WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical manufacturing area

  1. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Lindahl, John [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  2. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture and processing in the special production area. All manufacturing, processing, and use operations... shape or design during manufacture, (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part... production area, the ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance during manufacture, processing...

  3. Chemicals manufacture via biotechnology - the prospects for western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.; Kristiansen, B.

    1985-09-02

    The trend of European chemical and biotechnological companies to move away from low value, high volume bulk chemicals towards the manufacture of high value, low volume, fine and speciality chemicals will continue into the 21st century. The manufacture of fine chemicals (principally antibiotics, biopesticides, enzymes and organic acids) and commodity chemicals (principally butanol and industrial ethanol) necessitates 1.5Mt and 2-3 Mt of carbohydrate feedstocks for their production. Thus it is vital that the Common Agricultural Policy does not interfere with the progress of the biotechnology industry by maintaining carbohydrate feedstock prices at their present high levels.

  4. Computer integrated manufacturing in the chemical industry : Theory & practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibilities of implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing in the process industry, and the chemical industry in particular. After presenting some distinct differences of the process industry in relation to discrete manufacturing, a number of focal points are discussed.

  5. The exposure data landscape for manufactured chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeghy, Peter P; Judson, Richard; Gangwal, Sumit; Mosher, Shad; Smith, Doris; Vail, James; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information on chemical toxicity and exposure from widely dispersed sources. The main objective of this analysis is to define important aspects of the exposure space and to catalog the available exposure information for chemicals being considered for analysis as part of the U.S. EPA ToxCast™ screening and prioritization program. Publicly available exposure data have been extracted into ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource), which combines information for hundreds of thousands of chemicals from >600 public sources. We use data from ACToR to assess the exposure data landscape for environmental chemicals. Of the roughly 100,000 chemicals that have at least limited toxicity information available, less than one-fifth also have exposure information - and for most of these the information is of limited utility (e.g., production volume). Readily accessible data on concentrations in exposure-related media are only available for a much smaller fraction. Among these, the largest number of chemicals is measured in water with over 1150 unique compounds, followed by 788 substances measured in soil, and 670 in air. These small numbers clearly reflect a focus of resources on those substances previously identified as possibly posing a hazard to human health. Exposure to a much broader number of chemicals will need to be measured in order to fully realize the envisioned goal of using exposure information to guide toxicity testing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  7. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  8. Feasibility of using Big Area Additive Manufacturing to Directly Manufacture Boat Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Lind, Randall F. [ORNL; Sallas, Matthew R. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project was to explore the feasibility of using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) to directly manufacture a boat mold without the need for coatings. All prior tooling projects with BAAM required the use to thick coatings to overcome the surface finish limitations of the BAAM process. While the BAAM process significantly lowers the cost of building the mold, the high cost element rapidly became the coatings (cost of the material, labor on coating, and finishing). As an example, the time and cost to manufacture the molds for the Wind Turbine project with TPI Composites Inc. and the molds for the submarine project with Carderock Naval Warfare Systems was a fraction of the time and cost of the coatings. For this project, a catamaran boat hull mold was designed, manufactured, and assembled with an additional 0.15” thickness of material on all mold surfaces. After printing, the mold was immediately machined and assembled. Alliance MG, LLC (AMG), the industry partner of this project, experimented with mold release agents on the carbon-fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (CF ABS) to verify that the material can be directly used as a mold (rather than needing a coating). In addition, for large molds (such as the wind turbine mold with TPI Composites Inc.), the mold only provided the target surface. A steel subframe had to be manufactured to provide structural integrity. If successful, this will significantly reduce the time and cost necessary for manufacturing large resin infusion molds using the BAAM process.

  9. Manufacturing Educational Change: Impact Evaluation of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership Pilot Program. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllum, Keith; Taylor, Susan Hubbard; Johnson, Amy Bell

    The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners and provides participating students with work-based learning experiences for 2.5 hours every day throughout their senior year. LAMP's…

  10. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  11. Process Modeling and Validation for Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W. [ORNL; Chin, Charlie [Dassault Systemes; Oancea, Victor [Dassault Systemes

    2017-05-01

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology based on the metal arc welding. A continuously fed metal wire is melted by an electric arc that forms between the wire and the substrate, and deposited in the form of a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. Objects are manufactured one layer at a time starting from the base plate. The final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the metal deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Computational modeling can be used to accelerate the development of the mBAAM technology as well as a design and optimization tool for the actual manufacturing process. We have developed a finite element method simulation framework for mBAAM using the new features of software ABAQUS. The computational simulation of material deposition with heat transfer is performed first, followed by the structural analysis based on the temperature history for predicting the final deformation and stress state. In this formulation, we assume that two physics phenomena are coupled in only one direction, i.e. the temperatures are driving the deformation and internal stresses, but their feedback on the temperatures is negligible. The experiment instrumentation (measurement types, sensor types, sensor locations, sensor placements, measurement intervals) and the measurements are presented. The temperatures and distortions from the simulations show good correlation with experimental measurements. Ongoing modeling work is also briefly discussed.

  12. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  13. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  14. Electrical characterization of small area devices for manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenroth, R.A.; Davies, A.; Reed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformity of electrical performance is critical for thin film modules. The more uniformly that all areas of the module perform the better the overall efficiency will be. Total module performance tends towards the average of localized performance, skewed slightly lower by the width of localized performance distribution. Measurement of overall module efficiency does not give information about performance uniformity. Use of small area devices (SAD's) defined from the module allow standard electrical measurements including light and dark current-voltage (IV/JV) and quantum efficiency to be performed on a small scale. Data from these measurements allows mapping of electrical performance across the module. The structure of types of SAD's is discussed and some examples of efficiency data from JV measurements as used in the optimization of a thin film module manufacturing line are presented. Also a brief discussion of statistical analysis of the data is included.

  15. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  16. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L; Tirado, A.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Rios, O.; Post, B.; Kunc, V.; Lowden, R.R.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Fredette, R.; Ormerod, J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing

  17. Enhanced anti-counterfeiting measures for additive manufacturing: coupling lanthanide nanomaterial chemical signatures with blockchain technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Stephenson, David E.; Christ, Josef F.; Pope, Timothy R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-08-18

    The significant rise of additive manufacturing (AM) in recent years is in part due to the open sourced nature of the printing processes and reduced cost and capital barriers relative to traditional manufacturing. However, this democratization of manufacturing spurs an increased demand for producers and end-users to verify the authenticity and quality of individual parts. To this end, we introduce an anti-counterfeiting method composed of first embedding engineered nanomaterials into features of a 3D-printed part followed by non-destructive interrogation of these features to quantify a chemical signature profile. The part specific chemical signature data is then linked to a securitized, distributed, and time-stamped blockchain ledger entry. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, lanthanide-aspartic acid nanoscale coordination polymers (Ln3+- Asp NCs) / poly(lactic) acid (PLA) composites were formulated and transformed into a filament feedstock for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. In the present case, a quick-response (QR) code containing the doped Ln3+-Asp NCs was printed using a dual-extruder FDM printer into pure PLA parts. The QR code provides a searchable reference to an Ethereum-based blockchain entry. The QR code physical features also serve as defined areas to probe the signatures arising from the embedded Ln3+-Asp NCs. Visible fluorescence emission with UV-excitation was quantified in terms of color using a smartphone camera and incorporated into blockchain entries. Ultimately, linking unique chemical signature data to blockchain databases is anticipated to make the costs of counterfeiting AM materials significantly more prohibitive and transactions between those in the supply chain more trustworthy.

  18. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Large Area Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a viable technique for fabrication of large areas of graphene. CVD fabrication is the most prominent and common way of fabricating graphene in industry. In this thesis I have attempted to optimize a growth recipe and catalyst layer for CVD fabrication of uniform......, single layer, and high carrier mobility large area graphene. The main goals of this work are; (1) explore the graphene growth mechanics in a low pressure cold-wall CVD system on a copper substrate, and (2) optimize the process of growing high quality graphene in terms of carrier mobility, and crystal...... structure. Optimization of a process for graphene growth on commercially available copper foil is limited by the number of aluminium oxide particles on the surface of the catalyst. By replacing the copper foil with a thin deposited copper film on a SiO2/Si or c-plane sapphire wafer the particles can...

  19. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsa, Noor E.; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule’s ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a “rolling ball” algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called “ShiftASA” that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation.

  20. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  1. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  2. 77 FR 43863 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on June 8, 2012, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  3. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 31, 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  4. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... 1117-AB24 Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic... for the List I chemicals ergotamine and ergonovine to illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled..., due to growing concerns regarding its use for the illicit manufacture of LSD. [[Page 17779...

  5. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  6. An Easy to Manufacture Micro Gas Preconcentrator for Chemical Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Fung, Alexander G; LeVasseur, Michael K; Pedersen, Josephine M; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-08-25

    We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17.6 °C/s was observed. Adsorption and desorption flow parameters were optimized to be 90 SCCM and 25 SCCM, respectively, for a multicomponent gas mixture. Under testing conditions using Tenax TA sorbent, the device was capable of measuring analytes down to 22 ppb with only a 2 min sample loading time using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. Two separate devices were compared by measuring the same chemical mixture; both devices yielded similar peak areas and widths (fwhm: 0.032-0.033 min), suggesting reproducibility between devices.

  7. Chemical industrial areas and their dynamic danger behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Audenaert, Amaryllis; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical industrial areas or so-called chemical clusters consist of various companies situated next to each other. Such areas are composed of hundreds of chemical installations exhibiting danger to a certain degree for initiating or continuing knock-on effects. In this paper, a methodology to model

  8. Manufacture of axially insulated large-area diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Weiyi; Zhou Kungang; Wang Youtian; Zhang Dong; Shan Yusheng; Wang Naiyan

    1999-01-01

    The author describes the design and construction of the axially insulated large-area diodes used in the 'Heaven-1'. The four axially insulated large-area diodes are connected to the 10 ohm pulse transmission lines via the vacuum feed through tubes. The experimental results with the diodes are given. The diodes can steadily work at the voltage of 650 kV, and the diode current density is about 80 A per cm 2 with a pulse width of 220 ns. The electron beams with a total energy of 25 kJ are obtained

  9. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies in...

  10. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  11. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  12. Rainwater Quality Measurements in the Area of Bricks Manufacturing at Kajhu Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina .

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of rainwater quality measurement has been done in brick manufacturing area of Kajhu, Aceh Besar. The measurements are taking place in the three different places when the rain fall from the sky in Kajhu area. The physical parameters that will be measured are pH, TDS, conductivity and potential of electricity.

  13. Resilience of chemical industrial areas through attenuation-based security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Sörensen, K.; Khan, F.; Amyotte, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of attenuation-based security within chemical industrial areas. Representing chemical industrial areas as mathematical networks, we prove by case-study that the resilience to disaster of such areas may follow a power-law distribution. Furthermore, we examine what happens to the network when highly hazardous installations would be intelligently protected against malicious acts: the network disintegrates into separate smaller networks. Hence, islands are formed with no escalation danger in between. We conclude that it is possible to protect chemical industrial areas in such a way that they are more resilient against terrorism

  14. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  15. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN THE FOOD MANUFACTURING, CHEMICAL, AGRICULTURAL WHOLESALING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maude Roucan-Kane

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors determining a business investment strategy (i.e., the choice of investment commitment and form of organizational structure) in the food manufacturing, chemical, agricultural wholesaling and biotechnology industries. Propositions regarding strategic alliance theories are tested on over 400 inter-firm collaborative agreements using secondary data from major US and European companies for the 1994-97 period. Results suggest that transactions with...

  17. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  18. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  19. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Latin American protected areas: Protected from chemical pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Siroski, Pablo; Espejo, Winfred; Nimptsch, Jorge; Choueri, Paloma Gusso; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Moraga, Claudio A; Mora, Miguel; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are critically important means to preserve species and maintain natural ecosystems. However, the potential impacts of chemical pollution on PAs are seldom mentioned in the scientific literature. Research on the extent of the occurrence of chemical pollution inside PAs and in-depth assessments of how chemical contaminants may adversely affect the maintenance of species abundance, species survival, and ecosystem functions are scarce to nonexistent. We investigated 1) the occurrence of chemical contaminants inside 119 PAs in Latin America from publically available databases, and 2) reviewed case studies of chemical contaminants and pollution in 4 Latin American PAs. Cases of chemical pollution and contamination inside Latin American PAs mostly originated from sources such as mining, oil, and gas extraction. To date, the focus of the research on chemical pollution research inside Latin American PAs has been primarily on the detection of contamination, typically limited to trace metals. Where management actions have occurred, they have been reactive rather than proactive. Protected areas established in wetlands are the most affected by chemical pollution. Based on the information from the pollution and/or contamination occurrence and the case studies analyzed, Latin American PAs are not well safeguarded from chemical pollution, resulting in both challenges and opportunities to conserve biodiversity and ecosystems. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:360-370. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Fibre Laser Cutting and Chemical Etching of AZ31 for Manufacturing Biodegradable Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gökhan Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium-alloy stents shows promise as a less intrusive solution for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies as a result of the high biocompatibility of the material and its intrinsic dissolution in body fluids. However, in addition to requiring innovative solutions in material choice and design, these stents also require a greater understanding of the manufacturing process to achieve the desired quality with improved productivity. The present study demonstrates the manufacturing steps for the realisation of biodegradable stents in AZ31 magnesium alloy. These steps include laser microcutting with a Q-switched fibre laser for the generation of the stent mesh and subsequent chemical etching for the cleaning of kerf and surface finish. Specifically, for the laser microcutting step, inert and reactive gas cutting conditions were compared. The effect of chemical etching on the reduction in material thickness, as well as on spatter removal, was also evaluated. Prototype stents were produced, and the material composition and surface quality were characterised. The potentialities of combining nanosecond laser microcutting and chemical etching are shown and discussed.

  2. Advanced chemical quality control techniques for use in the manufacture of (U-Pu) MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panakkal, J.P.; Prakash, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel cycle activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to various stringent chemical specifications like B, rare earths, H, O/M heavy metal content etc. Selection of technique is very important to determine the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses has to be performed inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of the advanced techniques being developed and used in the manufacture of (U,Pu) MOX fuels. (author)

  3. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seop; Park, Sun Joon; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing energy consumption has become a critical issue in manufacturing. The semiconductor industry in particular is confronted with environmental regulations on pollution associated with electric energy, chemical, and ultrapure water (UPW) consumptions. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a key process for planarization of dielectrics and metal films in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. The steps in the CMP process are idling, conditioning, wetting, wafer loading/unloading, head dropping, polishing, and rinsing. The electric energy, CMP slurry, and UPW consumptions associated with the process and their impacts on global warming are evaluated from an environmental standpoint. The estimates of electric energy, slurry, and UPW consumptions as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper will provide a technical aid for reducing the environmental burden associated with electricity consumption during the CMP process.

  4. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iveson, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Chemical Security Threat Reduction

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  5. Future Role of Application of New Technologies in Small-and Medium Scale Manufacturing Systems - Regarding Intelligent and Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Northern Peripheral Area

    OpenAIRE

    Somlò, Kinga; Sziebig, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. Link to publishers version: http://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2017.8001510 Nowadays the concept of Industry 4.0. and the relating intelligent manufacturing system are getting more and more current and well-known. In the past years the outstanding development of different areas such as information technology computer science, machining, robotics and so on, made possible a comprehensive transformation of the manufacturing systems. Present paper aims to give a gener...

  6. Chemical and Physical Soil Restoration in Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Roberti Alves de Almeida, Danilo; Sartorio, Simone Daniela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Santin Brancalion, Pedro Henrique

    2017-04-01

    The current trend of ecological restoration is to address the recovery of degraded areas by ecosystemic way, overcoming the rehabilitation process. In this sense, the topsoil and other complementary techniques in mining areas plays an important role in soil recovery. The aim of this study was to contextualize the soil improvement, with the use of topsoil through chemical and physical attributes, relative to secondary succession areas in restoration, as well as in reference ecosystems (natural forest). Eighteen areas were evaluated, six in forest restoration process, six native forests and six just mining areas. The areas were sampled in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Chemical indicators measured were parameters of soil fertility and texture, macroporosity, microporosity, density and total porosity as physical parameters. The forest restoration using topsoil was effective in triggering a process of soil recovery, promoting, in seven years, chemical and physical characteristics similar to those of the reference ecosystem.

  7. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  8. Chemicalization in water treatment in peat production areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madekivi, O.; Marja-Aho, J.; Selin, P.; Jokinen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Chemicalization of runoff waters of peat production has been studied since 1989, first in laboratory and since 1990 in practice. The methods have been developed as cooperation between Vapo Oy and Kemira Chemicals Oy. In chemicalization the dissolved substances are coagulated and they settle after that into sedimentation basins. Good purification results require rapid and effective mixing, so the formed particles are combined to larger particles, and they form settleable flock. The coagulation efficiency depends on the properties of the water to be purified, such as alkalinity and pH, the quality and the quantity of humic substances, and the quality and the quantity of the flocking chemicals. Chemicalization is at present the most effective, but also the most expensive method for purification of drying waters of peat production areas. The chemicalized water is on the basis of most quality factors cleaner than water running off a virgin bog. The most visible change is the clarification of the water which is due to the coagulation of the colouring humic substances and iron. The colorimetric value is decreased by over 70 %, the best results being over 90 %. The colorimetric value of the purified water (30-100 mg Pt/l) is below the values of the runoff water of a virgin bog (100-200 mg Pt/l). The chemicalization process and the results of the researches are presented in the article. (3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.)

  9. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  10. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  11. A small-scale, rolled-membrane microfluidic artificial lung designed towards future large area manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A J; Marks, L H; Goudie, M J; Rojas-Pena, A; Handa, H; Potkay, J A

    2017-03-01

    Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μ l/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications. Here, we present a new manufacturing technology for a microfluidic artificial lung in which the structure is assembled via a continuous "rolling" and bonding procedure from a single, patterned layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). This method is demonstrated in a small-scale four-layer device, but is expected to easily scale to larger area devices. The presented devices have a biomimetic branching blood flow network, 10  μ m tall artificial capillaries, and a 66  μ m thick gas transfer membrane. Gas transfer efficiency in blood was evaluated over a range of blood flow rates (0.1-1.25 ml/min) for two different sweep gases (pure O 2 , atmospheric air). The achieved gas transfer data closely follow predicted theoretical values for oxygenation and CO 2 removal, while pressure drop is marginally higher than predicted. This work is the first step in developing a scalable method for creating large area microfluidic artificial lungs. Although designed for microfluidic artificial lungs, the presented technique is expected to result in the first manufacturing method capable of simply and easily creating large area microfluidic devices from PDMS.

  12. Chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Kim, Do-Hee; Hwang, In-Nam; Song, Sun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Son, Ho-Hyun; Oh, Won-Mann

    2011-01-01

    An experimental Portland cement was manufactured with pure raw materials under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement with those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement. The composition of the cements was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). The setting time and compressive strength were tested. The biocompatibility was evaluated by using SEM and XTT assay. SEM and EDAX revealed the experimental Portland cement to have a similar composition to Portland cement. The setting time of the experimental Portland cement was significantly shorter than that of MTA and Portland cement. The compressive strength of the experimental Portland cement was lower than that of MTA and Portland cement. The experimental Portland cement showed a similar biocompatibility to MTA. The experimental Portland cement might be considered as a possible substitute for MTA in clinical usage after further testing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Washing of gel particles in wet chemical manufacture of reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, H.

    1980-07-01

    In the manufacture of HTR fuel particles and particles of fertile material by wet chemical methods, the ammonium nitrate formed during the precipitation reaction must be washed out of the gel particles. This washing process has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A counter-current washer has been developed which in particular takes account of the aspects of refabrication - such as compact construction and minimum waste. A counter-current washing column of 17 mm internal diameter and 640 mm length gives to gel particle throughput of 0.65 1/h. The volume ratio of wash water to gel particles is 5, and the residual nitrate concentration in the particles is 7 x 10 -3 mols of NO - 3 /1. (orig.) [de

  14. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  15. Web-Based Implementation of E-Marketing to Support Product Marketing of Chemical Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswan Efendi Tarigan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such    as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing  products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.

  16. Designation of Alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), a Precursor Chemical Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Phenylacetone, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine, as a List I Chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical. This action does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of APAAN. As such, all transactions involving APAAN, regardless of size, shall be regulated. In addition, chemical mixtures containing APAAN are not exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of APAAN shall be regulated pursuant to the CSA. However, manufacturers may submit an application for exemption for those mixtures that do not qualify for automatic exemption.

  17. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  18. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  19. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L -1 ). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  20. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura [Área de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rivera, Ana Leonor, E-mail: analeonor.ventura.2016@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, DF (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  1. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L(-1)). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz; Rivera, Ana Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 225.35 - Use of work areas, equipment, and storage areas for other manufacturing and storage purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not intended for animal feed use, such as fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, and other pesticides. Manufacturing, storage, or handling of nonfeed and feed products in the... the manufacture of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, and other...

  4. Assessment of Some Clay Deposits from Fatha Formation (M. Miocene for Brick Manufacturing in Koya Area, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawzat R. Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of claystone sediments of Miocene age (Fatha Formation and their suitability to use them as raw materials in manufacturing of building clay brick in Kurdistan (Koya city. The study based on the field reconnaissance for three sites of claystones which were selected from three different locations within Fatha Formation in Koya city, includes Haibat-Sultan area, Koya-Sulaimania road and central of Koya city. The clay samples were subjected to particle size distribution, chemical composition, mineralogical analysis, plasticity index and XRD tests. Clay tiles were produced by using Semi-dry method under load 78 kN/mm² and fired at 950 C°. The produced clay tiles were subjected to water absorption, efflorescence, shrinkage and compressive strength tests. The research has shown that the plasticity index depends on the mineral composition of the raw materials. The grain size analysis of raw materials, physical properties and mechanical properties of the produced tiles has shown the suitability of the used raw materials in producing class bricks of class A (first class according to the requirements of specification of the Iraqi Standard (1993.

  5. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602). (4) Environmental transformation product means any chemical... substance, any reasonably anticipated metabolites, environmental transformation products, or byproducts of... EPA under this section which the manufacturer claims to be confidential business information, the...

  7. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I C; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A; Paranthaman, M Parans

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm 3 , and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity H ci  = 688.4 kA/m, remanence B r  = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH) max  = 43.49 kJ/m 3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  8. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  10. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  11. Baseline risk assessment for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 microg/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  12. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available. 2009 FRAME.

  13. 77 FR 70189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... propylthiophenethylamine (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Mescaline (7381) I 3,4,5... manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code 7370...

  14. 77 FR 47115 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Mescaline (7381) I 3,4,5... (1205) II The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In...

  15. L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  16. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.H. Jr.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs and activities throughout the DOE Complex. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to develop, deploy, and complete appropriate technologies for the treatment of an DOE low-level mixed waste (LLMW). The MWIP mission includes development of strategies related to enhanced waste form production, improvements to and testing of the EM-30 baseline flowsheet for mixed waste treatment, programmatic oversight for ongoing technical projects, and specific technical tasks related to the site specific Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) based on primary functional areas of the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant) identified by EM-30. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Chemical/Physical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. The focus of this document is the Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). The CPTS performs the required pretreatment and/or separations on the waste streams passing through the system for discharge to the environment or efficient downstream processing. Downstream processing can include all system components except Front-End Waste Handling. The primary separations to be considered by the CPTS are: (1) removal of suspended and dissolved solids from aqueous and liquid organic streams, (2) separation of water from organic liquids, (3) treatment of wet and dry solids, including separation into constituents as required, for subsequent thermal treatment and final form processing, (4) mercury removal and control, and (5) decontamination of equipment and waste classified as debris

  17. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  18. General areas needing chemical competence to support reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.; Bildstein, H.

    1963-01-01

    Chemical competence is needed not only for the development of new types of reactors but also for the start-up and safe operation of reactors. The activities of chemistry and chemical engineering cover a number of fields, namely chemical analysis, radiochemical analysis, corrosion research, radiolysis of water and water purification. The author reviews fields in reactor operation and maintenance in which chemical competence is needed. (author). 9 refs

  19. Designing continuous safety improvement within chemical industrial areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Ale, B. J.M.; Dullaert, W.; Soudan, K.

    This article provides support in organizing and implementing novel concepts for enhancing safety on a cluster level of chemical plants. The paper elaborates the requirements for integrating Safety Management Systems of chemical plants situated within a so-called chemical cluster. Recommendations of

  20. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  1. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0236] Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  2. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR 39340, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to...

  3. A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Il; Shin, Hee-Young; Hwang, Seon-Kook; Ahn, Ji-Hwan; Bae, Kwang-Hyun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic Sericite and Muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study: 1) A study on the high purification and mineral processing for sericite and muscovite. 2) A study on the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. EDAX analysis on surface treated Mica shows that absorbed area on mica surface appears about 56 wt% when reaction period of 75 min. The result on image analysis on the surface treated mica comparing with that of EDAX analysis appears that the material was stabilized when passing the 1st yielding point. The dry process of surface modification on mica was applied by using {Theta}-composer. The result shows that whiteness of the mica increases upto 91 at 20 min. grinding period. Polymer microcapsulation was carried out on the mica surface. The result shows that materials appear excellent hydrophobic property which is one of important factors for making cosmetics. Based on the applying test of mineral processing on Dong-jin mica, the result shows that high quality mica is recovered. Especially, lithium mica produced in the mine will be further studied in the next year project. (author). 26 refs., 36 tabs., 61 figs.

  4. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77 FR 43863, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer...

  5. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  6. Management of risks in the chemical and nuclear areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuti, G.C.; Frullani, S.; Pocchiari, F.; Rogani, A.; Silano, V.; Tabet, E.; Zapponi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative overview is provided of some major aspects concerning assessment and management of chemical and nuclear risks arising as a consequence of accidents. Statutory procedures for constructing and running nuclear and chemical plants in Italy are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to the major changes that are likely to occur after the adoption of the EEC Council Directive 82/501, designed to prevent major accidents which might result from certain industrial activities and to limit their consequences for humans and their environment. Present status and future trends of accident analysis and risk assessment are also dealt with, and special emphasis is placed on aspects common to both nuclear and chemical plants. Lastly, managerial aspects of contingency planning for, and response to, emergencies and accidents involving toxic chemical and/or ionizing radiations are examined with the aim of identifying more critical steps. (author)

  7. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. PROGRAM OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTION AND TAX AREA BY MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana; Misael Ruiz-Viramontes

    2015-01-01

    Enterprises gathered in the Manufacturing Industry Program, Maquila and Export Services (IMMEX), by presidential decree published on November 1st, 2006 in the Official Federal Newspaper, enjoyed tax benefits through December 2013: exemption of the payment of IVA tax, temporary tax import into goods for maquila operation, partial exemption of ISR tax and IETU tax; tax exemption of permanent establishment. Since January 1st. 2014, their fiscal environment has changed. At work its being reflecte...

  9. Design, manufacturing and commissioning of mobile unit for EDF (Dow Chemical process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangini, D.; Cordier, J.P.; PEC Engineering, Osny, France)

    1985-01-01

    To process their spent ion exchange resins and the liquid wastes, EDF has ordered from PEC a mobile unit using the DOW CHEMICAL binder. This paper presents the EDF's design requirements as well as the new French regulation for waste embedding. The mobile unit was started in January 1983 and commissioned successfully in January 1985 in the TRICASTIN EDF's power plant

  10. [Characteristics of chemical pollution of snow cover in Aktobe areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, A Zh

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives data on the nature of snow cover pollution in the urbanized areas in relation to the remoteness from the basic sources of ambient air pollution. The total snow content of carcinogens has been estimated.

  11. PROGRAM OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTION AND TAX AREA BY MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises gathered in the Manufacturing Industry Program, Maquila and Export Services (IMMEX, by presidential decree published on November 1st, 2006 in the Official Federal Newspaper, enjoyed tax benefits through December 2013: exemption of the payment of IVA tax, temporary tax import into goods for maquila operation, partial exemption of ISR tax and IETU tax; tax exemption of permanent establishment. Since January 1st. 2014, their fiscal environment has changed. At work its being reflected about the new fiscal provisions and their effect on 6825 IMMEX companies in the country, regarding its location, people hired directly and surrogated, paid salaries, social security contributions, days and hours worked.

  12. Approach of the Two-way Influence Between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its Connection to Related Organisational Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Salvador

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Initiatives toward Lean and Green Manufacturing are given mainly due to organisational response to current market’s economic and environmental pressures. This paper, therefore, aims to present a brief discussion based on a literature review of the potential two-way influence between Lean and Green Manufacturing and its role on the main organisational areas with a closer relationship to such approaches, which were observed to be more extensively discussed in the literature. Naturally lean practises seem more likely to deploy into green outcomes, though the other way around can also occur. There is some blur on the factual integration of both themes, as some authors suggest. Notwhithstanding, they certainly present certain synergy. Thereupon, further research is needed to unveil the real ties, overlaps and gaps between these approaches.

