 exercises of varying difficulty and suggestions for further reading. The book goes to the cutting edge of research; its many new ideas and methods make it a valuable reference for researchers in the field.

  11. Auxiliary field loop expansion of the effective action for a class of stochastic partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Fred; Dawson, John F.

    2016-02-01

    We present an alternative to the perturbative (in coupling constant) diagrammatic approach for studying stochastic dynamics of a class of reaction diffusion systems. Our approach is based on an auxiliary field loop expansion for the path integral representation for the generating functional of the noise induced correlation functions of the fields describing these systems. The systems we consider include Langevin systems describable by the set of self interacting classical fields ϕi(x , t) in the presence of external noise ηi(x , t) , namely (∂t - ν∇2) ϕ - F [ ϕ ] = η, as well as chemical reaction annihilation processes obtained by applying the many-body approach of Doi-Peliti to the Master Equation formulation of these problems. We consider two different effective actions, one based on the Onsager-Machlup (OM) approach, and the other due to Janssen-deGenneris based on the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) response function approach. For the simple models we consider, we determine an analytic expression for the Energy landscape (effective potential) in both formalisms and show how to obtain the more physical effective potential of the Onsager-Machlup approach from the MSR effective potential in leading order in the auxiliary field loop expansion. For the KPZ equation we find that our approximation, which is non-perturbative and obeys broken symmetry Ward identities, does not lead to the appearance of a fluctuation induced symmetry breakdown. This contradicts the results of earlier studies.

  12. Random diophantine equations, I

    OpenAIRE

    Brüdern, Jörg; Dietmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    We consider additive diophantine equations of degree $k$ in $s$ variables and establish that whenever $s\\ge 3k+2$ then almost all such equations satisfy the Hasse principle. The equations that are soluble form a set of positive density, and among the soluble ones almost all equations admit a small solution. Our bound for the smallest solution is nearly best possible.

  13. Variable-stepsize Runge-Kutta methods for stochastic Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic wave equations of Schroedinger type are widely employed in physics and have numerous potential applications in chemistry. While some accurate numerical methods exist for particular classes of stochastic differential equations they cannot generally be used for Schroedinger equations. Efficient and accurate methods for their numerical solution therefore need to be developed. Here we show that existing Runge-Kutta methods for ordinary differential equations (odes) can be modified to solve stochastic wave equations provided that appropriate changes are made to the way stepsizes are selected. The order of the resulting stochastic differential equation (sde) scheme is half the order of the ode scheme. Specifically, we show that an explicit 9th order Runge-Kutta method (with an embedded 8th order method) for odes yields an order 4.5 method for sdes which can be implemented with variable stepsizes. This method is tested by solving systems of equations originating from master equations and from the many-body Schroedinger equation

  14. Application of master curve method to Japanese reactor pressure vessel steels. Effect of specimen size on master curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Curve method to determine fracture toughness in the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature range is provided in the ASTM standard E 1921. In this study, the method was applied to two types of typical Japanese reactor pressure vessel steels. As a result, it was confirmed that valid reference temperatures as well as master curves could be determined based on the ASTM standard. The ability of the statistical size scaling as well as the propriety of the assumption on the statistical distribution of fracture toughness was exerpiementally validated. The relative position between the master curve and the current KIC curves was then compared and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management and Stafford Act Response Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management Agreement is an interagency agreement for fire control in Washington and Oregon. The plan outlines resources,...

  16. Master Development Plan for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Master Development Plan for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge is divided into the following six parts: general characteristics, management objectives,...

  17. Compact 2050 nm Semiconductor Diode Laser Master Oscillator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to develop DFB laser master oscillators at the novel wavelength of 12050 nm. Two prototypes will be built, tested, and delivered ....

  18. Thinking Beyond Borders: motivations to attend an international Masters' course

    OpenAIRE

    Corradini, Elena

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to students of the International Master in Information and Communication Studies, in order to understand their motivations in attending the course, their satisfaction regarding the choice and the perceived outcomes.

  19. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  20. Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan Amendment No. 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan developed for Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge proposed that a refuge administration office and maintenance facility be located on an...