  13. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... `uncontrollable acts of third parties,' such as strikes, sabotage, operator intoxication or insanity, and a... accounting for malfunctions could lead to standards that are significantly less stringent than levels that...) to eliminate redundancy. 40 CFR 63.11494(c)(1)(vii) We are adding a new paragraph that lists lead...

  14. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... During Periods of Startup, Shutdown and Malfunctions (SSM) VI. Requirements for Metal HAP Process Vents A. Definition of Metal HAP Process Vent B. Metal HAP Process Vent Standards VII. Technical Corrections and...: Chromium Compounds, Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, Paint and Allied Coatings and Mercury...

  15. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  16. Methodology for completing Hanford 200 Area tank waste physical/chemical profile estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Methodology for Completing Hanford 200 Area Tank Waste Physical/Chemical Profile Estimations is to capture the logic inherent to completing 200 Area waste tank physical and chemical profile estimates. Since there has been good correlation between the estimate profiles and actual conditions during sampling and sub-segment analysis, it is worthwhile to document the current estimate methodology

  17. Statistical experiments using the multiple regression research for prediction of proper hardness in areas of phosphorus cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Ratiu, S. A.; Rackov, M.; Penčić, M.

    2018-01-01

    Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. This article focuses on expressing the multiple linear regression model related to the hardness assurance by the chemical composition of the phosphorous cast irons destined to the brake shoes, having in view that the regression coefficients will illustrate the unrelated contributions of each independent variable towards predicting the dependent variable. In order to settle the multiple correlations between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and their chemical compositions several regression equations has been proposed. Is searched a mathematical solution which can determine the optimum chemical composition for the hardness desirable values. Starting from the above-mentioned affirmations two new statistical experiments are effectuated related to the values of Phosphorus [P], Manganese [Mn] and Silicon [Si]. Therefore, the regression equations, which describe the mathematical dependency between the above-mentioned elements and the hardness, are determined. As result, several correlation charts will be revealed.

  18. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.H. Jr.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    These Appendices describe various technologies that may be applicable to the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (MWTP) Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). These technologies were identified by the CPTS Technical Support Group (TSG) as potentially applicable to a variety of separation, volume reduction, and decontamination requirements. The purpose was to identify all available and developing technologies, and their characteristics, for subsequent evaluation for specific requirements identified for the CPTS. However, the technologies described herein are not necessarily all inclusive, nor are they necessarily all applicable

  19. Low accessibility and chemical activity of PAHs restrict bioremediation and risk of exposure in a manufactured gas plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenberg, Fredrik; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Gustafsson, Orjan; Long, Sara M.; Pritchard, Parmely H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Composting of manufactured gas plant soil by a commercial enterprise had removed most of its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but concentrations remained above regulatory threshold levels. Several amendments and treatments were first tested to restart the PAH degradation, albeit with little success. The working hypothesis was then that PAHs were 'stuck' due to strong sorption to black carbon. Accessibility was measured with cyclodextrin extractions and on average only 4% of the PAHs were accessible. Chemical activity of the PAHs was measured by equilibrium sampling, which confirmed a low exposure level. These results are consistent with strong sorption to black carbon (BC), which constituted 59% of the total organic carbon. Composting failed to remove the PAHs, but it succeeded to minimize PAH accessibility and chemical activity. This adds to accumulating evidence that current regulatory thresholds based on bulk concentrations are questionable and alternative approaches probing actual risk should be considered. - Bioremediation of MGP soil failed to eliminate PAHs but it succeeded to limit their accessibility, chemical activity and the remaining risk of biological exposure.

  20. Studies on the utilization of agricultural residues in the manufacture of pulp and paper, and industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, V.S.; Kamath, G.P.; Basu, S.

    1980-03-15

    While demand for pulp and paper products in India is increasing at the annual rate of 7 to 8%, availability of cellulosic raw material to meet the ever increasing demand is becoming a serious problem. It has been estimated that bamboo, the traditional source of cellulosic raw material in India, even after ensuring the most scientific and best possible exploitation, could provide less than 50% of the requirement. In a big agricultural country like India, agri-residues like straws and bagasse, along with jute sticks, available in huge quantity, could provide substantial amount of cellulosic resources to the pulp and paper industry. Realizing the importance of agri-residue utilization in Indian economy, a series of research projects have been initiated and completed during the last 15 years to study the techno-economic feasibility of manufacturing pulp, paper, and industrial chemicals, based on rice and wheat straws, bagasse, and jute sticks. The economic advantages of the mechano-chemical pulping process, as compared to the conventional pressure, pulping process, for the conversion of agri-residues into pulp and paer is evaluated. For highlighting the importance of agri-residues in the field of useful chemical recovery possibilities, experimental data are given on the saccarification of agri-residues into reducing sugars by the simple acid hydrolysis method with the help of concentrated sulfuric acid.

  1. Synthetic biology for manufacturing chemicals: constraints drive the use of non-conventional microbial platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Jeffrey; Wang, Qinhong; Wang, Yechun; Tang, Yinjie J

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions. Third, engineered enzymes may lack channeling capabilities for cascade-like transport of metabolites to overcome diffusion barriers or to avoid intermediate toxicity in the cytoplasmic environment. Fourth, moving engineered hosts from laboratory to industry is unreliable because genetic mutations and non-genetic cell-to-cell variations impair the large-scale fermentation outcomes. Therefore, synthetic biology strains often have unsatisfactory industrial performance (titer/yield/productivity). To overcome these problems, many different species are being explored for their metabolic strengths that can be leveraged to synthesize specific compounds. Here, we provide examples of non-conventional and genetically amenable species for industrial manufacturing, including the following: Corynebacterium glutamicum for its TCA cycle-derived biosynthesis, Yarrowia lipolytica for its biosynthesis of fatty acids and carotenoids, cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production from its sugar phosphate pathways, and Rhodococcus for its ability to biotransform recalcitrant feedstock. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies (e.g., genome-to-phenome mapping, single cell methods, and knowledge engineering) that may facilitate the development of novel cell factories.

  2. Assessment of a chemical pollutant on workers’ health in a vehicle manufacturing factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asadi-Lari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Occupational diseases impose considerable burden on public health, wherein chemical pollutants in working places play an important role. One of chemical pollutants  in vehicle's lock & key assembly factories is cyanoacrylate used in" loctite glue", which is assumed harmful to workers' eyes, respiratory tract and skin. This study investigates the side effects of loctite adhesive on workers' health.   Methods   Across sectional study was conducted on all of workers of the vehicle's lock & key  assembly factory (100 workers. A health check list was completed for demographic   characteristics, and physical examination for all of workers and then all data were analysed using  statistical tests.   Results   Mean age of workers was 30± 8. In physical exam, the most common dermatologic  disease was dermatitis (prevalence: 25% , in pulmonary exam the most common sign was airway hyper-responsiveness, which presented as cough and dispnea (prevalence: 10% and there was a significant relationship between workers' eye itching & burning , airway hyper-responsiveness  and loctite adhesive exposure (P<0.01.   Conclusion   Eye itching & burning and airway hyper-responsiveness are side effects of loctite  glue. In this study we observed a relationship between the glue and disorders, hence due to the influence of this chemical material on workers' health. Results indicated that a health promotion   plan and relevant interventions should be designed to reduce exposure to loctite adhesive.

  3. A study on the chemical characteristics changes throughout the manufacture and ripening of Lighvan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzae

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lighvan cheese is one of the traditional cheeses which have the most high quantity of use in Iran. It is produced in South East of Tabriz in North West of Iran. The raw milk of ewe together with 20% -30% of goat's milk, without yeast, are used for its production. Its taste is mild salty and its scent is pleasant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical indexes changes including salt percentage, the degree of acidity, pH, dry mater, ashes, and protein during the production and ripening. For this purpose, after coordinating with 10 local cheese producers, one batch from each producer and from each batch 20 tins, weighing 1 kg, which in total was 200 newly packaged cheese were purchased randomly. The tins were kept in special caves for 30 days in the region and then 60 days in refrigerator. In each batch sample of the raw milk, clot after rising and before salting, the cheese during the package time in tin and the cheese sample on 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th days of ripining was analyzed chemically. The results of the study from the initial days of production to the end of the ripening period indicated the following changes: the rate of fat from 6.8 ± 0.25 in milk to 24.55±0.95 in samples, pH from 5.94± 0.06 in milk to 4.4±0.11 in samples, acidity from 39.4 ± 5.99 D° in milk to 119.4±5.38 in samples, rate of ash from 1.77±0.23 in milk to 8.09±2.32 in samples, the percentage of dry mater from 16.52±0.74 in milk to 43.57±1.34 in samples, and finally the percentage of protein from 4.45±1/12 in milk to 14.2±1.4 in samples. This result suggests that Lighvan cheese has unique characteristics in terms of its alteration procedure and chemical characteristics and based on the standard criterion in Iran, 2344-1, it is white cheese ripened brine in terms of chemical characteristics and fatty cheese in terms of the percentage of fat.

  4. Optimization of chemical composition in the manufacturing process of flotation balls based on intelligent soft sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of computational intelligence in modeling and optimization of parameters of two related production processes - ore flotation and production of balls for ore flotation. It is proposed that desired chemical composition of flotation balls (Mn=0.69%; Cr=2.247%; C=3.79%; Si=0.5%, which ensures minimum wear rate (0.47 g/kg during copper milling is determined by combining artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA. Based on the results provided by neuro-genetic combination, a second neural network was derived as an ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the process of white cast iron production. The proposed ANN 12-16-12-4 model demonstrated favourable prediction capacity, and can be recommended as a ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the alloying process intended for obtaining favourable chemical composition of white cast iron for production of flotation balls. In the development of intelligent soft sensor data from the two real production processes was used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35037 i br. TR35015

  5. Chemical composition of fogwater in an urban area: Strasbourg (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, M; Sanusi, A; Wortham, H

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the acidity and to identify the predominant compounds, this work presents the chemical analysis of 18 fogwater samples collected during the year 1991 in Strasbourg, in the east of France. For each fog event, two droplet size categories (2-6 microm and 5-8 microm) have been separately collected and 16 ionic components have been analysed. These two fraction sizes were chosen because they correspond approximately to the size range that can penetrate the human lung and they may have possible health effects. The dominant species were NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) and Cl-, with a maximum level of 12,640, 17,270, 21,620 and 13,540 microeq litre(-1), respectively. For most of the fog events the highest concentrations of all analysed species were observed in the 2-6 microm droplets. pH values ranged between 2.79 and 5.70 and the fogwater acidity was governed by three strong acids, H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl and was partially neutralised by NH3 and probably by the presence of CaCO3 in the 'loess', which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. In other respects the acetate/formate ratio (methanoate/ethanoate), generally lower than 1, indicates an important pollution due to automobile exhaust, although the Pb concentrations are moderate due to the general use of unleaded gasoline in France since 1989.

  6. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Miller, Greg [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Chu, Cordia [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11-12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, {delta}-Aminolaevulinic acid ({delta}-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 {mu}g/dL, 6.97 {mu}g/dL, and 2.78 {mu}g/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 {mu}g/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher {delta}-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No report on tinfoil processing impact on children's health before. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies reported health impacts of lead from e-waste processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with blood lead levels < 10 {mu}g/dL are associated with a decrease in IQ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold appears to exist at blood lead level of about 20 {mu}g/dL for urinary {delta}-ALA.

  7. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Miller, Greg; Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun; Chu, Cordia; Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong

    2012-01-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11–12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, δ-Aminolaevulinic acid (δ-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 μg/dL, 6.97 μg/dL, and 2.78 μg/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 μg/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher δ-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. - Highlights: ► No report on tinfoil processing impact on children's health before. ► Few studies reported health impacts of lead from e-waste processing. ► Children with blood lead levels < 10 μg/dL are associated with a decrease in IQ. ► Threshold appears to exist at blood lead level of about 20 μg/dL for urinary δ-ALA.

  8. A multi-attribute Systemic Risk Index for comparing and prioritizing chemical industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Sörensen, K.; Dullaert, W.

    2012-01-01

    Measures taken to decrease interdependent risks within chemical industrial areas should be based on quantitative data from a holistic (cluster-based) point of view. Therefore, this paper examines the typology of networks representing industrial areas to formulate recommendations to more effectively protect a chemical cluster against existing systemic risks. Chemical industrial areas are modeled as two distinct complex networks and are prioritized by computing two sub-indices with respect to existing systemic safety and security risks (using Domino Danger Units) and supply chain risks (using units from an ordinal expert scale). Subsequently, a Systemic Risk Index for the industrial area is determined employing the Borda algorithm, whereby the systemic risk index considers both a safety and security network risk index and a supply chain network risk index. The developed method allows decreasing systemic risks within chemical industrial areas from a holistic (inter-organizational and/or inter-cluster) perspective. An illustrative example is given.

  9. Use of KRS-XE positive chemically amplified resist for optical mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Brian; Deverich, Christina; Rabidoux, Paul A.; Peck, Barbara; Petrillo, Karen E.; Angelopoulos, Marie; Huang, Wu-Song; Moreau, Wayne M.; Medeiros, David R.

    2002-03-01

    The traditional mask making process uses chain scission-type resists such as PBS, poly(butene-1-sulfone), and ZEP, poly(methyl a-chloroacrylate-co-a-methylstyrene) for making masks with dimensions greater than 180nm. PBS resist requires a wet etch process to produce patterns in chrome. ZEP was employed for dry etch processing to meet the requirements of shrinking dimensions, optical proximity corrections and phase shift masks. However, ZEP offers low contrast, marginal etch resistance, organic solvent development, and concerns regarding resist heating with its high dose requirements1. Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) systems are a very good choice for dimensions less than 180nm because of their high sensitivity and contrast, high resolution, dry etch resistance, aqueous development, and process latitude2. KRS-XE was developed as a high contrast CA resist based on ketal protecting groups that eliminate the need for post exposure bake (PEB). This resist can be used for a variety of electron beam exposures, and improves the capability to fabricate masks for devices smaller than 180nm. Many factors influence the performance of resists in mask making such as post apply bake, exposure dose, resist develop, and post exposure bake. These items will be discussed as well as the use of reactive ion etching (RIE) selectivity and pattern transfer.

  10. Studies on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S K; Kim, B G; Chung, H S; Lee, J C [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Fine natural crystalline graphite which is used as a source material of a high electrically conductive film and an addition of advanced high functional solid lubricant. For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional properties to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. Surface modification methods: 1) Searching for suitable surfactant to improve dispersing characteristics in aqueous system. 2) Adsorption with oxygen on graphite surface to improve dispersing characteristics in oil. 3) Mechanochemical process using hybridization system is to shape control and spontaneous re-arrangement of the surface layer and interaction between the particle surface and extraneous molecules. In aqueous system, the optimum conditions for graphite to disperse is with 0.3-0.5% concentrations of surfactant Lomar D PWA-40 at pH range 10-11. In order to improve dispersing characteristics in oil, the optimum conditions to adsorb over 3.5% with oxygen on graphite surface are as follows: - Tip speed {yields} 3.9 m/sec, - Reaction time {yields} at least 30 min. at 120 deg.C - inert gas and pressure {yields} dried air, 1 kgf/cm{sup 2}. The oxygen contents acts critical point for dispersing graphite in oil system so needs to control oxygen contents by use of air pressure in reacting mill. Chemical methods for coating with Stearic acid and Paraffin need above 15 weight % to graphite powders. Mechanochemical process using hybridization system is to shape control and spontaneous re-arrangement of the surface layer and interaction between the particle surface and extraneous molecules. (author). 45 refs., 9 tabs., 23 figs.

  11. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  12. Process variations in surface nano geometries manufacture on large area substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The need of transporting, treating and measuring increasingly smaller biomedical samples has pushed the integration of a far reaching number of nanofeatures over large substrates size in respect to the conventional processes working area windows. Dimensional stability of nano fabrication processe...

  13. Investigation of indoor chemical pollutants and perceived odor in an area with complaints of unpleasant odors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu.; Wu, Tzong-Jer [Graduate Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807 (China); Lan, Cheng-Hang [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tai-Nan County 717 (China)

    2009-10-15

    An uncomfortable smell was reported by employees of an IT office (information technological office) in a medical center. This problem started two years ago when the office was refurbished. The objectives of this study are to characterize the indoor air quality of this complaint area in terms of chemical pollutants and odor characteristics, and identify possible sources of this foul smell. Carbonyl chemicals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in this study, since these two groups are associated with odors and health effects. Additionally, the odor was evaluated by odor assessors (non-smokers) who recorded odor characters that appeared in offices. By comparing chemical measurements between complaint and non-complaint areas, calculating odor indices, and correlating odor and chemical measurements, we got results showing that a higher correlation coefficient is found between odor presence frequencies and VOC concentrations. Further investigating found nonanal and decanal are possible chemicals for malodors. The concentration levels of these two chemicals in the complaint area are higher than those in the non-complaint areas and exceeding odor thresholds. Possible sources of these long-chain aldehydes are formed during the oxidation degradations of fatty acids like linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid which are ingredients for many building products like linoleum and surface coating. In order to mitigate this malodor problem, extra and effective ventilation flow rate should be provided to reduce the concentrations of odorous chemicals and the precursors for these odorous chemicals. (author)

  14. [The criterion prognostic significance of examinations of chemiluminescence of oral fluid under impact of chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiullina, E F; Valiev, A v; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F; Buliakov, P T

    2013-12-01

    The article presents the results of studies concerning the effect of unfavorable factors of chemical nature on fluid of oral cavity among workers of the Ufa plant of elastomer materials, articles and structures. It is established that in persons contacting with chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production the indicators of chemiluminescence of saliva fluid are significantly expressed and depend on professional standing.

  15. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  16. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  17. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  18. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Kanahashi, Kaito; Tanaka, Naoki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Li, Lain-Jong; Pu, Jiang; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohta, Hiromichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-01-01

    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]−, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  19. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-18

    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]−, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  20. Additive-manufactured patient-specific titanium templates for thoracic pedicle screw placement: novel design with reduced contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Ota, Eigo; Otsuki, Bungo; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Futami, Tohru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuich

    2016-06-01

    Image-based navigational patient-specific templates (PSTs) for pedicle screw (PS) placement have been described. With recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided designs and additive manufacturing technology, various PST designs have been reported, although the template designs were not optimized. We have developed a novel PST design that reduces the contact area without sacrificing stability. It avoids susceptibility to intervening soft tissue, template geometric inaccuracy, and difficulty during template fitting. Fourteen candidate locations on the posterior aspect of the vertebra were evaluated. Among them, locations that had high reproducibility on computed tomography (CT) images and facilitated accurate PS placement were selected for the final PST design. An additive manufacturing machine (EOSINT M270) fabricated the PSTs using commercially pure titanium powder. For the clinical study, 36 scoliosis patients and 4 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) were treated with thoracic PSs using our newly developed PSTs. We intraoperatively and postoperatively evaluated the accuracy of the PS hole created by the PST. Based on the segmentation reproducibility and stability analyses, we selected seven small, round contact points for our PST: bilateral superior and inferior points on the transverse process base, bilateral inferior points on the laminar, and a superior point on the spinous process. Clinically, the success rates of PS placement using this PST design were 98.6 % (414/420) for scoliosis patients and 100 % (46/46) for OPLL patients. This study provides a useful design concept for the development and introduction of patient-specific navigational templates for placing PSs.

  1. Epigeal Fauna and Soil Chemical Attributes in Grazing and Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ribeiro Nogueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural pasture and spontaneous regeneration on soil chemical properties and epigeal fauna community using a secondary Atlantic Forest as reference. The study areas were located in Passa Vinte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In each study area, pitfall traps were used to sample epigeal fauna in the dry and rainy seasons. Earth samples were collected at a depth of 0-5 cm in the dry and rainy seasons for analysis of chemical attributes. The pasture and regeneration areas showed an overall activity of epigeal fauna and functional groups similar to the forest area. However, the diversity evaluated by the Shannon and Pielou evenness indices and the total richness were lower than the observed in the forest. The best fertility attributes were observed in the forest and pasture areas.

  2. Manufacturing a Porous Structure According to the Process Parameters of Functional 3D Porous Polymer Printing Technology Based on a Chemical Blowing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. J.; Shin, B. S.; Kang, B. S.; Yun, D. H.; You, D. B.; Hong, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new porous polymer printing technology based on CBA(chemical blowing agent), and describe the optimization process according to the process parameters. By mixing polypropylene (PP) and CBA, a hybrid CBA filament was manufactured; the diameter of the filament ranged between 1.60 mm and 1.75 mm. A porous polymer structure was manufactured based on the traditional fused deposition modelling (FDM) method. The process parameters of the three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer printing (PPP) process included nozzle temperature, printing speed, and CBA density. Porosity increase with an increase in nozzle temperature and CBA density. On the contrary, porosity increase with a decrease in the printing speed. For porous structures, it has excellent mechanical properties. We manufactured a simple shape in 3D using 3D PPP technology. In the future, we will study the excellent mechanical properties of 3D PPP technology and apply them to various safety fields.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials - Characterisation and relevant methods. An outlook based on the OECD Testing Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Rauscher, Hubert; Mech, Agnieszka; Riego Sintes, Juan; Gilliland, Douglas; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Moss, Kenneth; Visser, Maaike; Groenewold, Monique; Bleeker, Eric A J

    Identifying and characterising nanomaterials require additional information on physico-chemical properties and test methods, compared to chemicals in general. Furthermore, regulatory decisions for chemicals are usually based upon certain toxicological properties, and these effects may not be

  4. Multivariate research in areas of phosphorus cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing using the statistical analysis and the multiple regression equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    The braking system is one of the most important and complex subsystems of railway vehicles, especially when it comes for safety. Therefore, installing efficient safe brakes on the modern railway vehicles is essential. Nowadays is devoted attention to solving problems connected with using high performance brake materials and its impact on thermal and mechanical loading of railway wheels. The main factor that influences the selection of a friction material for railway applications is the performance criterion, due to the interaction between the brake block and the wheel produce complex thermos-mechanical phenomena. In this work, the investigated subjects are the cast-iron brake shoes, which are still widely used on freight wagons. Therefore, the cast-iron brake shoes - with lamellar graphite and with a high content of phosphorus (0.8-1.1%) - need a special investigation. In order to establish the optimal condition for the cast-iron brake shoes we proposed a mathematical modelling study by using the statistical analysis and multiple regression equations. Multivariate research is important in areas of cast-iron brake shoes manufacturing, because many variables interact with each other simultaneously. Multivariate visualization comes to the fore when researchers have difficulties in comprehending many dimensions at one time. Technological data (hardness and chemical composition) obtained from cast-iron brake shoes were used for this purpose. In order to settle the multiple correlation between the hardness of the cast-iron brake shoes, and the chemical compositions elements several model of regression equation types has been proposed. Because a three-dimensional surface with variables on three axes is a common way to illustrate multivariate data, in which the maximum and minimum values are easily highlighted, we plotted graphical representation of the regression equations in order to explain interaction of the variables and locate the optimal level of each variable for

  5. Chemical composition of sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.P.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    A study on chemical composition sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad city has been carried out. The sludge samples were collected from various domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad, over a period of 3 months. Analysis of sludge samples for different micro-nutrients and toxic elements has been accomplished by reliable analytical methods using atomic absorption, UV and colorimeter. It is observed that the levels of copper, nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium are higher in sludge samples of industrial area than those of domestic areas of Hyderabad. (author)

  6. Infrared Preheating to Enhance Interlayer Strength of Components Printed on the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system has the capacity to print structures on the order of several meters at a rate exceeding 50 kg/h, thereby having the potential to significantly impact the production of components in automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. However, a primary issue that limits the functional use of such parts is mechanical anisotropy. The strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This is largely due to poor bonding between the printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transition temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. This work explores the use of infrared heating to increase the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. The material used in this study was acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber by weight. Significant improvements in z-strength were observed for the parts whose surface temperature was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating. Parameters such as print speed, nozzle diameter and extrusion temperature were also found to impact the heat input required to enhance interlayer adhesion without significantly degrading the polymer and compromising on surface finish.

  7. Plant management in natural areas: balancing chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Manning; James. Miller

    2011-01-01

    After determining the best course of action for control of an invasive plant population, it is important to understand the variety of methods available to the integrated pest management professional. A variety of methods are now widely used in managing invasive plants in natural areas, including chemical, mechanical, and cultural control methods. Once the preferred...

  8. Measurement of interfacial areas with the chemical method for a system with alternating dispersed phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area for a liquid–liquid system has been determined by the chemical reaction method. The saponification of butyl formate ester with 8 M sodium hydroxide has been used to this end. A correlation has been derived to describe the mole flux of ester through the interface and the kinetic

  9. Controllable chemical vapor deposition of large area uniform nanocrystalline graphene directly on silicon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Cole, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    Metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of large area uniform nanocrystalline graphene on oxidized silicon substrates is demonstrated. The material grows slowly, allowing for thickness control down to monolayer graphene. The as-grown thin films are continuous with no observable pinholes...

  10. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  11. El uso del metodo MICMAC y MACTOR analisis prospectivo en un area operativa para la busqueda de la excelencia operativa a traves del Lean Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Baldemar Garza Villegas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Presents the MICMAC and MACTOR prospective analysis study in an operational area which looks for world-class management with reference to the concepts of lean manufacturing. The results of a qualitative analysis and his conclusions are presented.

  12. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950's. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well-cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water-level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. 3 refs., 18 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  14. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A

    1995-02-01

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  16. Proposed changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1997-12-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values. This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these Categories--IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB--be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to conform with EU regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, it is now proposed that these three categories be supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not convey a significant risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. It is proposed that chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures be classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed will be classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented. The proposed changes in classifying carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are presented for further discussion.

  17. Chemical-physical parameters of atmospheric precipitations in the Pisa urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradossi, C.; Marchini, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the work the major chemical-physical parameters of the rain collected in May 1992 - May 1993 period in Pisa are studied and discussed. The ph analysis was particular interesting. Indeed sometimes it reached values between 4.5 and 5.0. Also the ions examined although they did not reach values supposed to cause damage, were subjected to monthly variations. This paper confirms previously results. Pisa although not being considered an industrial area is subjected to pollutant acid rains [it

  18. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  19. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  20. Detection and treatment of hyperthyroidism in sea coastal areas and chemically polluted areas in Gujarat, (western part) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om Prakash; Mayank, M.; Rachh, S.; Patel, N.; Patel, K.M.; Soni, M.K.; Bhatt, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyrotoxicosis results from a high level of thyroid hormone in blood. 131 I therapy for this is very safe treatment. Surgery is not acceptable in youngsters because of cosmetic point of view. Objective: In India most of thyrotoxicosis occurs in sea coastal region and hypothyroidism in Himalayan region. The main objective of this study to evaluate, the effect of geographical distribution and chemical pollution on thyroid. To calculate exact dose based on gland size. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of primary hyperthyroidism were selected. Age group range between 15-65 yrs. All patients from Gujarat (India) it is located in western part of India. It's sea coast is approx. 1600 km long. Here Asia's largest chemical zone is situated. Method: 5ml of blood collected from each patient. T3,T4 and TSH test done by RIA and IRMA techniques. After that 99m TcO 4 - Scintigraphy done by gamma camera (GE infinia) 15 days before administration of 131 I all iodine containing food and drugs had been stopped, even iodized salts also. 20 patients got fixed dose of 131 I 10 mci per patient. 140 patients got 120 micro curie per gram of thyroid tissues weight. Follow up study done after 6 months of 131 I administration. Thyroid function test and scintigraphy done to evaluate pre and post therapy changes. Result: 60% of treated patients from sea coastal area, 25% from chemical and 15% from planes. The patients who got fixed dose 10 mci 131 I, of them 35% became hypothyroid and 3% got 2nd dose (13-15 mci) other group who got 120 micro curie 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue of them only 10% became hypothyroid but 5.4% had been treated with 20% more 131 I than primary dose. In the age group of 50-65 yrs on ECG cardiac arrhythmia detected. Conclusion: In treatment of thyrotoxic patients 120 micro curie/gram group shows better result than fixed dose 10 mCi. 60% of treated patients were from sea coastal range, but 25% patients were from chemically polluted zone is guiding us to

  1. Evaluation of Project Based Learning in the Area of Manufacturing and Statistics in the Degree of Industrial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj-Corral, Irene; Marco-Almagro, Lluís; Riba, Alex; Vivancos-Calvet, Joan; Tort-Martorell, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In the subject Project I in the second year of the Degree in Industrial Technology Engineering taught at the School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona (ETSEIB), subgroups of 3-4 students within groups of 20 students develop a project along a semester. Results of 2 projects are presented related to manufacturing, measurement of parts and the…

  2. Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Hösel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    the manufacture of completely functional devices in exceptionally high yields. Critical to the ink and process development is a carefully chosen technology transfer to industry method where first a roll coater is employed enabling contactless stack build up, followed by a small roll-to-roll coater fitted to an X...

  3. Influence of chemical agents on the surface area and porosity of active carbon hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA M. KLJAJEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active carbon hollow fibers were prepared from regenerated polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using: disodium hydrogen phosphate 2-hydrate, disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate, hydrogen peroxide, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate. After chemical activation fibers were carbonized in an inert atmosphere. The specific surface area and porosity of obtained carbons were studied by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K, while the structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The activation process increases these adsorption properties of fibers being more pronounced for active carbon fibers obtained with disodium tetraborate 10-hydrate and hydrogen peroxide as activator. The obtained active hollow carbons are microporous with different pore size distribution. Chemical activation with phosphates produces active carbon material with small surface area but with both mesopores and micropores. X-ray diffraction shows that besides turbostratic structure typical for carbon materials, there are some peaks which indicate some intermediate reaction products when sodium salts were used as activating agent. Based on data from the electrochemical measurements the activity and porosity of the active fibers depend strongly on the oxidizing agent applied.

  4. Environmental isotopes, chemical composition and groundwater sources in Al-Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; Awad, M.A.; Froehlich, K.; El Behery, M.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater samples collected from a number of localities, in Al-Maghara area, north central part of Sinai, were subject to various chemical and isotopic analysis. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the groundwaters are recently recharged or not in order to adopt an efficient water management policy. The hydrochemical results indicate that they are mainly of primary marine origin, dilution of this water by meteoric water changes its chemical composition to be mixed water type, which has the major chemical components: KCl, NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 and Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 . The tritium content confirm the meteoric water recharge recently especially for wells with high tritium content. The stable environmental isotopic composition of the groundwater reflects the isotopic composition of precipitation and flooding with some evaporation enrichment prior to infiltration. There is also mixing with palaeowater (water recharge in the past cooler climate periods), by leaking through faulting in the area. (orig.) [de

  5. Chemical profile of size-fractionated soils collected in a semiarid industrial area of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Del Mastro, Anabella; Pereyra, Marcelo; Londonio, Agustín; Pereyra, Victoria; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Dawidowski, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the chemical profile of soil collected in Bahía Blanca (Argentina). In this industrial city, semiarid soils are affected by different industrial and agricultural activities, the presence of a saltpeter extraction facility, traffic and increasing urbanization. Sixteen soil samples (superficial and sub-superficial) were collected. Samples were sieved in two fractions (A plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Anions (Cl-, F-, SO42-) and cations (K+, Na+ and NH4+) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after an aqueous extraction. As expected, crustal elements namely, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti exhibited the highest concentrations. Mean elemental concentration ranged from Na+ ≅ SO42- > K+ > NO3-. Three indicators, namely, (i) coefficient of variation, (ii) coefficient of divergence and (iii) ratio of elemental concentration with respect to Ca were used to assess chemical, spatial and inter-profile variability. Chloride > Ca > Na+ > Mo > SO42-, dominated the variability indicating that these are key chemical markers for future assessment of crustal contribution to airborne particles in the area. The ratios Xi/Ca allowed discriminating the soil of the semi-arid region surrounding Bahía Blanca. The chemical profiles obtained in this study, particularly those of topsoil, will be a key input to characterize soil resuspension and its contribution to airborne particulate matter in a forthcoming receptor model analysis.

  6. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  7. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  8. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  9. Chemical, sensory, and functional properties of whey-based popsicles manufactured with watermelon juice concentrated at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina P C; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius S; Esmerino, Erick A; Moraes, Jeremias; Pimentel, Tatiana C; Rocha, Ramon S; Freitas, Mônica Q; Santos, Jânio S; Ranadheera, C Senaka; Rosa, Lana S; Teodoro, Anderson J; Mathias, Simone P; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Couto, Silvia R M; Granato, Daniel; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-07-30

    The effects of the concentration of watermelon juice at different temperatures (45, 55, or 65 °C) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of whey-based popsicles were investigated. Total phenolic content, lycopene, citrulline, VOCs, melting rate, instrumental colour, antioxidant capacity, and the sensory characteristics (hedonic test and free listing) were determined. The temperature led to a significant decrease in bioactive compounds (total phenolics, lycopene, and citrulline). The popsicle manufactured with reconstituted watermelon juice concentrated to 60 °Brix at 65 °C presented higher antioxidant capacity and was characterized by the presence of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and presented a similar acceptance to the untreated popsicle (except for flavour). It is possible to combine whey and concentrated watermelon juice for the manufacture of bioactive-rich popsicles, using the concentration temperature of 65 °C as a suitable processing condition for potential industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  11. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  12. Chemical plant protection outlays in vast areas farming at the beginning of 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Golinowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, several investigations were conducted in the area of chemical plant protection outlays in two vast area farms where simplified system of farming was applied. Analysed outlays consisted of: use of pesticides in kilograms of active substance per 1 ha and real costs of plant protection procedures. Profitability of the outlay was identified with approximate indicator of outlay E1 and E2. The research showed that farm during plant production use from 1 to 10.28 kg AS/ha. Costs of these procedures ranged from 100.50 to 1253.84 PLN/ha depending on the cultivated plant. Profitability of plant protection procedures in wheat and rape cultivation was at the same level in both farms. The highest profitability was reached by maize cultivation.

  13. SLUG FLOW PROCESSING IN MICROREACTORS FOR BIO-BASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING: SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Deuss, Peter; Zhang, Zheng; Hommes, Arne; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing global demand on fossil resources that are limited in reserves has directed numerous research efforts recently towards the development of more sustainable feedstocks as the source for the production of fuels, chemicals and (performance) materials. Conversion of biomass

  14. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    "Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry...

  15. Geochemical investigation of groundwater in the Tono area, Japan. Chemical characteristics and groundwater evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Teruki; Hama, Katsuhiro; Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical investigations form an important part of the R and D program at the Tono study site, central Japan. Detailed geological structure and groundwater chemistry have been studied to understand the geochemical environment in the sedimentary and crystalline rocks distributed in this area. The chemical evolution of the groundwater in the sedimentary rocks is characterized with the variation in Na + , Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - concentrations, and ion exchange and dissolution of calcite are dominant reactions in the evolution of groundwater. Geological investigation shows that a fracture system of crystalline rock can be classified into:intact zone, moderately fractured zone and intensely fractured zone, according to the frequency and the width of fractures and fractured zones. The groundwater in the intact and fractured zones of crystalline rock are characterized by Na + -Ca 2+ -HCO 3 - or Na + -HCO 3 - dominated water, and Na + -Ca 2+ -Fe 2+ -HCO 3 - dominated water. The chemical evolution of groundwater is, generally, controlled by water-rock interaction between plagioclase, iron minerals and groundwater. The groundwater at depth of G.L.-186m in the crystalline rock at the Tono area is characterized by the mixture between the oxidized surface water and the reduced groundwater. The investigation based on correlation between geological structures and groundwater chemistry can be applied to understand the geochemical environment in deep crystalline rock, and will support the development of a realistic hydrogeochemical model. (author)

  16. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooreweder, Brecht Van; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H 2 O 2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changing the physical and chemical composition of the soil in the area of man-made impact in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zuievska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the application of method of horizontal directional drilling (HDD for the construction of engineering communication for Kyiv’s dense urban development. The main advantages of this modern technology of laying pipes of different diameter in complicated hydrogeological conditions are high accuracy and constant control of the trajectory, the possibility of work regardless of the season and work in a confined space without disturbing the surface structures that already exist. The most common depth of HDD in urban areas is about 2–3 m. As a result of intensive anthropogenic and technological impact in urban soils negative processes are developing that impair their strength characteristics. Soil decompression, violations of water-air and thermal balance, chemical and biological contamination lead to the surface deformations in the field of application of horizontal drilling. The negative aspect is that after filling of soil and repair of surface subsidence, these processes do not stop over time and continue to fracture surface. The aim of the research is to establish the causes of the continuation of active deformation processes of soil environment after the construction of engineering communication using the method of horizontal directional drilling. Most of sewage networks are within the impact zone of roads, so the research was conducted for soil near their proximity, samples were taken at various depths to allow man-made human impact on the deformation properties of soil foundations. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in soils, roentgen spectral analysis was used. It is a non-destructive method for determining element composition. To determine the oil content we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.The study was conducted to determine the salt content of soils and their elemental composition depending on the depth and determination of petroleum products, which may reduce the carrying

  18. A Scalable Route to Nanoporous Large-Area Atomically Thin Graphene Membranes by Roll-to-Roll Chemical Vapor Deposition and Polymer Support Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Piran R; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi D; Dee, Nicholas T; Vyatskikh, Andrey; Zhang, Sui; Karnik, Rohit; Hart, A John

    2018-03-28

    Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones. The configurational flexibility of the reactor design allows for a detailed evaluation of key parameters affecting graphene quality and trade-offs to be considered for high-rate roll-to-roll graphene manufacturing. With this system, we achieve synthesis of uniform high-quality monolayer graphene ( I D / I G casting and postprocessing, show size-selective molecular transport with performance comparable to that of membranes made from conventionally synthesized graphene. Therefore, this work establishes the feasibility of a scalable manufacturing process of NATMs, for applications including protein desalting and small-molecule separations.

  19. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Menna, P. [National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Portici (Italy); Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V. [Intersolarcenter, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  20. Radiological and chemical characterization report for the planned Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant (QCSA) will be used in the support of the bulk waste removal of the Weldon Spring Quarry. Radiological and chemical characterization was performed on a 12 acre site where the QCSA will be constructed. The characterization revealed approximately .5 acres of radiologically contaminated land. No chemical contamination was found. 8 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  2. Effects of acid treatment on the clay palygorskite: XRD, surface area, morphological and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Katiane Cruz Magalhaes; Santos, Maria do Socorro Ferreira dos; Santos, Maria Rita Morais Chaves; Oliveira, Marilia Evelyn Rodrigues; Osajima, Josy Antevelli; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The palygorskite is an aluminum-magnesium silicate that has a fibrous morphology. Their physicochemical characteristics are the result of high surface area, porosity and thermal resistance which make it an attractive adsorbent. Its adsorption capacity can be increased through chemical reactions and/or heat treatments. The objective of this work is to verify the effects of acid activation on the palygorskite, treated with HCl at 90 °C at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 mol L{sup -1} in 2 and 4 hours, with clay/acid solution ratio 1 g 10 mL{sup -1} and characterized by techniques: XRF, XRD and surface area. A significant increase in specific surface area was observed in the sample treated with HCl at the concentration 6 mol L{sup -1}. The changes were more pronounced at stricter concentrations of acidity, with decreasing intensity of reflection of the clay indicated in the XRD. These changes were confirmed in the XRF with the leaching of some oxides and with increasing concentration of SiO{sub 2}. (author)

  3. Preparation of high surface area and high conductivity polyaniline nanoparticles using chemical oxidation polymerization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, S.; Yusmaniar; Juliana, A.; Cahyana, U.; Purwanto, A.; Imaduddin, A.; Handoko, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, polyaniline nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. The ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS)/aniline ratio, APS dropping time, and polymerization temperature were optimized to increase the surface area and conductivity of the polyaniline.The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum confirmed the formation of emeraldine salt polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that amorphous and crystalline phases of the polyaniline were formed with crystallinity less than 40%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that the finest nanoparticles with uniform size distribution were obtained at the polymerization temperature of 0°C. A surface area analyzer (SAA) showed that the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (SBET ) of 42.14 m2/gwas obtained from an APS/aniline ratio of 0.75 with a dropping time of 0 s at a polymerization temperature of 0°C. A four-point probe measurement conducted at 75–300K indicated relatively high conductivity of the semiconductor characteristic of the polyaniline.

  4. Selected elements and organic chemicals in streambed sediment in the Salem area, Oregon, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.

    2002-09-13

    Analysis of streambed sediments in the Salem, Oregon, area showed anomalously large concentrations of some elements and organic chemicals, indicating contamination from anthropogenic and/or geologic sources. The streambed sediment sample from Clark Creek, an urban basin, had large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hyrdocarbons (PAHs), organochlorines, cadmium, lead, and zinc. The sample from the East Fork of Pringle Creek, which is a mostly urban basin, had the highest concentrations of DDD, DDE, and DDT compounds. Aldrin was detected in streambed sediment at only one site, the East Fork of Pringle Creek. Ten of the 14 sites sampled had exceedances of the sediment quality guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), and 8 sites had exceedances of guidelines from the Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) Program.

  5. Chemical approaches toward graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Shaomin; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-03-12

    A 'gold rush' has been triggered all over the world for exploiting the possible applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved; one is the preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials with well-defined structures, and the other is the controllable fabrication of these materials into functional devices. This review gives a brief overview of the recent research concerning chemical and thermal approaches toward the production of well-defined graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas, including solar cells, lithium ion secondary batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A systematic study of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of large-area monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yu; Lin, Yung-Chen; Qu, Yongquan; Bai, Jingwei; Ivanov, Ivan A; Liu, Gang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-28

    Graphene has attracted considerable interest as a potential material for future electronics. Although mechanical peel is known to produce high quality graphene flakes, practical applications require continuous graphene layers over a large area. The catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising synthetic method to deliver wafer-sized graphene. Here we present a systematic study on the nucleation and growth of crystallized graphene domains in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Parametric studies show that the mean size of the graphene domains increases with increasing growth temperature and CH 4 partial pressure, while the density of domains decreases with increasing growth temperature and is independent of the CH 4 partial pressure. Our studies show that nucleation of graphene domains on copper substrate is highly dependent on the initial annealing temperature. A two-step synthetic process with higher initial annealing temperature but lower growth temperature is developed to reduce domain density and achieve high quality full-surface coverage of monolayer graphene films. Electrical transport measurements demonstrate that the resulting graphene exhibits a high carrier mobility of up to 3000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature.

  7. Measurements of radiological background and some chemical pollutants in two areas of greater cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.; Ramadan, A.; Abdel Aziz, M.A.; Aly, A.I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present work aims to the evaluation of radiological background levels and chemical pollutants in greater cairo as the most dense populated city in Egypt. The meteorological data of a complete one year of Cairo city have been collected, investigated and processed to determined the behavior of the pollutants in the atmosphere and the sector that is strongly affected by the pollutants. Portable detector for measuring the radiological background was deployed in Nasr City, where two nuclear centers belonging to Atomic Energy Authority are located, to measure the radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and compare them with the international standard limits. Other detectors were deployed in Shobra El- Khema area to study two significant phenomena, the first is the formation of ozone through the photo-chemical oxidation, its level and its behavior in the atmosphere, taking into consideration the international standard limits. The second phenomenon is the impact of the black plume on the capital Cairo started on October (1999) and its association of pollutant levels increment, defining the nature and the site location of the pollutant source. The carbon monoxide concentrations (as an example), before and during the black plume, were calculated using Gaussian equation then compared with the measured data in Shobra El- Khema region. The other available instruments were used to measure nitrogen oxides, ozone and carbon monoxide

  8. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  9. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, D. [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Batorshin, G.; Logunov, M.; Musalnikov, A. [FSUE ' PO Mayak' , 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  10. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  11. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  12. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  13. Chemical profiling and histochemical analysis of Bupleurum marginatum roots from different growing areas of Hubei province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Liang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bupleuri Radix has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In the current herbal market, the species Bupleurum marginatum Wall. ex DC. is the main source of Bupleuri Radix. Although Bupleuri Radix from the roots of B. marginatum grown wild in the North West of Hubei province has higher quality compared with those from other regions according to the previous investigations, the exhaustive exploitation driven by increasing demand has drastically reduced the wild resource. As a result, germplasm evaluation and quality resource exploration are important for the sustainable utilization and cultivation of B. marginatum. A preliminary study indicated differences in the tissue structure of B. marginatum grown in different areas of North Western Hubei province. In the current study, various tissues of the roots of B. marginatum grown in different areas of North Western Hubei were subjected to laser microdissection and analyzed by microscopy and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–Q-TOF-MS. The results show that wild plants from Maqiao Town, Baokang County contain the most saikosaponins distributed mainly in cork, cortex and phloem. This study provides key chemical information for evaluating the quality of B. marginatum roots.

  14. Determination of the interfacial area of a continuous integrated mixer/separator (CINC) using a chemical reaction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, B.; Jansma, W. J.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    The effect of the liquid flow rates (18-100 mL/min) and rotor frequency (30-60 Hz) on the interfacial area of a liquid-liquid system in a CINC-V02 continuous integrated mixer/separator have been studied using a chemical reaction method. Topical specific interfacial areas were in the range of 3.2 x

  15. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  16. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  17. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  18. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  19. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  20. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  1. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of 226 Ra and 232 Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for 226 Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal dependence

  2. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd ' Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq

  3. Estimating areas threatened by contamination from leaking chemical warfare agents dumped into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 60,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War II (the exact amount is unknown and some sources estimate it as more than 200,000 tons). Dumped munitions still pose a risk of leakage caused by erosion and corrosion, and it is important to know the danger areas. Because of wide dispersion of the dumped munitions, modelling is only one tool that could provide wide image of physical state of the sea at all locations and which could also be used for analysing contamination during a potential leakage. Obviously, it is possible to take samples at each dumpsite, but modelling also allows to develop possible scenarios of leakages under specific physical conditions. For the purpose of analysis of potential leakage a high-resolution model (HRM) of the contamination will be embedded in the hydrodynamic model (HM) of the Baltic Sea. The HRM will use data from general circulation model results of estimated resolution of nearly 2 km. The Parallel Ocean Program will be implemented as the HM for the whole Baltic Sea. Atmospheric data from regional implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) have been used as the top boundary conditions of the HM, and sea level data from Gothenburg had been included into model barotropic equation as lateral boundary conditions. Passive tracer will represent the contamination in the HRM and horizontal resolution of the HRM will be close to 50 meters. Passive tracers will also be implemented in the HM - for comparison of the results. For proper representation of potential leakage of chemical warfare agents the HRM will have included diffusion and advection processes. The results from the HM are going to be interpolated into the HRM domain and then integration will be performed. Based on the implemented simulations, estimated contaminated area and its comparison from the HRM as well as from the HM will be presented. The research work was fund by the European Union (European

  4. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  6. The ground water chemical characteristics of Beishan area-the China's potential high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianxiao; Guo Yonghai

    2004-01-01

    The ground water chemical characteristics have impact on nuclide migration in high level waste repository, so the study on the ground water chemical characteristics is an important aspect in site screening and characterization. The geochemical modeling of the reaction trend between ground water and solid phase, the water-rock interaction modeling of the formation and evolution of ground water chemistry, the modeling of the reaction between ground water and nuclear waste are all carried out in this paper to study the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area. The study illustrates that the ground water chemical characteristics in Beishan area is favorable to the disposal of high level nuclear waste and to prevent the nuclides migration. (author)

  7. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  8. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  9. Feasibility study for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site is radioactively and chemically contaminated at levels that exceed certain standards and guidelines for protecting human health and the environment. The ongoing site characterization and environmental monitoring programs provide information on the nature and extent of contamination, including information for off-site areas to which contaminants have migrated or could migrate in the future. Although humans and biota are not adversely impacted by site contaminants at this time, the purpose of DOE's remedial action program is to preclude the potential for such impacts in the future by implementing long-term environmental restoration and waste management decisions. The DOE is addressing long-term management of the Weldon Spring site through an integrated environmental decision-making process. Supporting information for the feasibility study is provided in Appendixes A through J. This information addresses scoping (Appendix A), engineering technologies (Appendix B), potential health and environmental impacts (Appendixes C, D, E, F, H and I), regulatory requirements (Appendix G), and letters of consultation received from the various agencies contacted (Appendix J). Additional engineering information is presented in supporting technical reports

  10. Modeling groundwater flow at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, L.A.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater flow in the shallow unconfined aquifer at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles County, Missouri, was modeled with the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) groundwater flow and contaminant transport computer code. The modeling was performed in support of a hydrogeological characterization effort that is part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement process being carried out by the US Department of Energy at the site. This report presents the results of model development and calibration. In the calibration procedure, the range of field-measured hydrogeological parameters was tested to obtain the best match between model-predicted and measured groundwater elevations. After calibration, the model was used to evaluate whether the presence of an on-site disposal cell would impact the ability to remediate contaminated groundwater beneath the cell. The results of the numerical modeling, which were based on an evaluation of steady-state groundwater flow velocity plots, indicated that groundwater would flow beneath the disposal cell along natural gradients. The presence of a disposal cell would not significantly affect remediation capability for groundwater contamination

  11. Contribution to isotopic and chemical study of the aquifers in the area of Frecheirinha, State of Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, H.B. de; Santiago, M.M.F.

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic and chemical characteristics of the aquifers in the area of Frecheirinha (State of Ceara) have been analyzed. In a area of 3,000 scquare Kilometers three aquifers has been identified. Oxygen-18 measurements show that during the rainy season the piezometric level rises until reaching the surface. Thus the flow-water is a mixture of rainwater with stored under-groundwater. Chemical analysis shows all waters (except for samples 1, 2 and 3) are potable. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  12. Chemical diversity in opisthobranch molluscs from scarcely investigated Indo-Pacific areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Guo, Y.-W.; Fakhr, I.M.I.; Mollo, E.

    on Nudibranchs Nudibranchs are exclusively carnivorous with a broad range of alimentary habits. They appear to have the ability to sequester, accumulate and modify dietary metabolites as well as to synthesize defensive compounds de novo (Cimino and Ghiselin... of the chemical data reviewed in this chapter, taking into account alimentary habits and geographical chemical variations, suggests some interesting generalizations. 8.6.1 Nudibranchs The intra-specific geographic variations observed in the chemical...

  13. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  14. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L. and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous weeds, two field trials were carried out. A ready-to-use herbicide mixture 2,4-D 140.2 g/l-1 + Triclopyr 144 g/l-1, trade product Genoxon 3X (X0050, was tested at two doses of active ingredient, 3552 and 2842 ml/ha-1. It was found that: (1 population density of Rumex crispus L. can be successfully reduced by treatment at the stage of early stem formation; herbicideefficacy with 3552 and 2882 ml/ha-1 doses on the 21st day after treatment was 100% and 90.5%, respectively, at the end of vegetation 94.4 and 85.7%, respectively; (2 herbicidal efficacy was lower when R. crispus L. was treated at the 5 - 6 leaf stage, being 100 – 94.1%and 80 – 76.5% respectively for the indicated doses and time of recording; (3 at the studied doses the herbicide controlled both annual dicotyledonous weeds (Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L. and perennial dicotyledonous ones (Cirsiumarvense L., Sonchus arvensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Carduus acanthoides L., but it was not toxic to monocotyledonous weeds.

  15. CHEMICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLUDGE SOLIDS AT THE F AND H AREA TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.

    2012-08-29

    The primary source of waste solids received into the F Area Tank Farm (FTF) was from PUREX processing performed to recover uranium and plutonium from irradiated depleted uranium targets. In contrast, two primary sources of waste solids were received into the H Area Tank Farm (HTF): a) waste from PUREX processing; and b) waste from H-modified (HM) processing performed to recover uranium and neptunium from burned enriched uranium fuel. Due to the differences between the irradiated depleted uranium targets and the burned enriched uranium fuel, the average compositions of the F and H Area wastes are markedly different from one another. Both F and H Area wastes contain significant amounts of iron and aluminum compounds. However, because the iron content of PUREX waste is higher than that of HM waste, and the aluminum content of PUREX waste is lower than that of HM waste, the iron to aluminum ratios of typical FTF waste solids are appreciably higher than those of typical HTF waste solids. Other constituents present at significantly higher concentrations in the typical FTF waste solids include uranium, nickel, ruthenium, zinc, silver, cobalt and copper. In contrast, constituents present at significantly higher concentrations in the typical HTF waste solids include mercury, thorium, oxalate, and radionuclides U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, Pu-238, Pu-242, Cm-244, and Cm-245. Because of the higher concentrations of Pu-238 in HTF, the long-term concentrations of Th-230 and Ra-226 (from Pu-238 decay) will also be higher in HTF. The uranium and plutonium distributions of the average FTF waste were found to be consistent with depleted uranium and weapons grade plutonium, respectively (U-235 comprised 0.3 wt% of the FTF uranium, and Pu-240 comprised 6 wt% of the FTF plutonium). In contrast, at HTF, U-235 comprised 5 wt% of the uranium, and Pu-240 comprised 17 wt% of the plutonium, consistent with enriched uranium and high burn-up plutonium. X-ray diffraction analyses of various FTF

  16. Chemical and benthos data collected from CTD, bottle, and other instruments in the Chukchi Sea in 2009-2010 as part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA-CAB) project (NODC Accession 0095566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area (Chemical...

  17. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  18. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  19. Biological and chemical characterization of harbour sediments from the Stockholm area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Britta; Elfstroem, Maria; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik; Breitholtz, Magnus [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Gallego, Irene [Granada Univ. (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of pleasure boat activities on harbour sediment quality in the Stockholm area. Sediment contamination is a growing ecological issue, and there is consequently a need to use sediment bioassays in combination with chemical analysis to determine the impact on the ecosystem. To generate sediment toxicity data relevant for the Baltic Sea, a secondary objective was to further develop and evaluate two well-established bioassays for saltwater, with the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes, to be useful also for toxicity testing of whole sediment. A major concern has been to minimize any manipulation of the sediments. A third objective was to assess whether a simple leaching procedure could be used to simulate sediment toxicity by comparing results from whole sediment and leachate tests. Materials and methods: Surface sediments (0-2 cm) from five different types of pleasure boat harbours were collected. Chemical measurements of boat related compounds, i.e. tin organic substances (tributyltin (TBT), dibutyl tin, and monobutyl tin), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), copper, zinc, lead, tin and irgarol were conducted. The sediments were tested for toxic effects using the established Microtox {sup registered} test as well as the developed sediment tests with C. tenuicorne and N. spinipes. The endpoints are growth inhibition for the algal test and for the crustacean test mortality of larvae and rate of development expressed as the ratio between nauplia and copepodites. Two different procedures have been compared with both organisms, i.e. exposure to whole sediment and to leachate. The duration of both tests is around 1 week. Results and discussion: All harbour locations were more or less heavily contaminated with remnants from use of antifouling paints. The sediment in a smaller marina (ca. 250 boats) contained the highest levels of TBT (max 1,400 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw

  20. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  1. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition, volatility, and spatial variability in the greater London area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of PM1 (particulate matter with diameter less than 1 µm in the greater London area was characterized during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo project in winter 2012. Two high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometers (HR-ToF-AMS were deployed at a rural site (Detling, Kent and an urban site (North Kensington, London. The simultaneous and high-temporal resolution measurements at the two sites provide a unique opportunity to investigate the spatial distribution of PM1. We find that the organic aerosol (OA concentration is comparable between the rural and urban sites, but the contribution from different sources is distinctly different between the two sites. The concentration of solid fuel OA at the urban site is about twice as high as at the rural site, due to elevated domestic heating in the urban area. While the concentrations of oxygenated OA (OOA are well-correlated between the two sites, the OOA concentration at the rural site is almost twice that of the urban site. At the rural site, more than 70 % of the carbon in OOA is estimated to be non-fossil, which suggests that OOA is likely related to aged biomass burning considering the small amount of biogenic SOA in winter. Thus, it is possible that the biomass burning OA contributes a larger fraction of ambient OA in wintertime than what previous field studies have suggested. A suite of instruments was deployed downstream of a thermal denuder (TD to investigate the volatility of PM1 species at the rural Detling site. After heating at 250 °C in the TD, 40 % of the residual mass is OA, indicating the presence of non-volatile organics in the aerosol. Although the OA associated with refractory black carbon (rBC; measured by a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer only accounts for < 10 % of the total OA (measured by a HR-ToF-AMS at 250 °C, the two measurements are well-correlated, suggesting that the non-volatile organics have similar sources or have

  3. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesten, Lars

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  4. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  5. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  6. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Inst.

    1989-10-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10{sup -1} atm. of P{sub co2} are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author).

  7. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwaters from the Otobaru landslide in the area of hydrothermal alteration, Beppu City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Kitaoka, Koichi; Kamiyama, Kokichi

    1989-01-01

    The landslide at the Otobaru area, Beppu City, occurred twice in 1943 and 1969. A part of this area, even now, is affected considerably by thermal activities. Variations in chemical and isotopic compositions of waters from the Otobaru area and its vicinity were investigated from 1977 to 1983 and 1986 to 1987. The results are as follows: (1) electric conductivity data suggest that the two kinds of low-concentration water and high-concentration water exist in the landslide area, (2) the existence-of two groundwater aquifer in the landslide area and its vicinity is inferred from tritium data, (3) variations chemical composition of waters from the horizontal borehole are accompanied by the rise and decline of water table, (4) the waters from the landslide area and its vicinity are in equilibrium with montmorillonite, (5) the most waters under 10 -1 atm. of P co2 are saturated or supersaturated with calcite, and (6) there is no detectable contribution of geothermal water to the waters from the landslide and its vicinity. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of calcium sulfate type water is also presented. (author)

  8. A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for Inhabited Areas: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for I © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National...Australia (EMA) Office of Attorney General, Canberra. b) Australian Emergency Management Institute Mount Macedon, Victoria

  9. Geophysical and hydro-chemical investigation of the area around a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the 2-D resistivity structures, contaminant plumes characterized by relatively low resistivity values (< 150 ohm-m) were identified down to depth of about 40 m in some places. Hydro-chemical results showed that the total acidity and concentration of Na+ Cl- and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg and Pb) in wells closest to ...