  1. Thermal 2-loop master spectral function at finite momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M

    2013-01-01

    When considering NLO corrections to thermal particle production in the "relativistic" regime, in which the invariant mass squared of the produced particle is K^2 ~ (pi T)^2, then the production rate can be expressed as a sum of a few universal "master" spectral functions. Taking the most complicated 2-loop master as an example, a general strategy for obtaining a convergent 2-dimensional integral representation is suggested. The analysis applies both to bosonic and fermionic statistics, and shows that for this master the non-relativistic approximation is only accurate for K^2 > (8 pi T)^2, whereas the zero-momentum approximation works surprisingly well. Once the simpler masters have been similarly resolved, NLO results for quantities such as the right-handed neutrino production rate from a Standard Model plasma or the dilepton production rate from a QCD plasma can be assembled for K^2 ~ (pi T)^2.

  2. Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Work on the Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was initiated in November 1992 and scheduled for completion...

  3. "Master i Margarita" - teatralnõi roman? / Susanna Witt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Witt, Susanna

    1998-01-01

    Bibl. lk. 316. Kokkuvõte inglise k. "Master and Margarita - a theatrical novel?". ""Meister ja Margarita" - teatriromaan?". Mihhail Bulgakovi romaani "Meister ja Margarita" kahene struktuur ja ukraina rahvuslik nukuteater vertep

  4. Developing Scientific Index System of Urban Master Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Master plan is the fundamental basis for urban construction and administration, an important public policy of the govern-ments, as well as an overall, comprehen-sive, and strategic task related to politics, economy,

  5. The Generalized Jacobi Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Jacobi equation in pseudo-Riemannian geometry determines the linearized geodesic flow. The linearization ignores the relative velocity of the geodesics. The generalized Jacobi equation takes the relative velocity into account; that is, when the geodesics are neighboring but their relative velocity is arbitrary the corresponding geodesic deviation equation is the generalized Jacobi equation. The Hamiltonian structure of this nonlinear equation is analyzed in this paper. The tidal accelerat...

  6. Dual arm master controller concept: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features result in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  7. Control of 4-DOF MR haptic master for medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-03-01

    In this work, magnetorheological (MR) based haptic master for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) is proposed and analyzed. Using a controllable MR fluid, the masters can generate a reflection force with the 4-DOF motion. The proposed master consists of two actuators: MR clutch featuring gimbal mechanism for 2-DOF rotational motion (X and Y axes) and MR clutch attached at gripper of gimbal structures for 1-DOF rotational motion (Z axis) and 1-DOF translational motion. After analyzing the dynamic motion by integrating mechanical and physical properties of the actuators, torque model of the proposed haptic master is derived. For realization of master-slave system, an encoder which can measure position information is integrated with the MR haptic master. In the RMIS system, the measured position is converted as a command signal and sent to the slave robot. In this work, slave and organ of patient are modeled in virtual space. In order to embody a human organ into virtual space, a volumetric deformable object is mathematically formulated by a shape retaining chain linked (S-chain) model. Accordingly, the haptic architecture is established by incorporating the virtual slave with the master device in which the reflection force and desired position originated from the object of the virtual slave and operator of the master, respectively, are transferred to each other. In order to achieve the desired force trajectories, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is designed and implemented. It has been demonstrated that the effective tracking control performance for the desired motion of reflection force is well presented in time domain.

  8. [The title of master in the history of health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasek, G; Piasek, M

    1999-09-01

    The review examples of usage of the Latin term magister (master) in various common titles throughout the past, particularly in Croatia. As early as the Roman Empire and until the Middle Ages, the title magister designated various functions and duties, generally denoting authority, higher rank, or a responsible position. The review highlights certain historical events and persons related to the usage of the title magister. Ever since the Middle Ages, the title has specifically denoted various health care professions. The term was used in Latin, as it was the official language in Croatia at the time, for example, m. chirurgiae (master of surgery), m. obstetritiae (master of obstetrics), m. artis occularis (master of the eye-related skills), m. hospitalis (master of the hospice), m. sanitatis (health care master). As an example, the review shows the difference between the titles doctor medicinae and m. obstetritiae according to John the Baptist Lalangue (1743-1799), the official physician of the Varazdin county in the Hapsburg Empire and one of the most prominent figures in the history of health care in Croatia. Lalangue was the author of the first professional medical book in the Croatian language published in 1776 and of several other books in Croatian. The books were meant to teach medical professionals and ordinary people how to improve their health. Beside the title of medical doctor, Lalangue held the title of m. obstetritiae which he earned through additional education. He thought it was essential for a complete health provider to be trained both in general practice and in obstetrics which, at the time, included infant care. Nowadays in Croatia, only persons who are graduate pharmacists use magister pharmaciae as a professional title. The title is otherwise strictly reserved to denote an academic degree between the bachelor's and the doctoral in a particular field. The title magister scientiarum (Master of Science) is achieved upon completion of a postgraduate