  10. Pore-scale modeling of vapor transport in partially saturated capillary tube with variable area using chemical potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addassi, Mouadh; Schreyer, Lynn; Johannesson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters and the nu......Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters...... and the numerical solutions to the equation are compared with experimental results with excellent agreement. We demonstrate that isothermal vapor transport can be accurately modeled without modeling the details of the contact angle, microscale temperature fluctuations, or pressure fluctuations using a modification...

  11. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  12. A comparison of nickel-titanium rotary instruments manufactured using different methods and cross-sectional areas: ability to resist cyclic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Ram; Chang, Seok-Woo; Lee, Yoon; Gu, Yu; Son, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Shik; Choi, Gi-Woon; Lim, Sang-Min; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the effect of the manufacturing methods (ground, electropolished, and twisted) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments on their cyclic fatigue resistance. A total of 80 NiTi rotary instruments (ISO 25/.06 taper) from 4 brands (K3, ProFile, RaCe, and TF) were rotated in a simulated root canal with pecking motion until fracture. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The CSA at 3 mm from the tip of new instruments of each brand was calculated. The correlation between the CSA and NCF was evaluated. All fractured surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the fracture mode. The TF instruments were the most resistant to fatigue failure. The resistance to cyclic failure increased with decreasing CSA. All fractured surfaces showed the coexistence of ductile and brittle properties. The CSA had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary instruments. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN WATERS OF KAFR EL-ZAYAT AREA, ROSETTA BRANCH, RIVER NILE, EGYPT.

    OpenAIRE

    Heba I. A. El-Safty; Mohammed G. A. Gad; Wafai Z. A. Mikhail.

    2018-01-01

    Five sites in the water of Rosetta Branch were selected to investigate the physical, chemical, and heavy metal concentrations. In this study there are great variations in the studied parameters according to the distance from the source of pollution. Heavy metal concentrations are strongly affected by the industrial effluents produced from each of El-Mobidat, El-Malyia and Salt and Soda companies which directly discharge industrial effluents at this area without any treatments.

  14. Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Van Verst, Scott P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.

    2003-01-01

    This updates the original report by correcting some errors and adding new information. This assessment of the 300 Area was completed to identify any contamination present and determine if it could present a risk to humans and plant and animal life. The assessment characterized the radiological and chemical conditions existing in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area by collecting water, biota, and sediment samples and measuring radiation levels during a time when the effects of riverbank spring discharges and groundwater upwelling into the river was likely to be present

  15. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  16. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  17. The Gas-Absorption/Chemical-Reaction Method for Measuring Air-Water Interfacial Area in Natural Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ying; Brusseau, Mark L.; El Ouni, Asma; Araujo, Juliana B.; Su, Xiaosi

    2017-11-01

    The gas-absorption/chemical-reaction (GACR) method used in chemical engineering to quantify gas-liquid interfacial area in reactor systems is adapted for the first time to measure the effective air-water interfacial area of natural porous media. Experiments were conducted with the GACR method, and two standard methods (X-ray microtomographic imaging and interfacial partitioning tracer tests) for comparison, using model glass beads and a natural sand. The results of a series of experiments conducted under identical conditions demonstrated that the GACR method exhibited excellent repeatability for measurement of interfacial area (Aia). Coefficients of variation for Aia were 3.5% for the glass beads and 11% for the sand. Extrapolated maximum interfacial areas (Am) obtained with the GACR method were statistically identical to independent measures of the specific solid surface areas of the media. For example, the Am for the glass beads is 29 (±1) cm-1, compared to 32 (±3), 30 (±2), and 31 (±2) cm-1 determined from geometric calculation, N2/BET measurement, and microtomographic measurement, respectively. This indicates that the method produced accurate measures of interfacial area. Interfacial areas determined with the GACR method were similar to those obtained with the standard methods. For example, Aias of 47 and 44 cm-1 were measured with the GACR and XMT methods, respectively, for the sand at a water saturation of 0.57. The results of the study indicate that the GACR method is a viable alternative for measuring air-water interfacial areas. The method is relatively quick, inexpensive, and requires no specialized instrumentation compared to the standard methods.

  18. Laterally Stitched Heterostructures of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide: Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth on Lithographically Patterned Area

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2016-10-31

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have shown great promise in electronics and optoelectronics due to their unique electrical and optical properties. Heterostructured TMDC layers such as the laterally stitched TMDCs offer the advantages of better electronic contact and easier band offset tuning. Here, we demonstrate a photoresist-free focused ion beam (FIB) method to pattern as-grown TMDC monolayers by chemical vapor deposition, where the exposed edges from FIB etching serve as the seeds for growing a second TMDC material to form desired lateral heterostructures with arbitrary layouts. The proposed lithographic and growth processes offer better controllability for fabrication of the TMDC heterostrucuture, which enables the construction of devices based on heterostructural monolayers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Management of evacuation in case of fire accidents in chemical industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, G.L.L.; Pauwels, N.; Audenaert, A.; Ale, B.J.M.; Soudan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Trade-offs between economic and safety arguments exist in the operation of chemical installations, should knock-on calamities induced by fire accidents occur: a sudden installation shutdown might result in substantial economic losses, but may be needed to ensure safety. Due to the very rare nature of domino effect risks induced decision problems an adequate evacuation decision aid model to be used by plant safety management does, to the best of the authors' knowledge, not exist. This paper develops a tentative approach to calculate the economic gains and/or losses linked to the decision problem whether or not, and when, to evacuate chemical installation(s) threatened by possible domino effect risks. The proposed model is illustrated by a case-study based on empirical data

  20. Application of isotopic and chemical methods to the study of hydrological problems in Brazilian northeastern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponte, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrological studies are reported with samples of ground water from several region of northern - and northeastern Brazil: Marajo Island (State of Para), State of Piaui, Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte. A description is given of the utilization of chemical and isotopic methods, in particular measurements of tritium concentration and 14 C- counting techniques for the determination of the origin and residence time of water. (I.C.R.) [pt

  1. Chemical composition of Kiscellian silty sediment (sivica from the Trobni Dol area, Eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Mišič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Kiscellian marine silt termed »sivica« is widely developed in Tertiary basins of Eastern Slovenia. Chemical composition is rather uniform and reflects the dominance of filosilicates (mainly illite/muscovite, chlorite and montmorillonite and carbonates. PAAS normalised REE and Y abundances are slightly depleted for La, Ce, Pr and Nd, very close to PAAS for Sm, Eu, Gd and Tb, and depleted for Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu.

  2. Characterization of chemical composition, surface area pore, and thermal properties of zeolites from Bayah, Tasikmalaya, and Lampung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginting, Aslina Br.; Dian Anggraini; Sutri Indaryati; Rosika Kriswarini

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of chemical composition, surface area, pore radius, adsorption, and thermal properties of zeolites from Bayah, Tasikmalaya, and Lampung have been performed. The purpose of the characterization is to understand the characteristics of the three zeolites since different types of zeolite will yield different chemical composition, surface area, pore radius, and adsorption. The analysis shows that zeolites from Bayah, Tasikmalaya, and Lampung consist of chemical elements Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and S. The analysis of the surface area indicates that zeolite from Lampung has surface area of 10.0477 m 2 , pore radius of 16.0653 Å, and adsorption of 24.500 ml/g, which are greater than those of zeolite from Tasikmalaya with surface area of 6.3319 m2, pore radius of 16.2350 Å, adsorption of 13.2500 ml/g, zeolite from Bayah with surface area of 8.3528 m2, pore radius of 16.2350 Å, and adsorption of 13.250 ml/g. From of the thermal properties characterization it is shown the three zeolites experienced weight reduction from 5.93% to 8.33%, which results in the formation of new phases as indicated by endothermic reactions from 150 °C to 600 °C and from 850 °C to 1000 °C. The three zeolites experienced a decrease in heat capacity up to temperature of 199.96 °C, whereas at temperatures above 216.66 °C the zeolites experienced an increase in heat capacity up to 437.78 °C. The results of the characterization indicate that different types of zeolite do not yield significant difference in chemical composition and thermal characteristics as proven with F test, however different surface area, pore radius, and adsorption characteristics are observed. The characterization results are expected to be the first step in determining the characteristics of the three zeolites that are to be used for cesium ion exchange in the incoming research. (author)

  3. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  4. Chemical and isotopic composition of natural waters in the Jizuki-yama landslide area, Nagano Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Mashima, Kiyotaka; Koizumi, Naoji

    1988-10-01

    A large-scale landslide took place at a southeastern slope of Mt. Jizuki, Nagano Prefecture, on July 26, 1985. It has been said that landslide is closely related to the hydrological and hydrogeochemical nature of groundwater involved. To investigate the weathering mechanism and the origin of groundwater, we collected and analyzed water samples from the large-scale landslide area. The following facts can be pointed out: (1) weather-rock interaction is remarkably active in the landslide area, (2) most of the waters from the landslide area are in equilibrium with Na-montmorillonite (3) immediately after the landslide occurred bicarbonate and sodium ions are dominant, but sulfate and sodium ions become dominant with time, and (4) groundwater passing through horizontally drilled holes dose not effectively drain off to stabilize a slope in the landslide area. And our hypothesis on the mechanism for the formation of sodium sulfate type water is also presented.

  5. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  6. Otolith chemical signature and growth of Chaetodon speculum in coastal areas of New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, M.; Morize, E.; Kulbicki, M.; Ponton, D.; Marec, L.

    2008-07-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. They are currently exposed to increasing levels of anthropogenic perturbations. Several recent reviews point to the lack of good indicators for these perturbations especially to monitor their effects on fish populations or fish assemblages. The SW lagoon of New Caledonia is an ideal location to test indicator species in this context as contrasting sites are present within a small geographical range. This study analysed fish from four sites, one with heavy industrial pollution, another dominated by domestic waste, a third with historic mining activities, and the fourth as a control. The butterfly fish, Chaetodon speculum, was chosen to determine C. speculum's potential as an indicator species due to its link to coral, its sedentary behaviour and its wide geographical distribution. The size distribution, growth rate, age distribution and whole otolith composition were analysed at each site. Age and mean growth rate were analysed from daily increments of the otoliths. The concentrations of eight elements (Li, Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were measured by ICP-MS in the otoliths of a subset of individuals. The sites under anthropogenic impact were distinct from the control site by fish size frequencies, age distributions, and the chemical content of their otoliths. The chemical elements Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, and Rb showed differences amongst sites. Fish belonging to the sites furthest from Nouméa could be discriminated in nearly 80% of samples or 60% of the cases when otolith weight or fish age respectively were taken into account. Ni concentrations of the otoliths were also higher in the bays where water concentrations of this element were known to be higher, but these differences were no longer significant once corrected for otolith weight. These results should be mitigated by the fact that: (1) despite significant differences between sites in age distribution and size frequencies there were no differences in

  7. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.H. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    These Appendices describe various technologies that may be applicable to the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (MWTP) Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). These technologies were identified by the CPTS Technical Support Group (TSG) as potentially applicable to a variety of separation, volume reduction, and decontamination requirements. The purpose was to identify all available and developing technologies, and their characteristics, for subsequent evaluation for specific requirements identified for the CPTS. However, the technologies described herein are not necessarily all inclusive, nor are they necessarily all applicable.

  8. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, pnematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  9. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  10. An evaluation of business skills and training needs within selected small manufacturing businesses in the Vanderbijlpark area of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Okubena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laxity in managerial competencies due to relevant and appropriate skills has often been linked to small business failure despite its vital contribution to the economic development in South Africa. Skills development is one of the major challenges faced by South Africans, with more than 60% of the labour force being unskilled. This affects large percentage of small businesses around the country with unskilled employees evidenced in the day to day operation of the business. The small Manufacturing Industry in the Vanderbijlpark area of the Gauteng Province is a prime example of businesses that are affected by the short supply of relevant skilled personnel in the labour market. Nevertheless, the primary objective of this study was to undertake an evaluation concerning the significance of business skills and training needs for business success. Secondary objectives were to determine whether training in business skills as well as technical skills for the employees, could add value to the business success. Research methodology included a literature review and an empirical study, making use of the survey method through self-administered questionnaires. Using mixed research design methods, the study collected data on the knowledge, training needs and attitudes of the employees. The statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, frequencies, Chi-square tests, linear regression and ANOVA. Thence, the Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure reliability of the research results. This however reduced the situation in which either test or scale is wrongly discarded or test criticized for not generating trustworthy result. Additionally, the associated concept of internal consistency, homogeneity and unidimensionality was employed to improve the use of alpha. The research findings established that training in business skills and related types of skills was essential for the success of a business. The findings further showed and confirmed that, effective

  11. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  12. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  13. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Chemical composition of ground water and the locations of permeable zones in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Robison, J.H.; Blankennagel, R.K.; Ogard, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ten wells in the Yucca Mountain area of southern Nevada have been sampled for chemical analysis. Samples were obtained during pumping of water from the entire well bore (composite sample) and in one instance by pumping water from a single isolated interval in well UE-25b number 1. Sodium is the most abundant cation and bicarbonate the most abundant anion in all water samples. Although the general chemical compositions of individual samples are similar, there are significant differences in uncorrected carbon-14 age and in inorganic and stable-isotope composition. Flow surveys of seven wells performed using iodine-131 as a tracer indicate that ground-water production is usually from one or more discrete zones of permeability. 7 references, 12 figures, 1 table

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area,. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  16. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Grohmann, K. [US Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  17. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Grohmann, K. (US Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  18. Assessment of soil degradation and chemical compositions in Rwandan tea-growing areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de la Paix Mupenzi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study has focused on the processes of soil degradation and chemical element concentration in tea-growing regions of Rwanda, Africa. Soil degradation accelerated by erosion is caused not only by topography but also by human activities. This soil degradation involves both the physical loss and reduction in the amount of topsoil associated with nutrient decline. Soil samples were collected from eleven tropical zones in Rwanda and from variable depth within each collecting site. Of these, Samples from three locations in each zone were analyzed in the laboratory, with the result that the pH of all soil samples is shown to be less than 5 (pH<5 with a general average of 4.4. The elements such as iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn are present in high concentration levels. In contrast calcium (Ca and sodium (Na are present at low-level concentrations and carbon (C was found in minimal concentrations. In addition, elements derived from fertilizers, such as nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, and potassium (K which is also from minerals such as feldspar, are also present in low-level concentrations. The results indicate that the soil in certain Rwandan tea plantations is acidic and that this level of pH may help explain, in addition to natural factors, the deficiency of some elements such as Ca, Mg, P and N. The use of chemical fertilizers, land use system and the location of fields relative to household plots are also considered to help explain why tea plantation soils are typically degraded.

  19. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-02-17

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m{sup 2}/g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal.

  20. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m 2 /g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal

  1. Risk perception of aquatic pollution originated from chemical industry clusters in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Bo; You, Zhen; Zhao, Li

    2018-02-01

    According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters. Twenty-four statements were screened out to describe the five factors, and about 600 residents were covered in three typical clusters surveyed. On the whole, the youth showed a higher interest on the survey, and middle-aged people were likely to be more concerned about aquatic pollution incident. There was no significant difference on risk perception of the three clusters. The respondents investigated had good knowledge background on aquatic pollution and the residents identified with the benefits brought by the clusters. They were weak in risk awareness of pollution originated from the chemical enterprises' groups. Although the respondents regarded that chemical industry clusters did not expose all points of pollutants' generation to the public, they inclined to trust the administration agencies on controlling the pollution and welcome the construction of chemical clusters in their dwelling cities. Besides, risk perception showed obvious spatial distribution. The closer were the samples' sites to the clusters and the rivers receiving pollutants, the higher were the residents' perceived risk, benefit, and trust. However, there was no identical spatial difference on risk acceptance, which might be comprehensively influenced by various

  2. Chemical and geotechnical assessment of low organic foundation soils across the coastal area of Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, N. O.; Osammor, J.; Oluwafemi, O. S.

    2018-04-01

    Pressure on land use has caused great site development along the coastal area of south western Nigeria. However, research works for the purpose of evaluating appropriate depths of foundations in the area were without cognizance of engineering challenges that may ensue as a result of the organic content, and associated factors of the soils. This paper evaluates the compositional effects of the soils on foundation materials, and a phenomenological model of compressibility of fines during design and construction of problem-free foundations in the area. Thirty (30) disturbed soils were analysed for moisture content, grain size distribution, consistency limits, chloride, pH and sulphate, while the oedometer consolidation test was carried out on another 30 undisturbed soils. The stratigraphic sequence in the profile comprises medium dense to coarse grained silty clayey sand to 16.80 m depth, below loose grey organic silty clayey sand from the surface. Results show in most cases, that the foundation soils contain insignificant percentages (0.95-5.8%) of organic solids. Moisture content (44-70%), chloride (74.9 ppm), sulphate (420 ppm) ions concentration and pH (8.96) could enhance the corrosive potential of the soils. It is recommended that Portland cement concrete will be suitable in the environment. Foundation settlement with respect to surface area (0.028≤ mv ≤ 0.434m2MN-1 at 200 kNm-2; 0.038mv ≤ 0.776m2MN-1 at 400 kNm-2; 0.038≤ mv ≤ 0.879m2MN-1 at 800 kNm-2) ranges from low to medium compressibility with respect to consolidation pressure. Therefore, footings load need be spread over the soils, and foundation design need be based on site-specific soil information.

  3. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  4. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  5. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa; Cadore, Solange

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F - , Cl - , NO 2 - , Br - , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  6. Chemical composition of precipitation in a forest area of Chongqing, southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.; Ogura, N.; Ushikubo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in Chongqing - a city seriously damaged by acid precipitation in southwest China - to explore chemical compositions of open bulk precipitation, throughfall and stemflow in a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest. The results showed that annual mean pH values of and annual ion depositions in the three types of rain water were 4.47 and 50.6 g m -2 , 3.82 and 69.7 g m -2 m and 2.92 and 0.215 g m -2 respectively. pH values demonstrated an obvious seasonal variation; they were lower in winter than in the rest of the year. Ca 2+ and NH 4 + together made up more than 80% of the total cation, while SO 4 2- alone contributed over 90% to the total anion. This high level of SO 4 2- in rain water in Congqing, which outran those found in other cities in China, was closely related to the combustion of locally produced coal that contains 3 to 5% sulphur. Thus, acid precipitation in Chongqing is of a typical sulphuric-acid type. 6 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Precisely Controlled Ultrathin Conjugated Polymer Films for Large Area Transparent Transistors and Highly Sensitive Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Dongyoon; Ryu, Gi-Seong; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Myungwon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-13

    A uniform ultrathin polymer film is deposited over a large area with molecularlevel precision by the simple wire-wound bar-coating method. The bar-coated ultrathin films not only exhibit high transparency of up to 90% in the visible wavelength range but also high charge carrier mobility with a high degree of percolation through the uniformly covered polymer nanofibrils. They are capable of realizing highly sensitive multigas sensors and represent the first successful report of ethylene detection using a sensor based on organic field-effect transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Agro-chemicals Diagnostic in vegetables cultivations in Palmitas, rural area of Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Adriana Maria; Toro, Ledy Liliana; Zuluaga, Gloria Patricia

    2001-01-01

    This work was carried out in Palmitas rural area of the municipality of Medellin, located between 1.400 and 3.100 m.a.s.l, with temperatures between 10 grades Celsius and 17 grades Celsius and an average precipitation of 2.400 mm./year. In this area an intensive production of vegetables exists, with a use and intensive handling of agro-chemistries. This situation generates problems in the economic development, environment and human health of the region inhabitants. The present research showed that a widespread ignorance exists on the agro-chemistries manipulation; with empiric preparations of mixtures, in the use of not recommended doses and frequencies; which is aggravated by the remiss attention to the technical recommendations, such as, label information, residuals disposition and containers, type of mixtures, and the use of elements for personal protection. This situation is increased by the ignorance on symptoms and handling of intoxications, for the high level of illiteracy, added to the indefiniteness of the basic information about the products. Equally it was found out that the participation of women and children in the processes of agro-chemistries application is exposing them to health problems. This problem is intimately related with cultural, social, economic and technical factors. It was also stated that the peasants of Palmitas use a wide range of toxic products, showing a preference for the fungicidal Maneb (Carbamato) and for the insecticide Dimetoato (Organo-phosphorate). Products associated to the inhibition of the cholinesterase

  9. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  10. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. Modular manufacturing processes : Status, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldea, Michael; Edgar, Thomas F.; Stanley, Bill L.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical companies are constantly seeking new, high-margin growth opportunities, the majority of which lie in high-grade, specialty chemicals, rather than in the bulk sector. To realize these opportunities, manufacturers are increasingly considering decentralized, flexible production facilities:

  12. H-O isotopic and chemical characteristics of a precipitation-lake water-groundwater system in a desert area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ke; Rao, Wenbo; Tan, Hongbing; Song, Yinxian; Yong, Bin; Zheng, Fangwen; Chen, Tangqing; Han, Liangfeng

    2018-04-01

    The recharge mechanism of groundwater in the Badain Jaran Desert, North China has been a focus of research and still disputable in the past two decades. In this study, the chemical and hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) isotopic characteristics of shallow groundwater, lake water and local precipitation in the Badain Jaran Desert and neighboring areas were investigated to reveal the relationships between various water bodies and the recharge source of shallow groundwater. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical results show that (1) shallow groundwater was associated with local precipitation in the Ayouqi and Yabulai regions, (2) lake water was mainly recharged by groundwater in the desert hinterland, (3) shallow groundwater of the desert hinterland, Yabulai Mountain and Gurinai Grassland had a common recharge source. Shallow groundwater of the desert hinterland had a mean recharge elevation of 1869 m a.s.l. on the basis of the isotope-altitude relationship and thus originated chiefly from lateral infiltration of precipitation in the Yabulai Mountain. It is further concluded that shallow groundwater flowed towards the Gurinai Grassland according to the groundwater table contour map. Along the flow pathway, the H-O isotopic variations were primarily caused by the evaporation effect but chemical variations of shallow groundwater were affected by multiple factors, e.g., evaporation effect, dilution effect of occasional heavy-precipitation and dissolution of aquifer evaporites. Our findings provide new insight into the groundwater cycle and benefit the management of the limited water resources in the arid desert area.

  13. Radioecological situation in the area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association in Russian Zabaikalye Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Akhromeev, S.V.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. Contamination of local parts of the health protection zone results from discharges and releases, dust transport of radionuclides from the mine rock dumps containing uranium, radium, radon and its decay products, spillage of ore along highways, straits uraniferous pulp and mine water from the pool pump shaft station. The radionuclide migration results in groundwater contamination. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of natural radionuclides. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of 226 Ra and 2 32 Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining.

  14. Definition and GIS-based characterization of an integral risk index applied to a chemical/petrochemical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2006-08-01

    A risk map of the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) was designed following a two-stage procedure. The first step was the creation of a ranking system (Hazard Index) for a number of different inorganic and organic pollutants: heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying self-organizing maps (SOM) to persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity properties of the chemicals. PCBs seemed to be the most hazardous compounds, while the light PAHs showed the minimum values. Subsequently, an Integral Risk Index was developed taking into account the Hazard Index and the concentrations of all pollutants in soil samples collected in the assessed area of Tarragona. Finally, a risk map was elaborated by representing the spatial distribution of the Integral Risk Index with a geographic information system (GIS). The results of the present study seem to indicate that the development of an integral risk map might be useful to help in making-decision processes concerning environmental pollutants.

  15. Change with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rock in geothermal areas in central Kyushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    1986-10-01

    Changes with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rocks in central Kyushu are studied to provide basic data required for evaluation of geothermal resources. Distribution of volcanic rocks in successive 1Ma (10/sup 6/ year) periods and the average thickness of volcanic rock layers in each period are determined, from which the volume of volcanic rocks in each 1Ma period is calculated. Results indicate that volcanos in central Kyushu extruded about 3,000 km/sup 3//Ma of volcanic rocks during the early periods (about 5Ma), followed by a series of declining periods up to the present. Comparison of volcanic extrusive rocks of each 1Ma period shows that lava of hornblende andesite and pyroxenic andesite has been extruded in great quantities in every period. Chemical composition is studied based on diagrams showing changes in SiO/sub 2/ content. The K/sub 2/O content is relatively high in most volcanos younger than 1.6Ma, compared to those older than 1.6Ma. the K/sub 2/O content in extruded rocks has been high during the latest 0.4Ma in the Aso volcanic area, unlike other island arc conjunction areas. (4 figs, 5 tabs, 28 refs)

  16. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  17. Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol chemical and optical properties are extensively investigated for the first time over the Paris Basin in July 2000 within the ESQUIF project. The measurement campaign offers an exceptional framework to evaluate the performances of the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE in simulating concentrations of gaseous and aerosol pollutants, as well as the aerosol-size distribution and composition in polluted urban environments against ground-based and airborne measurements. A detailed comparison of measured and simulated variables during the second half of July with particular focus on 19 and 31 pollution episodes reveals an overall good agreement for gas-species and aerosol components both at the ground level and along flight trajectories, and the absence of systematic biases in simulated meteorological variables such as wind speed, relative humidity and boundary layer height as computed by the MM5 model. A good consistency in ozone and NO concentrations demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the plume structure and location fairly well both on 19 and 31 July, despite an underestimation of the amplitude of ozone concentrations on 31 July. The spatial and vertical aerosol distributions are also examined by comparing simulated and observed lidar vertical profiles along flight trajectories on 31 July and confirm the model capacity to simulate the plume characteristics. The comparison of observed and modeled aerosol components in the southwest suburb of Paris during the second half of July indicates that the aerosol composition is rather correctly reproduced, although the total aerosol mass is underestimated by about 20%. The simulated Parisian aerosol is dominated by primary particulate matter that accounts for anthropogenic and biogenic primary particles (40%, and inorganic aerosol fraction (40% including nitrate (8%, sulfate (22% and ammonium (10%. The secondary organic aerosols (SOA represent 12% of the total aerosol mass, while the

  18. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of CIS solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihtsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a technology to manufacture CIS-based thin film solar cells. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the research of a large-area light absorbing layer manufacturing technology, investigation was made on light absorbing layers in manufacturing sub-modules with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. With regard to the temperature condition in the light absorbing layer forming process, it was found that the cooling rate affects particularly the adhesion in the connecting interface of the light absorbing layer and the Mo rear electrode layer. In addition, it was revealed that the sulfur take-in amount can be increases by extending the retention time at the sulfurizing temperature and by decreasing the temperature to turn the gas phase into selenium. In the research of elementary technologies to establish the mass production process, developments were performed on the high-resistance buffer layer manufacturing technology, the high-quality window layer film manufacturing technology, and the technology to manufacture rear electrode layer made of high-quality metals. In developing the patterning technology, two kinds of the existing patterning devices were modified and adjusted for patterning the substrates with a size of 30 cm times 30 cm. In addition, a processing device was installed in the conventional manually operated process for module finishing. (NEDO)

  19. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  20. Chemical composition of rainwater in a tropical urban area of northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad Al Obaidy, Abdul Hameed M.; Joshi, Himanshu

    Rainwater samples during the monsoon of 2001 and 2002 were collected from Roorkee urban area, a medium sized "town group" situated on the right bank of Solani River, a tributary of the Ganga River, near the Himalayan foothills and analyzed for EC, pH, TSS, TDS and major ions. The median value of pH was 7.05, well above 5.6, which is the reference pH. The ratios of SO 42-+NO 3- and Ca 2++Mg 2+ (TA/TC) have been considered for acidity. In this study, ratio of TA/TC is quite below 1.0, indicating alkaline nature of rainwater. The concentration of ions in rain water have been observed to follow the pattern Ca 2+>HCO 3->Cl ->NO 3->Na +>Mg 2+>SO 42->K +. In order to estimate the marine and non-marine contribution, sea salt fraction has been calculated taking Na + as reference. All ionic ratios have been found to be higher than the recommended sea water ratios in all three types of land use, viz. residential, commercial and industrial, suggesting a significant contribution of non-marine origin for these components. A comparison with the data of the other Indian sites validates the inverse relation of Cl - and Na + with distance from the sea and highlights higher Ca 2+ concentration and lower SO 42- concentration.

  1. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  2. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  3. Manufacture of fuel and fuel channels and their performance in Indian PHWRs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidas, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad is conglomeration of chemical, metallurgical and mechanical plants, processing uranium and zirconium in two separate streams and culminating in the fuel assembly plant. Apart from manufacturing fuel for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), NFC is also engaged in the manufacture of reactor core structurals for these reactors. NFC has carried our several technological developments over the years and implemented them for the manufacture of fuel, calandria tubes and pressure tubes for PHWRs. Keeping in pace with the Nuclear Power Programme envisaged by the Department of Atomic Energy, NFC had augmented its production capacities in all these areas. The paper highlights several actions initiated in the areas of fuel design, fuel manufacturing, manufacturing of zirconium alloy core structurals, fuel clad tubes and components and their performance in Indian PHWRs. (author)

  4. Manufacture of fuel and fuel channels and their performance in Indian PHWRS - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalidas, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad is a conglomeration of chemical, metallurgical and mechanical plants, processing uranium and zirconium in two separate streams and culminating in the fuel assembly plant. Apart from manufacturing fuel for Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), NFC is also engaged in the manufacture of reactor core structurals for these reactors. NFC has carried out several technological developments over the years and implemented them for the manufacture of fuel, calandria tubes and pressure tubes for PHWRs. Keeping in pace with the Nuclear Power Programme envisaged by the Department of Atomic Energy, NFC had augmented its production capacities in all these areas. The paper highlights several actions initiated in the areas of fuel design, fuel manufacturing, manufacturing of zirconium alloy core structurals, fuel clad tubes and components and their performance in Indian PHWRs. (author)

  5. Pellet to Part Manufacturing System for CNCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bandari, Yashwanth Kumar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Jason [Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies, Swadlincote (United Kingdom); Gaul, Katherine T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-03-14

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with Hybrid Manufacturing Technologies to develop a compact prototype composite additive manufacturing head that can effectively extrude injection molding pellets. The head interfaces with conventional CNC machine tools enabling rapid conversion of conventional machine tools to additive manufacturing tools. The intent was to enable wider adoption of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology and combine BAAM technology with conventional machining systems.

  6. The Importance of State and Plant Characteristics in Determining the Environmental Compliance Costs of Chemical Manufacturing Plants: Evidence from the PACE Survey, 1979-1990 Summary (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of the author's dissertation: links the U.S. Census Bureau's Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures data on a plant-by-plant basis with the data in their Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) to examine chemical industry compliance costs.

  7. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  9. Chemical elements in soils of riverside areas of the Piracicaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Lira, Marcelo B.G.; Paiva, José D.S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of the soil quality of the Piracicaba River Basin, located in the State of São Paulo, is of extreme environmental importance, as it ensures the functionality of the basin ecosystems and environmental protection. However, there are few studies focused on the concentration of chemical elements in soils of environmental protection zones of highly populated riverside regions. In view of the above, this work aims to determine the concentration of chemical elements in the soils located on the banks of the Piracicaba River by the Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm profiles. Subsequently, the samples were dried in an oven at 80 deg C and comminuted with the aid of mortar and pistil. 250 mg portions were transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated in 10 13 cm -2 .s -1 neutron flux for 4 hours at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -IPEN / SP, Brazil. The determination of the chemical elements was conducted by the k0-INAA method from the Quantu program. Comparing the results obtained with the soil values of an untouched area of Atlantic Forest - Carlos Botelho State Park, the maximum values obtained of As (29 mg / kg) and Zn (185 mg / kg) were about 5 times greater. However, concentrations of terrigenous elements such as Fe and Sc were also high in some cases, indicating that there is also a contribution of the source material (rocks) to the high concentrations observed in the riverside soils

  10. Chemical-physical and ecological characterisation in the environmental project of a polluted coastal area: the Bagnoli case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BERGAMIN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bagnoli Bay (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Italy has been impacted for about one century by heavy anthropogenic pollution due to an important steel plant. A multidisciplinary environmental research, aimed at the reclamation of the marine contaminated area, was planned in order to evaluate, through quantitative data, the chemical-physical and ecological characteristics of marine sediments; the latter ones are strictly related to the composition and structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. A comprehensive statistical approach, considering all data, was attempted in order to single out the influence of pollutants on the single species distribution. The results show strong heavy metal pollution (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the vicinity of the industrial plant. Many foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, Miliolinella subrotunda,Quinqueloculina parvula, have a good tolerance to some trace metals while, Bulimina sublimbata, Elphidiummacellum and Miliolinella dilatata show a good tolerance to PAHs pollution.

  11. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  12. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  13. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  14. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  15. Operationalising UN security council resolution 1540: an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The UN member states are continuing to take measures to inter alia establish and effectively implement controls to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and their means of delivery in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004). The resolution also encourages enhanced international cooperation on such efforts, including by working through the 1540 Committee. Most analyses on the implementation of the resolution have focused on nuclear issues. This presentation provides an overview of select practical activities in the chemical and biological weapon-related areas, including chemical product classification and identification, biosafety and biosecurity practices and criminal prosecutions for unauthorised chemical transfers.(author)

  16. Health indices of the rural population living in the area affected by the Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazharov, V.F.; Tikhonova, I.V.; Babyonyshev, S.V.; Koenenkov, V.I.; Protopopov, B.V.; Miretsky, G.I.; Kashin, V.N.; Theodorovich, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the floodplain of the Yenisei River with the wastes dumped by the Krasnoyarsk Mining, and Chemical Combine (MCC) might cause external and internal irradiation of a large part of rural population inhabiting the banks of the Yenisei. Due the lack of comprehensive data on the dose status and doses received by the population, the health parameters of the population were studied by comparing the recorded incidences of diseases and mortality in the areas located at different distances from the MCC, in the periods before and after the MCC was put into operation, and in different age groups. Also studied were territorial differences in the immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of some groups of population. It has been found out that in the district subjected to radioactive contamination (RAC-districts) there are characteristic shifts in the pathologies that are the main markers of the radiation factor. With possible accumulation of radiation doses the shifts become more distinct, and with the distance from the MCC less distinct. Time and space gradients of the cancer morbidity and mortality rate in the RAC-area have been found. In the riverside settlements of the RAC-area the mortality from malignant neoplasms (MN) of blood, blood-forming organs, and lymphatic system is higher than in the settlements located farther from the Yenisei. As the distance from the MCC down the Yenisei gets longer, the mortality of children due to congenital developmental defects and leukaemia decreases. The space gradient has been also found for most somatic disorders originating from stressogenic (psycho-emotional strain) and immunodeficient states. Besides increased incidence of cancer, in the RAC-area there is a higher incidence of pathological states determined to a large extent genetically - complicated pregnancies and their outcome, mortinatality, and congenital developmental defects. Investigations of immunologic and immunogenetic statuses of the RAC

  17. Boron-doped zinc oxide thin films for large-area solar cells grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.L.; Xu, B.H.; Xue, J.M.; Zhao, Y.; Wei, C.C.; Sun, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.D.; Geng, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylzinc (DEZn), and H 2 O as reactant gases and diborane (B 2 H 6 ) as an n-type dopant gas. The structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO films doped at different B 2 H 6 flow rates were investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscopy images indicate that boron-doping plays an important role on the microstructure of ZnO films, which induced textured morphology. With optimized conditions, low sheet resistance (∼ 30 Ω/□), high transparency (> 85% in the visible light and infrared range) and high mobility (17.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) were obtained for 700-nm ZnO:B films deposited on 20 cm x 20 cm glass substrates at the temperature of 443 K. After long-term exposure in air, the ZnO:B films also showed a better electrical stability than the un-doped samples. With the application of ZnO:B/Al back contacts, the short circuit current density was effectively enhanced by about 3 mA/cm 2 for a small area a-Si:H cell and a high efficiency of 9.1% was obtained for a large-area (20 cm x 20 cm) a-Si solar module

  18. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  19. The chemical composition of sea water and pore water in the manganese nodule area of the Central Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchig, V.; Gundlach, H.; Schnier, C.

    1981-11-01

    Analyses for the following elements were made on 118 samples of pore water and 23 samples of sea water from the radiolarian ooze area of the Central Pacific: Na, Ca, Br, Sr (major elements) and Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Eu, Ta, Hg, U. The average concentration of most of the elements analyzed is higher in the pore water than in the sea water. The enrichment of elements in both the pore water and the bottom near sea water relative to the average composition of the sea water depends on the residence times of the elements in the sea water - the shorter the residence time the greater the enrichment. The enrichment of an element in these sea and pore waters is also dependant on the chemical species in which it occurs in the sea water. The enrichment seems to be greater for hydroxides, less for complex chloride ions and there is no enrichment for simple ions. The enrichment of the elements occuring as hydroxides (Fe, Cu, Cr, Sc, Eu) or complex chlorides (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Ag, Hg, Se) results in precipitation from the sea water, which contributes to the growth of the manganese nodules as well as to the genesis of metalliferous sediments in this area. The greater enrichment in the pore water relative to the sea water accounts for the remobilization of these elements from the sediment as the main source of the material for the growth of the manganese nodules. (orig.) [de

  20. Hydrological character of the soil of a degraded area: comparison of analysis physical, chemical and floristic vegetational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Cassinari, Chiara; Giupponi, Luca; Sichel, Giorgio Maria; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-04-01

    This work is an integral part of a project co-financed by the European Union "Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified land by a new technology treatment for the recovery of the land" (Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"); this technology is based on a treatment (patented by m.c.m. Ecosistemi) of chemical mechanical processing of degraded soils with an initial process of disgregation of the same followed by their reconstitution incorporating soil matrices, a subsequent polycondensation with humic acids and a final restoration. The area of intervention of the New Life project lies in the municipal territory of Piacenza, where between the years 70 and 80 has been made a landfill for municipal solid waste with subsequent restoration work by placing a layer of soil cover. The first phase of the New Life project was that of a physical and chemical characterization of different cover soils of the area combined with floristic-vegetational analysis. At this stage the present study aims to compare the data related to the analysis of the vegetation with those returned by investigation of hydrological characteristics of soils performed by laboratory methods, together to confront two theoretical calculation methods for determination of hydrological parameters. The comparison of the ecological study of the vegetation with the outcomes obtained by the classical methods regarding the determination of water retention, allows you to have a picture that is as detailed as possible in describing the characteristics of the substrate. The comparison also with the two methods of calculation, which determines the hydrological character conditions in average soil condition, allows you to ascertain the actual disturbance of the soil in the area. In order to delineate the hydrological characteristics of the soils sampled, were quantified by the Maximum Water Concentration, the capacity range, the point of Withering by the method of the Tensiometric box and the Pressure Membrane

  1. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  2. Real-time, wide-area hyperspectral imaging sensors for standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Tazik, Shawna; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the detection and analysis of targets located within complex backgrounds. HSI can detect threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have size, weight, and power limitations that prohibit their use for field-portable and/or real-time applications. Current generation systems commonly provide an inefficient area search rate, require close proximity to the target for screening, and/or are not capable of making real-time measurements. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of real-time, wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize shortwave infrared (SWIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. SWIR HSI sensors provide wide-area imagery with at or near real time detection speeds. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focusing on sensor design and detection results.

  3. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  4. Chemical and biological sensing applications of integrated photonics with an introduction to the American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Justin; Guicheteau, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Integrated photonics affords an opportunity to explore novel sensing and lab-on-a-chip concepts. It offers a route to high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low SWaP-C test systems that can be operated autonomously or by minimallytrained field personnel. We'll introduce the topic, discuss possible sensing modalities, and highlight the advantages and limitations of this technology. We'll also introduce the recent American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics), give an overview of its vision and capabilities, how to utilize its Electronic-Photonic Design Automation (EPDA) tools and its Multi-Project Wafer and Assembly (MPWA) services, how to engage in its road mapping efforts, and how to become a contributing member.

  5. Microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drugs samples confiscated from different areas of PakistanMicrobial and chemical analysis of illicit drugs samples confiscated from different areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahzad; Khattak, Zainab; Mahmood, Sidra; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun; Raza, Syed Atif; Khan, Samiullah

    2016-09-01

    The microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples from different areas of Pakistan i.e. Quetta, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad was conducted in a cross-sectional study at National Institute of Health, Islamabad. The drug samples were confiscated by Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), Pakistan. Microbial analysis was done by estimating bioburden which revealed the presence of gram negative and positive bacteria's, fungus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus species. Trypton soya agar was used for total aerobic count, MacConkey agar for gram-negative bacteria, Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungus and Vogel-Johnson agar for Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. Colour tests were applied to identify the drug samples. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of suspected samples of Heroin, morphine, cocaine and acetic anhydride was made by employing different chromatographic techniques i.e. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were found to be adulterated with paracetamol, diazepam and Dextromethorphen. Acetic anhydride was adulterated with hydrochloric acid (HCl). There is lack of information providing structured advice on responses to the consequences of illicit drug adulteration. Robust and rehearsed interventions and communication strategies would provide a basis for response for a wide variety of organisations. Research into the usefulness of media warnings about adulteration of illicit drugs is required.

  6. Size-segregated aerosol in a hot-spot pollution urban area: Chemical composition and three-way source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, V; Elser, M; Valli, G; Valentini, S; Bigi, A; Fermo, P; Piazzalunga, A; Vecchi, R

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a comprehensive characterisation and source apportionment of size-segregated aerosol collected using a multistage cascade impactor was performed. The samples were collected during wintertime in Milan (Italy), which is located in the Po Valley, one of the main pollution hot-spot areas in Europe. For every sampling, size-segregated mass concentration, elemental and ionic composition, and levoglucosan concentration were determined. Size-segregated data were inverted using the program MICRON to identify and quantify modal contributions of all the measured components. The detailed chemical characterisation allowed the application of a three-way (3-D) receptor model (implemented using Multilinear Engine) for size-segregated source apportionment and chemical profiles identification. It is noteworthy that - as far as we know - this is the first time that three-way source apportionment is attempted using data of aerosol collected by traditional cascade impactors. Seven factors were identified: wood burning, industry, resuspended dust, regional aerosol, construction works, traffic 1, and traffic 2. Further insights into size-segregated factor profiles suggested that the traffic 1 factor can be associated to diesel vehicles and traffic 2 to gasoline vehicles. The regional aerosol factor resulted to be the main contributor (nearly 50%) to the droplet mode (accumulation sub-mode with modal diameter in the range 0.5-1 μm), whereas the overall contribution from the two factors related to traffic was the most important one in the other size modes (34-41%). The results showed that applying a 3-D receptor model to size-segregated samples allows identifying factors of local and regional origin while receptor modelling on integrated PM fractions usually singles out factors characterised by primary (e.g. industry, traffic, soil dust) and secondary (e.g. ammonium sulphate and nitrate) origin. Furthermore, the results suggested that the information on size

  7. Dioxin-like chemicals in soil and sediment from residential and industrial areas in central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Quinn, Laura P; Pieters, Rialet; Jordaan, Ilse; Visser, Maret; Kylin, Henrik; Borgen, Anders R; Giesy, John P; Bouwman, Henk

    2009-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding POPs from South Africa. Here we report and interpret concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar-biphenyls (PCBs) in soils and sediments collected from central South Africa. High resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the H4IIE-luc bio-assay were used to identify and quantify individual PCDD/F congeners and to report the total concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), respectively. TCDD-EQs determined by use of the bio-assay, and concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ (toxic equivalents) determined by chemical analysis, were similar. The limit of detection (LOD) for the bio-assay was 0.82 and 2.8 ng TCDD-EQ kg(-1), dw for sediment and soil, respectively. EQ20 concentrations determined by use of the bio-assay ranged from industrial area of Vanderbijlpark and the residential area of Klerksdorp contained the greatest concentrations. Based on the congener-specific HRGC/HRMS analyzes, concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ ranged from 0.12 to 32 ng WHO(2005)-TEQ kg(-1), dw in sediments, and between 0.34 and 20 ng WHO(2005)-TEQkg(-1), dw in soils. The sources, processes and threats that govern and are associated with the lesser concentrations in sediment and greater concentrations in soils need further investigation.

  8. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  9. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...Hamilton • Beth Bimber Air Force Research Laboratory, Metals Branch • Eddie Schwalbach • Mike Groeber • Benjamin Leever • James Hardin...conducting more in-field, or point-of-need, manufacturing than ever before. Other areas of concentration include man- machine interface, capabilities

  10. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  11. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  12. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  13. Development and evaluation of a tool for retrospective exposure assessment of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals and EMF in the car manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Birte; Schmeisser, Nils; Lünzmann, Hauke; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Langner, Ingo; Behrens, Thomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    A system for retrospective occupational exposure assessment combining the efficiency of a job exposure matrix (JEM) and the precision of a subsequent individual expert exposure assessment (IEEA) was developed. All steps of the exposure assessment were performed by an interdisciplinary expert panel in the context of a case-control study on male germ cell cancer nested in the car manufacturing industries. An industry-specific JEM was developed and automatic exposure estimation was performed based on this JEM. A subsample of exposure ratings was done by IEEA to identify determinants of disagreement between the JEM and the individual review. Possible determinants were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) of disagreement between ratings with regard to different dimensions (e.g. high versus low intensity of exposure). Disagreement in ≥20% of the sampled exposure ratings with a statistically significant OR was chosen as a threshold for inclusion of the exposure ratings into a final IEEA. The most important determinants of disagreement between JEM and individual review were working outside of the production line (disagreement 80%), low probability of exposure (disagreement 25%), and exposure depending on specific activities like usage of specific lacquers (disagreement 32%) for jobs within the production line. These determinants were the selection criteria of exposure ratings for the subsequent final IEEA. Combining a JEM and a subsequent final IEEA for a selected subset of exposure ratings is a feasible and labor-saving approach for exposure assessment in large occupational epidemiological studies.

  14. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  15. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of ground water samples from different areas of Thrissur District, Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mity Thambi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of groundwater quality of important town areas of Thrissur district was carried out during the pre-monsoon period of 2014. The Physicochemical and biological parameters such as temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, alkalinity, chloride, salinity, total harness, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphate, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total coliform count and E. coli were determined. Most of the physicochemical parameters were observed above the desirable limit but below the permissible limit of drinking water standards of World Health Organization (WHO. Total coliform bacteria count values of different samples are within the permissible limit. The studies reveal that samples from Thrissur town (T, Guruvayoor (G and Laloor (L shows the presence of E.coli bacteria. All other samples were negative for E.coli bacteria. Dumping of wastes near road sides, flood due to heavy rains, improper waste management in hospitals, markets, flats etc increases the pollution of ground water. The results were compared with WHO guidelines, 2006 and Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 10500, 1991 desirable limits for drinking water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12636 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 182-192

  17. A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.K.; Foley, R.D.; Tiner, P.F.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Uziel, M.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted intermittently from February 1992 through May 1992. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL at the request of the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office and the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program. Results of this investigation indicate that the source of radioactive contamination at the point of the contamination incident is from one of the underground abandoned lines. The contamination in soil is likely the result of residual contamination from years of waste transport and maintenance operations (e.g., replacement of degraded joints, upgrading or replacement of entire pipelines, and associated landscaping activities). However, because (1) there is currently an active LLW line positioned in the same subsurface trench with the abandoned lines and (2) the physical condition of the abandoned lines may be brittle, this inquiry could not determine which abandoned line was responsible for the subsurface contamination. Soil sampling at the location of the contamination incident and along the pipeline route was performed in a manner so as not to damage the active LLW line and abandoned lines. Recommendations for corrective actions are included

  18. Chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O

    2014-12-01

    A chemical pollution assessment and prioritisation model was developed for the Upper and Middle Vaal water management areas of South Africa in order to provide a simple and practical Pollution Index to assist with mitigation and rehabilitation activities. Historical data for 2003 to 2008 from 21 river sites were cubic-interpolated to daily values. Nine parameters were considered for this purpose, that is, ammonium, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Parameter selection was based on sub-catchment pollution characteristics and availability of a consistent data range, against a harmonised guideline which provided five classes. Classes 1, 2, 3 and 4 used ideal catchment background values for Vaal Dam, Vaal Barrage, Blesbokspruit/Suikerbosrant and Klip Rivers, respectively. Class 5 represented values which fell above those for Klip River. The Pollution Index, as provided by the model, identified pollution prioritisation monitoring points on Rietspruit-W:K2, Natalspruit:K12, Blesbokspruit:B1, Rietspruit-L:R1/R2, Taaibosspruit:T1 and Leeuspruit:L1. Pre-classification indicated that pollution sources were domestic, industrial and mine effluent. It was concluded that rehabilitation and mitigation measures should prioritise points with high classes. Ability of the model to perform simple scenario building and analysis was considered to be an effective tool for acid mine drainage pollution assessment.

  19. Reticle variation influence on manufacturing line and wafer device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistler, John L.; Spurlock, Kyle

    1994-01-01

    Cost effective manufacturing of devices at 0.5, 0.35 and 0.25μm geometries will be highly dependent on a companys' ability to obtain an economic return on investment. The high capital investment in equipment and facilities, not to mention the related chemical and wafer costs, for producing 200mm silicon wafers requires aspects of wafer processing to be tightly controlled. Reduction in errors and enhanced yield management requires early correction or avoidance of reticle problems. It is becoming increasingly important to recognize and track all pertinent factors impacting both the technical and financial viability of a wafer manufacturing fabrication area. Reticle related effects on wafer manufacturing can be costly and affect the total quality perceived by the device customer.

  20. Process and device for uranium isotope separation and application for the manufacture of chemical compounds or for the separation of gaseous mixtures otherwise difficult to separate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorius, K.; Janner, K.; Kersting, A.; Schuster, E.; Niemann, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The U235/U238 isotope separation is done by laser excitation with Ur 6 as the initial gaseous material. This has HBr added as the partner for a chemical reaction, preferably in the ratio of 1:10. In order to increase the selectivity and yield, the two partners in the reaction are cooled by adiabatic expansion to below 100 K before irradiation. This makes the absorption bands narrower. The excitation occurs in the Q branch of the rotation vibration spectrum. (DG) [de

  1. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and dessolution deposition process); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu (yokai sekishutsuho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to manufacture low-cost large-area solar cell modules, developmental research has been performed on a film manufacturing technology using the dessolution deposition process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a technology to form a thin silicon film directly on carbon substrates being substrates of different kinds, without using seed crystals. The researches made up to the previous fiscal year has made possible to form the film onto a substrate of about 5-cm square, has fabricated cells although with a small area, and indicated the importance of reducing concentrations of impurities in the solvent metals used. The researches performed during the current fiscal year executed modifications to reduce the temperature distribution in the substrate surfaces, including size increase in the heater, and improvement in the cooling heat conduction mechanism. As a result, films were formed successfully on 7.5-cm square substrates. In reducing the process temperatures, it was made clear that films can be formed at lower than 700 degrees C by using zinc as a solvent metal. Furthermore, the purity enhancement in the solvent metal achieved a conversion efficiency of 11.6% although the area is as small as 3.73 cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  2. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules (dissolution and deposition process); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was performed by noticing on the plasma spraying method as a process that can manufacture thin poly-crystalline silicon films at a high speed. Fiscal 1997 has established a technology that can form a silicon film directly without using seed crystals in an area of 2-cm square on a carbon supported substrate by using a small film manufacturing equipment using the dissolution and deposition process. The size of the crystal is as very large as several hundred {mu}m, by which a possibility of making high-performance solar cells was verified. Discussions were given to apply this technology to large-area substrates, whereas a device was developed, which is capable of forming a film in an area corresponding to 10-cm square. According to a film forming experiment using this device, the film has begun being formed on part of a 10-cm square substrate, verifying the effectiveness of this method. While the film thickness is about 100 {mu}m, it was confirmed that the crystal size will not change even if the thickness is made mechanically as thin as about 50 {mu}m. Further discussions were given on enhancement of wettability by means of coating, and light enclosing structure. (NEDO)

  3. Handbook of manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Springer Reference Work Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology provides overviews and in-depth and authoritative analyses on the basic and cutting-edge manufacturing technologies and sciences across a broad spectrum of areas. These topics are commonly encountered in industries as well as in academia. Manufacturing engineering curricula across universities are now essential topics covered in major universities worldwide.

  4. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Poppendieck, D.G.; Grabanski, C.B.; Loehr, R.C. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (US). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from OG (oil gas) and CG (coal gas) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in the United States that had been closed for about 50 years were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt%. Supercritical carbon dioxide, SFE desorption and water/XAD{sub 2} desorption curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo-(ghi)perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition or 'hard' and 'soft' organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. F values for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies, using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms. 46 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Poppendieck, Dustin G; Grabanski, Carol B; Loehr, Raymond C

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from oil gas (OG) and coal gas (CG) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations (150-40,000 mg/kg) and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt %. SFE desorption (120 min) and water/XAD2 desorption (120 days) curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples, from ca. 10% to >90% for the two- and three-ring PAHs and from <1% to ca. 50% for the five- and six-ring PAHs. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition (C, H, N, S), or "hard" and "softs" organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. Fvalues for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well (linear correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.87, slope = 0.93), but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms.

  6. Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR, under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease

  7. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  8. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  9. Chemical and radiation stability of a proprietary cesium ion exchange material manufactured from WWL membrane and SuperLig reg-sign 644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Berry, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes for ion exchange removal of Cs and other radionuclides is one way to minimize amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. This study evaluated Cs-selective SuperLig reg-sign 644 (IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork UT) entrapped in a proprietary WWL web membrane (3M) for chemical/radiation stability in simulated caustic neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), 0.5M HNO 3 , water, and air. After exposure up to 2.0E+09 rad, the material was evaluated for Cs uptake in 5M sodium NCAW simulants with varying Cs contents. Radiolytic stability appears to be sufficient for ion exchange pretreatment of radioactive Cs: essentially no decrease in Cs selectivity or loading (Kd) was observed during 60 Cs gamma irradiation in water or 0.5M HNO 3 up to 1.0E+09 rad. Cs Kd decreased by a factor of 2 after 2.0E+09 rad exposure. Cs Kd did not change during irradiation in 5M NCAW or ambient air up to 1.0E+08 rad, but decreased by more than an order of magnitude between 1.0E+08 and 2.0E+09 rad (not typical of process conditions). Chemical stability under caustic conditions is lower than in air or under neutral/acidic conditions. Results indicate that this material is less stable in caustic solution irrespective of radiation exposure. Samples of the membrane retained their physical form throughout the entire experiment and were only slightly brittle after exposure to 2.0E+09 rad. (The material evaluated was a finely ground (400 mesh) particulate engineered to form a polymeric fiber (WWL), not the macroscopic form of SuperLig reg-sign 644 resin (20 to 50 mesh).)

  10. Organizing for manufacturing innovation. The case of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Krabbendam, Koos

    1992-01-01

    addressing the manufacturing innovation process are even fewer and provide little insight into its true nature. Consequently, little is known about the effective organization of such processes. In the present article an organization model of manufacturing innovation is described, and its practicability...... the implementation of new technology effectively. This is not surprising, considering the innovative nature of this process. Although there is a host of literature on innovation, organization and (the benefits of) new technology, the literature in which these areas are linked together is scarce. Publications...... assessed using the results of seven case studies of the implementation of flexible manufacturing systems in British, Belgian and Dutch mechanical engineering companies....

  11. Vulnerability assessment of chemical industry facilities in South Korea based on the chemical accident history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.; Kim, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of chemical compounds are keep increasing because of their use in manufacturing industry. Chemical accident is growing as the consequence of the chemical use increment. Devastating damages from chemical accidents are far enough to aware people's cautious about the risk of the chemical accident. In South Korea, Gumi Hydrofluoric acid leaking accident triggered the importance of risk management and emphasized the preventing the accident over the damage reducing process after the accident occurs. Gumi accident encouraged the government data base construction relate to the chemical accident. As the result of this effort Chemical Safety-Clearing-house (CSC) have started to record the chemical accident information and damages according to the Harmful Chemical Substance Control Act (HCSC). CSC provide details information about the chemical accidents from 2002 to present. The detail informations are including title of company, address, business type, accident dates, accident types, accident chemical compounds, human damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, human damage outside of the chemical industry facilities, financial damages inside of the chemical industry facilities, and financial damages outside of the chemical industry facilities, environmental damages and response to the chemical accident. Collected the chemical accident history of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and provide the spatial information to the each accident records based on their address. With the spatial information, compute the data on ArcGIS for the spatial-temporal analysis. The spatial-temporal information of chemical accident is organized by the chemical accident types, damages, and damages on environment and conduct the spatial proximity with local community and environmental receptors. Find the chemical accident vulnerable area of South Korea from 2002 to 2015 and add the vulnerable area of total period to examine the historically vulnerable area from the chemical accident in

  12. Manufactured volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Noemi; Meuli, Martin; Subotic, Ulrike; Moehrlen, Ueli; Mazzone, Luca; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2013-06-01

    Malrotation with a common mesentery is the classical pathology allowing midgut volvulus to occur. There are only a few reports of small bowel volvulus without malrotation or other pathology triggering volvulation. We describe three cases of small bowel volvulus in very premature newborns with a perfectly normal intra-abdominal anatomy and focus on the question, what might have set off volvulation. In 2005 to 2008, three patients developed small bowel volvulus without any underlying pathology. Retrospective patient chart review was performed with special focus on clinical presentation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, and potential causative explanations. Mean follow-up period was 46 months. All patients were born between 27 and 31 weeks (mean 28 weeks) with a birth weight between 800 and 1,000 g (mean 887 g). They presented with an almost identical pattern of symptoms including sudden abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, erythema of the abdominal wall, high gastric residuals, and radiographic signs of ileus. All of them were treated with intensive abdominal massage or pelvic rotation to improve bowel movement before becoming symptomatic. Properistaltic maneuvers including abdominal massage and pelvic rotation may cause what we term a "manufactured" volvulus in very premature newborns. Thus, this practice was stopped. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites.