  9. Master Regulators, Regulatory Networks, and Pathways of Glioblastoma Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Bozdag; Aiguo Li; Mehmet Baysan; Fine, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor. GBM samples are classified into subtypes based on their transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles. Despite numerous studies to better characterize GBM biology, a comprehensive study to identify GBM subtype- specific master regulators, gene regulatory networks, and pathways is missing. Here, we used FastMEDUSA to compute master regulators and gene regulatory networks for each GBM subtype. We also ran Gene Set Enrichment Analy...

  10. Auxiliary extended reach system for master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one at each end of the support, the slave arm being of a doubly telescopic nature. (U.K.)

  11. AN INVESTMENT FOR THE FUTURE: THE SOCIAL ECONOMY MASTER PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Iosefina Cristina Loghin

    2012-01-01

    The Master Program of Social Economy is a highly applied and inter-disciplinary program addressed to those higher education graduates showing interest in social economy, an area of expertise that is new in Romania and that opens up alternative opportunities for helping decision-makers formulate occupational policies targeting the groups at risk of exclusion from the labor market. The goal of the master program is to develop specialists skilled in creating innovative employment opportunities, ...

  12. Master Clock and Time-Signal-Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert; Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Sydnor, Richard; Lauf, John

    2007-01-01

    A timing system comprising an electronic master clock and a subsystem for distributing time signals from the master clock to end users is undergoing development to satisfy anticipated timing requirements of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) for the next 20 to 30 years. This system has a modular, flexible, expandable architecture that is easier to operate and maintain than the present frequency and timing subsystem (FTS).

  13. Discrete micropayment protocol based on master-slave payword chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-min; LIAO Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    Using the idea of Payword, the new concept of master-slave payword chain (MSPC) is proposed in this article.MSPC consists of one master payword chain and one slave payword chain. On the basis of MSPC, a new micropaymentprotocol called discrete micropayment protocol (DMP), is presented in this article. DMP consists of three sub-protocols:registration, payment, and settlement. Both part fairness and non-unit-wise payment can be provided by DMP.

  14. Supporting internet protocols in master-slave fieldbus networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Filipe; Tovar, Eduardo; Kalogeras, A.; Pereira, Nuno

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe how to integrate Internet Protocols (IP) into a typical hierarchical master-slave fieldbus network, supporting a logical ring token passing mechanism between master stations. The integration of the TCP/IP protocols in the fieldbus protocol rises a number of issues that must be addressed properly. In this paper we particularly address the issues related to the conveyance of IP fragments in fieldbus frames (fragmentation/de-fragmentation) and on how to support the symm...

  15. A study at Masters Level Training in Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    George Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Sponsored by the Department of Defense in the United States was formed an alliance among professionals from the academy, industry and government to design and structure a new model curriculum for Masters Programs in Software Engineering. Before starting this work was conducted at study to 28 of existing programs to determine the level of training in these masters in the country and the world. This article presents the results of that study.

  16. A study at Masters Level Training in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Clinton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsored by the Department of Defense in the United States was formed an alliance among professionals from the academy, industry and government to design and structure a new model curriculum for Masters Programs in Software Engineering. Before starting this work was conducted at study to 28 of existing programs to determine the level of training in these masters in the country and the world. This article presents the results of that study.

  17. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  18. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or "empty") signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents. PMID:26834664

  19. Revisiting the master-signifier, or, Mandela and repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek eHook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or ‘empty’ signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is as much the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents.

  20. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or “empty”) signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents. PMID:26834664