  14. Research on development trend of key areas of equipment manufacturing industry at home and abroad%国内外装备制造业重点领域发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卫东; 司林波

    2015-01-01

    The overall developments of equipment manufacturing industry was reviewed firstly in the world′s major economies, and then an detailed analysis on the key industry areas of the equipment manufacturing industry was given, which include CNC machine tools, industrial robots, construction machinery, new energy vehicles, advanced communication equipment, 3D printing equipment, etc.It can be found that the development of world equipment manufacturing industry has appeared two characteristics:one is the development of industry appears two-way transfer situation, the other is the key technology will affect the future development and the competitive landscape of each country. Intelligent, high-end, energy saving and service has become a trend of the development of equipment manufacturing industry. In order to achieve the revitalization and development of China′s equipment manufacturing industry, the two drive elements of policies and technological innovation are proposed, to accelerate the transformation and upgrading of industry structure, and enhance the capability of independent innovation.%首先对世界主要经济体在装备制造业领域的总体发展动态进行了综述,在此基础上选取数控机床、工业机器人、工程机械、新能源汽车、先进通信设备、3D打印设备等装备制造业的重点行业领域进行详细分析,可以发现世界装备制造业产业双向转移态势显现,关键技术将影响各国装备制造业的未来发展和竞争格局,智能化、高端化、节能化和服务化已成为世界装备制造业的发展趋势. 中国装备制造业的振兴发展,必须充分借助产业政策和技术创新两个驱动要素的互动牵引作用,加速推进产业结构转型升级和自主创新能力提升.

  15. The impact of fit manufacturing on green manufacturing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ang Nian; Sin, Tan Chan; Fathullah, M.; Lee, C. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing are a new trend principle and concept. They are getting popular in industrial. This paper is identifying the impact between Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing. Besides Fit manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Agile manufacturing and Sustainable manufacturing gives big impacts to Green Manufacturing. On top of that, this paper also discuss the benefits of applying Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing in industrial as well as environment. Hence, applications of Fit manufacturing and Green Manufacturing are increasing year by year.

  16. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  17. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  18. Responses of soil physical and chemical properties to karst rocky desertification evolution in typical karst valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; zeng, Cheng; Xiao, Jianyong; Qian, Qinghuan; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and their response mechanism to the evolution of KRD. The characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties of different grades of KRD were studied by field sampling method to research different types of KRD in the typical karst valley of southern China. Instead of using space of time, to explore the response and the mechanisms of the soil physical and chemical properties at the different evolution process. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, sediment concentration, clay content and AWHC in different levels of KRD environment. However, these indicators are not with increasing desertification degree has been degraded, but improved after a first degradation trends; (2) The correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter, acid, alkali, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and clay contents were significantly correlated with other physical and chemical factors. They are the key factors of soil physical and chemical properties, play a key role in improving soil physical and chemical properties and promoting nutrient cycling; (3) The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and sediment concentration was 80.26%, which was the key index to evaluate rocky desertification degree based on soil physical and chemical properties. The results have important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and restoration of rocky desertification ecosystem in southwest China.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  20. Characterization of chemical elements of fruits of Leucaena leucocephala in riverside areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Magalhães, Marcelo R.L. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro; Silva, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala is present in several environments. Its fruit is widely used in cattle feed. However, it is classified as an invasive species, causing problems in the restoration of impacted areas. The Piracicaba River Basin is heavily affected by urbanization and industrialization, which shows the proliferation of this species. Considering the importance of this tree species for Brazil, the present study quantifies chemical elements in fruits of this species by applying Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis, method k 0 . Samples were collected in riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, at different periods (dry and rainy season). After collection, the samples were shattered and transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated with neutrons. Certified reference materials were used to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, all material was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm-2s-1 for 8 hours. Ni-Cr alloy was used for the monitoring of thermal neutron flux. High Resolution Range Spectrometry with HPG detectors was employed for the measurement of the induced radioactivity, allowing the quantification of the chemical elements. Compared with available results of chemical analysis of pods, the chemical elements Ca, K, Ba, Cr and Se presented high concentrations. We also quantified chemical elements of environmental relevance such as As, Hg, Br, Ce, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th and Yb, indicating the need for element dynamics studies in the environments occupied by this invasive species

  1. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  2. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  3. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from shallow groundwater, precipitation, and regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  4. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Simpevarp area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Simpevarp area in Oskarshamn, i.e. both the Laxemar subarea and the Simpevarp subarea, during the period Nov 2002 - Mar 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams and coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data. Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for surface waters). Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the report presents selected statistics for each sampling site, as well as for available reference

  5. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Simpevarp area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Simpevarp area in Oskarshamn, i.e. both the Laxemar subarea and the Simpevarp subarea, during the period Nov 2002 - Mar 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams and coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data. Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for surface waters). Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the report presents selected statistics for each sampling site, as well as for available reference

  6. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Tena, N.; Aparicio, R.

    2012-11-01

    The protected designations of origin (PDOs) have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campina de Jaen) which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campina de Jaen formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual) throughout the province of Jaen. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Dissolution/deposition method); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (yokai sekishutsuho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to manufacture the above at low cost by a dissolution/deposition method. Under this method, a film is fabricated containing crystals high in quality and large in size though the film area is very small. In fiscal 1998, an effort to fabricate a film to cover a 10cm square substrate failed. The failure is explained by that the heater was too small for the substrate area and that the failure to uniformly heat the substrate resulted in an inplane temperature distribution greater than expected. The furnace was modified in a minor way to narrow substrate temperature distribution as much as possible. Another attempt was made to fabricate a larger-area film on a 5cm square substrate, and then crystals grew to cover approximately the whole surface of the 5cm square substrate. Efforts will continue to achieve the goal. As for the mechanism of film fabrication on substrates of different kinds, self-coating is now described by difference in heat conductivity between a carbon substrate and silicon substrate. Thanks to individual control in a small film fabricating unit, a film thickness of approximately 100 micrometers was achieved. The distance of diffusion was 30 micrometers or more in the case of a small area, and the efficiency of a solar cell using this film was found at 10.2%. (NEDO)

  8. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  9. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Research and development of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method; 1978 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-31

    This paper describes a summary design of an iodine cycle experimenting equipment as one of the achievements in fiscal 1978 on research of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method. The object of the equipment is a reaction to derive Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgI{sub 2} from MgO being the first reaction of the cycle, and iodine. The by-product (Q-phase) is produced according to composition of the aqueous reaction solution. The occurring reaction and composition of the produced materials vary depending on which contact system the reactor type uses, countercurrent flow or concurrent flow. Discussions were given on both types. Hydrogen generation rate of 1 Nm{sup 3}/hr was assumed as the equipment size to derive material balance and heat balance. Furthermore, types considered applicable were selected from different types of the solid-liquid reaction equipment, and summary design and calculation were performed. Process simulation provided a prospect of achieving thermal efficiency that can compete with the electrolytic process. As a study on materials for a magnesium iodate pyrolytic equipment as the second reaction, corrosion tests were carried out in a gas mixture composed of iodine, oxygen and steam. Using 26 kinds of metallic materials as the objects, the tests were executed at 100 and 300 degrees C for 100 hours. Long-term durability tests were also performed on materials judged to have good corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  10. Identification of New Compounds from Sage Flowers (Salvia officinalis L.) as Markers for Quality Control and the Influence of the Manufacturing Technology on the Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Sage Flower Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Sebastian; Lübken, Tilo; Wolf, Diana; Kaiser, Martin; Hannig, Christian; Speer, Karl

    2018-02-28

    Parts of Salvia species such as its flowers and leaves are currently used as a culinary herb and for some medicinal applications. To distinguish the different sage extracts it is necessary to analyze their individual chemical compositions. Their characteristic compounds might be established as markers to differentiate between sage flowers and leaf extracts or to determine the manufacturing technology and storage conditions. Tri-p-coumaroylspermidine can be detected only in flowers and has been described here for Salvia and Lavandula species for the first time. Markers for oxidation processes are the novel compounds salviquinone A and B, which were generated from carnosol by exposure to oxygen. Caffeic acid ethyl ester was established as an indirect marker for the usage of ethanol as extraction solvent. The compounds were identified by LC-QTOF-HRESIMS, LC-MS, NMR, IR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction after isolation by semipreparative HPLC. Furthermore, sage flower resin showed interesting antibacterial in vitro activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  11. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H 3 or C 14 . The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994

  12. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  13. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

  14. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of size-resolved particles in Hong Kong sub-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a sub-urban site (Tung Chung) in Hong Kong for four non-consecutive months representing four seasons from 2011 to 2012. Major chemical components were water-soluble anions (i.e., Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -), cations (i.e., NH4+, Na+, K+, and Ca2 +), organic and elemental carbon and elements. Both chemical mass closure and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to understand the chemical composition, resolve particle size modes, and evaluate the PM sources. Tri-modal size distributions were found for PM mass and major chemical components (e.g., SO42 -, NH4+, and OC). Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) with similar standard deviations (1.32 burning. Secondary SO42 - is also the most dominant component in the droplet mode, accounting for 23% of PM mass, followed by an industrial source (19%). Engine exhaust, secondary NO3-, and sea salt each accounted for 13-15% of PM mass. Sea salt and soil are the dominated sources in the coarse mode, accounting for 80% of coarse mass.

  15. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  16. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, J.; Lehtonen, K. K.; Strand, J.

    2007-01-01

    of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct......Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  17. New Sunshine Program for fiscal 2000. Development of photovoltaic system commercialization technology - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of low-cost/large area module manufacturing technology (Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Tei cost dai menseki mojuru seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (Shingata amorufasu taiyo denchi mojuru no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development was conducted for the development of amorphous solar cell modules for power generation, high in performance and low in production cost. In the effort to improve cell efficiency, experiments were conducted for enhancing bottom a-SiGe cell efficiency for the embodiment of an enhanced-efficiency multi-junction cell, for improving crystallinity in microcrystalline silicon through the application of VHF (very high frequency) plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition), for texturizing metal electrodes on a film substrate, and so forth. In the effort to increase the film fabrication rate, a VHF plasma CVD device was used for studying the effect of the discharge frequency on film deposition and quality, Vpp between the electrodes, and so forth. Studies about the high-throughput production technology centered on the film substrate solar cell process technology and the designing of an optimum geometrical pattern for SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) cells. Production cost was estimated for the SCAF structure film substrate solar cell manufacturing process, and a production cost of 147.1 yen/W (in case of 100 MW/year production) was obtained as achievable under the currently available conditions. (NEDO)

  18. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H{sup 3} or C{sup 14}. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994.

  19. [Life quality parameters in prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, V L; Nechaeva, E N

    2014-01-01

    The article presents results of life quality assessment and subjective evaluation data on health state, used for prenosologic evaluation of health state in residents of protective measures area near objects of storage and destruction of chemical weapons. Considering specific features of residence near potentially dangerous objects, the authors conducted qualitative evaluation of satisfaction with various life facets, with taking into account the objects specificity, established correlation between life quality and self-evaluation of health with factors influencing public health state.

  20. Changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area. (Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT values).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area were previously classified into three categories in section III of the German List of MAK and BAT values (the list of values on maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance for occupational exposures). This classification was based on qualitative criteria and reflected essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. In the new classification scheme the former sections IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB are retained as categories 1, 2, and 3, to correspond with European Union regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, these three categories are supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not contribute significantly to the risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. Chemicals known to act typically by non-genotoxic mechanisms, and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures, are classified in category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose/response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed are classified in category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and category 5 (styrene) are presented.

  1. Changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area. Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Vamvakas, S; Thielmann, H W; Gelbke, H P; Filser, J G; Reuter, U; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values (list of values on maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance for occupational exposures). This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these categories - IIIA1, IIIA2, IIIB - be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to correspond with European Union regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, these three categories are supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not contribute significantly to risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. Chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures, are classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics, and for which risk at low doses can be assessed are classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented.

  2. Biomonitoring of chemicals in biota of two wetland protected areas exposed to different levels of environmental impact: results of the "PREVIENI" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Alessi, Eva; Baroni, Davide; Caserta, Dante; Caserta, Donatella; De Sanctis, Augusto; Fanello, Emiliano Leonida; La Rocca, Cinzia; Mariottini, Michela; Renzi, Monia; Tait, Sabrina; Zaghi, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

    2017-08-18

    The PREVIENI project (funded by the Ministry of Environment) investigated the exposure to endocrine disrupters in samples of human population and environmental biota in Italy. The environmental biomonitoring considered two Italian WWF Oasis, with the aim to compare the presence and effects of endocrine disruptors in organisms from two protected natural areas, respectively, upstream and downstream a chemical emission site. Chemical analysis of pollutants' tissue levels was made on tissues from earthworm, barbell, trout, and coot, selected as bioindicator organisms. The contaminants considered were as follows: the perfluorinated compounds perfuoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 58 congeners), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, 13 congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds), toxic trace elements, the phthalate di-2-ethylexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its primary metabolite, bisphenol A, synthetic musk compounds (musk xylene, musk ketone, tonalide, and galaxolide), and p-nonylphenol. The analyses showed low concentrations of most pollutants in all species from both areas, compared to available literature; noticeable exceptions were the increases of DEHP's primary metabolite, PBDE, PAHs, Hg, and Pb in barbells, and of PCB and Cd in earthworms from the downstream area. The results showed the presence of endocrine disruptors, including those considered as "non-persistent," in bioindicators from protected areas, albeit at low levels. The results provide a contribution to the evaluation of reference values in biota from Mediterranean Europe and support the relevance of monitoring exposure to pollutants, in particular for freshwater environment, also in protected areas.

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND in vitro GAS PRODUCTION OF SOME LEGUME BROWSE SPECIES IN SUBTROPICAL AREAS OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Garcia Montes de Oca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro gas production of different legume and wild arboreal pods. Seven seeds of legume browse species, Mexican calabash (Crescentia alata, esculent leadtree (Leucaena esculenta, guamuchil (Phitecellobium dulce, bastard cedar (Guazuma ulmifolia, needle bush (Acacia farnesiana, mimosa (Mimosa sp. and elephant ear tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum. Were evaluated for their chemical composition (g/kg DM and in vitro gas production pattern. Crude Protein was higher for L. esculenta (220 and lower for G. ulmifolia (70. Neutral and acid detergent fiber were higher for G. ulmifolia (687 and 554 and lower for A. farnesiana (267 and 176. Lignin was higher for Mimosa sp. (219 and lower for P. dulce (81. Total gas production (ml gas/g DM of P. dulce (187 and E. cyclocarpum (164 were higher (P

  4. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  5. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  6. Comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water from some longevity and non-longevity areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Hussain, Rahib

    2017-06-01

    There is an obvious regional longevity phenomenon in China and many longevity counties are located in South China. This study was carried out to find the characteristics of elemental contents of drinking water in longevity areas in South China and the differences to non-longevity areas in China. A total of 128 drinking water samples were collected from longevity areas in South China (n = 40), non-longevity areas in South China (n = 74) and non-longevity areas in North China (n = 14) and 46 parameters of water were determined or calculated. The results showed that drinking water in longevity areas of South China had a high ratio of sum concentration of essential micro-elements in sum concentration of micro-elements (SCME) and a low ratio of sum concentration of hazardous micro-elements in SCME. The concentration of total hardness (TH) and strontium in drinking water was 157.82 mg/L and 82.1 μg/L, respectively, and they were 14.61 mg/L, 7.45 μg/L and 291.69 mg/L, 748.65 μg/L in the non-longevity areas of South and North China, respectively. The study concluded that drinking water containing 157.82 mg/L TH and 82.1 μg/L strontium in South China may be optimum to human health.

  7. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN RELATION WITH SOIL PERMEABILITY IN THE AREA OF VELIKA GORICA WELL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kovač

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic parameters affects behaviour of various ions in soils. The goal of this paper was to get better understanding of relationship between physical and chemical properties and soil permeability at the location of case study profile Velika Gorica, based on the physical and chemical data. Soil profile is situated in the Eutric Cambisol of the Zagreb aquifer, Croatia. Zagreb aquifer represents the only source of potable water for inhabitants of the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County. Based on the data obtained from particle size analysis, soil hydraulic parameters and measured water content, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were calculated for the estimation of soil profile permeability. Soil water retention curves and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are very similar for all depths because soil content does not change significantly through the depth. Determination of anions and cations on soil samples was performed using the method of ion chromatography. Results showed decrease of ions concentrations after 0.6 m depth. SAR distribution in the soil profile shows that SAR values are not significantly changing at the soil profile. The highest CEC and EC values are determined in horizon Bw developed in 0.6 m depth which is consistent with highest SAR value and ions concentrations. All results suggest that physical and chemical properties of investigated profile are in relationship with soil permeability.

  8. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  9. Challenges in Additive Manufacturing of Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is seen by many as the holy grail of manufacturing, the ability to produce parts nearly autonomously. Adding material rather than removing it would eliminate the need for expensive resources and machining. The recent expiration of key 3D printing patents has led to many advances in the field and has dramatically lowered the prices of 3D printers, making them accessible to the average individual. The one area where additive manufacturing is still in its infancy is in cer...

  10. Responsiveness summary for the engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Proposed Management of Contaminated Water Impounded at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant Area in July 1990. The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) examines various alternatives for the proposed action to manage contaminated surface water impounded at the chemical plant area. The primary objective is to minimize potential migration of contaminants from surface impoundments to the local environment. The EE/CA addresses water currently impounded in four waste raffinate pits and two small ponds and water that will be impounded in the future as a result of upcoming response actions. Radioactive and chemical contaminants are migrating from the currently impounded water to underlying on-site groundwater via seepage and to off-site surface water via runoff. The treatment process and facilities that will be provided for management of currently impounded water can subsequently be used to manage other contaminated water in the future. Based on the evaluation of various alternatives in the EE/CA, DOE determined that the best approach for managing surface water impounded at the chemical plant area would be to remove contaminants from the water and release the treatment water to the Missouri River via a natural drainage channel. To establish requirements for releasing this treated water, DOE applied for a modification to its existing discharge permit from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR) under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. The EE/CA provided a major source of technical input to the application for modifying the permit. This responsiveness summary has been prepared to address the major issues identified in oral and written comments on the proposed action. 1 tab

  11. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  12. Assessing PAHs pollution in Shandong coastal area (China) by combination of chemical analysis and responses of reproductive toxicity in crab Portunus trituberculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Xu, Ruiyi; Wen, Jianmin; Guo, Ruiming

    2017-06-01

    The concentrations of PAHs in seawater and sediments were measured at three selected sites (S1, S2, and S3) along the coastal area of Shandong (China) in April, May, and June, 2015, which ranged from 29.72 to 123.88 ng/L and 82.62 to 232.63 ng/g, respectively. Meanwhile, the reproductive toxicity responses in crab Portunus trituberculatus were also evaluated to assess the pollution of PAHs during the sampling period. Chemical analysis showed that S3 was the most PAH-contaminated area while S1 was the least, and the biochemical parameters concerned with reproduction were efficiently responded to the three sites, especially in S3 (p coastal area of Shandong, China.

  13. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Litsea cubeba Harvested from Its Distribution Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Litsea cubeba (Lour. Pers. is a promising industrial crop with fruits rich in essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils of L. cubeba (EOLC were determined for fruits harvested from eight regions in China. The overall essential oil content, obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, ranged from 3.04% to 4.56%. In total, 59 compounds were identified, the dominant components being monoterpenes (94.4–98.4%, represented mainly by neral and geranial (78.7–87.4%. D-Limonene was unexpectedly a lesser constituent (0.7–5.3% in fruits, which differed from previous reports (6.0–14.6%. Several components were only detected in certain regions and compounds such as o-cymene and eremophilene have never before been reported in EOLC. These results demonstrate significant regional variation in the chemical composition of EOLC. This investigation provides important information with regard to the bioactivity, breeding work and industrial applications of L. cubeba.

  14. Summertime Spatial Variations in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Components in Different Functional Areas of Xiamen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of urban areas in Chinese cities, air pollution exhibits well-defined spatial variations. Rapid urbanization in China has heightened the importance of understanding and characterizing atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations and their spatiotemporal variations. To investigate the small-scale spatial variations in PM in Xiamen, total suspended particulate (TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 measurements were collected between August and September in 2012. Their average mass concentrations were 102.50 μg∙m−3, 82.79 μg∙m−3, 55.67 μg∙m−3 and 43.70 μg∙m−3, respectively. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC in PM2.5 were measured using thermal optical transmission. Based on the PM concentrations for all size categories, the following order for the different functional areas studied was identified: hospital > park > commercial area > residential area > industrial area. OC contributed approximately 5%–23% to the PM2.5 mass, whereas EC accounted for 0.8%–6.95%. Secondary organic carbon constituted most of the carbonaceous particles found in the park, commercial, industrial and residential areas, with the exception of hospitals. The high PM and EC concentrations in hospitals were primarily caused by vehicle emissions. Thus, the results suggest that long-term plans should be to limit the number of vehicles entering hospital campuses, construct large-capacity underground parking structures, and choose hospital locations far from major roads.

  15. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  16. Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Some Consumer Preferred Plain Set Yoghurts Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.

  17. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  18. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  19. Review of the partitioning of chemicals into different plastics: Consequences for the risk assessment of marine plastic debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, I.A.; Golsteijn, L.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris are found worldwide in oceans and coastal areas. They degrade only slowly and contain chemicals added during manufacture or absorbed from the seawater. Therefore, they can pose a long-lasting contaminant source and potentially transfer chemicals to marine organisms when

  20. Low-cost solar module manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Roger G.; Nowlan, Michael J.; Matthei, Keith W.; Darkazalli, Ghazi

    1997-01-01

    As the market for terrestrial photovoltaic modules expands beyond the 80 MW per year level, module manufacturers are adopting a number of cost-reduction strategies, including the use of higher throughput equipment, increased process automation, and the fabrication of larger area cells and modules. This paper reviews recent activities at Spire Corporation in the development of advanced module manufacturing and testing equipment

  1. Chemical soil data report to support interim response actions, construction staging area, and Administration Building: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Five activities are planned to improve environmental conditions or to improve facilities at the Weldon Spring Site. Each activity must be evaluated for potential environmental impacts. Chemical soil contamination was potentially present in each affected area. A sampling program was designed and implemented to evaluate chemical soil conditions. Samples were analyzed for nitroaromatic compounds, metals, inorganic anions, semi-volatile and volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and PCBs. This investigation documented low concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds, pesticides, PCBs and nitroaromatics. Higher concentrations of nitrate, sulfate and some metals were also detected. The contaminants detected are consistent with past operations at the WSS. The concentrations of contaminants do not significantly impact the proposed activities. Data from this investigation has been incorporated into the planning and documentation activities for each activity

  2. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  3. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  4. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  5. Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S; Hattayanone, M; Tipmanee, D; Suttinun, O; Khumsup, C; Kittikoon, I; Hirunyatrakul, P

    2018-02-01

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} anatase for large-area photon conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Div. of Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO{sub 2} particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO{sub 2} with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  7. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO2 anatase for large-area photon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO 2 particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO 2 with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  8. Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (cocos nucifera l.) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, A.; Ahmad, S.S.; Butt, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature and immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively. (author)

  9. Levels, chemical composition and sources of fine aerosol particles (PM1) in an area of the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caggiano, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Trippetta, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Daily samples of fine aerosol particles (i.e., PM1, aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 1.0 μm) were collected in Tito Scalo - Southern Italy - from April 2006 to March 2007. Measurements were performed by means of a low-volume gravimetric sampler, and each PM1 sample was analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS and FAAS) techniques in order to determine its content in fourteen trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn). During the period examined, PM1 daily concentrations ranged between 0.3 μg m -3 and 55 μg m -3 with a mean value of 8 μg m -3 , a standard deviation of 7 μg m -3 and a median value of 6 μg m -3 . As far as PM1 chemical composition is concerned, the mean values of the trace element concentrations decreased in the following order: Ca > Fe > Al > Na > K > Cr > Mg > Pb > Ni ∼ Ti ∼ Zn > Cd ∼ Cu > Mn. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed the identification of three probable PM1 sources: industrial emissions, traffic and re-suspension of soil dust. Moreover, the results of a procedure applied to study the potential long-range transport contribution to PM1 chemical composition, showed that trace element concentrations do not seem to be affected by air mass origin and path. This was probably due to the strong impact of the local emission sources and the lack of the concentration measurements of some important elements and compounds that could better reveal the long-range transport influence on PM1 measurements at ground level.

  10. Levels, chemical composition and sources of fine aerosol particles (PM1) in an area of the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Trippetta, Serena

    2010-01-15

    Daily samples of fine aerosol particles (i.e., PM1, aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 1.0mum) were collected in Tito Scalo - Southern Italy - from April 2006 to March 2007. Measurements were performed by means of a low-volume gravimetric sampler, and each PM1 sample was analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS and FAAS) techniques in order to determine its content in fourteen trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn). During the period examined, PM1 daily concentrations ranged between 0.3microgm(-3) and 55microgm(-3) with a mean value of 8 microg m(-3), a standard deviation of 7microgm(-3) and a median value of 6microgm(-3). As far as PM1 chemical composition is concerned, the mean values of the trace element concentrations decreased in the following order: Ca>Fe>Al>Na>K>Cr>Mg>Pb>Ni approximately Ti approximately Zn>Cd approximately Cu>Mn. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed the identification of three probable PM1 sources: industrial emissions, traffic and re-suspension of soil dust. Moreover, the results of a procedure applied to study the potential long-range transport contribution to PM1 chemical composition, showed that trace element concentrations do not seem to be affected by air mass origin and path. This was probably due to the strong impact of the local emission sources and the lack of the concentration measurements of some important elements and compounds that could better reveal the long-range transport influence on PM1 measurements at ground level. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost/large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of novel amorphous solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shingata amorphous taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project intends to improve on large-area amorphous silicon solar cell performance and to develop high-throughput manufacturing technologies for a reduction in the cost of modules. A film substrate type amorphous solar cell structure of the serial connection type named SCAF (series-connection through apertures formed on film) is contrived. Under this method, film formation using a stepping roll system newly developed for glass substrates may be applied, and the number of manhours required is allowed to be less than under conventional serial connection forming processes. The new technique is characterized in that serial connections are established via through-holes provided in plastic substrates. Making use of the technology, progress is attained in the development of high-throughput process technology for film substrate type amorphous solar cells and of efficiency enhancement technology. In fiscal 1997, an electron beam unit for plasma generation aiming at the elucidation of reaction processes in plasma was introduced, and technologies based on the equilibrium discharge technique were developed enabling high-speed a-Si film formation without degradation in film quality. The effect of trace boron addition to the tandem cell bottom I layer was investigated, and a stabilization rate of 8.05% was achieved using a 40cm times 80cm large SCAF cell. In fiscal 1998, endeavors were exerted for similar developments. (NEDO)

  12. Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a disorder characterized by nonspecific and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal area during olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and fecal at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal perceived odor level in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor and normal perceived levels (sweet and fecal odors were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls. However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their associations with MCS symptoms is needed.

  13. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  14. Manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kalpakjian, Serope; Vijai Sekar, K S

    2014-01-01

    For courses in manufacturing processes at two- or four-year schools. An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, SI Edition, 7e, presents a mostly qualitative description of the science, technology, and practice of manufacturing. This includes detailed descriptions of manufacturing processes and the manufacturing enterprise that will help introduce students to important concepts. With a total of 120 examples and case studies, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics, this text provides a solid background for manufacturing students and serves as a valuable reference text for professionals. Teaching and Learning Experience To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will: * Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. * Engage Students: E...

  15. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  16. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Biomarkers of genotoxicity (DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the Comet assay), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase inhibition, AChE) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability, LMS) were studied in native and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in coastal areas of western Denmark...... of chemical pollution complex, as seen especially in the variability in results on DNA damage, and also in regard to AChE activity. These investigations further stress the importance of understanding the effects of natural factors (salinity, temperature, water levels, rain and storm events) in correct...

  17. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  18. Data on color and chemical composition of dried scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis produced in different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Enda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dried scallop is used in Chinese, Japanese, and French cuisines for its unique flavor and taste. The quality of dried scallop is rated according to its clear, shiny brown color, developed by the Maillard reaction between sugars and amino acids. This article reports the colors, represented by L* and a* values, and chemical composition (water, salinity, Brix, proteins, and amino acids of dried scallop products. The dried scallops were produced in Tokoro, Sarufutsu, and Saroma in Hokkaido, Japan. The color of the dried scallops had values of 45.7–52.0 for L* and 2.31–5.08 for a*. The salinity of the products was 15.1–17.7%. The amino acid contents were 1350.8–1668.6 mg/100 g. The data collected here are provided in table format. The data can serve as a reference for commercial dried scallop products to determine product quality. Keywords: Quality of products, Dried scallop, Seasoning ingredient, Browning

  19. Environmental radioactivity and chemical composition of different types of bee honeys produced at in-house area, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity and chemical composition of bee honey varies with the surrounding environment (major floral and soil contamination), which reflects the nutritional value of honey. 23SU, 232Th, 40K, >37Cs, major elements Na, K, Mg and Cl and trace elements Mn, Fe, Zn, F, I, Cu, Co, Ni and Sr as well as toxic elements Cd and Pb -were all determined in different types of bee honey, which include non-floral honey with artificial feeding (syrup-feed honey) and mono-floral honeys (clover honey or sesame honey or orange honey). These elements were also determined in the bee feeds, which include flowers (clover, sesame and orange) and syrup. The results revealed that of all types of honeys and syrup-feed honey exhibited higher natural radioactivity and higher concentrations ofNa, K, Mg, Cl, oMn, Fe, Co, Cd and Pb than in the other honeys. Orange honey contained the lowest natural radioactivity and element concentrations. Clover honey had the lowest toxic element Cd and Pb concentrations (0.02 and 4.2/xg/g, respectively) while sesame honey contained the highest levels of Cd and F (0.7 and 12.9 /ig/g, respectively). Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between honey and the feed (R= 0.745 to 0.921). Environmental radioactivity and element concentrations in the honey under study were in the safety baseline levels for human consumption

  20. Field pilot testing for chemical oxidation at the former Nitchequon meteorological station : decontamination project in isolated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peisajovich, A. [Transport Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bergeron, E. [Golder Associates Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Barbeau, M. [Golder Associates Innovative Applications, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lajoie, G. [Cree Regional Authority, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Field pilot testing for chemical oxidation at the former Nitchequon meteorological station was discussed. This presentation described the site location and provided an aerial view and cross section of the site. The historical background and condition of the site were then identified. Photographs and illustrations of the site and the source of the problem were provided. Photographs were also provided of the logistics, temporary camp, dismantling of tanks, equipment, pipeline dismantling, residues, methodology as well as a graphical representation of how to solve the problem. Other topics included technologies tested on site, full-scale remediation plans, remediation goals, step by step process, and costs distribution. Among the steps discussed was: vegetation removal; excavation of the first two feet of soil; transfer of contaminated soil on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) lining prior to treatment; cell construction; cell lining insulation; transfer of treated soil from the mixers to the curing cells; installation of HDPE top cover lining over the treated soil; and the addition of 12 inches of clean soil over the top cover lining. tabs., figs.

  1. Synthesis of High-Quality Large-Area Homogenous 1T' MoTe2 from Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Zubair, Ahmad; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xu; Ouyang, Fangping; Xu, Kai; Fang, Wenjing; Ueno, Keiji; Li, Ju; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-11-01

    High-quality large-area few-layer 1T' MoTe 2 films with high homogeneity are synthesized by the controlled tellurization of MoO 3 film. The Mo precursor plays a key role in determining the quality and morphology of the 1T' MoTe 2 . Furthermore, the amount of Te strongly influences the phase of the MoTe 2 . The growth method paves the way toward the scalable production of 1T' MoTe 2 -based applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  3. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Herrera; José F. Rojas; Víctor H. Beita; Agustín Rodríguez; David Solórzano; Hazel Argüello

    2014-01-01

    During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-), trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni), organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3) compared to low traffic com...

  4. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  5. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  6. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  7. Chemical analyses (raw laboratory data) and locality index maps of the Confederate Gulch area, Broadwater and Meagher Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the side looking airborn radar imagery of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island indicates that radar shows the topography in great detail. Since bedrock geologic features are frequently expressed in the topography the radar lends itself to geologic interpretation. The radar was studied by comparisons with field mapped geologic data first at a scale of approximately 1:125,000 and then at a scale of 1:500,000. The larger scale comparison revealed that faults, minor faults, joint sets, bedding and foliation attitudes, lithology and lithologic contacts all have a topographic expression interpretable on the imagery. Surficial geologic features were far less visible on the imagery over most of the area studied. The smaller scale comparisons revealed a pervasive, near orthogonal fracture set cutting all types and ages of rock and trending roughly N40?E and N30?W. In certain places the strike of bedding and foliation attitudes and some lithologic Contacts were visible in addition to the fractures. Fracturing in southern New England is apparently far more important than has been previously recognized. This new information, together with the visibility of many bedding and foliation attitudes and lithologic contacts, indicates the importance of radar imagery in improving the geologic interpretation of an area.

  8. Sustainable manufacturing challenges, solutions and implementation perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Seliger, Günther; Bonvoisin, Jérémy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability imposes an unprecedented challenge on society and has become the driving force of an urgent search for innovative solutions in all branches of economy. Manufacturing plays a key role in many areas of human living, and it is both part of the problem and of the solution. This book offers an overview of the broad field of research on sustainability in manufacturing with a particular focus on manufacturing technology and management. It summarizes the current challenges, describes best in class methods for development of sustainable manufacturing solutions and offers implementation perspectives. This volume covers areas of research such as production processes, product development, business model and corporate development, macro economy and education. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  9. Physico-chemical and sensory profiling of promising mango cultivars grown in peri-urban areas of multan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Anjum, M.A.; Chohan, S.; Akhtar, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present scenario, Pakistani mango is facing serious apprehension about production decline and export, consequently present study was planned to categorize the paramount mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivar in relation to its physical, chemical and sensorial attributes. Physiologically fully mature fruits of eight mango cultivars were picked and subjected for physical and proximate analysis. Among the eight cultivars, Fajri produced the maximum green and ripe fruit weight, fruit length and perimeter and physiological weight loss (453.0g, 403.0g, 13.80 cm, 21.57cm and 10.97%), respectively. The higher softness values were noticed in Aman Dusahri. The mark variations were observed among all the cultivars for proximate composition. There is an increase in pH values (5.47, 5.40 and 5.33) among Samar Bahisht Chaunsa, Aman Dusahri and Anwar Ratual, respectively with a progressive decrease in ascorbic acid and titrable acidity during ripening period. Likewise, maximum moisture and ash contents were observed in the mango pulp of Fajri and Sindhri (92.20% and 0.78%, respectively). Whereas appreciably higher total sugar contents were observed in pulp of Langra, Samar Bahisht Chaunsa and Anwar Ratual (20.67%, 20.43% and 20.33%, respectively. 19.83% TSS and 0.64% protein contents were recorded in Langra while the Fajri contained higher fat contents. The sensorial attributes varied significantly according to cultivars. Out of eight cultivars Langra obtained higher scores, while Anwar Ratual found to be highly satisfactory followed by Samar Bahisht Chunsa for flavor and taste. Both of these cultivars were equally acceptable for overall acceptability. However non of the cultivar is rejected by the panelists regarding the sensory evaluation. (author)

  10. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  11. Evaluation of chemical spraying and environmental management efficacy in areas with minor previous application of integrated control actions for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World - Lutzomyia longipalpis - is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission. In this study, we evaluated the individual impact of two main vector control actions - chemical spraying and environmental management - in two districts with no reported cases of human VL. Although belonging to an endemic municipality for VL in Brazil, the integrated control actions have not been applied in these districts due to the absence of human cases. The number of L. longipalpis captured in a two-year period was used as indicator of the population density of the vector. After chemical spraying a tendency of reduction in L. longipalpis was observed but with no statistical significance compared to the control. Environmental management was effective in that reduction and it may help in the control of VL by reducing the population density of the vector in a preventive and more permanent action, perhaps associated with chemical spraying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations of dioxins, furans, and guaicol/organic acids in sediments from the Grays Harbor/Chehalis River area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Squires, A.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was requested by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Seattle District, to assist in planning and conducting sampling, toxicological tests, and chemistry evaluations on sediment samples collected from the Chehalis River in Grays Harbor, Washington. The objectives of the study were to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of sediments that might potentially contain dioxins, furans, and organic acids, as a result of industrial practices in the Grays Harbor area, on sensitive marine species. In addition to the toxicological tests conducted using standard bioassays, sediment chemistry tests were performed to determine levels of selected chemicals, and elutriates of sediments were tested chemically and biologically to determine contaminant mobility in water. Also, bioaccumulation measurements were made to determine chemical mobility in animal tissue. A joint task group, including representatives from the USACE, Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDOF), and Region 9 of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) participated in designing the testing program and reviewing data produced by MSL. The results of this analysis will be included in a supplemental Environmental Assessment (EA) prepared by the USACE for the Grays Harbor Dredging Program, beginning in early 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C

    2005-08-01

    It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.

  14. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ON SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL RIVERS WATER FEATURES IN PRICOP-HUTA CERTEZE AND TISA SUPERIOARĂ PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BĂTINAŞ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the evaluation of river’s water quality from two Natura 2000 protected areas located in Maramureş County, on the northern border between Romania and Ukraine. The field period deployed for the 8 water sampling points was carried out on October 31 – November 1st 2015. Each water sample was analyzed to determinate several features, using a portable multiparameter HI 9828 and a portable turbidimeter HI 98713. Also for geolocation reference has been used a GPS Magellan Explorist 600 device. The investigated parameters were: pH, water temperature and conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity and water turbidity. The obtained results will be integrated into a more complex study on water quality, regarding the mentioned Natura 200 sites.

  15. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  16. Chemical constituents in the Peedee and Castle Hayne aquifers: Porters Neck area, New Hanover County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T.L.; Harris, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns about overuse and potential contamination of major aquifers in the southeastern part of North Carolina resulted in the initiation of a subsurface water quality study in February 2001. The focus of this study was to examine variations in nutrients (NO3-, TRP, SO42- Cl-, NH4+) and total dissolved Fe in the Cretaceous Peedee and Tertiary Castle Hayne Limestone aquifers of northeastern New Hanover County. Water samples were collected monthly for one year from sixteen wells located in the Porters Neck area (west of the Intracoastal Waterway and south of Futch Creek) and four springs located on the south side of Futch Creek. Variations in selective nutrient concentrations were measured between and within each aquifer. Concentrations of NH4+ and Fe increased in the Peedee sandstone aquifer during the warmer summer and early fall months. In late summer to early fall, Fe, NO 3-, NH4+, and TRP concentrations in the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer were significantly higher than in the spring and winter months. Chloride and SO 42- concentrations for the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer both increased during the warmer months, probably as a result of saltwater intrusion. Factors considered for nutrient and Fe variance include: temperature variation, anaerobic conditions, subsurface stratigraphy/structure, recharge locations, site location and surface fertilization. The shallower Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer showed seasonal variability in the study area, whereas the Peedee sandstone aquifer showed little to no seasonal variability. Increases in NO3- and TRP lagged slightly behind periods of high fertilization and were more prevalent down-dip of a major golf course. Nutrient content and seasonal variation of Futch Creek springs indicated that they originate from the Castle Hayne Limestone aquifer.

  17. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enroth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN, particulate mass (PM1, black carbon (BC, organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2. Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at  ∼  100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  18. Preparation and characterization of high surface area activated carbon from Fox nut (Euryale ferox shell by chemical activation with H3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from Fox nutshell by chemical activation with H3PO4 in N2 atmosphere and their characteristics were studied. The effects of activation temperature and impregnation ratio were examined. N2 adsorption isotherms characterized the surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbons. Activated carbon was produced at 700 °C with a 1.5 impregnation ratio and one hour of activation time has found 2636 m2/g and 1.53 cm3/g of highest BET surface area and total pore volume, respectively. The result of Fourier-infrared spectroscopy analysis of the prepared activated carbon confirmed that the carbon has abundant functional groups on the surface. Field emission scanning electron micrographs of the prepared activated carbon showed that a porous structure formed during activation. Keywords: Activated carbons, Fox nutshell, Chemical activation, H3PO4, Activated carbon, Surface chemistry, Porous structure

  19. [Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suhua; Ye, Hengpeng; Li, Mingjian; Xiong, Peisheng; Du, Dongyun; Wang, Jingwen

    2015-06-01

    To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater, hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region. Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived, in Xiantao and Honghu. Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well. Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water. The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t = 4.645 3, P arsenic concentration and Cl, HCO3(-), Fe, Mn. However, negative correlations were found between As and SO4(2-), NO3(-). The range of arsenic content in the sediment was 1.500 mg/kg to 17.289 mg/kg. The maximum arsenic content existed in the soil layer, while the minimum arsenic content existed in the sand layer. The concentration of arsenic varied widely with time and space at endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain. Characteristics of these water chemicals showed significant differences, when compared to the groundwater from Datong Basin, Shanxi Shanyin and Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, which presented a typical environment with high arsenic contents in the groundwater. The arsenic content in the sediment samples seemed related to the lithologic structure.

  20. Radiological and chemical toxicity risks of uranium in groundwater based-drinking at Immigration Headquarters Gosa and Federal Housing Lugbe area of Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omeje Maxwell; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor; Husin Wagiran; Olusegun Adewoyin; Joel, E.S.; Ngozi Adeleye; Zaidi Embong; Tenebe, I.T.

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate public water supply by the Water Board in Abuja has forced the public to source for groundwater as the only alternative for consumption without consideration for radiological risk. The radiological risk for cancer mortality of uranium in Immigration Headquarters Gosa and Federal-Housing Lugbe groundwater water samples were measured and compared with Water Board and hand-dug well water samples from the same area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The highest radiological risks for cancer mortality and morbidity were found to be low, with highest values of 1.24 × 10"-"7 and 1.64 × 10"-"7 obtained from Federal-Housing Lugbe borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of "2"3"8U in drinking water over life time consumption has a mean value of 4.0 × 10"-"4 μg kg"-"1 day"-"1 with highest value of 6.0 × 10"-"3 μg kg"-"1 day"-"1 obtained from Federal-Housing Lugbe. Significantly, this study inferred that the "2"3"8U concentrations reported in groundwater based-drinking originated from sheared zone of magmatic metamorphosed basaltic dyke intrusion. Due to the low risk values found in the water samples when compared with the International Reference Standard, radiological and chemical toxicity risks values may not pose any health risk to the public that rely on groundwater in the area. (author)

  1. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Copper bioavailability and extractability as related to chemical properties of contaminated soils from a vine-growing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaignon, V.; Sanchez-Neira, I.; Herrmann, P.; Jaillard, B.; Hinsinger, P.

    2003-01-01

    Root Cu concentration is a good indicator of soil Cu bioavailability. - Vineyard soils have been contaminated by Cu as a consequence of the long-term use of Cu salts as fungicides against mildew. This work aimed at identifying which soil parameters were the best related to Cu bioavailability, as assessed by measuring the concentrations of Cu in shoots and roots of tomato cropped (in lab conditions) over a range of 29 (24 calcareous and five acidic) Cu-contaminated topsoils from a vine-growing area (22-398 mg Cu kg -1 ). Copper concentrations in tomato shoots remained in the adequate range and were independent of soil properties and soil Cu content. Conversely, strong, positive correlations were found between root Cu concentration, total soil Cu, EDTA- or K-pyrophosphate-extractable Cu and organic C contents in the 24 calcareous soils, suggesting a prominent role of organic matter in the retention and bioavailability of Cu. Such relations were not observed when including the five acidic soils in the investigated population, suggesting a major pH effect. Root Cu concentration appeared as a much more sensitive indicator of soil Cu bioavailability than shoot Cu concentration. Simple extractions routinely used in soil testing procedures (total and EDTA-extractable Cu) were adequate indicators of Cu bioavailability for the investigated calcareous soils, but not when different soil types were considered (e.g. acidic versus calcareous soils)

  3. Physical and chemical characterization of the particulate matter suspended in aerosols from the urban area of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINKA D. JOKSIĆ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical industry, an important step consists in the removal of possible drug residues from the involved equipments and areas. The cleaning procedures must be validated and methods to determine trace amounts of drugs have, therefore, to be considered with special attention. An HPLC–UV method for the determination of digoxin residues on stainless steel surfaces was developed and validated in order to control a cleaning procedure. Cotton swabs, moistened with methanol were used to remove any residues of drugs from stainless steel surfaces, and give recoveries of 85.9, 85.2 and 78.7 % for three concentration levels. The precision of the results, reported as the relative standard deviation (RSD, were below 6.3 %. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.05–12.5 µg mL-1. Low quantities of drug residues were determined by HPLC–UV using a Symmetry C18 column (150´4.6 mm, 5 µm at 20 °C with an acetonitrile–water (28:72, v/v mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.1 mL min-1, an injection volume of 100 µL and were detected at 220 nm. A simple, selective and sensitive HPLC–UV assay for the determination of digoxin residues on stainless steel was developed, validated and applied.

  4. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni, organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3 compared to low traffic commercial and residential zones (23 – 15 µg/m3. As for speciation, crustal contribution increases from 13-14 % found in high traffic industrial zones to 28 % in residential zones. While marine aerosol contribution ranges from 2,5 to 5% for all sampling sites without a distinctive pattern. The OC and EC fraction was the most important contribution to the PM10 composition, mainly in HE-01 and BE-01 sampling sites accounting for around 53 and 56 % of the total mass. This reflects the importance of combustion sources to the fine particulate matter composition. In the case of the trace metals fraction it was the lowest one found for all the sampling sites.

  5. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  6. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36% and nitrate (28–29%, with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%, ammonium (12–14% and black carbon (7–13%.

    Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11–15% of organic mass, biomass burning (13–15% and cooking (up to 35% during meal hours. Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50% to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

  7. Aircraft-Based measurement of the physico-chemical evolution of atmospheric aerosols in the air pollution plume over a megacity and a remote area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. S.; Lee, T.; Park, T.; Lee, J. B.; Lim, Y. J.; Ahn, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols influence climate change directly (scattering and absorption) and indirectly (cloud condensation nuclei), also adverse health effects. The Korean peninsula is a great place to study different sources of the aerosols: urban, rural and marine. In addition, Seoul is one of the large metropolitan areas in the world and has a variety of sources because half of the Korean population lives in Seoul, which comprises only 12% of the country's area. To understand the physico-chemical evolution of atmospheric aerosols in the air pollution plume over a megacity and a remote area, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed on an airborne platform (NASA DC-8 and Beechcraft King Air) in June, 2015 and May-June, 2016 during MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ campaigns, respectively, in Korea. The HR-ToF-AMS is capable of measuring non-refractory size resolved chemical composition of submicron particle (NR-PM1). NR-PM1 includes mass concentration of organics, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium with 10 seconds time resolution. Organics was dominated species in aerosol during all of flights. Organics and nitrate were dominant around energy industrial complex near by Taean, South Korea. The presentation will provide an overview of the composition of NR-PM1 measured in air pollution plumes, and deliver detail information about width, depth and spatial distribution of the pollutant in the air pollution plumes. The results of this study will provide high temporal and spatial resolved details on the air pollution plumes, which are valuable input parameters of aerosol properties for the current air quality models.

  8. Pharmacy on demand: New technologies to enable miniaturized and mobile drug manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, John J; Choi, Eugene J; Ling, Geoffrey

    2016-01-15

    Developmental pharmaceutical manufacturing systems and techniques designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional batch processing methods are described. Conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing processes do not adequately address the needs of military and civilian patient populations and healthcare providers. Recent advances within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Battlefield Medicine program suggest that miniaturized, flexible platforms for end-to-end manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are possible. Advances in continuous-flow synthesis, chemistry, biological engineering, and downstream processing, coupled with online analytics, automation, and enhanced process control measures, pave the way for disruptive innovation to improve the pharmaceutical supply chain and drug manufacturing base. These new technologies, along with current and ongoing advances in regulatory science, have the future potential to (1) permit "on demand" drug manufacturing on the battlefield and in other austere environments, (2) enhance the level of preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats, (3) enhance health authorities' ability to respond to natural disasters and other catastrophic events, (4) minimize shortages of drugs, (5) address gaps in the orphan drug market, (6) support and enable the continued drive toward precision medicine, and (7) enhance access to needed medications in underserved areas across the globe. Modular platforms under development by DARPA's Battlefield Medicine program may one day improve the safety, efficiency, and timeliness of drug manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Report of working committee 2 production of manufactured gases; Rapport du comite de travail 2 production de gaz manufactures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.

    2000-07-01

    The Committee's work during this triennium focused on 4 topic areas. They are: the potential of hydrogen in meeting long term energy demands, future development prospects for manufactured gas units/gasification of coal, biomass, and opportunity materials for the production of electricity and chemicals, recovery of methane from coal seams, and update on management of contaminated gas sites. This report presents the status and the potentials of present and future opportunities for the gas industry in the areas of manufactured gases including hydrogen and coal bed/mine methane. The idea of hydrogen as an energy carrier is getting increased attention these days for its promise of super clean emissions at the point of use. The development of fuel cells for stationary and mobile applications has highlighted the need of hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure. Hydrogen appears destined to be a major energy source of the future. The industry for gasification is growing, particularly for the production of electricity and chemicals from opportunity fuels, such as petroleum coke from refineries. Coal and biomass are also getting increased interests due to their promise of high efficiency and lower emissions. Methane from coal mines is also getting increased attention due not only to its environmental benefits but also to its favorable own economics. The future of the energy industry will be price and environmentally driven. A well-informed gas industry will be in a position to continue to play a major role in the future of the energy industry world-wide. (author)

  10. Chemical data from bottle casts in the Arctic Ocean and other Sea areas by the University of Alaska, from 16 April 1948 to 17 September 2000 (NODC Accession 0000918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using bottle casts from multiple vessels in the Arctic Ocean and other Sea areas from 16 April 1948 to 17 September 2000. Data were...

  11. Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing: Perspectives and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing market competition and advances in technology, more and more countries are prioritizing advanced manufacturing technology as their top priority for economic growth. Germany announced the Industry 4.0 strategy in 2013. The US government launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP in 2011 and the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI in 2014. Most recently, the Manufacturing USA initiative was officially rolled out to further “leverage existing resources... to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization” by fostering close collaboration between industry, academia, and government partners. In 2015, the Chinese government officially published a 10-year plan and roadmap toward manufacturing: Made in China 2025. In all these national initiatives, the core technology development and implementation is in the area of advanced manufacturing systems. A new manufacturing paradigm is emerging, which can be characterized by two unique features: integrated manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This trend is in line with the progress of industrial revolutions, in which higher efficiency in production systems is being continuously pursued. To this end, 10 major technologies can be identified for the new manufacturing paradigm. This paper describes the rationales and needs for integrated and intelligent manufacturing (i2M systems. Related technologies from different fields are also described. In particular, key technological enablers, such as the Internet of Things and Services (IoTS, cyber-physical systems (CPSs, and cloud computing are discussed. Challenges are addressed with applications that are based on commercially available platforms such as General Electric (GE’s Predix and PTC’s ThingWorx.

  12. Nature of Atmospheric Aerosols over the Desert Areas in the Asian Continent: Chemical State and Number Concentration of Particles Measured at Dunhuang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Shi, G.-Y.; Shen, Z.; Kim, Y. S.; Trochkine, D.; Matsuki, A.; Zhang, D.; Shibata, T.; Nagatani, M.; Nakata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol were made in August and October 2001, and January 2002, at Dunhuang, China (40 o 00'N, 94 o 30'E), to understand the nature of atmospheric particles over the desert areas in the Asian continent. Balloon-borne measurements with an optical particle counter suggested that particle size and concentration had a noticeable peak in size range of super micron in not only the boundary mixing layer but also the free troposphere. Thickness of the boundary mixing layer, from distributions of particle concentration, was about 4 km in summer (17 August 2001), about2.5 km in fall (17 October 2001), and about 3 km in winter (11 January 2002), which suggest active mixing of particles near the boundary in summer. Number-size distribution of particle showed a noticeable peak in the super micron particles size range in the mixing boundary layer: 0.4-2 particles cm -3 at diameter>1.2 μm in summer, 0.05-4 particles cm -3 at diameter >1.2 μm in fall, and 0.1-5 particles cm -3 at diameter>1.2 μm in winter. In winter strong inversion of atmospheric temperature was found in the height range from the boundary to about 3 km and vertical distribution of particle concentration well corresponded with the temperature distribution. Chemical elements of individual aerosols, which were collected in the boundary layer atmosphere at Dunhuang (18 October 2001) were analyzed with an electron microscope equipped with EDX. Those single particle analysis suggested that most of the particles with supermicron size were soil particles, and those particles had little sulfate on its surface. This is a very important different point,comparing with the chemical state of soil particles, which were transported from the desert area of China to Japan, and showed frequently the existence of sulfate on the particle surface. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that dust particles can be chemically modified during their long-range transport from desert areas to Japan

  13. Measuring Manufacturing Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2017-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  14. A 200-Channel Area-Power-Efficient Chemical and Electrical Dual-Mode Acquisition IC for the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Ng, Waichiu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Suwen; Chan, Mansun

    2016-06-01

    Microelectrode array (MEA) can be used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases by monitoring the chemical neurotransmitter release and the electrical potential simultaneously at the cellular level. Currently, the MEA technology is migrating to more electrodes and higher electrode density, which raises power and area constraints on the design of acquisition IC. In this paper, we report the design of a 200-channel dual-mode acquisition IC with highly efficient usage of power and area. Under the constraints of target noise and fast settling, the current channel design saves power by including a novel current buffer biased in discrete time (DT) before the TIA (transimpedance amplifier). The 200 channels are sampled at 20 kS/s and quantized by column-wise SAR ADCs. The prototype IC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Silicon measurements show the current channel has 21.6 pArms noise with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 0.48 pArms noise with constant amperometry (CA) while consuming 12.1 μW . The voltage channel has 4.07 μVrms noise in the bandwidth of 100 kHz and 0.2% nonlinearity while consuming 9.1 μW. Each channel occupies 0.03 mm(2) area, which is among the smallest.

  15. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  16. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  18. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  19. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  20. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  1. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  2. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  3. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  4. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  6. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Volume 1. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules and survey and research on analyzing how to put products into practical use); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to assist research and development to put thin film solar cells for power use into practical use and a research to put thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies into practical use, survey and research have been performed on trends in the technologies inside and outside the country. Characteristic points in thin film solar cells during the current fiscal year include: expansion of production scale of amorphous silicon solar cells, rapid progress in poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cell technologies, and enhancement of performance in large-area modules in the a-Si, CIGS, and CdTe systems. In the trends in research and development of amorphous systems, expectation is heightening on elucidation of optical deterioration phenomena, and establishment of suppression technologies thereof. Although the highest efficiency was not renewed in thin film solar cells of small areas, progress was seen in the post-stabilization efficiency in large-area modules. A thin film solar cell manufacturing plant having an annual production capacity of 20 MW was put into operation in October in Japan. Micro (poly) crystalline silicon based solar cells have high possibility of being compatible in cost reduction and performance improvement, and energetic researches are being carried out on them in recent years as the most promising candidate of the next generation solar cells. (NEDO)

  7. Center for Advanced Materials Manufacturing | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    generation, transmission and purification; biomedical applications; green manufacturing techniques, and finally materials used for national defense by the Navy, Air Force, and Army. Specific areas of research

  8. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical data from surficial deposits, groundwater levels, and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Breit, George N.; Yount, James C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Skipp, Gary L.; Fisher, Eric M.; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents data and describes the methods used to determine the physical attributes, as well as the chemical and mineralogical composition of surficial deposits; groundwater levels; and water composition in the area of Franklin Lake playa and Ash Meadows, California and Nevada. The results support studies that examine (1) the interaction between groundwater and the ground surface, and the transport of solutes through the unsaturated zone; (2) the potential for the accumulation of metals and metalloids in surface crusts; (3) emission of dust from metal-rich salt crust; and (4) the effects of metal-rich dusts on human and ecosystem health. The evaporation of shallow (travel as atmospheric dust and affect human and ecosystem health at local to regional scales.

  9. Large-Area Chemical Vapor Deposited MoS2 with Transparent Conducting Oxide Contacts toward Fully Transparent 2D Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Zhenyu

    2017-09-08

    2D semiconductors are poised to revolutionize the future of electronics and photonics, much like transparent oxide conductors and semiconductors have revolutionized the display industry. Herein, these two types of materials are combined to realize fully transparent 2D electronic devices and circuits. Specifically, a large-area chemical vapor deposition process is developed to grow monolayer MoS2 continuous films, which are, for the first time, combined with transparent conducting oxide (TCO) contacts. Transparent conducting aluminum doped zinc oxide contacts are deposited by atomic layer deposition, with composition tuning to achieve optimal conductivity and band-offsets with MoS2. The optimized process gives fully transparent TCO/MoS2 2D electronics with average visible-range transmittance of 85%. The transistors show high mobility (4.2 cm2 V−1 s−1), fast switching speed (0.114 V dec−1), very low threshold voltage (0.69 V), and large switching ratio (4 × 108). To our knowledge, these are the lowest threshold voltage and subthreshold swing values reported for monolayer chemical vapor deposition MoS2 transistors. The transparent inverters show fast switching properties with a gain of 155 at a supply voltage of 10 V. The results demonstrate that transparent conducting oxides can be used as contact materials for 2D semiconductors, which opens new possibilities in 2D electronic and photonic applications.

  10. Computational manufacturing as a bridge between design and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonravov, Alexander V; Trubetskov, Michael K

    2005-11-10

    Computational manufacturing of optical coatings is a research area that can be placed between theoretical designing and practical manufacturing in the same way that computational physics can be placed between theoretical and experimental physics. Investigations in this area have been performed for more than 30 years under the name of computer simulation of manufacturing and monitoring processes. Our goal is to attract attention to the increasing importance of computational manufacturing at the current state of the art in the design and manufacture of optical coatings and to demonstrate possible applications of this research tool.

  11. Lean Application to Manufacturing Ramp-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene; Rymaszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    . Abstracting from the extant literature, the authors considered the competitiveness of manufacturing companies from two principal perspectives: the leanness of the ramp-up process and the new-value creation of quality managers. While much of the literature fails to acknowledge that the roots of lean actually......This article provides a theoretical overview of the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up in an attempt to conceptualize the strategic areas in which lean philosophy and principles can be applied for continuous improvements. The application of lean principles during the final stage of a new...... product development process, that is, the ramp-up process, is a critical, early enabler of lean manufacturing. The manufacturing strategy literature conceptualizes a state of “leanness in operations,” which can consolidate both the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up, providing a dual perspective...

  12. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Initiatives Dept.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  13. The identification of a sensitizing component used in the manufacturing of an ink ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Tapp, Loren; Durgam, Srinivas; Meade, B. Jean; Jackson, Laurel G.; Cohen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases including dermatitis constitute ≈ 30% of all occupational illnesses, with a high incidence in the printing industry. An outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Employees in the process areas of the plant were exposed to numerous chemicals and many had experienced skin rashes, especially after the introduction of a new ink ribbon product. To identify the causative agent(s) of the occupational dermatitis, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to identify the potential of the chemicals used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Follow-up patch testing with the suspected allergens was conducted on exposed employees. Polyvinyl butyral, a chemical component used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon in question and other products, tested positive in the LLNA, with an EC3 of 3.6%, which identifies it as a potential sensitizer; however, no employees tested positive to this chemical during skin patch testing. This finding has implications beyond those described in this report because of occupational exposure to polyvinyl butyral outside of the printing industry. PMID:22375946

  14. 76 FR 72976 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., 2011, 76 FR 36577, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg, Virginia... Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with the public interest at this time. DEA has investigated Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc...

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  16. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  17. Development of practical application technology for photovoltaic power generation systems in fiscal 1997. Development of technologies to manufacture thin film solar cells, development of technologies to manufacture low-cost large-area modules, development of technologies to manufacture next-generation thin film solar cells (development of technologies to manufacture CIS solar cell modules); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (CIS taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research and development was made with an objective to achieve conversion efficiency of 13% in a 30 cm times 30 cm size submodule of a CIS-based thin film solar cell, and to develop a manufacturing technology that can achieve 140 yen/Wp. This paper describes the achievements attained during fiscal 1997. In fiscal 1997, based on the achievements reached during the previous year, a submodule with a size of 10 cm times 30 cm was fabricated for an attempt of improving the open voltage and short circuit current density. Simultaneously, the applicability thereof to a module with an area as large as 30 cm times 30 cm was evaluated. As a result of experimental discussions, enhancement in the open voltage was verified by increasing amount of Ga or sulfur, but it was not possible to achieve 600 mV or higher. In the research of component technologies to establish a mass production process, research and development was made on a high-resistance buffer layer film forming technology, a high-quality window layer film forming technology, a high-quality metallic rear electrode film forming technology, and patterning technologies. The outdoor exposure test was continued on laminated mini-modules with a size of 10 cm times 10 cm. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon/thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to manufacture the above for the development of low-cost high-efficiency practical cells. Technologies were developed to homogeneously fabricate films with an average efficiency of 10% or more in a 100mm times 85mm area in a STAR (naturally surface texture and enhanced absorption with a back reflector) structure thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell. The texture shape was improved for a higher light trapping effect and a STAR structure cell highly sensitive to long wavelengths and fit for use for a hybrid cell bottom layer was obtained. Various cells were examined for temperature characteristics, and it was found that thin-film poly-Si cells present a temperature coefficient equal to or less than that of bulk single-crystal silicon systems, and hybrid cells a temperature coefficient similar to that of a-Si systems. The technology was applied to a hybrid solar cell in which an a-Si cell was placed on STAR structure thin film poly-Si cells, and a resultant 3-layer a-Si/poly-Si/poly-Si cell exhibited a stabilization factor of 12.0% after 550 hours of optical irradiation. (NEDO)

  19. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  20. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  1. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-González, D. L.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The protected designations of origin (PDOs have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campiña de Jaén which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campiña de Jaén formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual throughout the province of Jaén.

    Las denominaciones de origen protegidas (DOPs han demostrado ser un marco de regulación de éxito para la protección de aceites de oliva vírgenes singulares que tienen propiedades particulares. Sin embargo, en ocasiones, el registro de DOPs nuevas y la demarcación de las áreas geográficas asociadas a ellas se basan en aspectos administrativos más que en datos químicos objetivos. En este trabajo se emplea la composición química de ácidos grasos, hidrocarburos, alcoholes, esteroles y metilesteroles para demostrar las diferencias entre aceites de oliva vírgenes de denominaciones de origen protegidas y los aceites producidos en las

  2. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  3. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motzkus, C; Macé, T; Vaslin-Reimann, S; Ausset, P; Maillé, M

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO 2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  4. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  5. Bio-Manufacturing to market pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressen, Tiffaney [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    The Bio-Manufacturing to Market pilot project was a part of the AMJIAC, the Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge grant. This internship program set out to further define and enhance the talent pipeline from the University and local Community Colleges to startup culture in East Bay Area, provide undergraduate STEM students with opportunities outside academia, and provide startup companies with much needed talent. Over the 4 year period of performance, the Bio-Manufacturing to Market internship program sponsored 75 undergraduate STEM students who were able to spend anywhere from one to six semesters working with local Bay Area startup companies and DOE sponsored facilities/programs in the biotech, bio-manufacturing, and biomedical device fields.

  6. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  7. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs

  8. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  9. Variability in chemical composition of Vitis vinifera cv Mencía from different geographic areas and vintages in Ribeira Sacra (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, M; Rodríguez, I; Canosa, P; Otero, I; Gamero, E; Moreno, D; Talaverano, I; Valdés, E

    2015-02-15

    A chemical study was conducted from 2009 to 2012 to examine spatial and seasonal variability of red Vitis vinifera Mencía located in different geographic areas (Amandi, Chantada, Quiroga-Bibei, Ribeiras do Sil and Ribeiras do Miño) from NW Spain. Mencía samples were analysed for phenolic, (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, anthocyanins, acids and resveratrol), nitrogen (TAC, TAN, YAN and TAS) and volatiles compounds (alcohols, C6 compounds, ethyl esters, terpenes, aldehydes, acids, lactones, volatile phenols and carbonyl compounds) by GC-MS and HPLC. Results showed that the composition of Mencía cultivar was more affected by the vintage than the geographic area. The amino acid composition was less affected by both geographic origin and vintage, showing more varietal stability. Application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to experimental data showed a good separation of Mencía grape according to geographical origin and vintages. PCA also showed high correlations between the ripening ratio and C6 compounds, resveratrol and carbonyl compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  11. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  13. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchetti, Raffaella; Fattorini, Daniele; Pisanelli, Barbara; Macchia, Simona; Oliviero, Lisa; Pilato, Fabiano; Pellegrini, David; Regoli, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m 3 of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 μg/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  14. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchetti, Raffaella; Fattorini, Daniele; Pisanelli, Barbara [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Macchia, Simona; Oliviero, Lisa; Pilato, Fabiano; Pellegrini, David [Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare (ICRAM), Viale Nazario Sauro 4, 57128 Livorno (Italy); Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.it

    2008-09-29

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 {mu}g/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  15. Safety in a Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczewski Marian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety systems include the functioning of the institutions of a state, central, and local government, businesses, and social organizations. Research in this discipline should contribute to the development of the theoretical foundations and systems of national and international security and operating systems in the area of technical safety. Technical safety engineering should deal with a design, build, operation, and decommissioning of technical measures in order to minimize the opportunities and the size of their negative impact on the environment, people, and the good of civilization. With this in mind, the main purpose of the research was to evaluate the safety of technical manufacturing company that uses a wide machine park. A plant manufacturing parts and components for automobiles was the audited company.

  16. Computer-assisted nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, J.P.; Schaumann, S.M.; Stone, E.

    1976-01-01

    At the ERDA Savannah River Plant, a process monitor, which incorporates an online digital computer, assists in manufacturing fuel elements used to produce nuclides such as plutonium, tritium, and californium in the plant's nuclear reactors. Also, inventory functions assist in safeguarding fissile material and protecting against accidental nuclear criticality. Terminals at strategic locations throughout the process area enable production operators to send and receive instructions and information on each manufacturing step

  17. Computer-assisted nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, J.P.; Schaumann, C.M.; Stone, E.

    1976-06-01

    At the ERDA Savannah River Plant, a process monitor, which incorporates an online digital computer, assists in manufacturing fuel elements used to produce nuclides such as plutonium, tritium, and californium in the plant's nuclear reactors. Also, inventory functions assist in safeguarding fissile material and protecting against accidental nuclear criticality. Terminals at strategic locations throughout the process area enable production operators to send and receive instructions and information on each manufacturing step. 11 fig

  18. Understanding Mechanical Design with Respect to Manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondell, Skyler

    2010-01-01

    At the NASA Prototype Development Laboratory in Kennedy Space Center, Fl, several projects concerning different areas of mechanical design were undertaken in order to better understand the relationship between mechanical design and manufacturabiIity. The assigned projects pertained specifically to the NASA Space Shuttle, Constellation, and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. During the work term, mechanical design practices relating to manufacturing processes were learned and utilized in order to obtain an understanding of mechanical design with respect to manufacturability.

  19. A dilute Cu(Ni) alloy for synthesis of large-area Bernal stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madito, M. J.; Bello, A.; Dangbegnon, J. K.; Momodu, D. Y.; Masikhwa, T. M.; Barzegar, F.; Manyala, N., E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Oliphant, C. J.; Jordaan, W. A. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Private Bag X34, Lynwood Ridge, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa); Fabiane, M. [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Department of Physics, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma 180 (Lesotho)

    2016-01-07

    A bilayer graphene film obtained on copper (Cu) foil is known to have a significant fraction of non-Bernal (AB) stacking and on copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) thin films is known to grow over a large-area with AB stacking. In this study, annealed Cu foils for graphene growth were doped with small concentrations of Ni to obtain dilute Cu(Ni) alloys in which the hydrocarbon decomposition rate of Cu will be enhanced by Ni during synthesis of large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ni doped concentration and the Ni homogeneous distribution in Cu foil were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. An electron backscatter diffraction map showed that Cu foils have a single (001) surface orientation which leads to a uniform growth rate on Cu surface in early stages of graphene growth and also leads to a uniform Ni surface concentration distribution through segregation kinetics. The increase in Ni surface concentration in foils was investigated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The quality of graphene, the number of graphene layers, and the layers stacking order in synthesized bilayer graphene films were confirmed by Raman and electron diffraction measurements. A four point probe station was used to measure the sheet resistance of graphene films. As compared to Cu foil, the prepared dilute Cu(Ni) alloy demonstrated the good capability of growing large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene film by increasing Ni content in Cu surface layer.

  20. Systems engineering management process maturity of South African manufacturing organisations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemberger, ID

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available to integrate people, processes and technologies to deliver innovative complex systems. The investigation set out to improve the understanding of systems engineering (SE) with focus on organisations in manufacturing of coke, petroleum, chemical products, rubber...

  1. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  2. About oxide dispersion particles chemical compatibility with areas coherent dissipation/sub-grains of bcc-alloys in Fe - (Cr, V, Mo, W systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovsky A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of partial magnetic moments (PMM of the iron atoms located in the first ч four coordination spheres (1÷4 CS for bcc lattice have been introduced based on analysis of results obtained by quantum-mechanical calculations (QMC for volume dependence of the average magnetic moment ferromagnetic (FM Fe. The values of these moments have been calculated for pure bcc Fe and bcc - Fe-Cr alloys. This concept has been used to formulate a three sub-lattice model for binary FM alloys of the Fe-M systems (M is an alloying paramagnetic element. Physical reason for sign change dependence of the short-range order and mixing enthalpy obtained by QMCs for Fe-(Cr, V bcc phases has been found. Using this model it has been predicted that static displacements of Fe - atoms in alloy matrix increase with increasing the of CS number and result in reducing of the area of coherent dissipation (ACD size with growth of the dimension factor (DF in the Fe-(Cr, V, Mo, W systems in agreement with the X-ray experiments. It has been shown theoretically that anisotropy of spin- density in bcc lattice Fe and DF in binary Fe - (Cr, V, Mo, W systems is main factor for origins of segregations on small angle boundaries of ACD and sub-grains boundaries To prevent the coagulation of both ACD and sub-grains, and to increase the strength of alloys, it is advisable to add oxide dispersion particles into ferrite steel taking into account their chemical compatibility and coherent interfacing with the crystalline lattice of a ferrite matrix. Application of phase diagrams for binary and ternary the Fe-(Y, Zr-O systems to verify chemical compatibility of oxide dispersion particles with ferrite matrix have been discussed

  3. A survey on trace organic chemicals in a German water protection area and the proposal of relevant indicators for anthropogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Wolfram; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites. Cyclamate occurred with the highest median concentration of 44 μg l -1 in untreated wastewater and acesulfame occurred with a concentration of 20 μg l -1 in treated wastewater. In runoff water from roads, the most relevant compounds were tolyltriazole with 2.3 μg l -1 and the desphenyl-chloridazon with 1.2 μg l -1 . In the stream waters, the highest median concentrations were found for melamine and acesulfame both at 0.61 μg l -1 . High elimination during conventional wastewater treatment was observed for 5 out of 49 compounds. These are acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, aciclovir, cyclamate, ibuprofen and saccharin. Based on the survey results, we propose a set of nine compounds to be used as indicators for wastewater, untreated wastewater and runoff water from roads for an efficient surveillance. The indicators are intended to detect anthropogenic influences in surface, ground and drinking water.

  4. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011-Collection methods, analyses methods, quality assurance, and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Smith, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a study to identify the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in water and bottom-sediment samples collected during 2010–11 at sites in seven areas of concern (AOCs) throughout the Great Lakes. Study sites include tributaries to the Great Lakes in AOCs located near Duluth, Minn.; Green Bay, Wis.; Roches­ter, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.; and Ashtabula, Ohio. This report documents the collection meth­ods, analyses methods, quality-assurance data and analyses, and provides the data for this study. Water and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., for a broad suite of CECs. During this study, 135 environmental and 23 field dupli­cate samples of surface water and wastewater effluent, 10 field blank water samples, and 11 field spike water samples were collected and analyzed. Sixty-one of the 69 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 4433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 11.2 micrograms per liter. Twenty-eight of the 48 pharmaceuticals (research method 8244) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0029 to 22.0 micro­grams per liter. Ten of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols analyzed (research method 4434) were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 10,000 nanograms per liter. During this study, 75 environmental, 13 field duplicate samples, and 9 field spike samples of bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for a wide variety of CECs. Forty-seven of the 57 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 5433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.921 to 25,800 nanograms per gram. Seventeen of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols (research method 6434) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 8,921 nanograms per gram. Twelve of

  5. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  6. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  7. Increase of manufacturability of manufacturing of difficult profile details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ye. Semenovskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problems arising in the process of manufacturing such complex profile parts as gears is carried out. The possible ways of simplifying the technological processes with the aim of improving the economic performance of production, as well as reducing the defect are defined. The carried out researches of influence of chemical composition of steel, its structural parameters on technological characteristics. The choice of compositions of the chemical composition of steel with the optimal ratio of physical-mechanical and technological characteristics is substantiated. The causes of deformation of parts in the process of heat treatment are established. The developed criteria for estimating this value. At the same time, the task of not only qualitative but also quantitative evaluation of such technological properties as the propensity of steels to deformation in the course of chemical-thermal treatment is solved, with the aim of introducing a single characteristic that determines the tendency of the steel to deform during hardening. Reducing the propensity of steel to deformation allowed to increase the economic performance of production by reducing the number of finishing operations.

  8. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  9. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  10. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  11. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  12. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  13. Growth challenges in small manufacturing ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    This is a teaching case study that addresses the issues of emergence, legitimation, growth and internationalization of small manufacturing firms located in remote areas in an emerging economy.......This is a teaching case study that addresses the issues of emergence, legitimation, growth and internationalization of small manufacturing firms located in remote areas in an emerging economy....

  14. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  15. Safety concerns in composite manufacturing and machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Alonayni, Abdullah; Alamir, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Because of the superior properties, composites have been used in many industrial applications, including aerospace, wind turbines, ships, cars, fishing rods, storage tanks, swimming pool panels, and baseball bats. Each application may require different combinations of reinforcements and matrices, which make the manufacturing safety even more challenging while working on these substances. In this study, safety issues in composite manufacturing and machining were investigated in detail, and latest developments were provided for workers. The materials most frequently used in composite manufacturing, such as matrix (polyester, vinylester, phenolic, epoxies, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoil peroxide, hardeners, and solvents), and reinforcement materials (carbon, glass and Kevlar fibers, honeycomb and foams) can be highly toxic to human body. These materials can also be very toxic to the environment when dumped out uncontrollably, creating major future health and environmental concerns. Throughout the manufacturing process, workers inhale vapors of the liquid matrix, hardeners and solvents / thinners, as well as reinforcement materials (chopped fibers and particles) in airborne. Milling, cutting and machining of the composites can further increase the toxic inhalations of airborne composite particles, resulting in major rashes, irritation, skin disorders, coughing, severe eye and lung injury and other serious illnesses. The major portions of these hazardous materials can be controlled using appropriate personal protective equipment for the chemicals and materials used in composite manufacturing and machining. This study provides best possible safety practices utilized in composite manufacturing facilities for workers, engineers and other participants.

  16. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  17. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  18. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  19. Up-to-date concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides in the Tom and Ob rivers in the area influenced by discharges from Siberian chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.; Bashkirov, N.I.; Valetova, N.K.; Dunaev, G.E.; Kabanov, A.I.; Katrich, I.Yu; Krutovsky, A.O.; Nikitin, V.A.; Petrenko, G.I.; Polukhina, A.M.; Selivanova, G.V.; Shkuro, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is located in Seversk (formerly known as Tomsk-7) in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation. The main contribution of radionuclides in the SCC process water discharged into the Tom River was from the single-pass reactors, now removed from service (the last SCC reactor was shutdown on June 5, 2008). The data on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tom and Ob rivers from Tomsk to the confluence of the rivers, are presented and discussed. The results of measurements carried out after shutdown of the last SCC single-pass reactor indicated no radiologically significant consequences of SCC activities for the studied water environment compartments. Contemporary activity concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in river water were below the intervention levels established by current regulations of the Russian Federation for these radionuclides. The results of 3 H analysis in water from the Tom and Samuska rivers demonstrated no inflow of contaminated formation water to surface water from the sites where liquid radioactive wastes of the SCC were injected below the surface. However, the density of flood-plain soil contamination by long-lived 137 Cs in the area influenced by SCC liquid discharges was higher than regional technogenic background. There were local flood-plain areas contaminated not only by 137 Cs, but also other gamma-emitters, such as 60 Co and 152 Eu.

  20. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoske, Richard [ORNL; Kennedy, Patrick [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Huxford, Theodore J [ORNL; Bonavita, Angelo M [ORNL; Engleman, Greg [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Griest, Wayne H [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  1. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. In this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  2. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huan; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-01-01

    Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. Here in this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  3. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  4. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  5. Acetal Resins, Acrylic & Modacrylic Fibers, Carbon Black, Hydrogen Fluoride, Polycarbonate, Ethylene, Spandex & Cyanide Chemical Manufacturing: NESHAP for Source Categories, Generic Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (40 CFR 63, Subpart YY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for GMACT for acetal resins, hydrogen fluoride, polycarbonate, ethylene production and cyanide chemicals. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, rule summary, and additional resources

  6. Chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron ages of zircon and monazite from granitic rocks of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yihunie, Tadesse

    2003-01-01

    CHIME (Chemical Th-U-total Pb Isochron Method) age determinations were made on zircon and monazite grains from granitoid samples in the Negele area of southern Ethiopia. A 611±32 Ma zircon age was obtained from a syn-tectonic hornblende-biotite granite of the Alghe domain. A 453±29 Ma zircon age and a 459±16 Ma monazite age were also obtained from post-tectonic two-mica granites of the Alghe domain and the Kenticha domain, respectively. Since these ca. 450 Ma zircon and monazite ages coincide well, as significant post-tectonic granitic magmatism appears to have occurred in southern Ethiopia in early Paleozoid time. The new CHIME age results indicate at least two episodes of granitic magmatism in southern Ethiopia in the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic, with a ca. 150 Ma interval between syn- and post-tectonic granitic emplacements, and have a important geochronological constraint on the evolution of the East African Orogen. (author)

  7. Determination on the chemical composition of Ammonia beccarii shell using SEM and EDX: Preliminary study of benthic foraminifera capacity in response to anthropogenic metal contamination in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rositasari, R.; Suratno; Yogaswara, D.

    2018-02-01

    The use of single-celled and shelled biota, such as foraminifera that lives as benthic, in coastal environmental monitoring activity is very efficient. Several species of the Ammonia have been used as a proxy of various aquatic environmental monitoring activities. Chemical constituents screening in foraminiferal shell is a step ahead to identify the capacity of benthic foraminifera in responding to anthropogenic metal contamination in coastal water areas. The initial hypothesis of this study is the calcite test of Ammonia beccarii binds the anthropogenic metal in its shell structure and triggers the deformation test. The normal and abnormal shells of Ammonia specimens from Jakarta Bay and Batam waters are used in this study. The Ponar grab was used to sample surface sediment in Jakarta Bay and Batam waters in 2015, and the short core was used to acquire substratum sediment in Jakarta Bay in 2011.The Ammonia beccarii shell was analyzed using SEM and EDX detectors (Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray). The shooting was performed three times in each test, i.e. in the first chamber (proloculus), the last chamber and the chamber between the two. The main building blocks of the foraminifera test are oxygen with an average weight range of 42.86 - 58.79% and carbon with an average weight range of 17.69 - 26.32%. There is a tendency for low levels of C and O elements in the abnormal tests.

  8. Relationships between persistent organic chemicals residues and biochemical constituents in fish from a protected area: the French National Nature Reserve of Camargue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Hélène; Buet, Astrid; Ramade, François

    2002-11-01

    The Reserve of Biosphere of Camargue [French National Nature Reserve of Camargue (NNRC)] is a protected area frequently exposed to natural and anthropogenic environmental alterations. To evaluate potential contamination of fish with lipophilic chemicals-organochlorines (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-a biological monitoring survey was carried out. Metabolic reserve levels were evaluated to select appropriate biological indicators able to be significant biomarkers. In addition, the incorporation of xenobiotic molecules in the lipid compartments was investigated. The contents of glycogen, total lipids, proteins and lipidic phosphorus were analyzed in liver and skeletal muscles of three teleostean: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla); the crucian carp (Carassius auratus); and the catfish (Ictalurus melas). The atmospheric origin of the PAH detected in any season in the biomass and the OCs compounds contamination by derive from agricultural treatments are established. In contradiction with some laboratory acute intoxication studies, we observe a positive correlation between tissue concentrations of contaminants and the muscular glycogen amount, a sensitive energy reserve marker. Moreover, it seems likely that the incorporation of these xenobiotics is located preferentially in the membrane structures.

  9. Performance measurement integrated information framework in e-Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Hilaida; Hernandez, Juan Carlos; Vizán, Antonio; Ríos, José

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Internet technologies has led to e-Manufacturing technologies becoming more widely used and to the development of tools for compiling, transforming and synchronising manufacturing data through the Web. In this context, a potential area for development is the extension of virtual manufacturing to performance measurement (PM) processes, a critical area for decision making and implementing improvement actions in manufacturing. This paper proposes a PM information framework to integrate decision support systems in e-Manufacturing. Specifically, the proposed framework offers a homogeneous PM information exchange model that can be applied through decision support in e-Manufacturing environment. Its application improves the necessary interoperability in decision-making data processing tasks. It comprises three sub-systems: a data model, a PM information platform and PM-Web services architecture. A practical example of data exchange for measurement processes in the area of equipment maintenance is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  10. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  11. A new survey method of tsunami inundation area using chemical analysis of soil. Application to the field survey on the 2010 Chilean tsunami at Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Takumi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Koshimura, Shunichi; Mas, Erick; Matsuoka, Masashi; Jimenez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The severe earthquake of Mw 8.8 occurred on 27 Feb. 2010 at the center of Chile. The tsunami generated by the earthquake attacked the coast of Chile and it propagated to the Pacific Ocean coastline. The field survey on the disaster damages due to the tsunami was conducted near Talcahuano in Chile to prepare for the great tsunamis accompanied by the earthquakes predicted to occur near Japan within several decades. The aims of this field survey were to survey disaster damages especially relevant to electric equipments and to develop the survey method based on a chemical analysis of the inundated soil which supplies objective data with high accuracy compared to the conventional methods. In the survey area, the average of inundation heights was 6 m, however it locally reached up to 25 m. The maximum sea-level height of the series of the tsunamis was recorded in the third or fourth wave (roughly 3 hours after the earthquake occurrence). The first floors of houses were severely destroyed and some ships were carried and left on land by the tsunamis. Furthermore, the large amount of sediment was deposited in towns. Removing the drifted ships and tsunami deposit is important consideration for quick recovery from a disaster due to a tsunami. The soil samples were obtained from both the inundated and the not-inundated position. The stirred solution was made by the soil and ultrapure water, then, the content of water-soluble ions, electric conductivity (EC), and pH were measured. The soil obtained in the tsunami inundated area contains much water-soluble ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2- ) compared to the samples obtained in the not-inundated area. The discriminant analysis of the tsunami inundation was conducted using the amount of ions in the soil. High discriminant accuracy (over 90%) was obtained with Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2- and EC. Br - , Cl - , Na + are believed to be suitable for the discriminant analysis about tsunamis considering the contaminant

  12. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  14. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS INTERPRETATION FOR GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE COASTAL AREA, NORTH KELANTAN, MALAYSIA (Interpretasi Karakterisasi Fisika dan Kimia Untuk Penilaian Kualitas Airtanah di Area Pesisir, Kelantan Utara, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physical and chemical groundwater interpretation has been done in order to characterize and assess its associated problem in the coastal area, North Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of thirty three groundwater samples that consisted of sixteen groundwater samples were collected directly from existing well and together with seventeen groundwater data obtained from government agency, were used in this study. The depth of groundwater sample was varied from the shallow (3.5 m to the deeper (130 m aquifer. The physical groundwater characteristics were measured directly at the site just after the groundwater collected. The chemical content of the groundwater sample were analysed using Ion Chromatography (IC and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP. Finally the data was presented and interpreted using the bivariate and piper diagram to improve interpretation and analysis of the whole data. Analysis result of the groundwater sample indicates that the shallow aquifer can be categorized as fresh water. In the zone with marine soil deposit, chloride and sulphate concentration tend to be higher in the water sample. However, the concentration of water sample is still within the accepted limit for human consumption. In places with relatively higher usage of chemical fertilizer, the groundwater sample exhibits higher nitrate concentration more than limit of safe for human consumption (>45 mg/L. K, Ca, Mg and Na content have a positive correlation with chloride concentration in deeper aquifer, indicating that the ions are derived from the same source of saline waters. The relationship between Cl/HCO3 ratios and chloride also shows that the fresh groundwater and seawater mixing in aquifer, and the samples with lower ratios can be categorized as fresh waters. In the shallow aquifer most ions exhibit a poor correlation to chloride indicating that such ions are derived from a different source. ABSTRAK Interpretasi karakter fisika dan kimia air tanah telah dilakukan

  15. USCAR LEP ESST Advanced Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, L.J.

    2000-09-25

    The objective of this task was to provide processing information data summaries on powder metallurgy (PM) alloys that meet the partner requirements for the production of low mass, highly accurate, near-net-shape powertrain components. This required modification to existing ISO machinability test procedures and development of a new drilling test procedure. These summaries could then be presented in a web page format. When combined with information generated from the USCAR CRADA this would allow chemical, metallurgical, and machining data on PM alloys to be available to all engineering and manufacturing personnel that have access to in-house networks. The web page format also allows for the additions of other wrought materials, making this a valuable tool to the technical staffs.

  16. 4th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Setchi, Rossi; Cimatti, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This volume includes papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing (SDM-17) held in Bologna, Italy, in April 2017. The conference covered a wide range of topics from cutting-edge sustainable product design and service innovation, sustainable processes and technology for the manufacturing of sustainable products, sustainable manufacturing systems and enterprises, decision support for sustainability, and the study of the societal impact of sustainability including research for circular economy. Application areas are wide and varied, and the book provides an excellent overview of the latest research and development in the area of Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

  17. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  18. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  19. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  20. Flexibility in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reparaz, A.; Stavig, W.E.; McLees, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers