WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical manufacturers association

  1. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  2. Chemicals manufacture via biotechnology - the prospects for western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.; Kristiansen, B.

    1985-09-02

    The trend of European chemical and biotechnological companies to move away from low value, high volume bulk chemicals towards the manufacture of high value, low volume, fine and speciality chemicals will continue into the 21st century. The manufacture of fine chemicals (principally antibiotics, biopesticides, enzymes and organic acids) and commodity chemicals (principally butanol and industrial ethanol) necessitates 1.5Mt and 2-3 Mt of carbohydrate feedstocks for their production. Thus it is vital that the Common Agricultural Policy does not interfere with the progress of the biotechnology industry by maintaining carbohydrate feedstock prices at their present high levels.

  3. Computer integrated manufacturing in the chemical industry : Theory & practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Teelen, A.; Selen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibilities of implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing in the process industry, and the chemical industry in particular. After presenting some distinct differences of the process industry in relation to discrete manufacturing, a number of focal points are discussed.

  4. The exposure data landscape for manufactured chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeghy, Peter P; Judson, Richard; Gangwal, Sumit; Mosher, Shad; Smith, Doris; Vail, James; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information on chemical toxicity and exposure from widely dispersed sources. The main objective of this analysis is to define important aspects of the exposure space and to catalog the available exposure information for chemicals being considered for analysis as part of the U.S. EPA ToxCast™ screening and prioritization program. Publicly available exposure data have been extracted into ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource), which combines information for hundreds of thousands of chemicals from >600 public sources. We use data from ACToR to assess the exposure data landscape for environmental chemicals. Of the roughly 100,000 chemicals that have at least limited toxicity information available, less than one-fifth also have exposure information - and for most of these the information is of limited utility (e.g., production volume). Readily accessible data on concentrations in exposure-related media are only available for a much smaller fraction. Among these, the largest number of chemicals is measured in water with over 1150 unique compounds, followed by 788 substances measured in soil, and 670 in air. These small numbers clearly reflect a focus of resources on those substances previously identified as possibly posing a hazard to human health. Exposure to a much broader number of chemicals will need to be measured in order to fully realize the envisioned goal of using exposure information to guide toxicity testing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Tourniquet associated chemical burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.

  6. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  7. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  8. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  9. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seop; Park, Sun Joon; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing energy consumption has become a critical issue in manufacturing. The semiconductor industry in particular is confronted with environmental regulations on pollution associated with electric energy, chemical, and ultrapure water (UPW) consumptions. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a key process for planarization of dielectrics and metal films in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. The steps in the CMP process are idling, conditioning, wetting, wafer loading/unloading, head dropping, polishing, and rinsing. The electric energy, CMP slurry, and UPW consumptions associated with the process and their impacts on global warming are evaluated from an environmental standpoint. The estimates of electric energy, slurry, and UPW consumptions as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper will provide a technical aid for reducing the environmental burden associated with electricity consumption during the CMP process.

  10. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  12. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  13. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  14. 77 FR 43863 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on June 8, 2012, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  15. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 31, 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  16. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture and processing in the special production area. All manufacturing, processing, and use operations... shape or design during manufacture, (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part... production area, the ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance during manufacture, processing...

  17. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... 1117-AB24 Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic... for the List I chemicals ergotamine and ergonovine to illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled..., due to growing concerns regarding its use for the illicit manufacture of LSD. [[Page 17779...

  18. Chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yun-Chan; Kim, Do-Hee; Hwang, In-Nam; Song, Sun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Son, Ho-Hyun; Oh, Won-Mann

    2011-01-01

    An experimental Portland cement was manufactured with pure raw materials under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical constitution, physical properties, and biocompatibility of experimentally manufactured Portland cement with those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement. The composition of the cements was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). The setting time and compressive strength were tested. The biocompatibility was evaluated by using SEM and XTT assay. SEM and EDAX revealed the experimental Portland cement to have a similar composition to Portland cement. The setting time of the experimental Portland cement was significantly shorter than that of MTA and Portland cement. The compressive strength of the experimental Portland cement was lower than that of MTA and Portland cement. The experimental Portland cement showed a similar biocompatibility to MTA. The experimental Portland cement might be considered as a possible substitute for MTA in clinical usage after further testing. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inherent risks associated with manufacture of bioengineered ocular surface tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Ivan R; Johnson, Nigel T; Harkin, Damien G

    2006-12-01

    To review the potential health risks associated with bioengineered ocular surface tissue, which serves as a bellwether for other tissues. All clinical trials using bioengineered ocular surface tissue published between July 1, 1996, and June 30, 2005, were reviewed with respect to materials used and statements of risk assessment, risk remediation, adverse events, manufacturing standards, and regulatory oversight. Ninety-five percent of investigational protocols used 1 or more animal-derived products and an overlapping 95% used 1 or more donor human tissues. Consideration of risks reveals a very low probability of potential harm but a significant risk of disability or death if such an event were to occur. Details of ethics approval, patient consent, and donor serologic test results were not consistently provided. No references were made to risk assessment or to codes of manufacturing and clinical practice. While a degree of risk is associated with bioengineered ocular surface tissue, investigational reports of this new technology have yet to address issues of risk management and regulatory oversight. Attention to risk and codes of manufacturing and clinical practice will be required for advancement of the technology. We suggest the adoption of international standards to address these issues.

  20. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies in...

  1. Chemical problems associated with reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the chemical problems raised by the reprocessing of oxide base fuels. Taking the reprocessing of slightly irradiated metallic fuels as a reference, for which long experience has been gained, a review is made of the various stages of the Purex process, in which the increase in mass and activity of the actinides and fission products engenders constraints related to the recovery of fissile materials, their purification, the release rate and, in general, the operation of the installations. The following subjects are discussed: dissolution from the standpoint of dissolution residues and iodine trapping, extraction cycles with respect to the behavior of ruthenium, neptunium, plutonium, technetium and palladium, the recycling of medium activity wastes

  2. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN THE FOOD MANUFACTURING, CHEMICAL, AGRICULTURAL WHOLESALING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maude Roucan-Kane

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify factors determining a business investment strategy (i.e., the choice of investment commitment and form of organizational structure) in the food manufacturing, chemical, agricultural wholesaling and biotechnology industries. Propositions regarding strategic alliance theories are tested on over 400 inter-firm collaborative agreements using secondary data from major US and European companies for the 1994-97 period. Results suggest that transactions with...

  4. Automated Manufacturing/Robotics Technology: Certificate and Associate Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, Paul L.

    A description is provided of the Automated Manufacturing/Robotics program to be offered at Delaware County Community College beginning in September 1984. Section I provides information on the use of reprogramable industrial robots in manufacturing and the rapid changes in production that can be effected through the application of automated…

  5. Fibre Laser Cutting and Chemical Etching of AZ31 for Manufacturing Biodegradable Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gökhan Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium-alloy stents shows promise as a less intrusive solution for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies as a result of the high biocompatibility of the material and its intrinsic dissolution in body fluids. However, in addition to requiring innovative solutions in material choice and design, these stents also require a greater understanding of the manufacturing process to achieve the desired quality with improved productivity. The present study demonstrates the manufacturing steps for the realisation of biodegradable stents in AZ31 magnesium alloy. These steps include laser microcutting with a Q-switched fibre laser for the generation of the stent mesh and subsequent chemical etching for the cleaning of kerf and surface finish. Specifically, for the laser microcutting step, inert and reactive gas cutting conditions were compared. The effect of chemical etching on the reduction in material thickness, as well as on spatter removal, was also evaluated. Prototype stents were produced, and the material composition and surface quality were characterised. The potentialities of combining nanosecond laser microcutting and chemical etching are shown and discussed.

  6. Enhanced anti-counterfeiting measures for additive manufacturing: coupling lanthanide nanomaterial chemical signatures with blockchain technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Stephenson, David E.; Christ, Josef F.; Pope, Timothy R.; Arey, Bruce W.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-08-18

    The significant rise of additive manufacturing (AM) in recent years is in part due to the open sourced nature of the printing processes and reduced cost and capital barriers relative to traditional manufacturing. However, this democratization of manufacturing spurs an increased demand for producers and end-users to verify the authenticity and quality of individual parts. To this end, we introduce an anti-counterfeiting method composed of first embedding engineered nanomaterials into features of a 3D-printed part followed by non-destructive interrogation of these features to quantify a chemical signature profile. The part specific chemical signature data is then linked to a securitized, distributed, and time-stamped blockchain ledger entry. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, lanthanide-aspartic acid nanoscale coordination polymers (Ln3+- Asp NCs) / poly(lactic) acid (PLA) composites were formulated and transformed into a filament feedstock for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. In the present case, a quick-response (QR) code containing the doped Ln3+-Asp NCs was printed using a dual-extruder FDM printer into pure PLA parts. The QR code provides a searchable reference to an Ethereum-based blockchain entry. The QR code physical features also serve as defined areas to probe the signatures arising from the embedded Ln3+-Asp NCs. Visible fluorescence emission with UV-excitation was quantified in terms of color using a smartphone camera and incorporated into blockchain entries. Ultimately, linking unique chemical signature data to blockchain databases is anticipated to make the costs of counterfeiting AM materials significantly more prohibitive and transactions between those in the supply chain more trustworthy.

  7. Advanced chemical quality control techniques for use in the manufacture of (U-Pu) MOX fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panakkal, J.P.; Prakash, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel cycle activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to various stringent chemical specifications like B, rare earths, H, O/M heavy metal content etc. Selection of technique is very important to determine the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses has to be performed inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of the advanced techniques being developed and used in the manufacture of (U,Pu) MOX fuels. (author)

  8. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iveson, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Chemical Security Threat Reduction

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  9. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  10. Washing of gel particles in wet chemical manufacture of reactor fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, H.

    1980-07-01

    In the manufacture of HTR fuel particles and particles of fertile material by wet chemical methods, the ammonium nitrate formed during the precipitation reaction must be washed out of the gel particles. This washing process has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. A counter-current washer has been developed which in particular takes account of the aspects of refabrication - such as compact construction and minimum waste. A counter-current washing column of 17 mm internal diameter and 640 mm length gives to gel particle throughput of 0.65 1/h. The volume ratio of wash water to gel particles is 5, and the residual nitrate concentration in the particles is 7 x 10 -3 mols of NO - 3 /1. (orig.) [de

  11. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  12. Web-Based Implementation of E-Marketing to Support Product Marketing of Chemical Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswan Efendi Tarigan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such    as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing  products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.

  13. Designation of Alpha-Phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), a Precursor Chemical Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Phenylacetone, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine, as a List I Chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the designation of the chemical alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN) and its salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers, as a list I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The DEA proposed control of APAAN, due to its use in clandestine laboratories to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substances phenylacetone (also known as phenyl-2-propanone or P2P), methamphetamine, and amphetamine. This rulemaking finalizes, without change, the control of APAAN as a list I chemical. This action does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of APAAN. As such, all transactions involving APAAN, regardless of size, shall be regulated. In addition, chemical mixtures containing APAAN are not exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of APAAN shall be regulated pursuant to the CSA. However, manufacturers may submit an application for exemption for those mixtures that do not qualify for automatic exemption.

  14. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  15. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L -1 ). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  16. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura [Área de Ciencias de la Tierra y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico); Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rivera, Ana Leonor, E-mail: analeonor.ventura.2016@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, DF (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  17. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L(-1)). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clays for brick manufacturing in Actopan, Hidalgo: physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Tovar, Raul; Yañez-Hernández, Osiris Annel; Pérez-Moreno, Fidel; Rodríguez-Lugo, Ventura; Rivera, José de Jesús Cruz; Rivera, Ana Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Samples of clays from Actopan, Hidalgo employed in brick manufacturing are physical, chemical and mineralogical characterized. Transmitted polarized light microscopy showed a uniform particle size with grain morphology characteristic of euhedral crystals with quartz, feldspars, nontronite, and iron oxides particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed 75 μm to 90 μm wide subhedral structures formed by particles from 2.0 μm to 5.0 μm; and rombohedrales forms 40 μm wide, 70 µm long, constituted of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, calcium, minor amounts of potassium, magnesium, and sodium. Minerals such as quartz, albite, cristobalite, calcium and Hematite phases were recognized by X-Ray Diffraction technique. Chemical analysis by atomic emission spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma confirmed this mineralogy composition while laser granulometry method found the same particle size. Grain size analysis determined submicrometric dimensions, and multimodal type curves, that can be interpreted as the mixing of two or more different mineral phases in each sample. (author)

  19. An Easy to Manufacture Micro Gas Preconcentrator for Chemical Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Fung, Alexander G; LeVasseur, Michael K; Pedersen, Josephine M; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-08-25

    We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17.6 °C/s was observed. Adsorption and desorption flow parameters were optimized to be 90 SCCM and 25 SCCM, respectively, for a multicomponent gas mixture. Under testing conditions using Tenax TA sorbent, the device was capable of measuring analytes down to 22 ppb with only a 2 min sample loading time using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. Two separate devices were compared by measuring the same chemical mixture; both devices yielded similar peak areas and widths (fwhm: 0.032-0.033 min), suggesting reproducibility between devices.

  20. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602). (4) Environmental transformation product means any chemical... substance, any reasonably anticipated metabolites, environmental transformation products, or byproducts of... EPA under this section which the manufacturer claims to be confidential business information, the...

  2. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  4. DFS Associates: Simple ways to become a good manufacturer's representative

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra K. Pharre

    2018-01-01

    Being one of the trusted manufacturer’s representative firms for RF and microwave products and services, DFS Associates wanted to impart a few insights to consider in becoming a good manufacturer’s representative with this article. Firstly, you need to understand what it does if you’re interested on becoming one where it could be an individual or a small business that can represent a manufacturer’s products and services effectively to the marketplace. You can choose between representing one m...

  5. 77 FR 70189 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... propylthiophenethylamine (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Mescaline (7381) I 3,4,5... manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code 7370...

  6. 77 FR 47115 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Mescaline (7381) I 3,4,5... (1205) II The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In...

  7. Applicability of chemical vapour polishing of additive manufactured parts to meet production-quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method is the most rapidly growing Additive Manufacturing (AM) method[1]. FDM employs a 2.5D deposition scheme which induce a step-ladder shaped surface definition [2], with seams of the individual layers clearly visible[3]. This paper investigate to which...... of FDM manufactured parts can be taken from their current quality into the precision engineering domain....

  8. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR 39340, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to...

  9. Extension of association models to complex chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard

    Summary of “Extension of association models to complex chemicals”. Ph.D. thesis by Ane Søgaard Avlund The subject of this thesis is application of SAFT type equations of state (EoS). Accurate and predictive thermodynamic models are important in many industries including the petroleum industry......; CPA and sPC-SAFT. Phase equilibrium and monomer fraction calculations with sPC-SAFT for methanol are used in the thesis to illustrate the importance of parameter estimation when using SAFT. Different parameter sets give similar pure component vapor pressure and liquid density results, whereas very...... association is presented in the thesis, and compared to the corresponding lattice theory. The theory for intramolecular association is then applied in connection with sPC-SAFT for mixtures containing glycol ethers. Calculations with sPC-SAFT (without intramolecular association) are presented for comparison...

  10. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77 FR 43863, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer...

  11. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  12. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Association rule mining data for census tract chemical exposure analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical concentration, exposure, and health risk data for U.S. census tracts from National Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). This dataset is associated with the...

  14. On the Concept "Chemical Equilibrium": The Associative Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussarsky, Esther; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1990-01-01

    Word associations were used to map high school students' concepts of "chemical equilibrium" and "equilibrium." It was found that the preconception of the two concepts was differentiated on noncritical dimensions. (Author/CW)

  15. Human resource factors associated with workplace safety and health education of small manufacturing businesses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Ok

    2018-01-25

    Human resources (HR) are essential indicators of safety and health (SH) status, and HR can be key sources of workplace safety management such as safety and health education at work (SHEW). This study analyzed significant HR factors associated with SHEW of small manufacturing businesses in Korea. The secondary data of the 2012 Korea Occupational Safety and Health Trend Survey were used to achieve this research purpose. A total of 2,089 supervisors or managers employed in the small manufacturing businesses completed the interview survey. Survey businesses were selected by multiple stratified sampling method based on industry code, business size, and region in Korea. The survey included workplace characteristics of HR and SHEW. SHEW was significantly related to business size, occupational injury incidence in the previous year, foreign and elderly worker employment, presence of site supervisors, and presence of SH committees (p <.05). SHEW for office workers, non-office workers, and newcomers was associated with business size, presence of site supervisors, and presence of SH committees in logistic regression analysis (p <.001). Businesses with 30-49 workers conducted SHEW 3.64 times more than did businesses with 5 to fewer than 10 workers. The companies that had occupational injuries in the previous year conducted SHEW 1.68 times more than the others. The businesses that had site supervisors and committees conducted SHEW 2.30 and 2.18 times more, respectively, than others. Site supervisors and SH committees were significant HR factors that improved SHEW in small manufacturing businesses.

  16. Design, manufacturing and commissioning of mobile unit for EDF (Dow Chemical process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangini, D.; Cordier, J.P.; PEC Engineering, Osny, France)

    1985-01-01

    To process their spent ion exchange resins and the liquid wastes, EDF has ordered from PEC a mobile unit using the DOW CHEMICAL binder. This paper presents the EDF's design requirements as well as the new French regulation for waste embedding. The mobile unit was started in January 1983 and commissioned successfully in January 1985 in the TRICASTIN EDF's power plant

  17. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  18. Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Obesity in Hispanic Manufacturing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Grant; Ghaddar, Suad F; Talavera-Garza, Liza

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between obesity and sleep duration among Hispanic manufacturing workers. Two hundred and twenty eight Hispanic workers from eight manufacturing plants completed an in-person interview that included measures of demographics, health literacy, and sleep duration. Height and weight were directly assessed. A logistic regression, controlling for gender, education, age, income, physical activity levels, self-reported health status, and health literacy, indicated that workers who slept six hours or less were significantly more likely to be obese than those sleeping seven to nine hours (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.04-3.47). Our results extend previous research on the association between sleep duration and obesity to an understudied population of Hispanic workers.

  19. Low accessibility and chemical activity of PAHs restrict bioremediation and risk of exposure in a manufactured gas plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichenberg, Fredrik; Karlson, Ulrich Gosewinkel; Gustafsson, Orjan; Long, Sara M.; Pritchard, Parmely H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Composting of manufactured gas plant soil by a commercial enterprise had removed most of its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but concentrations remained above regulatory threshold levels. Several amendments and treatments were first tested to restart the PAH degradation, albeit with little success. The working hypothesis was then that PAHs were 'stuck' due to strong sorption to black carbon. Accessibility was measured with cyclodextrin extractions and on average only 4% of the PAHs were accessible. Chemical activity of the PAHs was measured by equilibrium sampling, which confirmed a low exposure level. These results are consistent with strong sorption to black carbon (BC), which constituted 59% of the total organic carbon. Composting failed to remove the PAHs, but it succeeded to minimize PAH accessibility and chemical activity. This adds to accumulating evidence that current regulatory thresholds based on bulk concentrations are questionable and alternative approaches probing actual risk should be considered. - Bioremediation of MGP soil failed to eliminate PAHs but it succeeded to limit their accessibility, chemical activity and the remaining risk of biological exposure.

  20. Studies on the utilization of agricultural residues in the manufacture of pulp and paper, and industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, V.S.; Kamath, G.P.; Basu, S.

    1980-03-15

    While demand for pulp and paper products in India is increasing at the annual rate of 7 to 8%, availability of cellulosic raw material to meet the ever increasing demand is becoming a serious problem. It has been estimated that bamboo, the traditional source of cellulosic raw material in India, even after ensuring the most scientific and best possible exploitation, could provide less than 50% of the requirement. In a big agricultural country like India, agri-residues like straws and bagasse, along with jute sticks, available in huge quantity, could provide substantial amount of cellulosic resources to the pulp and paper industry. Realizing the importance of agri-residue utilization in Indian economy, a series of research projects have been initiated and completed during the last 15 years to study the techno-economic feasibility of manufacturing pulp, paper, and industrial chemicals, based on rice and wheat straws, bagasse, and jute sticks. The economic advantages of the mechano-chemical pulping process, as compared to the conventional pressure, pulping process, for the conversion of agri-residues into pulp and paer is evaluated. For highlighting the importance of agri-residues in the field of useful chemical recovery possibilities, experimental data are given on the saccarification of agri-residues into reducing sugars by the simple acid hydrolysis method with the help of concentrated sulfuric acid.

  1. Fracture initiation associated with chemical degradation: observation and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byoungho Choi; Zhenwen Zhou; Chudnovsky, Alexander [Illinois Univ., Dept. of Civil and Materials Engineering (M/C 246), Chicago, IL (United States); Stivala, Salvatore S. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Sehanobish, Kalyan; Bosnyak, Clive P. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The fracture initiation in engineering thermoplastics resulting from chemical degradation is usually observed in the form of a microcrack network within a surface layer of degraded polymer exposed to a combined action of mechanical stresses and chemically aggressive environment. Degradation of polymers is usually manifested in a reduction of molecular weight, increase of crystallinity in semi crystalline polymers, increase of material density, a subtle increase in yield strength, and a dramatic reduction in toughness. An increase in material density, i.e., shrinkage of the degraded layer is constrained by adjacent unchanged material results in a buildup of tensile stress within the degraded layer and compressive stress in the adjacent unchanged material due to increasing incompatibility between the two. These stresses are an addition to preexisting manufacturing and service stresses. At a certain level of degradation, a combination of toughness reduction and increase of tensile stress result in fracture initiation. A quantitative model of the described above processes is presented in these work. For specificity, the internally pressurized plastic pipes that transport a fluid containing a chemically aggressive (oxidizing) agent is used as the model of fracture initiation. Experimental observations of material density and toughness dependence on degradation reported elsewhere are employed in the model. An equation for determination of a critical level of degradation corresponding to the offset of fracture is constructed. The critical level of degradation for fracture initiation depends on the rates of toughness deterioration and build-up of the degradation related stresses as well as on the manufacturing and service stresses. A method for evaluation of the time interval prior to fracture initiation is also formulated. (Author)

  2. Synthetic biology for manufacturing chemicals: constraints drive the use of non-conventional microbial platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Jeffrey; Wang, Qinhong; Wang, Yechun; Tang, Yinjie J

    2017-10-01

    Genetically modified microbes have had much industrial success producing protein-based products (such as antibodies and enzymes). However, engineering microbial workhorses for biomanufacturing of commodity compounds remains challenging. First, microbes cannot afford burdens with both overexpression of multiple enzymes and metabolite drainage for product synthesis. Second, synthetic circuits and introduced heterologous pathways are not yet as "robust and reliable" as native pathways due to hosts' innate regulations, especially under suboptimal fermentation conditions. Third, engineered enzymes may lack channeling capabilities for cascade-like transport of metabolites to overcome diffusion barriers or to avoid intermediate toxicity in the cytoplasmic environment. Fourth, moving engineered hosts from laboratory to industry is unreliable because genetic mutations and non-genetic cell-to-cell variations impair the large-scale fermentation outcomes. Therefore, synthetic biology strains often have unsatisfactory industrial performance (titer/yield/productivity). To overcome these problems, many different species are being explored for their metabolic strengths that can be leveraged to synthesize specific compounds. Here, we provide examples of non-conventional and genetically amenable species for industrial manufacturing, including the following: Corynebacterium glutamicum for its TCA cycle-derived biosynthesis, Yarrowia lipolytica for its biosynthesis of fatty acids and carotenoids, cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production from its sugar phosphate pathways, and Rhodococcus for its ability to biotransform recalcitrant feedstock. Finally, we discuss emerging technologies (e.g., genome-to-phenome mapping, single cell methods, and knowledge engineering) that may facilitate the development of novel cell factories.

  3. Animal use in the chemical and product manufacturing sectors - can the downtrend continue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, a number of manufacturing companies in the cosmetic, personal care and household product industries were able to substantially reduce their use of animals for testing (or to not use animals in the first place). These reductions were almost always the result of significant financial contributions to either direct, in-house alternatives research, or to support personnel whose duties were to understand and apply the current state-of-the-art for in vitro testing. They occurred almost exclusively in non-regulatory areas, and primarily involved acute topical toxicities. Over the last few years, the reduction in animal use has been much less dramatic, because some companies are still reluctant to change from the traditional animal studies, because systemic, repeat-dose toxicity is more difficult to model in vitro, and because many products still require animal testing for regulatory approval. Encouragingly, we are now observing an increased acceptance of non-animal methods by regulatory agencies. This is due to mounting scientific evidence from larger databases, agreement by companies to share data and testing strategies with regulatory agencies, and a focus on smaller domains of applicability. These changes, along with new emphasis and financial support for addressing systemic toxicities, promise to provide additional possibilities for industry to replace animals with in vitro methods, alone or in combination with in silico methods. However, the largest advance will not occur until more companies commit to using the non-animal test strategies that are currently available. 2009 FRAME.

  4. Assessment of a chemical pollutant on workers’ health in a vehicle manufacturing factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asadi-Lari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Occupational diseases impose considerable burden on public health, wherein chemical pollutants in working places play an important role. One of chemical pollutants  in vehicle's lock & key assembly factories is cyanoacrylate used in" loctite glue", which is assumed harmful to workers' eyes, respiratory tract and skin. This study investigates the side effects of loctite adhesive on workers' health.   Methods   Across sectional study was conducted on all of workers of the vehicle's lock & key  assembly factory (100 workers. A health check list was completed for demographic   characteristics, and physical examination for all of workers and then all data were analysed using  statistical tests.   Results   Mean age of workers was 30± 8. In physical exam, the most common dermatologic  disease was dermatitis (prevalence: 25% , in pulmonary exam the most common sign was airway hyper-responsiveness, which presented as cough and dispnea (prevalence: 10% and there was a significant relationship between workers' eye itching & burning , airway hyper-responsiveness  and loctite adhesive exposure (P<0.01.   Conclusion   Eye itching & burning and airway hyper-responsiveness are side effects of loctite  glue. In this study we observed a relationship between the glue and disorders, hence due to the influence of this chemical material on workers' health. Results indicated that a health promotion   plan and relevant interventions should be designed to reduce exposure to loctite adhesive.

  5. A study on the chemical characteristics changes throughout the manufacture and ripening of Lighvan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirzae

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lighvan cheese is one of the traditional cheeses which have the most high quantity of use in Iran. It is produced in South East of Tabriz in North West of Iran. The raw milk of ewe together with 20% -30% of goat's milk, without yeast, are used for its production. Its taste is mild salty and its scent is pleasant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical indexes changes including salt percentage, the degree of acidity, pH, dry mater, ashes, and protein during the production and ripening. For this purpose, after coordinating with 10 local cheese producers, one batch from each producer and from each batch 20 tins, weighing 1 kg, which in total was 200 newly packaged cheese were purchased randomly. The tins were kept in special caves for 30 days in the region and then 60 days in refrigerator. In each batch sample of the raw milk, clot after rising and before salting, the cheese during the package time in tin and the cheese sample on 15th, 30th, 60th, and 90th days of ripining was analyzed chemically. The results of the study from the initial days of production to the end of the ripening period indicated the following changes: the rate of fat from 6.8 ± 0.25 in milk to 24.55±0.95 in samples, pH from 5.94± 0.06 in milk to 4.4±0.11 in samples, acidity from 39.4 ± 5.99 D° in milk to 119.4±5.38 in samples, rate of ash from 1.77±0.23 in milk to 8.09±2.32 in samples, the percentage of dry mater from 16.52±0.74 in milk to 43.57±1.34 in samples, and finally the percentage of protein from 4.45±1/12 in milk to 14.2±1.4 in samples. This result suggests that Lighvan cheese has unique characteristics in terms of its alteration procedure and chemical characteristics and based on the standard criterion in Iran, 2344-1, it is white cheese ripened brine in terms of chemical characteristics and fatty cheese in terms of the percentage of fat.

  6. Optimization of chemical composition in the manufacturing process of flotation balls based on intelligent soft sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dučić Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of computational intelligence in modeling and optimization of parameters of two related production processes - ore flotation and production of balls for ore flotation. It is proposed that desired chemical composition of flotation balls (Mn=0.69%; Cr=2.247%; C=3.79%; Si=0.5%, which ensures minimum wear rate (0.47 g/kg during copper milling is determined by combining artificial neural network (ANN and genetic algorithm (GA. Based on the results provided by neuro-genetic combination, a second neural network was derived as an ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the process of white cast iron production. The proposed ANN 12-16-12-4 model demonstrated favourable prediction capacity, and can be recommended as a ‘intelligent soft sensor’ in the alloying process intended for obtaining favourable chemical composition of white cast iron for production of flotation balls. In the development of intelligent soft sensor data from the two real production processes was used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35037 i br. TR35015

  7. Work-related depression and associated factors in a shoe manufacturing factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khue Pham Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of work-related depression among the employees of a shoe manufacturing factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam. Material and Methods: We carried out this cross-sectional study among 420 workers in 2012 in Le Lai II Shoe Manufacturing Factory in Haiphong City, Vietnam using Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV tool for measuring depression. Results: The study results show that a relatively high proportion of workers (20.7% belongs to the high-strain group based on Karasek’s model. The prevalence of work-related depression among workers was relatively high (18.8%. The factors associated with depression at work were high psychological demand (adjusted OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–8.3, low social support (adjusted OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.2–12.8, inadequate work protection materials (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.2–10.1 and work absenteeism (OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.5–18.9. Conclusions: Strengthening the social support network (involving supervisors and co‑workers, reducing psychological job demand and assuring work protection materials at the workplace may highly facilitate reducing work-related depression.

  8. A study on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (muscovite, sericite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Il; Shin, Hee-Young; Hwang, Seon-Kook; Ahn, Ji-Hwan; Bae, Kwang-Hyun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    For the technical development on utilization of unused mineral resources, the study was carried out on the highly purification and mineral processing of domestic Sericite and Muscovite. This study was also carried out to make the functional materials for the use of fine chemical industry. Scope and content of study: 1) A study on the high purification and mineral processing for sericite and muscovite. 2) A study on the surface treatment of fine particles of sericite and muscovite. EDAX analysis on surface treated Mica shows that absorbed area on mica surface appears about 56 wt% when reaction period of 75 min. The result on image analysis on the surface treated mica comparing with that of EDAX analysis appears that the material was stabilized when passing the 1st yielding point. The dry process of surface modification on mica was applied by using {Theta}-composer. The result shows that whiteness of the mica increases upto 91 at 20 min. grinding period. Polymer microcapsulation was carried out on the mica surface. The result shows that materials appear excellent hydrophobic property which is one of important factors for making cosmetics. Based on the applying test of mineral processing on Dong-jin mica, the result shows that high quality mica is recovered. Especially, lithium mica produced in the mine will be further studied in the next year project. (author). 26 refs., 36 tabs., 61 figs.

  9. Use of KRS-XE positive chemically amplified resist for optical mask manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Brian; Deverich, Christina; Rabidoux, Paul A.; Peck, Barbara; Petrillo, Karen E.; Angelopoulos, Marie; Huang, Wu-Song; Moreau, Wayne M.; Medeiros, David R.

    2002-03-01

    The traditional mask making process uses chain scission-type resists such as PBS, poly(butene-1-sulfone), and ZEP, poly(methyl a-chloroacrylate-co-a-methylstyrene) for making masks with dimensions greater than 180nm. PBS resist requires a wet etch process to produce patterns in chrome. ZEP was employed for dry etch processing to meet the requirements of shrinking dimensions, optical proximity corrections and phase shift masks. However, ZEP offers low contrast, marginal etch resistance, organic solvent development, and concerns regarding resist heating with its high dose requirements1. Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) systems are a very good choice for dimensions less than 180nm because of their high sensitivity and contrast, high resolution, dry etch resistance, aqueous development, and process latitude2. KRS-XE was developed as a high contrast CA resist based on ketal protecting groups that eliminate the need for post exposure bake (PEB). This resist can be used for a variety of electron beam exposures, and improves the capability to fabricate masks for devices smaller than 180nm. Many factors influence the performance of resists in mask making such as post apply bake, exposure dose, resist develop, and post exposure bake. These items will be discussed as well as the use of reactive ion etching (RIE) selectivity and pattern transfer.

  10. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Studies on manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S K; Kim, B G; Chung, H S; Lee, J C [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Fine natural crystalline graphite which is used as a source material of a high electrically conductive film and an addition of advanced high functional solid lubricant. For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional properties to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. Surface modification methods: 1) Searching for suitable surfactant to improve dispersing characteristics in aqueous system. 2) Adsorption with oxygen on graphite surface to improve dispersing characteristics in oil. 3) Mechanochemical process using hybridization system is to shape control and spontaneous re-arrangement of the surface layer and interaction between the particle surface and extraneous molecules. In aqueous system, the optimum conditions for graphite to disperse is with 0.3-0.5% concentrations of surfactant Lomar D PWA-40 at pH range 10-11. In order to improve dispersing characteristics in oil, the optimum conditions to adsorb over 3.5% with oxygen on graphite surface are as follows: - Tip speed {yields} 3.9 m/sec, - Reaction time {yields} at least 30 min. at 120 deg.C - inert gas and pressure {yields} dried air, 1 kgf/cm{sup 2}. The oxygen contents acts critical point for dispersing graphite in oil system so needs to control oxygen contents by use of air pressure in reacting mill. Chemical methods for coating with Stearic acid and Paraffin need above 15 weight % to graphite powders. Mechanochemical process using hybridization system is to shape control and spontaneous re-arrangement of the surface layer and interaction between the particle surface and extraneous molecules. (author). 45 refs., 9 tabs., 23 figs.

  12. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  13. Eficiência da estabilização do solo e qualidade de tijolos prensados de terra crua tratada com aditivos químicos, avaliadas pela combinação de testes destrutivos e não-destrutivos Efficiency of soil stabilization and quality of bricks manufactured with soil added with chemical additives and evaluated through the association of destrutive and non-destructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis de C. Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de tijolos prensados de terra crua tratada quimicamente é influenciada basicamente pelo tipo de solo, adições químicas e período de cura. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a combinação de métodos destrutivos e não-destrutivos associados à análise estatística, para a avaliação da qualidade e da eficiência da estabilização de tijolos prensados de terra crua tratada com cimento, cal e silicato de sódio. Os teores de cimento e cal foram 0; 6 e 10%, e a dose de silicato de sódio foi de 4% em relação ao peso seco da mistura solo-aditivo. Após a sua moldagem, os tijolos foram submetidos à cura durante os períodos de 7; 28; 56 e 91 dias. As propriedades físico-mecânicas dos tijolos foram determinadas por meio de testes destrutivos, tais como a resistência à compressão simples e a absorção de água, e não-destrutivos por meio do ensaio acústico do ultra-som. Adotou-se o parâmetro "resistência anisotrópica" para simplificar as interpretações estatísticas. A adição química que conferiu a melhor qualidade técnica aos tijolos, foi a de 10% de cimento. O parâmetro resistência anisotrópica mostrou-se promissor com vistas à avaliação da qualidade técnica dos tijolos.The aim of this research was the studying of the efficiency of soil stabilization and the technical quality of bricks manufactured with two types of soil treated with chemical additives. For this purpose a sandy soil and a clayey one were added of Portland cement, lime and sodium silicate being their mechanical characteristics evaluated through both non-destructive and destructive methods. The Portland cement and lime admixture contents were 0; 6 and 10%, and the sodium silicate dosage was 4%. Those two methods were associated in order to describe precisely a quantitative parameter called "anisotropical resistance". The results showed that such a parameter could be used as a good index for brick's technical quality evaluation.

  14. [The criterion prognostic significance of examinations of chemiluminescence of oral fluid under impact of chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiullina, E F; Valiev, A v; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F; Buliakov, P T

    2013-12-01

    The article presents the results of studies concerning the effect of unfavorable factors of chemical nature on fluid of oral cavity among workers of the Ufa plant of elastomer materials, articles and structures. It is established that in persons contacting with chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production the indicators of chemiluminescence of saliva fluid are significantly expressed and depend on professional standing.

  15. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  16. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  17. Quality prediction modeling for multistage manufacturing based on classification and association rule mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Hung-An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing enterprises, product quality is a key factor to assess production capability and increase their core competence. To reduce external failure cost, many research and methodology have been introduced in order to improve process yield rate, such as TQC/TQM, Shewhart CycleDeming's 14 Points, etc. Nowadays, impressive progress has been made in process monitoring and industrial data analysis because of the Industry 4.0 trend. Industries start to utilize quality control (QC methodology to lower inspection overhead and internal failure cost. Currently, the focus of QC is mostly in the inspection of single workstation and final product, however, for multistage manufacturing, many factors (like equipment, operators, parameters, etc. can have cumulative and interactive effects to the final quality. When failure occurs, it is difficult to resume the original settings for cause analysis. To address these problems, this research proposes a combination of principal components analysis (PCA with classification and association rule mining algorithms to extract features representing relationship of multiple workstations, predict final product quality, and analyze the root-cause of product defect. The method is demonstrated on a semiconductor data set.

  18. Essential Aspects in Assessing the Safety Impact of Interactions between a Drug Product and Its Associated Manufacturing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    An emerging trend in the biotechnology industry is the utilization of plastic components in manufacturing systems for the production of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or a finished drug product (FDP). If the API, the FDP, or any solution used to generate them (for example, process streams such as media, buffers, and the like) come in contact with a plastic at any time during the manufacturing process, there is the potential that substances leached from the plastic may accumulate in the API or FDP, affecting safety and/or efficacy. In this article the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the article outlines the safety assessment process for manufacturing systems, specifically addressing the topics of risk management and the role of compendial testing. Finally, the proper use of vendor-supplied extractables information is considered. Manufacturing suites used to produce biopharmaceuticals can include components that are made out of plastics. Thus it is possible that substances could leach out of the plastics and into manufacturing solutions, and it is further possible that such leachables could accumulate in the pharmaceutical product. In this article, the author develops a terminology that addresses process streams associated with the manufacturing process. Additionally, the author proposes a process by which the impact on product safety of such leached substances can be assessed.

  19. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  1. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  2. Manufacturing a Porous Structure According to the Process Parameters of Functional 3D Porous Polymer Printing Technology Based on a Chemical Blowing Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, C. J.; Shin, B. S.; Kang, B. S.; Yun, D. H.; You, D. B.; Hong, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new porous polymer printing technology based on CBA(chemical blowing agent), and describe the optimization process according to the process parameters. By mixing polypropylene (PP) and CBA, a hybrid CBA filament was manufactured; the diameter of the filament ranged between 1.60 mm and 1.75 mm. A porous polymer structure was manufactured based on the traditional fused deposition modelling (FDM) method. The process parameters of the three-dimensional (3D) porous polymer printing (PPP) process included nozzle temperature, printing speed, and CBA density. Porosity increase with an increase in nozzle temperature and CBA density. On the contrary, porosity increase with a decrease in the printing speed. For porous structures, it has excellent mechanical properties. We manufactured a simple shape in 3D using 3D PPP technology. In the future, we will study the excellent mechanical properties of 3D PPP technology and apply them to various safety fields.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of manufactured nanomaterials - Characterisation and relevant methods. An outlook based on the OECD Testing Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Rauscher, Hubert; Mech, Agnieszka; Riego Sintes, Juan; Gilliland, Douglas; González, Mar; Kearns, Peter; Moss, Kenneth; Visser, Maaike; Groenewold, Monique; Bleeker, Eric A J

    Identifying and characterising nanomaterials require additional information on physico-chemical properties and test methods, compared to chemicals in general. Furthermore, regulatory decisions for chemicals are usually based upon certain toxicological properties, and these effects may not be

  4. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  5. Sugar cane manufacturing is associated with tuberculosis in an indigenous population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Ko, Albert I; Croda, Julio

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among indigenous peoples in Brazil, and identifying the risk factors for TB in this population secondary to specific epidemiological conditions is essential for recommending interventions aimed at disease control. This case-control study was conducted with an indigenous population between June 2009 and August 2011 in Dourados, Brazil. Tuberculosis cases reported to the national disease surveillance programme were paired with two control cases matched by age and geographic location. There were 63 cases included in this study, and the annual incidence of TB in the indigenous communities examined was 222 (95% CI, 148-321) per 100 000 inhabitants. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the variables associated with TB infection included male gender (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.3), not owning a home (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2-10.1), illiteracy (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.0), TB contact (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and work performed in a sugar cane factory (OR 6.8; 95% CI 1.2-36.9). There is a potential relationship between exposure to sugar cane manufacturing processes and tuberculosis infection among indigenous populations.

  6. Factors associated with the burnout syndrome among professionals in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and marketing 1234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vesna R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain authors describe some professions in the healthcare industry as the more susceptible ones to developing a burnout syndrome, while others suggest psychosocial aspects of the workplace as the primary cause in its creation, but not the aspects of the job itself. The main objective of the research was to investigate which specific factors were associated with the burnout syndrome among professionals working in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry and marketing. The study was conducted in June of 2016 as a cross-sectional study and it included 75 university educated professionals from the area of pharmaceutical industry and marketing employed in several local as well as internationally renowned pharmaceutical companies located in Belgrade. The participants were surveyed anonymously. The instruments used in the study were: a general socio-demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness self-evaluation questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An analysis of the responses in the burnout syndrome self-evaluation questionnaires showed that the highest level of burnout was expressed through reduced personal accomplishment (53%. The average assertiveness scores were the lowest in the individuals who demonstrated the highest level of emotional exhaustion (p=0.003, depersonalization (p=0.004, and the highest inefficiency on professional accomplishment scale (p=0.001. A statistically significant difference was observed in frequency and extent of emotional exhaustion with respect to respondents' gender (x2=10.779; p<0.05, as well as the line of business (x2=6.493; p<0.05. Levels of depersonalization are influenced by: line of work (x2=5.393; p<0.05, age (p=0.004, total years of service (p=0.009 and years of service in the profession (p=0.006. A sense of reduced personal accomplishment is influenced by a respondents' profession (x2=10.922; p<0.05 and line of business (x2=7.283; p<0.05. The results obtained in this study might help in identifying

  7. Abstracts Book of 42. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important chemical forum of Polish chemists organised annually. The state of art of many fundamental and applied investigations have been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: plenary session, analytical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry and environment, chemistry and technology of polymers, chemistry didactics, electrochemistry, young scientists forum, chemical technology, chemical engineering, high energetics materials, computers in research and teaching of chemistry, structure modelling and polymer properties, silicon-organic compounds

  8. Abstracts Book of Jubilee Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are most important chemical discussion forum organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as sections and symposia topics: organic chemistry, physical chemistry (chemical kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics), membranes and membrane processes, biological chemistry, biotechnology, metalorganic compounds and complexes, polymer chemistry, crystallochemical study, spectroscopy in nowadays chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, high-energetic materials, environment protection, didactics in chemistry, radiation chemistry, photochemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry and technology of carbohydrates, theoretical and computer chemistry, young scientists forum, history of chemistry

  9. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering

  10. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  11. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  12. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  13. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, C.J.; Newton, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures

  14. Quality prediction modeling for multistage manufacturing based on classification and association rule mining

    OpenAIRE

    Kao Hung-An; Hsieh Yan-Shou; Chen Cheng-Hui; Lee Jay

    2017-01-01

    For manufacturing enterprises, product quality is a key factor to assess production capability and increase their core competence. To reduce external failure cost, many research and methodology have been introduced in order to improve process yield rate, such as TQC/TQM, Shewhart CycleDeming's 14 Points, etc. Nowadays, impressive progress has been made in process monitoring and industrial data analysis because of the Industry 4.0 trend. Industries start to utilize quality control (QC) methodo...

  15. Abstracts Book of 41. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important scientific forum of Polish Chemists. The state of the art in many basic, fundamental and applied investigations has been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: theoretical chemistry; molecular interactions; metal compounds - chemical, physical, electronic and biological aspects; catalysis and surface physico-chemistry; polymers - radiochemistry, modifications, physics and analytical methods; organic and bioorganic chemistry; physico-chemistry of condensed matter; chemical metallurgy; environmental protection; inorganic technology; chemistry and technology of coal; radiation chemistry; analytical chemistry; chemical engineering; young scientists forum; chemical didactics; petrochemistry; energetic materials; membranes and membrane processes; medical chemistry

  16. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  17. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  18. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  19. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  20. Multi-scale fracture damage associated with underground chemical explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, E. M.; Sussman, A. J.; Wilson, J. E.; Townsend, M. J.; Prothro, L. B.; Gang, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding rock damage induced by explosions is critical for a number of applications including the monitoring and verification of underground nuclear explosions, mine safety issues, and modeling fluid flow through fractured rock. We use core observations, televiewer logs, and thin section observations to investigate fracture damage associated with two successive underground chemical explosions (SPE2 and SPE3) in granitic rock at both the mesoscale and microscale. We compare the frequency and orientations of core-scale fractures, and the frequency of microfractures, between a pre-experiment core and three post-experiment cores. Natural fault zones and explosion-induced fractures in the vicinity of the explosive source are readily apparent in recovered core and in thin sections. Damage from faults and explosions is not always apparent in fracture frequency plots from televiewer logs, although orientation data from these logs suggests explosion-induced fracturing may not align with the pre-existing fracture sets. Core-scale observations indicate the extent of explosion-induced damage is 10.0 m after SPE2 and 6.8 m after SPE3, despite both a similar size and location for both explosions. At the microscale, damage is observed to a range distance of 10.2 ± 0.9 m after SPE2, and 16.6 ± 0.9 and 11.2 ± 0.6 in two different cores collected after SPE3. Additional explosion-induced damage, interpreted to be the result of spalling, is readily apparent near the surface, but only in the microfracture data. This depth extent and intensity of damage in the near-surface region also increased after an additional explosion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating structural damage at multiple scales for a more complete characterization of the damage, and particularly shows the importance of microscale observations for identifying spallation-induced damage.

  1. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research

  2. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  3. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  4. Chemical, sensory, and functional properties of whey-based popsicles manufactured with watermelon juice concentrated at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina P C; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius S; Esmerino, Erick A; Moraes, Jeremias; Pimentel, Tatiana C; Rocha, Ramon S; Freitas, Mônica Q; Santos, Jânio S; Ranadheera, C Senaka; Rosa, Lana S; Teodoro, Anderson J; Mathias, Simone P; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Couto, Silvia R M; Granato, Daniel; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-07-30

    The effects of the concentration of watermelon juice at different temperatures (45, 55, or 65 °C) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of whey-based popsicles were investigated. Total phenolic content, lycopene, citrulline, VOCs, melting rate, instrumental colour, antioxidant capacity, and the sensory characteristics (hedonic test and free listing) were determined. The temperature led to a significant decrease in bioactive compounds (total phenolics, lycopene, and citrulline). The popsicle manufactured with reconstituted watermelon juice concentrated to 60 °Brix at 65 °C presented higher antioxidant capacity and was characterized by the presence of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and presented a similar acceptance to the untreated popsicle (except for flavour). It is possible to combine whey and concentrated watermelon juice for the manufacture of bioactive-rich popsicles, using the concentration temperature of 65 °C as a suitable processing condition for potential industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  6. Primary problems associated with the health and welfare of employees observed when implementing lean manufacturing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampasso, Izabela Simon; Anholon, Rosley; Gonçalves Quelhas, Osvaldo Luiz; Filho, Walter Leal

    2017-01-01

    Lean philosophy is used by companies to increase productivity and reduce costs. Although uncontested benefits are created, it is necessary to highlight the problems related to employees' health and welfare caused by implementing lean manufacturing projects. The primary objective of this paper is to review the literature and identify the most relevant problems created by lean philosophy for employees. Research about the theme was performed on many international databases over three months, and an initial sample of 77 papers was found. Twenty-seven sources were utilized. We identified 22 categories of problems related to health and welfare of employees. The most cited problem was work intensification, mentioned by thirteen papers. Increased stress and increased responsibilities, demands and, consequently, pressure on the workers are among the primary problems observed in the research.

  7. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

  8. SLUG FLOW PROCESSING IN MICROREACTORS FOR BIO-BASED CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING: SYNTHESIS AND OXIDATION OF 5-HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL AS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Deuss, Peter; Zhang, Zheng; Hommes, Arne; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The ever increasing global demand on fossil resources that are limited in reserves has directed numerous research efforts recently towards the development of more sustainable feedstocks as the source for the production of fuels, chemicals and (performance) materials. Conversion of biomass

  9. CoCr F75 scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Influence of chemical etching on powder removal and mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooreweder, Brecht Van; Lietaert, Karel; Neirinck, Bram; Lippiatt, Nicholas; Wevers, Martine

    2017-06-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) allow carefully controlled production of complex porous structures such as scaffolds. These advanced structures can offer many interesting advantages over conventionally produced products in terms of biological response and patient specific design. The surface finish of AM parts is often poor because of the layer wise nature of the process and adhering particles. Loosening of these particles after implantation should be avoided, as this could put the patient's health at risk. In this study the use of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures for surface treatment of cobalt-chromium F75 scaffolds produced by SLM is investigated. A 27% HCl and 8% H 2 O 2 etchant proved effective in removing adhering particles while retaining the quasi-static and fatigue performance of the scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  11. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  12. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...

  13. Enusa, Internationalized Enterprise in Nuclear Fuel Manufacture and Associated Engineering Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Calderon, G.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of its activities, in 1972, ENUSA has been providing an important contribution to Spanish nuclear energy development, performing activities in the first part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Few years after starting the production at the juzbado manufacturing plant, ENUSA realised that, in order to be competitive, needed to expand its activities beyond the Spanish border and took the decision of being present in the Nuclear fuel market in Europe internationalizing its activities. ENUSA reached Strategic Alliance with of the most important technology owners, General Electric and Westinghouse. These alliances have allowed the Company to be one of the players in the very competitive European fuel market, and have also been, important to position ENUSA in an industry in process of consolidation. In parallel to these activities, ENUSA has been present in different international R and D projects, being member of the NFIR of EPRI and Halden projects, and promoting other international R and D programs with companies from USA, Japan, etc. This R and D efforts, together with those Alliance, will allow ENUSA to have an advanced product in this new deregulated market, creating value to the service of our customers. (Author)

  14. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. - DDT persists in the environment near a former manufacturing facility that ceased production over 40 years ago, and concentrations represent a risk to fish and piscivorous birds in the area

  15. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  16. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, D. [SUE MosSIA Radon, 2/14 7th Rostovsky lane, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation); Batorshin, G.; Logunov, M.; Musalnikov, A. [FSUE ' PO Mayak' , 31 av. Lenin, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  17. The practice of quality-associated costing: application to transfusion manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    This article applies the new method of quality-associated costing (QAC) to the mixture of processes that create red cell and plasma products from whole blood donations. The article compares QAC with two commonly encountered but arbitrary models and illustrates the invalidity of clinical cost-benefit analysis based on these models. The first, an "isolated" cost model, seeks to allocate each whole process cost to only one product class. The other is a "shared" cost model, and it seeks to allocate an approximately equal share of all process costs to all associated products.

  18. Chemical changes associated with lotus and water lily natto production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S. D.; Fatimah, N.; Nopianti, R.

    2017-04-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting whole soybean seeds with pure culture of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and water lily (Nymphaea stellata) seeds as the raw materials for natto production. Chemical (proximate, amino acids and minerals) changes were observed on raw, steamed and fermented seeds. Proximate compositions of all samples were calculated in both wet basis and dry basis. In wet basis calculation, steaming and fermentation tended to lower the carbohydrates, ashes, fats and protein content which were attributed to the increase of moisture. The total amino acid, iron and magnesium contents of raw lotus seeds were 24.29%, 5.08 mg 100g-1 and 174.23 mg 100g-1 dry matter, respectively. After a 24h-fermentation at 40°C, the total amino acids decreased while iron and magnesium contents increased significantly reaching, in respective order, 9.9 mg 100g-1 and 411.36 mg 100g-1 dry matter. Changes in chemical composition after fermentation were more pronounced in lotus seeds than water lily seeds indicating that their nutrient composition were more suitable to support Bacillus subtilis growth.

  19. Social Network Analysis on Lean Production and World Class Manufacturing: how are associated in the literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antiqueira Goes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SLR to identify how to configure the publications that relate WCM and Lean Production issues. Therefore, a search on the Brazilian metasearch portal called CAPES Periodicals was conducted focusing on articles of the last five years. They were identified after screening and filtering a total of 42 articles, which were analyzed. The construction of the network analysis has identified that the issues are still in an initial phase of association, with the characteristic part of decentralizes networks, with some points of greatest association. It was also identified that the theme Lean Production has greater representation between the two topics due its higher use by authors.

  20. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Rui M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61% got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58% worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.

  1. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  2. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical transformations associated with neutronic irradiation of telluric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertet, M.

    1963-01-01

    The chemical transformations which arise from irradiation of telluric acid with neutrons have been studied under several experimental conditions. The effects of the reaction (n, γ ) on Te VI and of the isomeric transitions 131m Te VI → 131 Te and 129m Te VI → 129 Te, and the oxidation states of 131 I formed by β decay of 131 Te have been investigated in detail. The Szilard-Chalmers effect has been put in evidence. Retention (R) depends on the isomeric state of Rd-Te and is higher for the metastable isotopes. R increases with the time of irradiation. R seems to be independent of the medium which is used for dissolving telluric acid irradiated in the solid state. Higher values of R are found if the acid is irradiated in neutral or alkaline solution; irradiation in acid solution leads to lower values for R. Retention for 131 Te VI and 129 Te VI formed by isomeric transition depends on the pH of the solution where this disintegration occurs. For instance, with 129 Te, R is greater in 6 M NaOH (80 per cent) than in 3 M HCI (40 per cent). The relative amounts of the oxidation states of 131 I (reduced fraction (I - , IO - , I 2 ), iodate and periodate) depend on the medium, both if the acid is irradiated in the solid state and it is irradiated in solution. In the first case, the reduced fraction increases from 12 to 89 per cent when the dissolving medium is changed from neutral to 0.8 M HNO 3 . In the second case, the reduced fraction is 90 per cent in neutral or acid solution and 64 per cent in 0.5 M KOH. It has been shown, furthermore, that microamounts of Te VI are formed in certain cases. (author) [fr

  4. Results of the independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOH001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.E.; Murray, M.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site is located at 3550 Dixie Highway, Fairfield, Ohio. Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company produced hollow uranium slugs in a machine shop at the site in 1956. The work was performed for National Lead of Ohio in a contract with the Atomic Energy Commission to augment the capacity of the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald in the development of nuclear energy for defense-related projects. The current occupant of the building, Force Control, operates a multipurpose machine shop. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio. The survey was performed from February to May of 1995. The purpose of the survey was to verify that radioactivity from residues of 238 U was remediated to a level below acceptable DOE guidelines levels

  5. Magnetic field of massive chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of 55 chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magnetic fields. We found 8 new magnetic stars in addition to 20 previously known objects. The frequency of chemically peculiar A and B-type stars among normal A and B-type stars and the frequency of magnetic stars among all chemically peculiar stars decreases with age in the Orion OB1 association.

  6. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  7. Results of the radiological survey at the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOH001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.E.; Carrier, R.F.; Mathis, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey of the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company facility, Fairfield, Ohio. The survey was performed in July and September 1992. The purpose of the survey was to determine if the facility had become contaminated with residuals containing radioactive materials during the work performed under government contract from February to September, 1956. The survey included gamma scanning over a circumscribed area around and outside of the building, and gamma scanning over most accessible indoor floor surfaces as well as the collection of soil and other samples for radionuclide analyses. Roof trusses were beta-gamma scanned in locations where floor contamination was found. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in indoor and outdoor samples, and radiation measurements over floor and overhead surfaces, in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines. Elevated uranium concentrations outdoors were limited to several small, isolated spots. Radiation measurements exceeded guidelines indoors over numerous spots and areas inside the building, mainly in the areas that had been used in the early government work

  8. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  9. Alkemio: association of chemicals with biomedical topics by text and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón-Correas, José A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Fontaine, Jean F

    2014-07-01

    The PubMed® database of biomedical citations allows the retrieval of scientific articles studying the function of chemicals in biology and medicine. Mining millions of available citations to search reported associations between chemicals and topics of interest would require substantial human time. We have implemented the Alkemio text mining web tool and SOAP web service to help in this task. The tool uses biomedical articles discussing chemicals (including drugs), predicts their relatedness to the query topic with a naïve Bayesian classifier and ranks all chemicals by P-values computed from random simulations. Benchmarks on seven human pathways showed good retrieval performance (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 73.6 to 94.5%). Comparison with existing tools to retrieve chemicals associated to eight diseases showed the higher precision and recall of Alkemio when considering the top 10 candidate chemicals. Alkemio is a high performing web tool ranking chemicals for any biomedical topics and it is free to non-commercial users. http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/∼medlineranker/cms/alkemio. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  11. Chemical toxicity and radiological health detriment associated with the inhalation of various enrichments of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3C Limited, Queen Square House, 18-21 Queen Square, Bristol BS1 4NH (United Kingdom))" data-affiliation=" (SR3C Limited, Queen Square House, 18-21 Queen Square, Bristol BS1 4NH (United Kingdom))" >Bryant, P A

    2014-01-01

    The occupational risks associated with the chemical toxicity of uranium can be overlooked during the processing, handling and storage of the material, as the radioactivity of the material is often used alone to assess the health consequences of exposure to uranium compounds. This note provides a summary of the current United Kingdom occupational standards for uranium based on radiation dose and/or chemical toxicity with a particular focus on intake via inhalation. A simple model is subsequently presented to allow a comparison to be drawn between the occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity and radiological dose limit. Using these data a set of suggested limits on occupational exposure to airborne uranium is proposed that indicate where the legal annual radiological dose limit for workers or the Health and Safety Executive occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity are at risk of being breached. (note)

  12. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Simon, Jeremy M.; McCoy, Eric S.; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. PMID:27029645

  13. Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Jonge, de J.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Deliza, R.; Cunha de Andrade, J.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical

  14. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  15. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  16. 2001 Industry Studies: Advanced Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-28

    oriented, 19 and manufacturers are employing the Internet and associated information technologies to better integrate supply chains and form extended...ways to compete in world markets . As part of this ongoing transformation, the broad implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies , processes...competitive advantages and better performance in world markets . Importantly, advanced manufacturing involves the innovative integration of new technology

  17. Antimicrobial Chemicals Are Associated with Elevated Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Indoor Dust Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M; Hickey, Roxana; Hsu, Tiffany; Betancourt Román, Clarisse M; Chen, Jing; Schwager, Randall; Kline, Jeff; Brown, G Z; Halden, Rolf U; Huttenhower, Curtis; Green, Jessica L

    2016-09-20

    Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The dust resistome was characterized by identifying antibiotic resistance genes annotated in the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) from the metagenomes of each sample using the Short, Better Representative Extract Data set (ShortBRED). The three most highly abundant antibiotic resistance genes were tet(W), blaSRT-1, and erm(B). The complete dust resistome was then compared against the measured concentrations of antimicrobial chemicals, which for triclosan ranged from 0.5 to 1970 ng/g dust. We observed six significant positive associations between the concentration of an antimicrobial chemical and the relative abundance of an antibiotic resistance gene, including one between the ubiquitous antimicrobial triclosan and erm(X), a 23S rRNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance to several antibiotics. This study is the first to look for an association between antibiotic resistance genes and antimicrobial chemicals in dust.

  18. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  19. The role of microRNAs in the development and progression of chemical-associated cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogribny, Igor P.; Beland, Frederick A.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to certain natural and man-made chemical carcinogens is one of the major risk factors for cancer development. The effect of chemical carcinogens on genetic and epigenetic alterations and their significance in the development of cancer has been well-established. In contrast, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of chemical-associated cancers remains relatively unexplored despite extensive reports on changes in miRNA expression upon carcinogen exposure. This review summarizes the current knowledge for the role of miRNAs as drivers of chemical-induced carcinogenesis by bridging the gap between carcinogen exposure and cancer development through functional studies. It also emphasizes the potential for miRNA changes as early indicators of the carcinogenic process, markers for carcinogen exposure, and identification of chemical carcinogenic hazards. - Highlights: • Exposure to chemical carcinogens alters microRNA expression. • MicroRNA alterations may have significance in the development of cancer. • MicroRNAs may be early indicators of the carcinogenic process and carcinogen exposure.

  20. The role of microRNAs in the development and progression of chemical-associated cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogribny, Igor P., E-mail: igor.pogribny@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Beland, Frederick A. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to certain natural and man-made chemical carcinogens is one of the major risk factors for cancer development. The effect of chemical carcinogens on genetic and epigenetic alterations and their significance in the development of cancer has been well-established. In contrast, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the etiology of chemical-associated cancers remains relatively unexplored despite extensive reports on changes in miRNA expression upon carcinogen exposure. This review summarizes the current knowledge for the role of miRNAs as drivers of chemical-induced carcinogenesis by bridging the gap between carcinogen exposure and cancer development through functional studies. It also emphasizes the potential for miRNA changes as early indicators of the carcinogenic process, markers for carcinogen exposure, and identification of chemical carcinogenic hazards. - Highlights: • Exposure to chemical carcinogens alters microRNA expression. • MicroRNA alterations may have significance in the development of cancer. • MicroRNAs may be early indicators of the carcinogenic process and carcinogen exposure.

  1. Materials of 47. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum

  2. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  3. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  4. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...

  5. JIT Manufacturing: A Survey of Implementations in Small and Large U.S. Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. White; John N. Pearson; Jeffrey R. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the diffusion of Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing from Japanese manufacturers to U.S. manufacturers has progressed at an accelerated rate. At this stage of the diffusion process, JIT implementations are more common and more advanced in large U.S. manufacturers than in small; consequently, U.S. businessmen's understanding of issues associated with JIT implementations in large manufacturers is more developed than that of small manufacturers. When small manufacturers repre...

  6. Materials of 48. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: chemistry of metalorganic and supramolecular compounds; organic and bioorganic chemistry; coordination and bioinorganic chemistry; chemistry of polymers and biopolymers; physical and theoretical chemistry; catalysis; structural chemistry; analytical chemistry and environmental protection chemistry of materials and nanomaterials; technology and chemical engineering; didactics of chemistry; young scientist forum; chemistry for economy

  7. Microbes and associated soluble and volatile chemicals on periodically wet household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Misztal, Pawel K; De Cassia Pessotti, Rita; Behie, Scott W; Tian, Yilin; Goldstein, Allen H; Lindow, Steven E; Nazaroff, William W; Taylor, John W; Traxler, Matt F; Bruns, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    Microorganisms influence the chemical milieu of their environment, and chemical metabolites can affect ecological processes. In built environments, where people spend the majority of their time, very little is known about how surface-borne microorganisms influence the chemistry of the indoor spaces. Here, we applied multidisciplinary approaches to investigate aspects of chemical microbiology in a house. We characterized the microbial and chemical composition of two common and frequently wet surfaces in a residential setting: kitchen sink and bathroom shower. Microbial communities were studied using culture-dependent and independent techniques, including targeting RNA for amplicon sequencing. Volatile and soluble chemicals from paired samples were analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques to explore the links between the observed microbiota and chemical exudates. Microbial analysis revealed a rich biological presence on the surfaces exposed in kitchen sinks and bathroom shower stalls. Microbial composition, matched for DNA and RNA targets, varied by surface type and sampling period. Bacteria were found to have an average of 25× more gene copies than fungi. Biomass estimates based on qPCR were well correlated with measured total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Abundant VOCs included products associated with fatty acid production. Molecular networking revealed a diversity of surface-borne compounds that likely originate from microbes and from household products. Microbes played a role in structuring the chemical profiles on and emitted from kitchen sinks and shower stalls. Microbial VOCs (mVOCs) were predominately associated with the processing of fatty acids. The mVOC composition may be more stable than that of microbial communities, which can show temporal and spatial variation in their responses to changing environmental conditions. The mVOC output from microbial metabolism on kitchen sinks and bathroom showers should be apparent through careful

  8. Neutronics and mass transport in a chemical reactor associated with controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-05-01

    The formation of ozone from oxygen and the dissociation carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen is studied in a gamma-neutron chemical process blanket associated with a controlled thermonuclear reactor. Materials used for reactor tube wall will affect the efficiency of the energy absorption by the reactants and consequently the yield of reaction products. Three kinds of materials, aluminum, stainless steel and fiber (Al 2 O 3 )-aluminium are investigated for the tube wall material in the study

  9. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks

  10. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. Modular manufacturing processes : Status, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldea, Michael; Edgar, Thomas F.; Stanley, Bill L.; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical companies are constantly seeking new, high-margin growth opportunities, the majority of which lie in high-grade, specialty chemicals, rather than in the bulk sector. To realize these opportunities, manufacturers are increasingly considering decentralized, flexible production facilities:

  12. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  13. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Fonollosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative.

  14. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Solórzano, Ana; Marco, Santiago

    2018-02-11

    Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative.

  15. Chemical Sensor Systems and Associated Algorithms for Fire Detection: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonollosa, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants. In this line, since the 2000s, electrochemical cells for carbon monoxide sensing have been incorporated into fire detectors. Even systems relying exclusively on gas sensors have been explored as fire detectors. However, gas sensors respond to a large variety of volatiles beyond combustion products. As a result, chemical-based fire detectors require multivariate data processing techniques to ensure high sensitivity to fires and false alarm immunity. In this paper, we the survey toxic emissions produced in fires and defined standards for fire detection systems. We also review the state of the art of chemical sensor systems for fire detection and the associated signal and data processing algorithms. We also examine the experimental protocols used for the validation of the different approaches, as the complexity of the test measurements also impacts on reported sensitivity and specificity measures. All in all, further research and extensive test under different fire and nuisance scenarios are still required before gas-based fire detectors penetrate largely into the market. Nevertheless, the use of dynamic features and multivariate models that exploit sensor correlations seems imperative. PMID:29439490

  16. The Importance of State and Plant Characteristics in Determining the Environmental Compliance Costs of Chemical Manufacturing Plants: Evidence from the PACE Survey, 1979-1990 Summary (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of the author's dissertation: links the U.S. Census Bureau's Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures data on a plant-by-plant basis with the data in their Longitudinal Research Database (LRD) to examine chemical industry compliance costs.

  17. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  18. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  19. Negative affect is associated with development and persistence of chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A general population sample aged 19 to 72years was examined in 2006-2008 and again in 2011-2012. Longitudinal data on CI were analysed with the purpose of examining baseline negative affect as a risk factor for having developed CI at 5-year follow-up and for reporting persistent CI. Participants.......4% of the participants who had reported CI at baseline also reported CI at follow-up. In participants with no baseline CI, 15.5% reported CI at follow-up and 18.1% reported symptoms related to chemicals but no daily life adjustments. Baseline negative affect was positively and statistically significantly associated...

  20. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one’s manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers’ response to an employee’s psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee’s manager’s gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. Methods A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. Results The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor

  1. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Jessica T; Cullen, Mark R; Desai, Manisha; Modrek, Sepideh

    2013-11-08

    Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one's manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers' response to an employee's psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee's manager's gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor of time to first acute injury (p

  2. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009–2011) and chemical constituents (2007–2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM_1_0, PM_2_._5 and PM_1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM_1_0, PM_2_._5 and PM_1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag_0_3), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM_2_._5_-_1_0 and PM_1_-_2_._5. For PM_2_._5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag_0_3 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM_1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou. - Highlights: • PM_1_0, PM_2_._5 and PM_1 were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality. • We did not find significant cardiovascular effects of PM_2_._5_-_1_0 and PM_1_-_2_._5. • PM_1 might be most responsible for

  3. Comprehensive multipathway risk assessment of chemicals associated with recycled ("crumb") rubber in synthetic turf fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael K; Lemay, Julie C; Pacheco Shubin, Sara; Prueitt, Robyn L

    2018-01-01

    Thousands of synthetic turf fields in the US are regularly used by millions of individuals (particularly children and adolescents). Although many safety assessments have concluded that there are low or negligible risks related to exposure to chemicals found in the recycled rubber used to make these fields, concerns remain about the safety of this product. Existing studies of recycled rubber's potential health risks have limitations such as small sample sizes and limited evaluation of relevant exposure pathways and scenarios. Conduct a comprehensive multipathway human health risk assessment (HHRA) of exposure to chemicals found in recycled rubber. All available North American data on the chemical composition of recycled rubber, as well as air sampling data collected on or near synthetic turf fields, were identified via a literature search. Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation pathways were evaluated according to US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) guidance, and exposure scenarios for adults, adolescents, and children were considered. Estimated non-cancer hazards and cancer risks for all the evaluated scenarios were within US EPA guidelines. In addition, cancer risk levels for users of synthetic turf field were comparable to or lower than those associated with natural soil fields. This HHRA's results add to the growing body of literature that suggests recycled rubber infill in synthetic turf poses negligible risks to human health. This comprehensive assessment provides data that allow stakeholders to make informed decisions about installing and using these fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  5. Fauna-associated changes in chemical and biochemical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2006-12-01

    To study the impacts of abundance of woodlice, termites, and mites on some functional aspects of soil in order to elucidate the specific role of soil fauna in improving soil fertility in desert. Fauna-rich sites were selected as experimental sites and adjacent areas were taken as control. Soil samples were collected from both sites. Soil respiration was measured at both sites. The soil samples were sent to laboratory, their chemical and biochemical properties were analyzed. Woodlice showed 25% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter as compared to control site. Whereas termites and mites showed 58% and 16% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter. In contrast, available nitrogen (nitrate and ammonical both) and phosphorus exhibited 2-fold and 1.2-fold increase, respectively. Soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity at the sites rich in woodlice, termites and mites produced 2.5-, 3.5- and 2-fold increases, respectively as compared to their control values. Fauna-associated increase in these biological parameters clearly reflected fauna-induced microbial activity in soil. Maximum decrease in organic carbon and increase in nitrate-nitrogen and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were produced by termites and minimum by mites reflecting termite as an efficient soil improver in desert environment. The soil fauna-associated changes in chemical (organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus) and biochemical (soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity) properties of soil improve soil health and help in conservation of desert pedoecosystem.

  6. Quantitative risk assessment of listeriosis-associated deaths due to Listeria monocytogenes contamination of deli meats originating from manufacture and retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths attributable to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ham and turkey formulated without and with growth inhibitors (GIs). Two contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) prepackaged deli meats with contamination originating solely from manufacture at a frequency of 0.4% (based on reported data) and (ii) retail-sliced deli meats with contamination originating solely from retail at a frequency of 2.3% (based on reported data). Using a manufacture-to-consumption risk assessment with product-specific growth kinetic parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate), reformulation with GIs was estimated to reduce human listeriosis deaths linked to ham and turkey by 2.8- and 9-fold, respectively, when contamination originated at manufacture and by 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, for products contaminated at retail. Contamination originating at retail was estimated to account for 76 and 63% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated without GIs and for 83 and 84% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated with GIs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that storage temperature was the most important factor affecting the estimation of per annum relative risk. Scenario analyses suggested that reducing storage temperature in home refrigerators to consistently below 7 degrees C would greatly reduce the risk of human listeriosis deaths, whereas reducing storage time appeared to be less effective. Overall, our data indicate a critical need for further development and implementation of effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination at the retail level.

  7. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  8. Chemical and biological sensing applications of integrated photonics with an introduction to the American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Justin; Guicheteau, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Integrated photonics affords an opportunity to explore novel sensing and lab-on-a-chip concepts. It offers a route to high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low SWaP-C test systems that can be operated autonomously or by minimallytrained field personnel. We'll introduce the topic, discuss possible sensing modalities, and highlight the advantages and limitations of this technology. We'll also introduce the recent American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics), give an overview of its vision and capabilities, how to utilize its Electronic-Photonic Design Automation (EPDA) tools and its Multi-Project Wafer and Assembly (MPWA) services, how to engage in its road mapping efforts, and how to become a contributing member.

  9. Coronary artery atherosclerosis associated with shift work in chemical plant workers by using coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, WonYang; Park, Won-Ju; Jang, Keun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Gwon, Do-Hyeong; Lim, Hyeong-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sung; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work is related to elevated risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) by determining the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the presence of coronary artery stenosis by using coronary artery CT angiography (CCTA). In this study, 110 male workers participated and underwent a CCTA examination for CAC scoring, which represents coronary artery plaque, and were evaluated for luminal stenosis. All of the participants were working in the same chemical plant, of whom 70 worked day shifts and 40 worked rotating shifts. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise and waist circumference, shift work was associated with a 2.89-fold increase in the odds of developing coronary plaque compared with day work (OR, 2.89; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.82). The association between shift work and coronary plaque was strong after adjustment for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.92; 95% CI 1.02 to 8.33). In addition, the number of years of shift work employment was associated with coronary plaque. However, no association was found between shift work and coronary artery stenosis. Shift work could induce CAD onset via the atherosclerotic process, and shift work employment duration was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis in male workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  11. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  12. Development and evaluation of a tool for retrospective exposure assessment of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals and EMF in the car manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Birte; Schmeisser, Nils; Lünzmann, Hauke; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Langner, Ingo; Behrens, Thomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    A system for retrospective occupational exposure assessment combining the efficiency of a job exposure matrix (JEM) and the precision of a subsequent individual expert exposure assessment (IEEA) was developed. All steps of the exposure assessment were performed by an interdisciplinary expert panel in the context of a case-control study on male germ cell cancer nested in the car manufacturing industries. An industry-specific JEM was developed and automatic exposure estimation was performed based on this JEM. A subsample of exposure ratings was done by IEEA to identify determinants of disagreement between the JEM and the individual review. Possible determinants were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) of disagreement between ratings with regard to different dimensions (e.g. high versus low intensity of exposure). Disagreement in ≥20% of the sampled exposure ratings with a statistically significant OR was chosen as a threshold for inclusion of the exposure ratings into a final IEEA. The most important determinants of disagreement between JEM and individual review were working outside of the production line (disagreement 80%), low probability of exposure (disagreement 25%), and exposure depending on specific activities like usage of specific lacquers (disagreement 32%) for jobs within the production line. These determinants were the selection criteria of exposure ratings for the subsequent final IEEA. Combining a JEM and a subsequent final IEEA for a selected subset of exposure ratings is a feasible and labor-saving approach for exposure assessment in large occupational epidemiological studies.

  13. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  14. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  15. Process and device for uranium isotope separation and application for the manufacture of chemical compounds or for the separation of gaseous mixtures otherwise difficult to separate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorius, K.; Janner, K.; Kersting, A.; Schuster, E.; Niemann, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The U235/U238 isotope separation is done by laser excitation with Ur 6 as the initial gaseous material. This has HBr added as the partner for a chemical reaction, preferably in the ratio of 1:10. In order to increase the selectivity and yield, the two partners in the reaction are cooled by adiabatic expansion to below 100 K before irradiation. This makes the absorption bands narrower. The excitation occurs in the Q branch of the rotation vibration spectrum. (DG) [de

  16. Manufacturing best practices and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szász, Levente; Demeter, Krisztina; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    whether a) home and host country characteristics moderate the association between manufacturing practices and performance, and, thus, whether b) there are manufacturing practices that are universally best. Manufacturing practices and performance are measured using data collected through the fifth round...... analysis is used to develop groups of companies based on home and host country development. Exploratory factor analysis is applied to create bundles of manufacturing practices and performance measures. Then, using moderated multiple regressions (MMR) with interaction factor, and separate multiple...... regression analyses for each group of companies, bundles of manufacturing practices are identified that lead to best-in-class performance improvements. A range of control variables is introduced to help interpret the results. The study shows that home and host country context does affect the association...

  17. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and chemical concentrations contributing to cumulative exposures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association rule mining (ARM) has been widely used to identify associations between various entities in many fields. Although some studies have utilized it to analyze the relationship between chemicals and human health effects, fewer have used this technique to identify and quant...

  18. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Poppendieck, D.G.; Grabanski, C.B.; Loehr, R.C. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (US). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from OG (oil gas) and CG (coal gas) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in the United States that had been closed for about 50 years were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt%. Supercritical carbon dioxide, SFE desorption and water/XAD{sub 2} desorption curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo-(ghi)perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition or 'hard' and 'soft' organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. F values for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies, using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms. 46 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Comparing PAH availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. PAH release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Poppendieck, Dustin G; Grabanski, Carol B; Loehr, Raymond C

    2002-11-15

    Soil and sediment samples from oil gas (OG) and coal gas (CG) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were selected to represent a range of PAH concentrations (150-40,000 mg/kg) and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt %. SFE desorption (120 min) and water/XAD2 desorption (120 days) curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for PAHs ranging from naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples, from ca. 10% to >90% for the two- and three-ring PAHs and from <1% to ca. 50% for the five- and six-ring PAHs. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including PAH concentrations, elemental composition (C, H, N, S), or "hard" and "softs" organic carbon, indicating that PAH release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. Fvalues for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well (linear correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.87, slope = 0.93), but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb PAHs from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb PAHs from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of PAH sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies using the same samples to compare PAH release with PAH availability to earthworms.

  20. Associations Between the Self-Reported Frequency of Hearing Chemical Alarms in Theater and Visuospatial Function in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the self-reported frequencies of hearing chemical alarms during deployment and visuospatial function in Gulf War (GW) veterans. The relationship between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms, neurobehavioral, and volumetric brain imaging data was examined with correlational, regression, and mediation analyses. The self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms was inversely associated with and significantly predicted performance on a visuospatial task (ie, Block Design) over and above potentially confounding variables, including concurrent, correlated GW-related exposures. This effect was partially mediated by the relationship between hearing chemical alarms and lateral occipital cortex volume. Exposure to substances that triggered chemical alarms during GW deployment likely had adverse effects on veterans' brain structure and function, warranting further investigation of whether these GW veterans are at an increased risk for dementia.

  1. Associations between occupational stress, burnout and well-being among manufacturing workers: mediating roles of psychological capital and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyue; Liu, Hongbo; Yu, Haijian; Wu, Yanwen; Chang, Shuai; Wang, Lie

    2017-11-15

    Occupational stress is an important risk factor for mental health among occupational population. Exploring related mediators of workers' mental health are important to improve their health and performance. Our study aims to explore the relationships between work stress, positive psychological resources, burnout and well-being. The study was performed during the period of June and July in 2015. A questionnaire that consisted of the Effort-reward Imbalance Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Flourishing Scale, as well as demographic and working factors. Psychological capital mediated the associations of effort-reward imbalance and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, professional efficacy and well-being. Self-esteem mediated the associations of effort-reward imbalance ratio with cynicism, professional efficacy and well-being, and mediated the associations of overcommitment and cynicism, professional efficacy and well-being. The findings indicated that enhancing positive psychological resources could be considered in developing intervention strategies for psychological health among manufacturing employees.

  2. Chemical homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen abundances of B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanz T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994. We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O = 8.78 and a small dispersion of ±0.05, dex which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994: A(O = 8.72 ± 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion association compares well with other results for the oxygen abundance in the solar neighborhood.

  3. Chemical and radiation stability of a proprietary cesium ion exchange material manufactured from WWL membrane and SuperLig reg-sign 644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Berry, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes for ion exchange removal of Cs and other radionuclides is one way to minimize amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. This study evaluated Cs-selective SuperLig reg-sign 644 (IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork UT) entrapped in a proprietary WWL web membrane (3M) for chemical/radiation stability in simulated caustic neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), 0.5M HNO 3 , water, and air. After exposure up to 2.0E+09 rad, the material was evaluated for Cs uptake in 5M sodium NCAW simulants with varying Cs contents. Radiolytic stability appears to be sufficient for ion exchange pretreatment of radioactive Cs: essentially no decrease in Cs selectivity or loading (Kd) was observed during 60 Cs gamma irradiation in water or 0.5M HNO 3 up to 1.0E+09 rad. Cs Kd decreased by a factor of 2 after 2.0E+09 rad exposure. Cs Kd did not change during irradiation in 5M NCAW or ambient air up to 1.0E+08 rad, but decreased by more than an order of magnitude between 1.0E+08 and 2.0E+09 rad (not typical of process conditions). Chemical stability under caustic conditions is lower than in air or under neutral/acidic conditions. Results indicate that this material is less stable in caustic solution irrespective of radiation exposure. Samples of the membrane retained their physical form throughout the entire experiment and were only slightly brittle after exposure to 2.0E+09 rad. (The material evaluated was a finely ground (400 mesh) particulate engineered to form a polymeric fiber (WWL), not the macroscopic form of SuperLig reg-sign 644 resin (20 to 50 mesh).)

  4. Obesity, diabetes, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555-5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6-86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200-56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million-16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion. EDC exposures in the EU contribute

  5. Associations of polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and endogenous hormones with diabetes in post-menopausal women previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel; McCann, Kenneth

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing body of literature showing associations of organochlorine exposure with risk of diabetes and insulin resistance. Some studies suggest that associations differ by gender and that diabetes risk, in turn, may be affected by endogenous steroid hormones. This report examines the relationships of serum PCBs and endogenous hormones with history of diabetes in a cohort of persons previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant. A total of 118 women were post-menopausal with complete data, of whom 93 were not using steroid hormones in 1996, at the time of examination, which included a survey of exposure and medical history, height, weight and collection of blood and urine for measurements of lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. This analysis examines relationships of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), work exposure and endogenous hormones with self-reported history of diabetes after control for potential confounders. All PCB exposure groups were significantly related to history of diabetes, but not to insulin resistance as measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetics. Diabetes was also independently and inversely associated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and triiodothyronine (T3) uptake. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and inversely associated with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and T3 uptake after control for PCB exposure. Possible biologic mechanisms are discussed. This study confirms previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggests possible hormonal pathways deserving further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Manufactured volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Noemi; Meuli, Martin; Subotic, Ulrike; Moehrlen, Ueli; Mazzone, Luca; Arlettaz, Romaine

    2013-06-01

    Malrotation with a common mesentery is the classical pathology allowing midgut volvulus to occur. There are only a few reports of small bowel volvulus without malrotation or other pathology triggering volvulation. We describe three cases of small bowel volvulus in very premature newborns with a perfectly normal intra-abdominal anatomy and focus on the question, what might have set off volvulation. In 2005 to 2008, three patients developed small bowel volvulus without any underlying pathology. Retrospective patient chart review was performed with special focus on clinical presentation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, and potential causative explanations. Mean follow-up period was 46 months. All patients were born between 27 and 31 weeks (mean 28 weeks) with a birth weight between 800 and 1,000 g (mean 887 g). They presented with an almost identical pattern of symptoms including sudden abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, erythema of the abdominal wall, high gastric residuals, and radiographic signs of ileus. All of them were treated with intensive abdominal massage or pelvic rotation to improve bowel movement before becoming symptomatic. Properistaltic maneuvers including abdominal massage and pelvic rotation may cause what we term a "manufactured" volvulus in very premature newborns. Thus, this practice was stopped. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  8. Chemical and chemically-related considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes. All chemistry-associated and other compatibility Information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106, in accord with appropriate controls, will pose no unacceptable risk to workers, public safety, or the environment. In addition, it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety Issue for tank C-106

  9. The impact of fit manufacturing on green manufacturing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ang Nian; Sin, Tan Chan; Fathullah, M.; Lee, C. C.

    2017-09-01

    Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing are a new trend principle and concept. They are getting popular in industrial. This paper is identifying the impact between Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing. Besides Fit manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Agile manufacturing and Sustainable manufacturing gives big impacts to Green Manufacturing. On top of that, this paper also discuss the benefits of applying Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing in industrial as well as environment. Hence, applications of Fit manufacturing and Green Manufacturing are increasing year by year.

  10. Report of National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources for fiscal 1979. Research on conversion of coal to petroleum, research on coal liquefaction, high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal by continuous test equipment, and manufacture of coal chemicals; 1979 nendo sekitan no yuka no kenkyu / sekitan no ekika no kenkyu / renzoku shiken sochi ni yoru sekitan no koatsu ekiso suisoka bunkai / coal chemicals no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    Research was conducted on conversion of coal to petroleum for the purpose of securing substitute liquid fuel. Recovery of hydrogen from the waste gas from the conversion process was explained, as were the conversion results from various coals produced in Japan. In coal liquefaction researches with the aim of manufacturing artificial petroleum, a report was made on each of the researches, i.e., the experiment results of coal liquefaction using various catalysts, manufacture of hydrogen by water gas reaction, catalytic action against coal paste, action of mixed oil and pressure against coal paste, result of hydrogen adding test for coal paste using an intermediate scale device, test result of secondary hydrogen addition for coal liquefied oil, and the test result of continuous secondary hydrogen addition for the liquefied oil. In the manufacture of fuel oil by hydro-cracking of coal or tar, a report was made on high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation of coal using a continuous testing device. Aromatic chemicals useful as chemical materials are supposed to be obtained by cutting inter-polymerized-unit bonding to make low molecules from the chemical structure of coal, removing surrounding radicals and simplifying it. A report was also made on the experiment of manufacturing coal chemicals by combination of high pressure liquid phase hydrogenation and hydro-dealkylation. (NEDO)

  11. Associated chemical and carbon isotopic composition variations in diamonds from Finsch and Premier kimberlite, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines, P.

    1984-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of 66 inclusion-containing diamonds from the Premier kimberlite, South Africa, 93 inclusion-containing diamonds and four diamonds of two diamond-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Finsch kimberlite, South Africa was measured. The data suggest a relationship between the carbon isotopic composition of the diamonds and the chemical composition of the associated silicates. For both kimberlites similar trends are noted for diamonds containing peridotite-suite inclusions (P-type) and for diamonds containing eclogite-suite inclusions (E-type): Higher delta 13 C P-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe) and higher in FeO and CaO. Higher delta 13 C E-type diamonds tend to have inclusions lower in SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg/(Mg + Fe), Na 2 O, K 2 O, TiO 2 and higher in CaO, Ca/(Ca + Mg). Consideration of a number of different models that have been proposed for the genesis of kimberlites, their zenoliths and diamonds shows that they are all consistent with the conclusion that in the mantle, regions exist that are characterized by different mean carbon isotopic compositions. (author)

  12. Comparison of chemical compounds associated with sclerites from healthy and diseased sea fan corals (Gorgonia ventalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toledo-Hernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The roles of gorgonian sclerites as structural components and predator deterrents have been widely studied. Yet their role as barriers against microbes has only recently been investigated, and even less is known about the diversity and roles of the chemical compounds associated with sclerites. Methods Here, we examine the semi-volatile organic compound fraction (SVOCs associated with sclerites from healthy and diseased Gorgonia ventalina sea fan corals to understand their possible role as a stress response or in defense of infection. We also measured the oxidative potential of compounds from diseased and healthy G. ventalina colonies. Results The results showed that sclerites harbor a great diversity of SVOCs. Overall, 70 compounds were identified, the majority of which are novel with unknown biological roles. The majority of SVOCs identified exhibit multiple immune-related roles including antimicrobial and radical scavenging functions. The free radical activity assays further confirmed the anti-oxidative potential of some these compounds. The anti-oxidative activity was, nonetheless, similar across sclerites regardless of the health condition of the colony, although sclerites from diseased sea fans display slightly higher anti-oxidative activity than the healthy ones. Discussion Sclerites harbor great SVOCs diversity, the majority of which are novel to sea fans or any other corals. Yet the scientific literature consulted showed that the roles of compounds found in sclerites vary from antioxidant to antimicrobial compounds. However, this study fell short in determine the origin of the SVOCs identified, undermining our capacity to determine the biological roles of the SVOCs on sclerites and sea fans.

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides in Biomedical Device Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Riool

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades the use of medical devices, such as catheters, artificial heart valves, prosthetic joints, and other implants, has grown significantly. Despite continuous improvements in device design, surgical procedures, and wound care, biomaterial-associated infections (BAI are still a major problem in modern medicine. Conventional antibiotic treatment often fails due to the low levels of antibiotic at the site of infection. The presence of biofilms on the biomaterial and/or the multidrug-resistant phenotype of the bacteria further impair the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. Removal of the biomaterial is then the last option to control the infection. Clearly, there is a pressing need for alternative strategies to prevent and treat BAI. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are considered promising candidates as they are active against a broad spectrum of (antibiotic-resistant planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Moreover, bacteria are less likely to develop resistance to these rapidly-acting peptides. In this review we highlight the four main strategies, three of which applying AMPs, in biomedical device manufacturing to prevent BAI. The first involves modification of the physicochemical characteristics of the surface of implants. Immobilization of AMPs on surfaces of medical devices with a variety of chemical techniques is essential in the second strategy. The main disadvantage of these two strategies relates to the limited antibacterial effect in the tissue surrounding the implant. This limitation is addressed by the third strategy that releases AMPs from a coating in a controlled fashion. Lastly, AMPs can be integrated in the design and manufacturing of additively manufactured/3D-printed implants, owing to the physicochemical characteristics of the implant material and the versatile manufacturing technologies compatible with antimicrobials incorporation. These novel technologies utilizing AMPs will contribute to development of novel

  14. Antimicrobial Peptides in Biomedical Device Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riool, Martijn; de Breij, Anna; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Nibbering, Peter H.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2017-08-01

    Over the past decades the use of medical devices, such as catheters, artificial heart valves, prosthetic joints and other implants, has grown significantly. Despite continuous improvements in device design, surgical procedures and wound care, biomaterial-associated infections (BAI) are still a major problem in modern medicine. Conventional antibiotic treatment often fails due to the low levels of antibiotic at the site of infection. The presence of biofilms on the biomaterial and/or the multidrug-resistant phenotype of the bacteria further impair the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. Removal of the biomaterial is then the last option to control the infection. Clearly, there is a pressing need for alternative strategies to prevent and treat BAI. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered promising candidates as they are active against a broad spectrum of (antibiotic-resistant) planktonic bacteria and biofilms. Moreover, bacteria are less likely to develop resistance to these rapidly-acting peptides. In this review we highlight the four main strategies, three of which applying AMPs, in biomedical device manufacturing to prevent BAI. The first involves modification of the physicochemical characteristics of the surface of implants. Immobilization of AMPs on surfaces of medical devices with a variety of chemical techniques is essential in the second strategy. The main disadvantage of these two strategies relates to the limited antibacterial effect in the tissue surrounding the implant. This limitation is addressed by the third strategy that releases AMPs from a coating in a controlled fashion. Lastly, AMPs can be integrated in the design and manufacturing of additively manufactured / 3D-printed implants, owing to the physicochemical characteristics of the implant material and the versatile manufacturing technologies compatible with antimicrobials incorporation. These novel technologies utilizing AMPs will contribute to development of novel and safe

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  16. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of 226 Ra and 232 Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for 226 Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal dependence

  17. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd ' Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq

  18. Note: Reaction of bacteria associated with fish spoilage to chemical and physical stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirby, R.; Silva, da M.; Capell, C.; Vaz-Pires, P.; Luten, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A cocktail made up of six bacteria isolated from fish was subjected to various heats (30 °C and 60 °C, 20 s) and chemical preservative stresses, alone and in combination. The chemical preservatives tested were potassium sorbate (PS, 1Œ trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10€and tetrasodium pyrophosphate

  19. Robot skills for manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    -asserting robot skills for manufacturing. We show how a relatively small set of skills are derived from current factory worker instructions, and how these can be transferred to industrial mobile manipulators. General robot skills can not only be implemented on these robots, but also be intuitively concatenated...... products are introduced by manufacturers. In order to compete on global markets, the factories of tomorrow need complete production lines, including automation technologies that can effortlessly be reconfigured or repurposed, when the need arises. In this paper we present the concept of general, self...... in running production facilities at an industrial partner. It follows from these experiments that the use of robot skills, and associated task-level programming framework, is a viable solution to introducing robots that can intuitively and on the fly be programmed to perform new tasks by factory workers....

  20. Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point.

  1. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  2. Chemical and isotopic investigation of warm springs associated with normal faults in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    1983-04-01

    Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO 4 + Cl-rich waters containing 10 3 to 10 4 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by mixing with non-thermal waters. During the summer months at times of maximum flow, selected hot springs exhibit their highest temperatures and maximum enrichments in most chemical constituents. Cation ratios and silica concentrations remain relatively constant through time for selected Utah thermal springs assuring the applicability of the geothermometer calculations regardless of the time of year. Geothermometer calculations utilizing either the quartz (no steam loss), chalcedony or Mg-corrected Na/K/Ca methods indicate that most thermal springs in Utah associated with normal faults have subsurface temperatures in the range of 25 to less than 120°C. This temperature range suggests fluid circulation is restricted to depths less than about three kilometers assuming an average thermal gradient of about 40°C/km. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that most thermal springs are oversaturated with respect to calcite, quartz, pyrophyllite, (Fe, Mg)-montmorillonite, microcline and hematite, and undersaturated with respect to anhydrite, gypsum, fluorite and anorthite. Chalcedony and cristobalite appear to be the only phases consistently at or near saturation in most waters. Theoretical evaluation of mixing on mineral saturation trends indicates that anhydrite and calcite become increasingly more undersaturated as cold, dilute groundwater mixes with a hot (150°C), NaCl-rich fluid. The evolution of these thermal waters issuing from faults appears to be one involving the

  3. Fatty acid composition and its association with chemical and sensory analysis of boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoye; Trautmann, Johanna; Wigger, Ruth; Zhou, Guanghong; Mörlein, Daniel

    2017-09-15

    A certain level of disagreement between the chemical analysis of androstenone and skatole and the human perception of boar taint has been found in many studies. Here we analyze whether the fatty acid composition can explain such inconsistency between sensory evaluation and chemical analysis of boar taint compounds. Therefore, back fat samples (n=143) were selected according to their sensory evaluation by a 10-person sensory panel, and the chemical analysis (stable isotope dilution analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of androstenone and skatole. Subsequently a quantification of fatty acids using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was conducted. The correlation analyses revealed that several fatty acids are significantly correlated with androstenone, skatole, and the sensory rating. However, multivariate analyses (principal component analysis) revealed no explanation of the fatty acid composition with respect to the (dis-)agreement between sensory and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    , polybrominated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Computational analysis of the data was performed using logistic regression and three multivariate machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, we performed systems biology analysis to explore the chemical influence on a molecular level. After correction...... and cryptorchidism than Finnish samples. Moreover, PCBs were indicated as having a protective effect within the Danish cohort, which was supported by molecular data recovered through systems biology. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the mixture of environmental chemicals may contribute...

  5. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Research and development of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method; 1978 nendo netsukagakuho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-05-31

    This paper describes a summary design of an iodine cycle experimenting equipment as one of the achievements in fiscal 1978 on research of hydrogen manufacturing technologies using the thermo-chemical method. The object of the equipment is a reaction to derive Mg(IO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgI{sub 2} from MgO being the first reaction of the cycle, and iodine. The by-product (Q-phase) is produced according to composition of the aqueous reaction solution. The occurring reaction and composition of the produced materials vary depending on which contact system the reactor type uses, countercurrent flow or concurrent flow. Discussions were given on both types. Hydrogen generation rate of 1 Nm{sup 3}/hr was assumed as the equipment size to derive material balance and heat balance. Furthermore, types considered applicable were selected from different types of the solid-liquid reaction equipment, and summary design and calculation were performed. Process simulation provided a prospect of achieving thermal efficiency that can compete with the electrolytic process. As a study on materials for a magnesium iodate pyrolytic equipment as the second reaction, corrosion tests were carried out in a gas mixture composed of iodine, oxygen and steam. Using 26 kinds of metallic materials as the objects, the tests were executed at 100 and 300 degrees C for 100 hours. Long-term durability tests were also performed on materials judged to have good corrosion resistance. (NEDO)

  6. Identification of New Compounds from Sage Flowers (Salvia officinalis L.) as Markers for Quality Control and the Influence of the Manufacturing Technology on the Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Sage Flower Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Sebastian; Lübken, Tilo; Wolf, Diana; Kaiser, Martin; Hannig, Christian; Speer, Karl

    2018-02-28

    Parts of Salvia species such as its flowers and leaves are currently used as a culinary herb and for some medicinal applications. To distinguish the different sage extracts it is necessary to analyze their individual chemical compositions. Their characteristic compounds might be established as markers to differentiate between sage flowers and leaf extracts or to determine the manufacturing technology and storage conditions. Tri-p-coumaroylspermidine can be detected only in flowers and has been described here for Salvia and Lavandula species for the first time. Markers for oxidation processes are the novel compounds salviquinone A and B, which were generated from carnosol by exposure to oxygen. Caffeic acid ethyl ester was established as an indirect marker for the usage of ethanol as extraction solvent. The compounds were identified by LC-QTOF-HRESIMS, LC-MS, NMR, IR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction after isolation by semipreparative HPLC. Furthermore, sage flower resin showed interesting antibacterial in vitro activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Chemical effects associated to (n, γ) nuclear reactions in diluted aqueous solutions of liquid or frozen organic halogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Rodriguez, I.M.

    1985-09-01

    Chemical effects associated to nuclear transformation 37 Cl (n, γ) 38 Cl or 127 I (n, γ) 128 I in solid or liquid aqueous solutions of ethyl iodide, trichloro-ethylene, thyroxine or DDT irradiated in a nuclear reactor are studied. The retention of radiohalogen under its initial chemical shape decrease with solute concentration in liquid phase but is almost constant with solute dilution in the solid phase. Potential applications in neutron activation analysis evidencing halogenated molecules in irradiated media are discussed. 57 refs [fr

  8. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  9. Is the risk from nanomaterials perceived as different from the risk of 'chemicals' by the Australian public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2016-04-15

    Manufactured nanomaterials in Australia are managed predominantly through existing chemical regulatory frameworks. Many Australian government regulators have suggested the framing of manufactured nanomaterials as 'chemicals' when communicating about manufactured nanomaterials to the general public. This paper aims to determine whether the Australian public perception of manufactured nanomaterials differs to that of 'chemicals', and to examine the relationship between attitudes towards chemicals and perceptions of nanomaterial risk. We undertook a computerised assisted telephone survey of the Australian public. Analysis was undertaken using descriptive, paired tests of proportion, paired t-test and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanomaterial risk and their relationship to perceptions of chemical risk and 'chemical attitudes'. We found that the public perceives nanomaterials in a more favourable light than it does chemicals. Perception of risk from chemicals had the greatest association with perceived nanomaterial risk (adjusted odds ratios between 0.1 and 0.2) and that attitudes to chemicals were associated with perception of nanomaterial risk in some cases. Risk communicators and policy makers need to consider the differences and associations between nanomaterials and chemicals when addressing the regulatory aspects of nanomaterials with the public. This is relevant for communication strategies that attempt to normalise the risks from nanomaterials compared with those of chemicals, especially as nanomaterials are perceived to be less risky than chemicals.

  10. Chemical inhomogeneity populations in various zircaloy claddings and their association with SCC and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasooji, A.; Miller, A.K.; Cheung, T.Y.; Brooks, M.; Santucci, J.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed that permits detection and characterization of sparsely distributed chemical inhomogeneities in Zircaloy. These inhomogeneities have previously been observed at the origins of iodine stress-corrosion cracks but are not detectable by, for example, simple scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The technique uses radioactive iodine to ''label'' the chemical inhomogeneities, autoradiography to detect their locations, and SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) to further characterize them. Large areas of surface have been surveyed and statistically meaningful populations of chemical inhomogeneities measured for five different lots of Zircaloy cladding. Inner surfaces and cladding cross-sectional surfaces have been studied. There are clear differences in chemical inhomogeneity size distribution and composition between the various claddings. For three of the claddings characterized in this work, the previously measured stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) threshold stresses correlate well (inversely) with the new data on their average chemical inhomogeneity sizes. Of special interest is the fact that the most SCC-resistant cladding contains far fewer iron-bearing inhomogeneities than the other claddings

  11. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  12. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  13. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  14. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  15. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  16. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with body mass index and body fat percentage among workers at six Connecticut manufacturing companies across different age groups: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jennifer L; Dugan, Alicia G; Faghri, Pouran D; Gorin, Amy A; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Kenny, Anne M; Cherniack, Martin G; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace interventions that consider the multifactorial nature of obesity are needed to reduce and prevent obesity among adults. Furthermore, the factors associated with obesity may differ for workers across age groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify demographic, health-related, and work-related factors associated with baseline and changes in body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP) and among Connecticut manufacturing workers acrossage groups. BMI and BFPof 758 workers from six Connecticut manufacturing companies were objectively measuredat two time points approximately 36 months apart. Demographic, health-related, and work-related factors wereassessed via questionnaire. All variables were included in linear regression models to identify factors associated with baseline and changes in BMI and BFP for workers in 3 age groups: 55 years (28 %). There were differences in baseline and changes in BMI and BFP among manufacturing workers across age groups. Being interested in changing weight was significantly (p gender (BMI p = 0.04), female gender (BFP p gender (BMI p = 0.02), female gender (BFP p gender (BFP p 55 year age category. Few factors were associated with change in BMI or BFP across any age category. Among manufacturing workers, we identified associations between individual, health-related, and work-related factors and baseline BMIand BFP that differed by age. Such results support the use of strategies tailored to the challenges faced by workers in specific age groups rather than adopting a one size fits all approach. Effective interventions should consider a full range of individual, health-related, and work-related factors. More work must be done to identify factors or strategies associated with changes in obesity over time.

  17. European analytical column No. 36 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)......European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)...

  18. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  19. Chemical changes associated with the invasion of a Melipona scutellaris colony by Melipona rufiventris workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianaro, Adriana; Flach, Adriana; Patricio, Eda F L R A; Nogueira-Neto, Paulo; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2007-05-01

    Wax constituents produced by worker bees and the chemistry of the nest batumen (mixture of wax, mud, and floral materials) in a Melipona scutellaris colony changed when it was invaded by Melipona rufiventris workers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses showed that after invasion, the M. scutellaris workers of the invaded colony produced waxes with higher relative abundance of triacontanyl acetate and decreased the amounts of n-alkanes and n-9-alkenes. On the other hand, waxes from M. rufiventris workers displayed few changes. The change in the composition of the M. scutellaris waxes chemically differentiates that species from the M. rufiventris invader workers. Comparative analyses of batumens samples from pure and invaded colonies revealed greater amounts of terpenes and phenolic derivatives in the batumen from the invaded colony. This is the first report on the chemical characterization of batumens from stingless bees.

  20. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  1. Chemical and microbiological problems associated with research on the biodesulfurization of coal. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G J; Kelly, R M [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Polymer Division

    1991-04-01

    The study of microbial processes for the removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from coals is complicated by the lack of direct methods of measurement for organic sulfur content and the related incomplete understanding of the specific forms of organic sulfur in coal. In addition, the accessibility of specific chemical groups in the coal matrix to microorganisms and their enzymes is uncertain, raising questions about the nature and validity of model compound studies. Thus, interpretation of data from numerous efforts focussed on the microbial removal of inorganic and organic sulfur from coals remains controversial. The discussion here reviews recent developments in the chemical characterization of coal sulfur related to bioprocessing research and describes some recent efforts in involving sulfur transformation by hyperthermophilic archaebacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  3. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  5. National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU-4 performance evaluation of the PET component of the NanoPET/CT preclinical PET/CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanda, Istvan; Mackewn, Jane; Patay, Gergely; Major, Peter; Sunassee, Kavitha; Mullen, Gregory E; Nemeth, Gabor; Haemisch, York; Blower, Philip J; Marsden, Paul K

    2011-11-01

    The NanoPET/CT represents the latest generation of commercial preclinical PET/CT systems. This article presents a performance evaluation of the PET component of the system according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 2008 standard. The NanoPET/CT consists of 12 lutetium yttrium orthosilicate:cerium modular detectors forming 1 ring, with 9.5-cm axial coverage and a 16-cm animal port. Each detector crystal is 1.12 × 1.12 × 13 mm, and 1 module contains 81 × 39 of these crystals. An optical light guide transmits the scintillation light to the flat-panel multianode position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Analog-to-digital converter cards and a field-programmable gate array-based data-collecting card provide the readout. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality were evaluated in accordance with the NEMA NU-4 standard. Energy and temporal resolution measurements and a mouse imaging study were performed in addition to the standard. Energy resolution was 19% at 511 keV. The spatial resolution, measured as full width at half maximum on single-slice rebinning/filtered backprojection-reconstructed images, approached 1 mm on the axis and remained below 2.5 mm in the central 5-cm transaxial region both in the axial center and at one-quarter field of view. The maximum absolute sensitivity for a point source at the center of the field of view was 7.7%. The maximum noise equivalent counting rates were 430 kcps at 36 MBq and 130 kcps at 27 MBq for the mouse- and rat-sized phantoms, respectively. The uniformity and recovery coefficients were measured with the image-quality phantom, giving good-quality images. In a mouse study with an (18)F-labeled thyroid-specific tracer, the 2 lobes of the thyroid were clearly distinguishable, despite the small size of this organ. The flexible readout system allowed experiments to be performed in an efficient manner, and the system remained stable throughout. The large number

  6. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Bell, Michelle L; Belanger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM 2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM 2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000–2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM 2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics. (letter)

  7. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  8. Applications of micro-spectroscopy and chemical imaging to delineate contaminant associations in heterogeneous mineral environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chemical speciation of a contaminant in the environment controls its mobility, bioavailability and ultimately its toxicity to organisms, including man. Transport models for environmental contaminants have continually failed because of an incomplete understanding of the physicochemical controls regulating the chemical speciation of both inorganic and organic contaminants. One of the greatest analytical difficulties to studying contaminant behavior in the subsurface is the inherent heterogeneity of mineral and organic constituents. Added to the multiplicity, of geological component surfaces that contaminants can interact with is the synergistic (both positive and negative) effects that occur due to non-conservative interactions between these components. Modern spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed quantitative and qualitative information on how contaminants behave within a specific mineral's surface-water interface. In general, the information is so rich as to be un interpretable in heterogeneous systems where multiple binding environments exist on competing multi-mineralic surfaces. None-the-less, it is the behaviour of contaminants in complex heterogeneous environments that is tantamount to understanding and predicting transport behaviour under field conditions. One solution is micro-spot spectroscopy. In micro-spot spectroscopy, chemical composition is determined by dispersing light absorbed or emitted from a highly localized spatial position within a heterogeneous sample. Such examples include FT-IR, Raman, fluorescence, and X-Ray absorption spectroscopies where spatial resolutions of 1 to 10 μm can be achieved. This scale can be still far too large to fully spectroscopically probe binding behaviour that is heterogeneous on colloidal scales ranging down to nanometers. However, it can provide a bridge to established characterization techniques such as optical petrography, since the challenge lies not only in identifying the speciation and

  9. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  10. Chemical Data Access Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool is intended to aid individuals interested in learning more about chemicals that are manufactured or imported into the United States. Health and safety...

  11. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transformations Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The study of the chemical changes consequent upon the nuclear transformation of an atom that is linked with other atoms in a molecule and surrounded by other similar or dissimilar molecules has intrigued chemists for a number of years. This interest is certainly not static but if anything is increasing. The main theme of this meeting was a discussion of the suggestions and theories that have been advanced to explain the wealth of experimental observations on the behaviour of atoms at energies and in situations not normally accessible in the laboratory. Though the subject has some practical implications in the preparation of radioisotopes, this was not an important consideration at this Symposium. The first Symposium on hot-atom chemistry organized by the Agency was held in Prague in October 1960. Comparison of the past and the present state of the subject shows that a greater variety and sophistication of techniques are now being applied as the simpler approaches used in the past have been shown to be inadequate. Progress has been made in the understanding of the simpler gas system, but in liquids and solids there is still much to clarify. It is also of interest that for the majority of the work reported in these Proceedings a reactor was the radiation source, and in this field much experimental work still remains to be done. The Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations was held from 7 to 11 December 1964 in Vienna, and was attended by 136 participants from 29 countries and 4 international organizations. It was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity. The publication of these Proceedings makes the content of the papers and discussion available to a wider audience than was possible at the meeting in Vienna

  12. Solvation phenomena in association theories with applications to oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From the scient......Association theories e.g. those belonging to the SAFT family account explicitly for self- and cross-association (solvation) phenomena. Such phenomena are of great practical importance as they affect, often dramatically, the phase behaviour of many mixtures of industrial relevance. From...

  13. Chemical fate and genotoxic risk associated with hypochlorite treatment of nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrelli, Armando; DellaGreca, Marina; Parolisi, Alice; Iesce, Maria Rosaria; Cermola, Flavio; Temussi, Fabio; Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Passananti, Monica; Previtera, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine, the main alkaloid of tobacco, is a non- prescription drug to which all members of a tobacco-smoking society are exposed either through direct smoke inhalation or through second-hand passive ‘smoking’. Nicotine is also commercially available in some pharmaceutical products and is used worldwide as a botanical insecticide in agriculture. Nicotine dynamics in indoor and outdoor environments as well as the human excretions and the manufacturing process are responsible for its entry in the environment through municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. The presence of nicotine in surface and ground waters points out that it survives a conventional treatment process and persists in potable-water supplies. Complete removal of nicotine is instead reported when additional chlorination steps are used. In this paper a simulation of STP chlorination of nicotine and a genotoxic evaluation of its main degradation products are reported. Under laboratory conditions removal of nicotine seems not to be due to mineralization but to transformation in oxidized and chlorinated products. The by-products have been isolated after fractionation by diverse chromatographic procedures and their structures determined using mass spectrometry and 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Preliminary genotoxic SOS Chromotests with Escherichia coli PQ37 evidence no toxicity of the products. - Highlights: ► Processes of chlorination in the treatment of raw water. ► STP chlorination of nicotine. ► Genotoxic evaluation of main degradation products of nicotine.

  14. Chemical fate and genotoxic risk associated with hypochlorite treatment of nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarrelli, Armando, E-mail: zarrelli@unina.it [UdR Napoli 4 Consorzio INCA, IC-REACH, Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Federico II, Naples (Italy); DellaGreca, Marina; Parolisi, Alice; Iesce, Maria Rosaria; Cermola, Flavio; Temussi, Fabio [UdR Napoli 4 Consorzio INCA, IC-REACH, Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Federico II, Naples (Italy); Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita [Department of Life Sciences, II University of Naples, Caserta (Italy); Passananti, Monica; Previtera, Lucio [UdR Napoli 4 Consorzio INCA, IC-REACH, Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Nicotine, the main alkaloid of tobacco, is a non- prescription drug to which all members of a tobacco-smoking society are exposed either through direct smoke inhalation or through second-hand passive 'smoking'. Nicotine is also commercially available in some pharmaceutical products and is used worldwide as a botanical insecticide in agriculture. Nicotine dynamics in indoor and outdoor environments as well as the human excretions and the manufacturing process are responsible for its entry in the environment through municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. The presence of nicotine in surface and ground waters points out that it survives a conventional treatment process and persists in potable-water supplies. Complete removal of nicotine is instead reported when additional chlorination steps are used. In this paper a simulation of STP chlorination of nicotine and a genotoxic evaluation of its main degradation products are reported. Under laboratory conditions removal of nicotine seems not to be due to mineralization but to transformation in oxidized and chlorinated products. The by-products have been isolated after fractionation by diverse chromatographic procedures and their structures determined using mass spectrometry and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. Preliminary genotoxic SOS Chromotests with Escherichia coli PQ37 evidence no toxicity of the products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processes of chlorination in the treatment of raw water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STP chlorination of nicotine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genotoxic evaluation of main degradation products of nicotine.

  15. Degradative crystal–chemical transformations of clay minerals under the influence of cyanobacterium-actinomycetal symbiotic associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are essential components of soil microbial community and play an active role in ash elements leaching from minerals of the parent rock. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. The transformative effect of cyanobacterial–actinomycetes associations on the structure of clay minerals – kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, biotite and muscovite – was observed, with the greatest structural lattice transformation revealed under the influence of association in comparison with monocultures of cyanobacterium and actinomycete. The range of the transformative effect depended both on the type of biota (component composition of association and on the crystal–chemical parameters of the mineral itself (trioctahedral mica – biotite, was more prone to microbial degradation than the dioctahedral – muscovite. The formation of the swelling phase – the product of biotite transformation into the mica–vermicullite mixed-layered formation was revealed as a result of association cultivation. Crystal chemical transformation of vermiculite was accompanied by the removal of potassium (К, magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al from the crystal lattice. The study of such prokaryotic communities existed even in the early stages of the Earth's history helps to understand the causes and nature of the transformations undergone by the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the planet.contribution of treatments on structure induces and model parameters are discussed in the paper.

  16. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  17. Manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kalpakjian, Serope; Vijai Sekar, K S

    2014-01-01

    For courses in manufacturing processes at two- or four-year schools. An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, SI Edition, 7e, presents a mostly qualitative description of the science, technology, and practice of manufacturing. This includes detailed descriptions of manufacturing processes and the manufacturing enterprise that will help introduce students to important concepts. With a total of 120 examples and case studies, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics, this text provides a solid background for manufacturing students and serves as a valuable reference text for professionals. Teaching and Learning Experience To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will: * Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. * Engage Students: E...

  18. Vadose Zone Fate and Transport Simulation of Chemicals Associated with Coal Seam Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunek, J.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2017-12-01

    The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D) computer software packages are widely used finite element models for simulating the one-, and two- or three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media, respectively. While the standard HYDRUS models consider only the fate and transport of individual solutes or solutes subject to first-order degradation reactions, several specialized HYDRUS add-on modules can simulate far more complex biogeochemical processes. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the HYDRUS models and their add-on modules, and to demonstrate applications of the software to the subsurface fate and transport of chemicals involved in coal seam gas extraction and water management operations. One application uses the standard HYDRUS model to evaluate the natural soil attenuation potential of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their transformation products in case of an accidental release. By coupling the processes of retardation, first-order degradation and convective-dispersive transport of the biocide bronopol and its degradation products, we demonstrated how natural attenuation reduces initial concentrations by more than a factor of hundred in the top 5 cm of the vadose zone. A second application uses the UnsatChem module to explore the possible use of coal seam gas produced water for sustainable irrigation. Simulations with different irrigation waters (untreated, amended with surface water, and reverse osmosis treated) provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, notably SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. A third application uses the coupled HYDRUS-PHREEQC module to analyze trace metal transport involving cation exchange and surface complexation sorption reactions in the vadose zone leached with coal seam gas produced water following some accidental water release scenario. Results show that the main process responsible for trace metal migration is complexation of

  19. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  20. Associating Physical and Chemical Properties to Evaluate Buffer Materials by Th and U Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Yi-Lin; Chen, Tzu-Yun; Cheng, Hwai-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Tseng, Chia-Liang; Wei,Yuan-Yaw; Yang, Jen-Yan; Ke, Cheng-Hsiung; Chuang, Jui-Tang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2003-02-27

    The physical and chemical properties of buffer materials to be used for a radwaste disposal repository should be evaluated prior to use. In a conventional approach, independent studies of physical and/or chemical characteristics are conducted. This study investigated the relationship between the plastic index (PI) and distribution ratio (Rd) of buffer materials composed of varying ratios of quartz sand and bentonite. Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) were the nuclides of interest, and both synthetic groundwater and seawater were used as the liquid phases to simulate conditions representative of deep geological disposal within an island. Atterberg tests were used to determine PI values, and batch sorption experiments were employed to measure Rd values. The results show that Th reached maximum sorption behavior when the bentonite content exceeded 30 % of the mixture. Contrariwise, the sorption of U increased linearly with bentonite content, up to bentonite contents of 100%, and this correlation was present regardless of the liquid phase used. A further result is that U has a better additivity with respect to Rd than Th in both synthetic groundwater and synthetic seawater. These results will allow a determination of more effective buffer material composition, and improved estimates of the overall Rd of the buffer material mixture from the Rd of each mineral component.

  1. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A J; Iwanowicz, L R; Alvarez, D A; Brightbill, R A; Smith, G; Foreman, W T; Manning, R

    2014-10-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100%, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100% in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  2. Using Ambystoma mexicanum (Mexican axolotl) embryos, chemical genetics, and microarray analysis to identify signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Larissa V; Athippozhy, Antony; Thorson, Jon S; Voss, S Randal

    2015-12-01

    Amphibian vertebrates are important models in regenerative biology because they present exceptional regenerative capabilities throughout life. However, it takes considerable effort to rear amphibians to juvenile and adult stages for regeneration studies, and the relatively large sizes that frogs and salamanders achieve during development make them difficult to use in chemical screens. Here, we introduce a new tail regeneration model using late stage Mexican axolotl embryos. We show that axolotl embryos completely regenerate amputated tails in 7days before they exhaust their yolk supply and begin to feed. Further, we show that axolotl embryos can be efficiently reared in microtiter plates to achieve moderate throughput screening of soluble chemicals to investigate toxicity and identify molecules that alter regenerative outcome. As proof of principle, we identified integration 1 / wingless (Wnt), transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway antagonists that completely block tail regeneration and additional chemicals that significantly affected tail outgrowth. Furthermore, we used microarray analysis to show that inhibition of Wnt signaling broadly affects transcription of genes associated with Wnt, Fgf, Tgf-β, epidermal growth factor (Egf), Notch, nerve growth factor (Ngf), homeotic gene (Hox), rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/Mapk), myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (Myc), tumor protein 53 (p53), and retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Punctuated changes in the expression of genes known to regulate vertebrate development were observed; this suggests the tail regeneration transcriptional program is hierarchically structured and temporally ordered. Our study establishes the axolotl as a chemical screening model to investigate signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical association in simple models of molecular and ionic fluids. III. The cavity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaoqi; Stell, George

    1992-01-01

    Exact equations which relate the cavity function to excess solvation free energies and equilibrium association constants are rederived by using a thermodynamic cycle. A zeroth-order approximation, derived previously by us as a simple interpolation scheme, is found to be very accurate if the associative bonding occurs on or near the surface of the repulsive core of the interaction potential. If the bonding radius is substantially less than the core radius, the approximation overestimates the association degree and the association constant. For binary association, the zeroth-order approximation is equivalent to the first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) of Wertheim. For n-particle association, the combination of the zeroth-order approximation with a ``linear'' approximation (for n-particle distribution functions in terms of the two-particle function) yields the first-order TPT result. Using our exact equations to go beyond TPT, near-exact analytic results for binary hard-sphere association are obtained. Solvent effects on binary hard-sphere association and ionic association are also investigated. A new rule which generalizes Le Chatelier's principle is used to describe the three distinct forms of behaviors involving solvent effects that we find. The replacement of the dielectric-continuum solvent model by a dipolar hard-sphere model leads to improved agreement with an experimental observation. Finally, equation of state for an n-particle flexible linear-chain fluid is derived on the basis of a one-parameter approximation that interpolates between the generalized Kirkwood superposition approximation and the linear approximation. A value of the parameter that appears to be near optimal in the context of this application is obtained from comparison with computer-simulation data.

  4. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Menna, P. [National Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Portici (Italy); Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V. [Intersolarcenter, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  5. Chemical compatibility issues associated with use of SiC/SiC in advanced reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are of interest for components that will experience high radiation fields in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), or the Fluoride-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR). In all of the reactor systems considered, reactions of SiC/SiC composites with the constituents of the coolant determine suitability of materials of construction. The material of interest is nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites, which consist of a SiC matrix [high-purity, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC or liquid phase-sintered SiC that is crystalline beta-phase SiC containing small amounts of alumina-yttria impurity], a pyrolytic carbon interphase, and somewhat impure yet crystalline beta-phase SiC fibers. The interphase and fiber components may or may not be exposed, at least initially, to the reactor coolant. The chemical compatibility of SiC/SiC composites in the three reactor environments is highly dependent on thermodynamic stability with the pure coolant, and on reactions with impurities present in the environment including any ingress of oxygen and moisture. In general, there is a dearth of information on the performance of SiC in these environments. While there is little to no excess Si present in the new SiC/SiC composites, the reaction of Si with O2 cannot be ignored, especially for the FHR, in which environment the product, SiO2, can be readily removed by the fluoride salt. In all systems, reaction of the carbon interphase layer with oxygen is possible especially under abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant (resulting in increased temperature), and air and/ or steam ingress. A global outline of an approach to resolving SiC/SiC chemical compatibility concerns with the environments of the three reactors is presented along with ideas to quickly determine the baseline compatibility performance of SiC/SiC.

  6. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100 0 C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced

  7. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100{sup 0}C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced.

  8. Evolution of porosity and diffusivity associated with chemical weathering of a basalt clast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Tomutsa, L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-02-15

    Weathering of rocks as a result of exposure to water and the atmosphere can cause significant changes in their chemistry and porosity. In low-porosity rocks, such as basalts, changes in porosity, resulting from chemical weathering, are likely to modify the rock's effective diffusivity and permeability, affecting the rate of solute transport and thus potentially the rate of overall weathering to the extent that transport is the rate limiting step. Changes in total porosity as a result of mineral dissolution and precipitation have typically been used to calculate effective diffusion coefficients through Archie's law for reactive transport simulations of chemical weathering, but this approach fails to account for unconnected porosity that does not contribute to transport. In this study, we combine synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT) and laboratory and numerical diffusion experiments to examine changes in both total and effective porosity and effective diffusion coefficients across a weathering interface in a weathered basalt clast from Costa Rica. The {mu}CT data indicate that below a critical value of {approx}9%, the porosity is largely unconnected in the basalt clast. The {mu}CT data were further used to construct a numerical pore network model to determine upscaled, effective diffusivities as a function of total porosity (ranging from 3 to 30%) for comparison with diffusivities determined in laboratory tracer experiments. By using effective porosity as the scaling parameter and accounting for critical porosity, a model is developed that accurately predicts continuum-scale effective diffusivities across the weathering interface of the basalt clast.

  9. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  10. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  11. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.; Harrop, G.; Maricalva Gonzalez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The status of the investment and R and D programmes in the UK and Spanish fuel fabrication facilities is outlined. Due to a number of circumstances, BNFL and ENUSA have been in the forefront of capital investment, with associated commitment to engineering and scientific research and development. Carrying through this investment has allowed the embodiment of proven state of the art technologies in the design of fuel fabrication plants, with particular emphasis on meeting the future challenge of health and safety, and product quality, at an acceptable cost. ENUSA and BNFL currently supply fuel, not only to their respective 'home' markets but also to France, Belgium, Sweden, and Germany. Both organisations employ an International Business outlook and partake in focused and speculative R and D projects for the design and manufacture of nuclear fuel. (orig./HP)

  12. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  13. Materials of 46. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical. Volume 1,2,3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meetings organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects were proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum as well as the reports of results of works sponsored by Committee of Scientific Research

  14. Comments on some of the physical chemical questions associated with the analysis of water in earth materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Edward [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    A discussion of various physical chemical questions which are associated with the quantitative analysis of water in earth materials is presented. A pseudothermodynamic approach to the binding of water in various types of earth materials is also presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that as pore, crack, or hole sizes approach molecular dimensions, the interaction energy of water with the host material can become very large. A scale of interaction energies is suggested which would be useful for specifying operationally relevant analyses in earth materials. (author)

  15. Comments on some of the physical chemical questions associated with the analysis of water in earth materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, Edward

    1970-01-01

    A discussion of various physical chemical questions which are associated with the quantitative analysis of water in earth materials is presented. A pseudothermodynamic approach to the binding of water in various types of earth materials is also presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that as pore, crack, or hole sizes approach molecular dimensions, the interaction energy of water with the host material can become very large. A scale of interaction energies is suggested which would be useful for specifying operationally relevant analyses in earth materials. (author)

  16. National symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries [Preprint volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    A symposium on commissioning and operating experiences in heavy water plants and associated chemical industries (SCOPEX-92) was organised to share the experience and exchange the ideas among plant operators, designers, consultants and vendors in the areas of operation, commissioning and equipment performance. This pre-print volume has been brought out as an integrated source of information on commissioning and operation of heavy water plants. The following aspects of heavy water plants are covered: commissioning and operation, instrumentation and control, and safety and environment. (V.R.)

  17. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  18. Automation and Integration in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Da-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor automation originates from the prevention and avoidance of frauds in daily fab operations. As semiconductor technology and business continuously advance and grow, manufacturing systems must aggressively evolve to meet the changing technical and business requirements in this industry. Semiconductor manufacturing has been suffering pains from islands of automation. The problems associated with these systems are limited

  19. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of associating mixtures cannot often be satisfactorily modelled using conventional models such as cubic equations of state. CPA (cubic-plus-association) is an equation of state (EoS), which combines the SRK EoS with the association term of SAFT. For non......-alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... thermodynamic models especially those combining cubic EoS with local composition activity coefficient models are included. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, J. E.; Leck, C.

    2011-08-01

    The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC) can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed. One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter. Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season) or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon). The two ways of correction (optical and chemical) lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm-1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm-1). A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter-based determinations of BC, before even the sign on the

  3. Chemical changes associated with zeolitization of the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The chemistry of the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills was examined in samples collected over a 100 2 km area south of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex to determine regional geochemical patterns during zeolitization. Samples of 58 vitric and zeolitic tuffs were analyzed for 48 elements by a combination of x-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and neutron activation analysis. Major and trace element concentrations for zeolitic tuffs vary significantly from those for vitric tuffs. Complex, geographically-controlled patterns of elemental enrichment and depletion in the zeolitic tuffs are found for Na, K, Ca, Mg, U, Rb, Sr, Ba and Cs. Vitric and zeolitic tuffs generally have the same SiO 2 contents on an anhydrous basis, but minor net silica gain or loss has occurred in some samples. Zeolitic tuffs from the northern part of the study area, adjacent to the caldera complex, are notably K-rich and Na- and U-poor compared to zeolitic tuffs to the south. The compositions of the K-rich zeolitic tuffs are similar to those found in other areas of the western US where volcanic rocks are affected by potassium metasomatism. Alteration of vitric tuffs took place in an open chemical system and geographic control of major element compositions probably reflects regional variations in groundwater chemistry during alteration. The K-rich zeolitic tuffs in the northern part of the study area were probably altered by hydrothermal fluids whereas tuffs further south were altered by lower-temperature groundwaters

  4. Surface Chemical Characterisation of Pyrite Exposed to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Associated Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian M. La Vars

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A. ferrooxidans and their metabolic products have previously been explored as a viable alternative depressant of pyrite for froth flotation; however, the mechanism by which separation is achieved is not completely understood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS and captive bubble contact angle measurements have been used to examine the surface physicochemical properties of pyrite upon exposure to A. ferrooxidans grown in HH medium at pH 1.8. C K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectra collected from PEEM images indicate hydrophilic lipids, fatty acids and biopolymers are formed at the mineral surface during early exposure. After 168 h, the spectra indicate a shift towards protein and DNA, corresponding to an increase in cell population and biofilm formation on the surface, as observed by SEM. The Fe L-edge NEXAFS show gradual oxidation of the mineral surface from Fe(II sulfide to Fe(III oxyhydroxides. The oxidation of the iron species at the pyrite surface is accelerated in the presence of A. ferrooxidans and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS as compared to HH medium controls. The surface chemical changes induced by the interaction with A. ferrooxidans show a significant decrease in surface hydrophobicity within the first 2 h of exposure. The implications of these findings are the potential use of EPS produced during early attachment of A. ferrooxidans, as a depressant for bioflotation.

  5. Chemical oceanography in the Cretan Sea: Changes associated to the transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SOUVERMEZOGLOU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive research since 1985 in the framework of national and international programmes revealed important modifications in oxygen and nutrients distribution in the Cretan Sea. The significant increase of density and of formation rates of the Cretan Dense Water (CDW during the last decade is basically responsible for the drastic change of the thermohaline circulation and the installation of a new hydrological regime in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the Cretan Sea, the most important effect of the new regime, is the installation of a well-defined "minimum salinity, temperature, oxygen and maximum nutrient" intermediate layer formed by the intrusion of the Transitional Mediterranean Water (TMW compensating the massive CDW outflow. The nutrient enrichment of the intermediate layers of the Cretan Sea, due to the intrusion of the "nutrient rich-oxygen poor" TMW, was observed firstly in 1991 and became very important during 1994-95. During 1994-95 the TMW occupies the intermediate layers of the entire Cretan Sea and the concentrations of nutrients in this layer are often two times higher than in the past. Recently, in 1997-98 the chemical characteristics of TMW are less pronounced probably related to the weaker CDW outflow.

  6. Application of the cubic-plus-association equation of state to mixtures with polar chemicals and high pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    was given to low pressures and liquid-liquid equilibria. In this work, CPA is applied to two classes of mixtures containing polar chemicals for which high-pressure data are available: acetone-containing systems and dimethyl ether mixtures. They are of both scientific and industrial importance. Moreover, CPA......The cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state has been previously applied to vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibria of mixtures containing associating compounds (water, alcohols, glycols, acids, amines). Although some high-pressure applications have been presented, emphasis...... to conventional models such as MHV2. Very good results are also obtained for multicomponent vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures containing gases, water, and dimethyl ether. Finally, it is shown that high-pressure SLE can be predicted based on interaction parameters obtained from low-pressure SLE data....

  7. Chemical and behavioral integration of army ant-associated rove beetles - a comparison between specialists and generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Beeren, Christoph; Brückner, Adrian; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Burke, Griffin; Wieschollek, Jana; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2018-01-01

    Host-symbiont interactions are embedded in ecological communities and range from unspecific to highly specific relationships. Army ants and their arthropod guests represent a fascinating example of species-rich host-symbiont associations where host specificity ranges across the entire generalist - specialist continuum. In the present study, we compared the behavioral and chemical integration mechanisms of two extremes of the generalist - specialist continuum: generalist ant-predators in the genus Tetradonia (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Athetini), and specialist ant-mimics in the genera Ecitomorpha and Ecitophya (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Ecitocharini). Similar to a previous study of Tetradonia beetles, we combined DNA barcoding with morphological studies to define species boundaries in ant-mimicking beetles. This approach found four ant-mimicking species at our study site at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Community sampling of Eciton army ant parasites revealed that ant-mimicking beetles were perfect host specialists, each beetle species being associated with a single Eciton species. These specialists were seamlessly integrated into the host colony, while generalists avoided physical contact to host ants in behavioral assays. Analysis of the ants' nestmate recognition cues, i.e. cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), showed close similarity in CHC composition and CHC concentration between specialists and Eciton burchellii foreli host ants. On the contrary, the chemical profiles of generalists matched host profiles less well, indicating that high accuracy in chemical host resemblance is only accomplished by socially integrated species. Considering the interplay between behavior, morphology, and cuticular chemistry, specialists but not generalists have cracked the ants' social code with respect to various sensory modalities. Our results support the long-standing idea that the evolution of host-specialization in parasites is a trade-off between the range of

  8. Polyuria-associated hydronephrosis induced by xenobiotic chemical exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Noriko; Akagi, Toshiya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-10-01

    Hydronephrosis is a commonly found disease state characterized by the dilation of renal calices and pelvis, resulting in the loss of kidney function in the severest cases. A generally accepted etiology of hydronephrosis involves the obstruction of urine flow along the urinary tract. In the recent years, we have developed a mouse model of hydronephrosis induced by lactational exposure to dioxin and demonstrated a lack of anatomical obstruction in this model. We also showed that prostaglandin E 2 synthesis system plays a critical role in the onset of hydronephrosis. In the present study, we found that neonatal hydronephrosis was not likely to be associated with functional obstruction (impaired peristalsis) but was found to be associated with polyuria and low urine osmolality with the downregulation of proteins involved in the urine concentrating process. The administration of an antidiuretic hormone analog to the dioxin-exposed pups not only suppressed the increased urine output but also decreased the incidence and severity of hydronephrosis. In contrast to the case in pups, administration of dioxin to adult mice failed to induce polyuria and upregulation of prostaglandin E 2 synthesis system, and the adult mice were resistant to develop hydronephrosis. These findings suggest the possibility that polyuria could induce hydronephrosis in the absence of anatomical or functional obstruction of the ureter. It is concluded that the present animal model provides a unique example of polyuria-associated type of hydronephrosis, suggesting a need to redefine this disease state. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2017-04-01

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu 0 -alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl 2 ). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg -1 DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg -1 DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg -1 DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg -1 ) and Σ PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg -1 DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil ( -1 DM) and thiabendazol ( -1 DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  11. Measuring Manufacturing Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2017-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  12. [Regional features of food standards and health risks associated with chemical contamination of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikov, O V; Khatuaev, R O; Istomin, A V; Rumyantseva, L A

    In the article there are presented results of a study of the balance of food consumption by the population of the Voronezh region, the assessment of the level of contamination of food products and both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic and public health risk caused by this contamination. There was evaluated the level of nutrition-dependent diseases. A special feature of this study is a comparative analysis of data obtained during the two five-year periods of 1995-1999 and 2010-2014, that permitted to reveal changes in food consumption, the dynamics of morbidity rate associated with the nutritional factor.

  13. Chemical abundances associated with gamma-ray bursts: nucleosynthesis in afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta carries huge amounts of energy expanding into the surrounding medium and heats up these materials, making it possible that nucleosynthesis can take place in such hot sites in afterglow stage. Here, we study possible changes in chemical abundances in the GRB afterglow processes of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star wind environments (Case A) and constant density surroundings (Case B). We find that the light element of lithium-beryllium-boron could occur in the afterglows via He+He process and spallation reactions. Some isotopes of F, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and Fe-group elements are also new species formed in the afterglows via proton-, neutron- and α-capture. The results show that the nucleosynthetic yields might be a diagnostic of the GRB's ambient environment. Our calculations indicate that Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have trended to appear in Case A, while Ne, Ti and Ni trend to occur in Case B. Furthermore, although some species have occurred both in Cases A and B, their mass fractions are quite different in these two cases. Here, we show that the mass fractions of 7Li, 7Be, 24Mg and 30Si are higher in Case A than that in Case B, but 18F gives an opposite conclusion. Nucleosynthetic outputs might also be an indice to estimate the luminosity-temperature relation factor β. In this study, when β reduces, the mass abundances of 11B and 20Ne are higher in Case B than that in Case A; in contrast, as the β becomes larger, this trend would be reversed; therefore, perhaps we could select the above elements as the indicators to estimate the properties of the surroundings around the GRBs. We also suggest that the spectroscopic observations of a GRB afterglow could only reveal the nucleosynthetic outputs from the interaction site between the GRB jet and its ambient matter, but could not represent the original composition of the pre-GRB surrounding medium.

  14. Chemical characterization of surface snow in Istanbul (NW Turkey) and their association with atmospheric circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Baltaci, Hakki; Ozbek, Nil; Destanoglu, Orhan; Ustabasi, Gul Sirin; Gumus, Gulcin

    2017-06-01

    The understanding of the impurities in natural snow is important in realizing its atmospheric quality, soil characteristics, and the pollution caused to the environment. Knowledge of the occurrence of major ions and trace metals in the snow in the megacity of Istanbul is very limited. This manuscript attempts to understand the origin of major soluble ions (fluoride, acetate, formate, chlorite, chloride, nitrite, chlorate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and perchlorate) and some trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu) in winter surface snow, collected in Istanbul, Turkey. The sampling of the surface snow was conducted after each precipitation during the winter of 2015-2016 at three sites in the city. Besides the statistical evaluation of the major ions, and some trace metal concentrations, the chemical variations along with atmospheric circulations, which are important modification mechanisms that influence the concentrations, were investigated in the study. At examined locations and times, 12 major anions were investigated and in these anions fluoride, chlorite, chlorate, bromide, and perchlorate in the snow samples were below the detection limit; only SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and CI - were found to be in the range of 1.11-17.90, 0.75-4.52, and 0.19-3.01 mg/L. Also, according to the trace element determination, the concentration was found to be 29.2-53.7, 2.0-16.1, 1.0-2.2, 50.1-71.1, 24.2-35.2, ND-7.9, 43.2-106.6, and 3.0-17.7 μg/L for Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu, respectively. The major anions and investigated trace elements here originated mainly from anthropogenic and atmospheric circulation and mainly influenced by northerly and southerly circulation patterns. While the main limitations in the present study may be the low number of samples that may not be entirely representative, accurately reflect identification, or support other previously observed local measurements, we believe that the type of data presented in this study has the potential

  15. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  16. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  17. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  18. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  19. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  20. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  2. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  3. Chemical-Gene Interactions from ToxCast Bioactivity Data Expands Universe of Literature Network-Based Associations (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing the effects of chemicals in biological systems is often summarized by chemical-gene interactions, which have sparse coverage in the literature. The ToxCast chemical screening program has produced bioactivity data for nearly 2000 chemicals and over 450 gene targets....

  4. 76 FR 72976 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., 2011, 76 FR 36577, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg, Virginia... Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with the public interest at this time. DEA has investigated Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc...

  5. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  6. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  7. Radioecological situation in the area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association in Russian Zabaikalye Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Akhromeev, S.V.; Semenova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company, which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. Contamination of local parts of the health protection zone results from discharges and releases, dust transport of radionuclides from the mine rock dumps containing uranium, radium, radon and its decay products, spillage of ore along highways, straits uraniferous pulp and mine water from the pool pump shaft station. The radionuclide migration results in groundwater contamination. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of natural radionuclides. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of 226 Ra and 2 32 Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining.

  8. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  9. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  10. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  11. Robotics and automation in manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    NEI involvement in Heysham II and Torness included contracts for equipment both for the Nuclear Island and for non-nuclear associated plant. Fundamental to the approach to manufacture was the capital investment in plant and facilities to ensure the quality requirements were met with economic production methods and prompt delivery. Some of the production facilities for a selection of varied components are described. Examples of subsequent development of facilities are given to illustrate their current capability. (author)

  12. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Engström

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed.

    One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter.

    Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon. The two ways of correction (optical and chemical lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm−1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm−1. A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter

  13. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  14. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  15. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  16. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  17. Clinical benefit and preservation of flavonols in dark chocolate manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, Andrew; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Munro, Sandra B; Casadesus, Gemma; Castell, Margarida; Smith, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    The consumption of high-cacao-content chocolate has been associated with positive health benefits ascribed to flavanol [corrected] antioxidants derived from the ground, fermented cocoa seeds of Theobroma cacao. However, flavanols [corrected] impart a bitter, astringent flavor to foodstuffs, frequently masked in chocolates and confections by aggressive processing and adulteration with other flavors. Recent reports have implied that not all varieties of dark chocolate are created equally, and significant caveats exist regarding its potential health benefits. It is perhaps not surprising that extensive processing, dilution, and the addition of flavor modifiers may improve the palatability of chocolate, but could have negative nutritional and clinical benefits. This article examines the chemical composition of chocolate and the clinical data associated with the consumption of flavonoid-rich cocoa. We review the steps in chocolate manufacturing that directly affect the antioxidant levels in chocolate products, and the caveats associated with claims of health benefits from the consumption of dark chocolate.

  18. An Interoperability Framework and Capability Profiling for Manufacturing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M.; Arai, E.; Nakano, N.; Wakai, H.; Takeda, H.; Takata, M.; Sasaki, H.

    ISO/TC184/SC5/WG4 is working on ISO16100: Manufacturing software capability profiling for interoperability. This paper reports on a manufacturing software interoperability framework and a capability profiling methodology which were proposed and developed through this international standardization activity. Within the context of manufacturing application, a manufacturing software unit is considered to be capable of performing a specific set of function defined by a manufacturing software system architecture. A manufacturing software interoperability framework consists of a set of elements and rules for describing the capability of software units to support the requirements of a manufacturing application. The capability profiling methodology makes use of the domain-specific attributes and methods associated with each specific software unit to describe capability profiles in terms of unit name, manufacturing functions, and other needed class properties. In this methodology, manufacturing software requirements are expressed in terns of software unit capability profiles.

  19. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  20. Systems engineering management process maturity of South African manufacturing organisations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemberger, ID

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available to integrate people, processes and technologies to deliver innovative complex systems. The investigation set out to improve the understanding of systems engineering (SE) with focus on organisations in manufacturing of coke, petroleum, chemical products, rubber...

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy substantially reduces symptom severity and social disability associated with multiple chemical sensitivity: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Gulmann, Nils; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic nonallergic, multisymptom disorder triggered by common environmental chemicals in concentrations considered nontoxic for most individuals. The condition may lead to loss of occupation and social isolation, and no effective treatment has been reported...

  2. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  3. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-II: combining the manufacturing process simulation with a subsequent loading scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Tutum, Cem C.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    This paper in particular deals with the integrated modeling of a pultruded NACA0018 blade profile being a part of EU funded DeepWind project. The manufacturing aspects of the pultrusion process are associated with the preliminary subsequent service loading scenario. A 3D thermo-chemical analysis of

  4. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  5. Process assessment associated to microbial community response provides insight on possible mechanism of waste activated sludge digestion under typical chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Varrone, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    was dominated by microorganisms that anaerobically hydrolyze organics to acids, while that in NaOH and SDS was mainly associated to biogas production. This study proved that the overall performance of WAS digestion was substantially depended on the initial chemical pretreatments, which in turn influenced...... and was related to the microbial community structures. Although the economic advantage might not be clear yet, the findings obtained in this work may provide a scientific basis for the potential implementation of chemicals for WAS treatment....

  6. The Association of Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals with Glucocorticoid and Androgenic Hormones in Cord Blood Samples: The Hokkaido Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Houman; Araki, Atsuko; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Katsuya; Kishi, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) disrupt cholesterol homeostasis. All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol, and steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgenic hormones mediate several vital physiologic functions. However, the in utero effects of PFCs exposure on the homeostasis of these steroid hormones are not well understood in humans. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and cord blood levels of glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones. We conducted a hospital-based birth cohort study between July 2002 and October 2005 in Sapporo, Japan (n = 514). In total, 185 mother-infant pairs were included in the present study. Prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels in maternal serum samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Cord blood levels of glucocorticoid (cortisol and cortisone) and androgenic hormones [dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione] were also measured in the same way. We found a dose-response relationship of prenatal PFOS, but not PFOA, exposure with glucocorticoid levels after adjusting for potential confounders. Cortisol and cortisone concentrations were -23.98-ng/mL (95% CI: -0.47.12, -11.99; p for trend = 0.006) and -63.21-ng/mL (95% CI: -132.56, -26.72; p for trend blood. Citation: Goudarzi H, Araki A, Itoh S, Sasaki S, Miyashita C, Mitsui T, Nakazawa H, Nonomura K, Kishi R. 2017. The association of prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals with glucocorticoid and androgenic hormones in cord blood samples: the Hokkaido Study. Environ Health Perspect 125:111-118; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP142.

  7. Identification and determination of the contribution of iron-steel manufacturing industry to sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large shallow lake of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu; Bai, Ya-Shu; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Tian-Hu; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in surface sediments collected from the Chaohu Lake (a large shallow lake in eastern China) and its tributaries. Both diagnostic ratios and a receptor model (positive matrix factorization, PMF) were applied to identify and determine the contribution of a local iron-steel manufacturing plant located in the Nanfei River (NFR) to the Chaohu Lake basin. The results show that sites located in the downstream of the steel plant contained concentrations of 17 PAH (Σ 17 PAH) approximately two orders of magnitudes higher than those from other sites. Five factors were identified by the PMF model, including industrial waste, wood/biomass burning, diagenetic origin, domestic coal combustion, and industrial combustion. Our findings suggest that sediments in the downstream of the plant and in the western part of the Chaohu Lake were predominantly affected by industrial coal combustion. A mixture of pyrolytic origins impacted urban sediments in the upstream of the plant, whereas diagenetic origins along with coal and biomass burning were suggested to influence the eastern part and rural tributaries of the lake. To assess the potential ecological risk and toxicity caused by the iron-steel plant, sediment toxicity was evaluated by the PMF model, sediment quality guideline, and toxic equivalent factors. All of the three approaches suggested PAH accumulation in the NFR sediments could produce significant adverse ecological effects and half of the sediment toxicity in the NFR may be attributed to the emissions from the iron-steel plant. Some rural locations also exhibited PAH concentrations above probable effects, most likely contributed by wood/biomass burning.

  8. Insomnia symptoms and their association with workplace productivity: cross-sectional and pre-post intervention analyses from a large multinational manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Colin A; Pawlecki, Brent; Waterfield, Dickon; Fitton, Kit; Radocchia, Michael; Luik, Annemarie I

    2018-06-01

    Symptoms of insomnia are common and might impact work productivity. We investigated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and workplace productivity in a global manufacturing company. Within an uncontrolled, cross-sectional study, employees from a US-based company were invited to participate in an online evaluation comprising the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) measuring symptoms of insomnia (high score indicating better sleep), 2 items of the Work Productivity and Impairment Index (WPAI) measuring 'presenteeism' and 'absenteeism' (high score indicating loss of work productivity) and 1 item of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) from January 2015 onwards. Pre-post, within-subject data were collected to preliminary test effects of 'sleep tips' and digital cognitive behavioral therapy (dCBT). In 2798 employees [72% male; mean age 46.3(SD11.8) yrs] sleep was poorest in plant staff [SCI = 3.70(2.73)], then retail staff [4.34(3.02)], then office staff [4.95(2.83): overall F(2,2786) = 43.7, P work-related productivity, with stress only contributing a further 9%. A regression model for 'absenteeism' was statistically significant but of limited predictive value (R 2 = 3.4%). In a sample of 214 employees with pre- and post-intervention data, the SCI of those exposed to sleep tips significantly increased from 5.36(3.28) to 6.01(3.22), [t(123) = -3.02, P = .003] and from 3.08(2.24) to 6.03(2.97) for those who accessed dCBT [t(89) = -8.40, P work productivity. Additionally, targeted insomnia interventions may offer potential to improve sleep and work productivity. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increase of manufacturability of manufacturing of difficult profile details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Ye. Semenovskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problems arising in the process of manufacturing such complex profile parts as gears is carried out. The possible ways of simplifying the technological processes with the aim of improving the economic performance of production, as well as reducing the defect are defined. The carried out researches of influence of chemical composition of steel, its structural parameters on technological characteristics. The choice of compositions of the chemical composition of steel with the optimal ratio of physical-mechanical and technological characteristics is substantiated. The causes of deformation of parts in the process of heat treatment are established. The developed criteria for estimating this value. At the same time, the task of not only qualitative but also quantitative evaluation of such technological properties as the propensity of steels to deformation in the course of chemical-thermal treatment is solved, with the aim of introducing a single characteristic that determines the tendency of the steel to deform during hardening. Reducing the propensity of steel to deformation allowed to increase the economic performance of production by reducing the number of finishing operations.

  10. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  11. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  12. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  13. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  14. Transformation of Manufacturing Firms to Servitisation Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Ma, Zheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial for the manufacturing SMEs to reconsider their business strategy in order to be able to launch customer-centric solutions. This ability is associated with a paradigm shift from a product-orientation to service-orientation. One of the major challenges to success in transforming...... a traditional manufacturing firm to service-oriented firms is the conspicuous lack of publications in this research stream. Applying a case study research approach, this study explores the transformation model for manufacturing SMEs to servitisation firms by adopting a network approach, and reveals...

  15. Safety concerns in composite manufacturing and machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Alonayni, Abdullah; Alamir, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Because of the superior properties, composites have been used in many industrial applications, including aerospace, wind turbines, ships, cars, fishing rods, storage tanks, swimming pool panels, and baseball bats. Each application may require different combinations of reinforcements and matrices, which make the manufacturing safety even more challenging while working on these substances. In this study, safety issues in composite manufacturing and machining were investigated in detail, and latest developments were provided for workers. The materials most frequently used in composite manufacturing, such as matrix (polyester, vinylester, phenolic, epoxies, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoil peroxide, hardeners, and solvents), and reinforcement materials (carbon, glass and Kevlar fibers, honeycomb and foams) can be highly toxic to human body. These materials can also be very toxic to the environment when dumped out uncontrollably, creating major future health and environmental concerns. Throughout the manufacturing process, workers inhale vapors of the liquid matrix, hardeners and solvents / thinners, as well as reinforcement materials (chopped fibers and particles) in airborne. Milling, cutting and machining of the composites can further increase the toxic inhalations of airborne composite particles, resulting in major rashes, irritation, skin disorders, coughing, severe eye and lung injury and other serious illnesses. The major portions of these hazardous materials can be controlled using appropriate personal protective equipment for the chemicals and materials used in composite manufacturing and machining. This study provides best possible safety practices utilized in composite manufacturing facilities for workers, engineers and other participants.

  16. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  17. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. In this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  18. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for Scalable Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huan; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-01-01

    Tip-based nanofabrication (TBN) is a family of emerging nanofabrication techniques that use a nanometer scale tip to fabricate nanostructures. Here in this review, we first introduce the history of the TBN and the technology development. We then briefly review various TBN techniques that use different physical or chemical mechanisms to fabricate features and discuss some of the state-of-the-art techniques. Subsequently, we focus on those TBN methods that have demonstrated potential to scale up the manufacturing throughput. Finally, we discuss several research directions that are essential for making TBN a scalable nano-manufacturing technology.

  19. Acetal Resins, Acrylic & Modacrylic Fibers, Carbon Black, Hydrogen Fluoride, Polycarbonate, Ethylene, Spandex & Cyanide Chemical Manufacturing: NESHAP for Source Categories, Generic Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (40 CFR 63, Subpart YY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for GMACT for acetal resins, hydrogen fluoride, polycarbonate, ethylene production and cyanide chemicals. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, rule summary, and additional resources

  20. 21ST Century Manufacturing Enterprise Strategy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Association for Manufacturing Excellence, Wheeling, Illinois, 28 p. 142. Hamel, G.; Prahalad , C.K. (1989): " Strategic Intent ". Harvard Business...counsel of over 150 people from 77 companies and I1I professional organizations in developing their strategic enterprise plan. The group strongly...Understand the strategic implications of manufacturing technology for the corporation (4) Have a vision of the future competitiveness needs of industry in

  1. Spring 2008 Industry Study. Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chamber of Commerce puts the number of U.S. manufacturing jobs lost to piracy at 750,000 (U.S. Chamber of Commerce , 2007). Interviews with...economy each year and puts millions at risk from counterfeit medicines and engine parts (U.S. Chamber of Commerce , 2007). There are, however, several...Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce advocate global changes to IP protection, calling for the “reform and harmonization

  2. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  3. Associations between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms in theater and regional brain volume in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Reeb, Rosemary; Esparza, Iva L; Abadjian, Linda R

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported evidence of reduced cortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampal volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted exposure to low-levels of nerve agent according to the 2000 Khamisiyah plume model analysis. Because there is suggestive evidence that other nerve agent exposures may have occurred during the Gulf War, we examined the association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound during deployment in the Gulf War and regional brain volume in GW veterans. Ninety consecutive GW veterans (15 female, mean age: 52±8years) participating in a VA-funded study underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T scanner. Freesurfer (version 5.1) was used to obtain regional measures of cortical GM, WM, hippocampal, and insula volume. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between the self-reported frequencies of hearing chemical alarms during the Gulf War and regional brain volume. There was an inverse association between the self-reported frequency of hearing chemical alarms sound and total cortical GM (adjusted p=0.007), even after accounting for potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables, the veterans' current health status, and other concurrent deployment-related exposures that were correlated with hearing chemical alarms. Post-hoc analyses extended the inverse relationship between the frequency of hearing chemical alarms to GM volume in the frontal (adjusted p=0.02), parietal (adjusted p=0.01), and occipital (adjusted p=0.001) lobes. In contrast, regional brain volumes were not significantly associated with predicted exposure to the Khamisiyah plume or with Gulf War Illness status defined by the Kansas or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Many veterans reported hearing chemical alarms sound during the Gulf War. The current findings suggest that exposure to substances that triggered those chemical alarms during the Gulf War likely

  4. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  6. Color stability, radiopacity, and chemical characteristics of white mineral trioxide aggregate associated with 2 different vehicles in contact with blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Tartari, Talita; Marciano, Marina Angélica; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Mondeli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Camilleri, Josette; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-06-01

    Discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can be exacerbated by the interaction of the cement with body fluids such as blood. This study aimed to analyze the color alteration, chemical characteristics, and radiopacity of MTA manipulated with 2 different vehicles after immersion in blood or distilled water (DW). MTA mixed with 100% DW or 80% DW/20% propylene glycol (PG) as vehicles were placed into rubber rings and incubated at 37°C and 100% relative humidity until set. Color assessment and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis were performed after setting and repeated after 7, 15, and 30 days after immersion in blood and DW. Statistical analysis for color alteration and radiopacity was performed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (P vehicle, significantly lower color alterations were observed for all time periods compared with 100% DW when immersed in blood (P media because of loss of bismuth. A decrease in radiopacity was observed over time in all groups, with a statistically significant difference after 30 days for groups DW immersed in blood and 80% DW/20% immersed in both media (P vehicle for MTA results in a lower color alteration when in contact with blood. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical constituents of Hericium erinaceum associated with the inhibitory activity against cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yang, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Lee, Eun Suk; Ji, Seung Heon; Kang, Ki Sung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Hericium erinaceum is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely used in Korea, Japan, and China. On the search for biologically active compounds supporting the medicinal usage, the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum was investigated for its chemical constituents. Six compounds were isolated and identified as hericenone D (1), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (2), erinacerin B (3), hericenone E (4), hericenone F (5) and isohericerin (6) by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The inhibitory effects on adriamycin-induced cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the isolates (1-6) were studied. Among the isolated compounds, ergosterol peroxide (2) reduced senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity increased in HUVECs treated with adriamycin. According to experimental data obtained, the active compound may inspire the development of a new pharmacologically useful substance to be used in the treatment and prevention of age-related diseases.

  8. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  9. USCAR LEP ESST Advanced Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, L.J.

    2000-09-25

    The objective of this task was to provide processing information data summaries on powder metallurgy (PM) alloys that meet the partner requirements for the production of low mass, highly accurate, near-net-shape powertrain components. This required modification to existing ISO machinability test procedures and development of a new drilling test procedure. These summaries could then be presented in a web page format. When combined with information generated from the USCAR CRADA this would allow chemical, metallurgical, and machining data on PM alloys to be available to all engineering and manufacturing personnel that have access to in-house networks. The web page format also allows for the additions of other wrought materials, making this a valuable tool to the technical staffs.

  10. Chemical Function Predictions for Tox21 Chemicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Random forest chemical function predictions for Tox21 chemicals in personal care products uses and "other" uses. This dataset is associated with the following...

  11. Prolonged menstrual cycles in female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, G-Y; Wang, J-D; Cheng, T-J; Chen, P-C

    2005-08-01

    It has been shown that female workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs) in the semiconductor industry have higher risks of spontaneous abortion, subfertility, and menstrual disturbances, and prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. To examine whether EGEs or other chemicals are associated with long menstrual cycles in female workers in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the annual health examination at a wafer manufacturing company in Taiwan in 1997. A three tiered exposure-assessment strategy was used to analyse the risk. A short menstrual cycle was defined to be a cycle less than 24 days and a long cycle to be more than 35 days. There were 606 valid questionnaires from 473 workers in fabrication jobs and 133 in non-fabrication areas. Long menstrual cycles were associated with workers in fabrication areas compared to those in non-fabrication areas. Using workers in non-fabrication areas as referents, workers in photolithography and diffusion areas had higher risks for long menstrual cycles. Workers exposed to EGEs and isopropanol, and hydrofluoric acid, isopropanol, and phosphorous compounds also showed increased risks of a long menstrual cycle. Exposure to multiple chemicals, including EGEs in photolithography, might be associated with long menstrual cycles, and may play an important role in a prolonged time to pregnancy in the wafer manufacturing industry; however, the prevalence in the design, possible exposure misclassification, and chance should be considered.

  12. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  13. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  14. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposure in the European Union. An expert panel applied a weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. The panel identified a 70-100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures contribute to IQ loss in the European population. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures were associated with 873,000 (sensitivity analysis, 148,000 to 2.02 million) lost IQ points and 3290 (sensitivity analysis, 3290 to 8080) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €9.59 billion (sensitivity analysis, €1.58 billion to €22.4 billion). Organophosphate exposures were associated with 13.0 million (sensitivity analysis, 4.24 million to 17.1 million) lost IQ points and 59 300 (sensitivity analysis, 16,500 to 84,400) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €146 billion (sensitivity analysis, €46.8 billion to €194 billion). Autism spectrum disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20-39% probability, with 316 (sensitivity analysis, 126-631) attributable cases at a cost of €199 million

  15. Environmental pollution with antimicrobial agents from bulk drug manufacturing industries in Hyderabad, South India, is associated with dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, Christoph; Baars, Christian; Dayakar, Anil; Lippmann, Norman; Rodloff, Arne C; Kinzig, Martina; Sörgel, Fritz

    2017-08-01

    High antibiotic and antifungal concentrations in wastewater from anti-infective drug production may exert selection pressure for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. We investigated the environmental presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their association with MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Hyderabad, South India, a major production area for the global bulk drug market. From Nov 19 to 28, 2016, water samples were collected from the direct environment of bulk drug manufacturing facilities, the vicinity of two sewage treatment plants, the Musi River, and habitats in Hyderabad and nearby villages. Samples were analyzed for 25 anti-infective pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and for MDR Gram-negative bacteria using chromogenic culture media. In addition, specimens were screened with PCR for bla VIM , bla KPC , bla NDM , bla IMP-1 , and bla OXA-48 resistance genes. All environmental specimens from 28 different sampling sites were contaminated with antimicrobials. High concentrations of moxifloxacin, voriconazole, and fluconazole (up to 694.1, 2500, and 236,950 µg/L, respectively) as well as increased concentrations of eight other antibiotics were found in sewers in the Patancheru-Bollaram industrial area. Corresponding microbiological analyses revealed an extensive presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters (carrying mainly bla OXA-48 , bla NDM , and bla KPC ) in more than 95% of the samples. Insufficient wastewater management by bulk drug manufacturing facilities leads to unprecedented contamination of water resources with antimicrobial pharmaceuticals, which seems to be associated with the selection and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing pathogens. The development and global spread of antimicrobial resistance present a major challenge for pharmaceutical producers and regulatory agencies.

  16. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  17. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  18. Concentrations and annual fluxes of sediment-associated chemical constituents from conterminous US coastal rivers using bed sediment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal rivers represent a significant pathway for the delivery of natural and anthropogenic sediment-associated chemical constituents to the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the conterminous USA. This study entails an accounting segment using published average annual suspended sediment fluxes with published sediment-associated chemical constituent concentrations for (1) baseline, (2) land-use distributions, (3) population density, and (4) worldwide means to estimate concentrations/annual fluxes for trace/major elements and total phosphorus, total organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and sulphur, for 131 coastal river basins. In addition, it entails a sampling and subsequent chemical analysis segment that provides a level of ‘ground truth’ for the calculated values, as well as generating baselines for sediment-associated concentrations/fluxes against which future changes can be evaluated. Currently, between 260 and 270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; about 69% is discharged from Gulf rivers (n = 36), about 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and about 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges:Atlantic rivers (49%)>Pacific rivers (40%)>Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) frequently occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated carbon and nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast (Florida) ‘blackwater’ streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K, and Na distributions tend to reflect local petrology, whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have substantial natural as well as anthropogenic sources

  19. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  20. Flexibility in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reparaz, A.; Stavig, W.E.; McLees, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

  1. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation.

  2. Diccionario Lean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ellner, Sarah María

    2016-01-01

    El Diccionario Bilingüe de Lean Manufacturing pretende ser un instrumento de apoyo a todo aquel que tenga la responsabilidad de planear, ejecutar o simplemente algún interés con las actividades de Lean Manufacturing, aportando así también conceptos claros tanto en castellano como en inglés, con el fin de entender de forma integral el alcance mismo que puede llegar a tener dicha filosofía, al igual que se proporcionara una serie de siglas y herramientas para la implementación del Lean Manufact...

  3. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1997-01-01

    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  4. The Chemical Chaperone Phenylbutyrate Rescues MCT8 Mutations Associated With Milder Phenotypes in Patients With Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) prevent appropriate entry of thyroid hormones into brain cells during development and cause severe mental retardation in affected patients. The current treatment options are thyromimetic compounds that enter the brain independently of MCT8. Some MCT8-deficient patients (e.g., those carrying MCT8delF501) will not be as severely affected as most others. We have shown that the MCT8delF501 protein has decreased protein stability but important residual function once it reaches the plasma membrane. We were able to rescue protein expression and the function of MCT8delF501 in a Madin-Darby canine kidney cell model by application of the chemical chaperone sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), a drug that has been used to treat patients with cystic fibrosis and urea cycle defects for extended periods of time. In the present study, we have extended our previous study and report on the NaPB-dependent rescue of a series of other pathogenic MCT8 mutants associated with milder patient phenotypes. We show that NaPB can functionally rescue the expression and activities of Ser194Phe, Ser290Phe, Leu434Trp, Arg445Cys, Leu492Pro, and Leu568Pro mutations in MCT8 in a dose-dependent manner. The soy isoflavone genistein, a dietary supplement, which was effective in MCT8delF501, was also effective in increasing the expression and transport of these MCT8 mutants; however, the effect size differed among mutants. Kinetic analyses revealed that the Michaelis constants of the mutants toward the primary substrate 3,3',5-triiodothyronine were not much different from the wild-type value, suggesting that these mutants are not impaired in their interaction with substrate but rather destabilized by the mutation and degraded. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  5. Investigation of the associations between low-dose serum perfluorinated chemicals and liver enzymes in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Wang, Wei-Jie; Su, Yi-Ning; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2010-06-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been largely used for years in a variety of products worldwide. However, the toxic effect of PFCs on exposure to the liver in the general population has not yet been determined. In this study, 2,216 adults (18 years of age or older) were recruited in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2000 and 2003-2004 to determine the relationship between serum level of PFCs and the levels of liver enzymes. The data were adjusted for all other confounding variants. After performing mathematical analysis, we determined when serum log-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases in one unit, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration (U/l) increases by 1.86 units (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-2.48; P=0.005), and the serum log-gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) concentration (U/l) is 0.08 unit higher (95% CI, 0.05-0.11; P=0.019). The association between PFOA and liver enzymes was more evident in obese subjects, as well as subjects with insulin resistance and/or metabolic syndromes. When dividing the serum PFOA into quartiles in the fully adjusted models in subjects with a body mass index>or=30 kg/m2, the ALT level trend across the serum PFOA quartiles was significant (P=0.003). On the basis of these data, we conclude that a higher serum concentration of PFOA may cause liver enzymes to increase abnormally in the general population, particularly in obese individuals. Further studies are warranted to clarify the casual relationship between PFCs and these liver enzymes.

  6. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... framework can manage the complexity associated with product-process problems very efficiently. Three specific computer-aided tools (ICAS, Sustain-Pro and VPPDLab) have been presented and their applications to product-process design, highlighted....

  7. A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Miller; Aleda V. Roth

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development and analysis of a numerical taxonomy of manufacturing strategies. The taxonomy was developed with standard methods of cluster analysis, and is based on the relative importance attached to eleven competitive capabilities defining the manufacturing task of 164 large American manufacturing business units. Three distinct clusters of manufacturing strategy groups were observed. Though there is an industry effect, all three manufacturing strategy types are obser...

  8. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  9. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  10. Virtual manufacturing in reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo

    2000-10-01

    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  11. Tolerances in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Zhang, Yang; Islam, Aminul

    This paper describes a method for analysis of tolerances in micro manufacturing. It proposes a mapping oftolerances to dimensions and compares this with current available international standards. The analysisdocuments that tolerances are not scaled down as the absolute dimension. In practice...

  12. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  13. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  14. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  15. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern...

  16. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  17. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  18. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  19. A System Analysis of the Recruitment and Retention Problems Associated with the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottschalk, Laurence

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to investigate the problems of retaining qualified personnel in the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization organization through the end date of the program...

  20. [Chinese medicine industry 4.0:advancing digital pharmaceutical manufacture toward intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Yu; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2016-01-01

    A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  2. Kinetics of methane fermentation yield in biogas reactors: Genetic variation and association with chemical composition in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieder, Christoph; Mittweg, Greta; Dhillon, Baldev S.; Montes, Juan M.; Orsini, Elena; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2012-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most competitive crop for methane production in Germany. Methane fermentation yield per unit of dry matter (MFY) is a determinant of methane yield, but little information is available on this trait. Our objectives were to investigate the kinetics of MFY during fermentation of maize, estimate quantitative-genetic parameters for different traits related to MFY and examine the relationship of MFY with chemical composition and silage quality. Whole-plant material of 16 inbreds and their 32 testcrosses was analyzed for MFY over 35 days of fermentation using a discontinuous laboratory assay. Data were also generated on chemical composition and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). Significant genotypic variances and high heritabilities were observed for MFY at early fermentation stages (up to 5 days) probably due to different concentrations of easily degradable chemical components. However, genotypic variances and heritability of MFY reduced as fermentation progressed, because of complete or partial degradation of all chemical components. Further, there were strong correlations of MFY with chemical components at early fermentation stages but not at later stages. Therefore, MFY at later stages, which is closer to potential MFY, does not seem to be amenable to selection. High heritability of IVDOM and its strong correlation with MFY in testcrosses indicated its possible use for preliminary or indirect selection. Keeping in view the magnitude of genetic variance that was low for MFY and high for dry matter yield (DMY), the other component of methane yield, more emphasis on breeding for DMY seems appropriate. -- Highlights: ► We investigated methane fermentation yield (MFY) of diverse germplasm of maize. ► The kinetics of MFY and its correlations with chemical composition were examined. ► Genetic variance and heritability for MFY decreased with fermentation time. ► Complete fermentation (35 d) reduced correlations of MFY with chemical

  3. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  4. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. I n order to achieve these objectives, NAC, a leading U.S. advanced ceramics component manufacturer, assembled a multidisciplinary, vertically integrated team. This team included: a major diesel engine builder, Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC); a corporate ceramics research division, SGIC's Northboro R and D Center; intelligent processing system developers, BDM Federal/MATSYS; a furnace equipment company, Centorr/Vacuum Industries; a sintering expert, Wittmer Consultants; a production OEM, Deco-Grand; a wheel manufacturer and grinding operation developer, Norton Company's Higgins Grinding Technology Center (HGTC); a ceramic machine shop, Chand Kare Technical Ceramics; and a manufacturing cost consultant, IBIS Associates. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration

  5. How Development and Manufacturing Will Need to Be Structured-Heads of Development/Manufacturing May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  6. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul

    2011-01-01

    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  7. Reconfigurable manufacturing system for agile mass customization manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies are facing three challenges: low cost production of product, high quality standard and rapid responsiveness to customer requirements. These three goals are equally important for the manufacturing companies who want...

  8. Design and application of reconfigurable manufacturing systems in agile mass customization manufacturing environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available processes. Many manufacturing techniques are based on the principles of Flexible Manufacturing and Dedicated Manufacturing for mass production. Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, (RMS), is a manufacturing system that can provide for Agile Manufacturing...

  9. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  10. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  11. The manufacturers' viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the approach by six separate manufacturers to the problem of availability from their particular view point. This presentation demonstrates basic strategy: attention to high reliability at the design phase, based on positive and detailed feedback from existing plant; quality assurance at the production stage which has been planned into the production process in the form of a Q.A. manual in design; sophisticated test procedures and facilities; simplicity of design with high accuracy in production; provision of a clear operational maintenance manual, etc. The manufacturers agreed on the need to make a conscious commitment to design for high availability, taking into account both initial and ongoing operating costs in life cycle cost assessment. Predictability, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, market acceptability and maintenance support based on high quality feedback between operator and supplier were all stressed on the grounds that prevention is always better than cure

  12. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    biodegradable wipes, and bags. The gStyle clothing line consists of various types of stylish clothes for babies. All gDiapers are plastic free...offers recycling services for industrial plastics and non-serviceable containers. Industrial plastics include pails, buckets, pallets, plastic film, and...manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles, unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes

  13. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  14. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-31

    Kadali R. Talla R. Hugo T. Russell A. Thoreson E. Porgharibshahishahrebabak Dae-wook Kim Ellen A. Fuller J. Rick Evans 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Manufacturing (CIM) Cell .................................................................................. 8 Hurricane 130W Laser Cutter/Engraver (48” X 36...Miniature Prototype Warehouse Application using Imaging Source and RoboRealm® 3. Hurricane 130W Laser Cutter/Engraver (48” X 36”) a. Rapid

  15. Technology for Manufacturing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) was developed by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center and divisions of the Lockheed Company to maintain the scheduling for preparing a Space Shuttle Orbiter for a mission. Red Pepper Software Company, now part of PeopleSoft, Inc., commercialized the software as their ResponseAgent product line. The software enables users to monitor manufacturing variables, report issues and develop solutions to existing problems.

  16. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...Hamilton • Beth Bimber Air Force Research Laboratory, Metals Branch • Eddie Schwalbach • Mike Groeber • Benjamin Leever • James Hardin...conducting more in-field, or point-of-need, manufacturing than ever before. Other areas of concentration include man- machine interface, capabilities

  17. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2) and an interm......The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2...

  18. The relationships between Lean manufacturing, management accounting and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Nielsen, Henrik; Grasso, Lawrency

    2016-01-01

    with management accounting practices. Specifically, we document that Lean manufacturing is positively associated with Value Stream Costing, Lean visual controls and, more importantly, measures of labor and materials efficiency. Lean manufacturing is positively related to Lean thinking and both are positively...... associated with operational performance and so are Lean visual controls. We also document that the management accounting practices intervene affecting operational performance and they intervene with Lean thinking as well. Lastly, the relationship between Lean manufacturing and measures of labor and materials......Lean manufacturing has been adopted by numerous western companies as an answer to an increasing competitive environment. Lean manufacturing is seen as an enterprise-wide strategy encompassing a transformation of manufacturing practices, affecting companies’ management accounting practices and...

  19. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  20. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  1. Additive Manufacturing: Unlocking the Evolution of Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakeyev, Adilet; Wang, Panfeng; Zhang, Li; Shu, Wenmiao; Wang, Huizhi; Xuan, Jin

    2017-10-01

    The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques. This comprehensive review will fill the gap in communicating on recent breakthroughs in additive manufacturing for energy material and device applications. It will underpin the discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints, which bespoke energy materials could be additively manufactured with customised solutions, and how the additively manufactured devices could be integrated into energy systems. This review will also highlight emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture and storage.

  2. Light-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella TA102 and genotoxicity/cytotoxicity in human T-cells by 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine: a chemical used in the manufacture of dyes and pigments and in tattoo inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Yan Jian; Hardy, William; Mosley, Charity; Wang Shuguang; Yu Hongtao

    2005-01-01

    DCB, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, is used primarily as an intermediate in the manufacture of diarylide yellow or azo red pigments for printing ink, textile, paint, and plastics. It is also used in tattoo inks. In this article, we investigate light-induced toxicity of DCB in both bacteria and human Jurkat T-cells. DCB itself is not toxic or mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA102, but is photomutagenic at concentrations as low as 2 μM and phototoxic at concentrations >100 μM when bacteria are exposed to DCB and light at the same time (1.2 J/cm 2 of UVA and 2.1 J/cm 2 of visible light). Furthermore, DCB is both photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic to human Jurkat T-cells. Under a light irradiation dose of 2.3 J/cm 2 of UVA and 4.2 J/cm 2 of visible light, it causes the Jurkat T-cells to become nonviable in a DCB dose-dependent manner and the nonviable cells reaches 60% at DCB concentrations higher than 50 μM. At the same time, DNA fragmentation is observed for cells exposed to both DCB and light, determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay). As much as 5% (average) DNA fragmentation was observed when exposed to 200 μM DCB and light irradiation. This suggests that DCB can penetrate the cell membrane and enter the cell. Upon light activation, DCB in the cells can cause various cellular damages, leading to nonviable Jurkat T-cells. It appears, the nonviable cells are not caused solely by fragmentation of cellular DNA, but by other damages such as to proteins and cell membranes, or DNA alkylation. Therefore, persons exposed to DCB through environmental contamination or through tattoo piercing using DCB-containing inks must not only concern about its toxicity without exposing to light, but also its phototoxicity

  3. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of

  4. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  5. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY... candidate's proven experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing... participating in Council meetings and events are responsible for their travel, living and other personal...

  6. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY... experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, in job... Council meetings and events are responsible for their travel, living and other personal expenses. Meetings...

  7. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive

  8. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  9. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ..., developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing... relevant contact information such as mailing address, fax, e-mail, fixed and mobile phone numbers and...

  10. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, D

    1978-09-27

    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry.

  11. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [fr

  12. Associating Changes in Endogenous Metabolite Profiles of Field-Deployed Fish with Chemical Contaminants and Other Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing risk from contaminant exposure in the aquatic environment typically begins (and often ends) with identification of “listed” chemicals in water samples. While providing useful information about potential exposures, this approach to monitoring – in the absence of site-spe...

  13. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  14. Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a disorder characterized by nonspecific and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal area during olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and fecal at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal perceived odor level in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor and normal perceived levels (sweet and fecal odors were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls. However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their associations with MCS symptoms is needed.

  15. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  18. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs...... of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth....

  19. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... preeminent destination for investment in manufacturing throughout the world'' as provided for in Section 4 of... the viewpoint of those stakeholders on current and emerging issues in the manufacturing sector. In... the U.S. manufacturing industry in terms of industry sectors, geographic locations, demographics, and...

  20. ERA—European Radiochemists Association: Report on the activities of the Working Party for Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Z. I.; Ware, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Radiochemists Association started almost simultaneously with the appearance of the first issue of the Radiochemistry in Europe newsletter in August 1995. The objective of the European Radiochemists Association (ERA) is to extend and improve communication between radiochemists in Europe through a newsletter. Liaison persons within each country or group exchange details of their activities, set up a diary of relevant international events and exchange details of specialist equipment, facilities and technology. In the year 2000 the Federation of European Chemical Societies decided to form a working party on nuclear and radiochemistry. It is a formalisation of the European Radiochemists Association. Each chemical society is allowed to nominate a member to the Working Party on Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Currently we have 12 nominated members plus two invited and one observer. In addition to the ERA aims and objectives it proposes to put together a syllabus of radiochemistry for undergraduate and post-graduate students—this aspect has been a part of our support of the International Atomic Energy Agency initiative. Also the aim of the working party is to support other working parties and divisions, to press the Federation of the European Chemical Societies for financial structure. To this end an Expression of Interest has been tabled with the Framework 6 Programme for networking within radiochemistry in Europe. The WP will liaise with the International Isotope Society and the International Society on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology to seek to communicate and to consider ways of working together.

  1. Characterizations of additive manufactured porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalah, Ahmad; Shanjani, Yaser; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    This article describes physical, chemical, and mechanical characterizations of porous titanium implants made by an additive manufacturing method to gain insight into the correlation of process parameters and final physical properties of implants used in orthopedics. For the manufacturing chain, the powder metallurgy technology was combined with the additive manufacturing to fabricate the porous structure from the pure tanium powder. A 3D printing machine was employed in this study to produce porous bar samples. A number of physical parameters such as titanium powder size, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) amount, sintering temperature and time were investigated to control the mechanical properties and porosity of the structures. The produced samples were characterized through porosity and shrinkage measurements, mechanical compression test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a level of porosity in the samples in the range of 31-43%, which is within the range of the porosity of the cancelluous bone and approaches the range of the porosity of the cortical bone. The results of the mechanical test showed that the compressive strength is in the wide range of 56-509 MPa implying the effect of the process parameters on the mechanical strengths. This technique of manufacturing of Ti porous structures demonstrated a low level of shrinkage with the shrinkage percentage ranging from 1.5 to 5%. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Managing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater-impacted streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Bradley, Paul M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances [1]. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale [1, 2]. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries [2]. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally [2]. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” [3] and “Our Stolen Future” [4] and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984 [2]. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in

  3. Managing the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater-impacted streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2013-01-01

    A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” and “Our Stolen Future” and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in commercial production or use will

  4. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  5. Revealing Students' Cognitive Structure about Physical and Chemical Change: Use of a Word Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirir, Hasene Esra; Demirkol, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed at examining the utility of a word association test in revealing students' cognitive structure in a specific chemistry topic through a word association test. The participants were 153 6th graders in a western Turkish city. The results revealed that the word association test serves a useful purpose in exploring the students'…

  6. Rapid production of hollow SS316 profiles by extrusion based additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Kedarnath; Cataldo, Salvatore; Parenti, Paolo; Sbaglia, Luca; Mussi, Valerio; Annoni, Massimiliano; Giberti, Hermes; Strano, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    Complex shaped stainless steel tubes are often required for special purpose biomedical equipment. Nevertheless, traditional manufacturing technologies, such as extrusion, lack the ability to compete in a market of customized complex components because of associated expenses towards tooling and extrusion presses. To rapid manufacture few of such components with low cost and high precision, a new Extrusion based Additive Manufacturing (EAM) process, is proposed in this paper, and as an example, short stainless steel 316L complex shaped and sectioned tubes were prepared by EAM. Several sample parts were produced using this process; the dimensional stability, surface roughness and chemical composition of sintered samples were investigated to prove process competence. The results indicate that feedstock with a 316L particle content of 92.5 wt. % can be prepared with a sigma blade mixing, whose rheological behavior is fit for EAM. The green samples have sufficient strength to handle them for subsequent treatments. The sintered samples considerably shrunk to designed dimensions and have a homogeneous microstructure to impart mechanical strength. Whereas, maintaining comparable dimensional accuracy and chemical composition which are required for biomedical equipment still need iterations, a kinematic correction and modification in debinding cycle was proposed.

  7. How development and manufacturing will need to be structured--heads of development/manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepveux, Kevin; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Futran, Mauricio; Thien, Michael; Krumme, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) is a process technology that has been used in the chemical industry for large-scale mass production of chemicals in single-purpose plants with benefit for many years. Recent interest has been raised to expand CM into the low-volume, high-value pharmaceutical business with its unique requirements regarding readiness for human use and the required quality, supply chain, and liability constraints in this business context. Using a fairly abstract set of definitions, this paper derives technical consequences of CM in different scenarios along the development-launch-supply axis in different business models and how they compare to batch processes. Impact of CM on functions in development is discussed and several operational models suitable for originators and other business models are discussed and specific aspects of CM are deduced from CM's technical characteristics. Organizational structures of current operations typically can support CM implementations with just minor refinements if the CM technology is limited to single steps or small sequences (bin-to-bin approach) and if the appropriate technical skill set is available. In such cases, a small, dedicated group focused on CM is recommended. The manufacturing strategy, as centralized versus decentralized in light of CM processes, is discussed and the potential impact of significantly shortened supply lead times on the organization that runs these processes. The ultimate CM implementation may be seen by some as a totally integrated monolithic plant, one that unifies chemistry and pharmaceutical operations into one plant. The organization supporting this approach will have to reflect this change in scope and responsibility. The other extreme, admittedly futuristic at this point, would be a highly decentralized approach with multiple smaller hubs; this would require a new and different organizational structure. This processing approach would open up new opportunities for products that

  8. Good manufacturing practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

  9. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  10. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots.

  11. Experience with quality assurance in fuel design and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, R.; Nilson, F.

    1984-01-01

    The Quality Assurance/Quality Control activities for nuclear fuel design and manufacturing described here are coordinated under a common ''Quality Assurance System For Fuel Assemblies and Associated Core Components'' which regulates the QA-functions of the development, design and manufacturing of fuel assemblies independent of the organizational assignment of the contributing technical groups. Some essential characteristics of the system are shown, using examples from design control, procurement, manufacturing and qualification of special processes. The experience is very good, it allowed a flexible and well controlled implementation of design and manufacturing innovations and contributed to the overall good fuel behavior. (orig.)

  12. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  13. Centers for manufacturing technology: Industrial Advisory Committee Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An advisory committee, composed of senior managers form industrial- sector companies and major manufacturing trade associations and representatives from appropriate educational institutions, meets semi-annually to review and advise the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) on its economic security program. Individual papers have been indexed separately for the database.

  14. Servitization in Danish Manufacturing Firms: A Strategy for Survival?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Johansen, John

    2010-01-01

    ) and by many traditional manufacturers is perceived as a strategy for survival. On the basis of multiple cases of Danish companies, this paper discusses the main reasons and strategic implications of servitization. Furthermore, it outlines the strategies of how traditional manufacturers can recoup the desired...... level of return from the developments associated with servitization....

  15. An Analysis of the Operational Environments of Manufacturing Firms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our efforts in this research have been geared towards analyzing the operational environments of manufacturing firms in Aba, South-East, Nigeria. Specifically, the case study was Manufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN), Abia chapter. Eight five percent of MAN‟s membership was studied. Percentages and test of ...

  16. Laser 3D micro-manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Nicholas A; Mathews, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based materials processing techniques are gaining widespread use in micro-manufacturing applications. The use of laser microfabrication techniques enables the processing of micro- and nanostructures from a wide range of materials and geometries without the need for masking and etching steps commonly associated with photolithography. This review aims to describe the broad applications space covered by laser-based micro- and nanoprocessing techniques and the benefits offered by the use of lasers in micro-manufacturing processes. Given their non-lithographic nature, these processes are also referred to as laser direct-write and constitute some of the earliest demonstrations of 3D printing or additive manufacturing at the microscale. As this review will show, the use of lasers enables precise control of the various types of processing steps—from subtractive to additive—over a wide range of scales with an extensive materials palette. Overall, laser-based direct-write techniques offer multiple modes of operation including the removal (via ablative processes) and addition (via photopolymerization or printing) of most classes of materials using the same equipment in many cases. The versatility provided by these multi-function, multi-material and multi-scale laser micro-manufacturing processes cannot be matched by photolithography nor with other direct-write microfabrication techniques and offer unique opportunities for current and future 3D micro-manufacturing applications. (topical review)

  17. Manufacturing of nuclear power components in CDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, J.; Jawale, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the nuclear research programme in India, Dr. H.J. Bhabha, the architecture of the Indian Nuclear programme felt a need for proto-type development and precision manufacturing facility to fulfill the requirements of mechanical components in establishing the manufacturing capability for the successful and self sustained nuclear programme. Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM) hitherto known as CWS was established in 1964 to cater to the specific requirements of DAE and other associated units like ISRO, DRDO. Since then CDM has made multiple technological achievements and changes towards high quality products. The acquisition of up-to-date machines during High-Tech facility under VIII Plan project and Advance Precision Fabrication facility under IX Plan project has changed the capability of CDM towards CAD, CAM, CAE and CNC machining centres. Considering the rapid growth in the design and manufacturing, it was renamed as Centre for Design and Manufacture in March 2002, with the mission of quality output through group effort and team work

  18. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  19. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SPRAY-CHILLING ASSOCIATED TO CONVENTIONAL CHILLING ON MASS LOSS, BACTERIOLOGYCAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BEEF CARCASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of conventional air chilling associated to intermittent spray-chilling treatment, on weight loss, physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of beef carcasses. Two plants of commercial beef slaughterhouse located in Goiânia and fiscalized by the Federal Inspection Service were used to develop the research. The spray-chilling treatment was accomplished in an intermittent way, commanded by acontrolled logical program, with cycles of 90 seconds, in intervals of 30 minutes, during the first 4 hours of the chilling process. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis were made in spray-chilled water and carcasses samples, according to recommendation of the effective legislation.The average values of carcasses weight loss of treatment group were lower to the ones verified for the control group,in both plants, A and B, (P < 0,001, showing a high economic potential. As a conclusion of physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis results of water and meat samples, it is clear that the technology of chilling beef carcasses inthe conventional system associated to spraying did not interfere in the quality of meat, and it can become an analysis object on part of official organs for sanitary regulation and fiscalization, for its definitive adoption. KEY WORDS: Spray-chilling, shrinkage, beef carcass.

  1. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  2. Cloud manufacturing distributed computing technologies for global and sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Mehnen, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Global networks, which are the primary pillars of the modern manufacturing industry and supply chains, can only cope with the new challenges, requirements and demands when supported by new computing and Internet-based technologies. Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing introduces a new paradigm for scalable service-oriented sustainable and globally distributed manufacturing systems.   The eleven chapters in this book provide an updated overview of the latest technological development and applications in relevant research areas.  Following an introduction to the essential features of Cloud Computing, chapters cover a range of methods and applications such as the factors that actually affect adoption of the Cloud Computing technology in manufacturing companies and new geometrical simplification method to stream 3-Dimensional design and manufacturing data via the Internet. This is further supported case studies and real life data for Waste Electrical ...

  3. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidambe, Alfred T.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing) or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy. PMID:28788296

  4. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred T. Sidambe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy.

  5. Biocompatibility of Advanced Manufactured Titanium Implants-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidambe, Alfred T

    2014-12-19

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys may be processed via advanced powder manufacturing routes such as additive layer manufacturing (or 3D printing) or metal injection moulding. This field is receiving increased attention from various manufacturing sectors including the medical devices sector. It is possible that advanced manufacturing techniques could replace the machining or casting of metal alloys in the manufacture of devices because of associated advantages that include design flexibility, reduced processing costs, reduced waste, and the opportunity to more easily manufacture complex or custom-shaped implants. The emerging advanced manufacturing approaches of metal injection moulding and additive layer manufacturing are receiving particular attention from the implant fabrication industry because they could overcome some of the difficulties associated with traditional implant fabrication techniques such as titanium casting. Using advanced manufacturing, it is also possible to produce more complex porous structures with improved mechanical performance, potentially matching the modulus of elasticity of local bone. While the economic and engineering potential of advanced manufacturing for the manufacture of musculo-skeletal implants is therefore clear, the impact on the biocompatibility of the materials has been less investigated. In this review, the capabilities of advanced powder manufacturing routes in producing components that are suitable for biomedical implant applications are assessed with emphasis placed on surface finishes and porous structures. Given that biocompatibility and host bone response are critical determinants of clinical performance, published studies of in vitro and in vivo research have been considered carefully. The review concludes with a future outlook on advanced Ti production for biomedical implants using powder metallurgy.

  6. Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Kwan, Joseph S K; Wai Kwan, Chi; Chong, Alice M L; Lai, Claudia K Y; Lou, Vivian W Q; Leung, Angela Y M; Liu, Justina Y W; Bai, Xue; Chi, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Negative effects of restraint use have been well-documented. However, the prevalence of restraints use has been high in long-term care facilities in Hong Kong compared with other countries and this goes against the basic principles of ethical and compassionate care for older people. The present study aimed to review the change in the prevalence of physical and chemical restraint use in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) over a period of 11 years in Hong Kong and to identify the major factors associated with their use. This is an observational study with data obtained from the Hong Kong Longitudinal Study on LTCF Residents between 2005 and 2015. Trained assessors (nurses, social workers, and therapists) used the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument to collect the data from 10 residential LTCFs. Physical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following: full bedside rails on all open sides of bed, other types of bedside rails used, trunk restraint, limb restraint, or the use of chair to prevent rising during the past 7 days. Chemical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following medications: antipsychotic, antianxiety, or hypnotic agents during past 7 days, excluding elder residents with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness. Annual prevalence of restraint use over 11 years and factors that were associated with the use of physical and chemical restraints. We analyzed the data for 2896 older people (978 male individuals, mean age = 83.3 years). Between 2005 and 2015, the prevalence of restraint use was as follows: physical restraint use increased from 52.7% to 70.2%; chemical restraint use increased from 15.9% to 21.78%; and either physical or chemical restraint use increased from 57.9% to 75.7%. Physical restraint use was independently associated with older age, impaired activities of daily living or cognitive function, bowel and bladder incontinence, dementia, and negative mood. Chemical restraint use was independently associated

  7. Custos da qualidade e da manufatura: um estudo de caso na indústria química Quality and manufacturing cost: a case study in the chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata um estudo de caso envolvendo a otimização experimental de uma receita química. O estudo abrange as etapas de identificação do problema, planejamento do experimento, modelagem individual das variáveis de resposta, definição de uma função objetivo e otimização. Na identificação do problema e no planejamento do experimento foi utilizada uma estrutura matricial para reunir e organizar as informações. O experimento contemplou cinco fatores controláveis e dez variáveis de resposta. Na etapa de modelagem individual, foram construídos modelos para a média e a variabilidade de cada uma das variáveis de resposta. A função objetivo utilizada no estudo de otimização foi a Função de Perda Quadrática Multivariada, proposta por Ribeiro & Elsayed, acrescida dos custos de matéria prima e energia. Assim, a otimização foi conduzida levando em conta tanto os custos decorrentes da má qualidade (capturados pela função de perda como os custos de matéria prima e energia. A otimização permitiu definir o melhor ajuste para os fatores controláveis. Ao final é feita uma análise de sensibilidade e é sugerido um envelope de operação para o controle do processo.This paper presents a case study where the optimization of a chemical mixture was accomplished. The study included the following steps: problem identification, design of an experiment, model building for each individual response, choice of an objective function, and optimization. In the steps of problem identification and design of the experiment, a matrix was used to gather and to organize the information. Five control factors and ten response variables were included in the experiment. In the step of model building, models for mean and variability for each response variable were built. The objective function used for optimization was an extended version of the Multivariate Quadratic Loss Function proposed by Ribeiro & Elsayed (1995. The optimization was

  8. Manufacturing Renaissance : Return of manufacturing to western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kianian, Babak; Larsson, Tobias; Tavassoli, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that the location of manufacturing is gradually shifting to the west again, exemplifying the ‘manufacturing renaissance’. Such a claim is based on the recent observed trend and the discussion is contextualized within the established theory that has been able to explain the location of manufacturing, that is, the product life cycle (PLC) model. Then the chapter identifies and discusses the four main drivers of this new phenomenon: (i) rising wage levels in emerging economie...

  9. Competitive manufacturing strategies for the manufacturing industries in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Gündüz; Ulusoy, Gunduz

    2003-01-01

    In this study, results of the research into competitive manufacturing strategies of companies in four different sector studies covering 82 companies from the electronics, cement, automotive manufacturers, and appliances part and component suppliers in Turkey are presented. The data used in the study are gathered by conducting four sector surveys in 1997 and 1998 using a questionnaire supported by some follow-up interviews and site visits. A competitive manufacturing strategy is represented he...

  10. Evolution of camel CYP2E1 and its associated power of binding toxic industrial chemicals and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Mahmoud; Altaher, Abdullah; Kitade, Yukio; Abdelaziz, Magdi; Alnazawi, Mohamed; Elshazli, Kamal

    2016-10-01

    Camels are raised in harsh desert environment for hundreds of years ago. By modernization of live and the growing industrial revolution in camels rearing areas, camels are exposed to considerable amount of chemicals, industrial waste, environmental pollutions and drugs. Furthermore, camels have unique gene evolution of some genes to withstand living in harsh environments. In this work, the camel cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is compromised to detect its evolution rate and its power to bind with various chemicals, protoxins, procarcinogens, industrial toxins and drugs. In comparison with human CYP2E1, camel CYP2E1 more efficiently binds to small toxins as aniline, benzene, catechol, amides, butadiene, toluene and acrylamide. Larger compounds were more preferentially bound to the human CYP2E1 in comparison with camel CYP2E1. The binding of inhalant anesthetics was almost similar in both camel and human CYP2E1 coinciding with similar anesthetic effect as well as toxicity profiles. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis indicated the high evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 in comparison with human, farm and companion animals. The evolution rate of camel CYP2E1 was among the highest evolution rate in a subset of 57 different organisms. These results indicate rapid evolution and potent toxin binding power of camel CYP2E1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Electroconvulsive therapy substantially reduces symptom severity and social disability associated with multiple chemical sensitivity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Gulmann, Nils; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-09-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic nonallergic, multisymptom disorder triggered by common environmental chemicals in concentrations considered nontoxic for most individuals. The condition may lead to loss of occupation and social isolation, and no effective treatment has been reported. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment of severe depression and medical conditions such as chronic pain disorders. We report a case of a 45-year-old man with a 5-year history of MCS who had to quit his job to live a solitary life without his wife and children because of the condition. The patient had no history of psychiatric illness and no signs of clinical depression at treatment start. Over a 3-week period, he underwent a course of 8 ECTs, giving a remarkable effect on symptom severity and social functional level. After a partial symptom relapse, maintenance treatment was started with 1 ECT every second week. No memory impairment or other complications of ECT were reported at the 4-month follow-up. In this case, a substantial, positive effect on symptom severity and social disability related to MCS was obtained by an initial ECT course and maintenance treatment. Electroconvulsive therapy should be considered an option in severe and socially disabling MCS, but more studies are needed to evaluate if ECT can be recommended as a treatment in MCS.

  12. Queijo gorgonzola fabricado com leite pasteurizado por ejetor de vapor e HTST: parâmetros físico-químicos e sensoriais Gorgonzola type cheese manufactured with milk pasteurized by the HTST and steam ejector systems: physic-chemical and sensory parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gattini Sbampato

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de dois sistemas de pasteurização (High Temperature Short Time ¾ HTST¾ e ejetor de vapor nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais do queijo tipo Gorgonzola. As coletas de amostras de queijo e análises foram realizadas aos 5, 25, 45, 65 e 85 dias de maturação. Durante o período de maturação ocorreu aumento gradual de pH, sal/umidade e índice de acidez nos dois tratamentos. Os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST obtiveram valores médios de pH superiores aos dos queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor; os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor, obtiveram teores de índice de acidez e metilcetonas superiores aos dos queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema HTST, indicando maior atividade lipolítica nesses queijos. Pela análise sensorial realizada aos 65 dias de maturação, pode se observar que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação à aparência, cor, consistência, textura e sabor. Porém foi observada diferença significativa com relação ao desenvolvimento do mofo e aroma. Os queijos fabricados com leite pasteurizado pelo sistema ejetor de vapor apresentaram maior atividade lipolítica e massa mais macia e fechada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of two pasteurization systems (HTST and steam ejector on the physic-chemical and sensory characteristics of Gorgonzola type cheese. Sampling and analysis were conducted at 5, 25, 45, 65 and 85 days of ripening. Along the maturation period, pH, acidity index, salt/humidity, gradually increased. Cheeses manufactured with milk pasteurized by the HTST system had average values of pH higher than those manufactured with milk pasteurized by the steam ejector system. Milk pasteurized by the steam ejector system produced cheeses with higher acidity index (lipolysis and

  13. Manufacturing halal in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In Arabic, halal literally means ‘permissible’ or ‘lawful’. Halal is no longer an expression of an esoteric form of production, trade and consumption, but part of a huge and expanding globalized market in which certification, standards and technoscience play important roles. Over the past three...... production, trade and consumption. Based on fieldwork in Malaysia, this article explores how manufacturing companies understand and practise halal certification, standards and technoscience. I argue that while existing studies of halal overwhelmingly explore micro-social aspects such as the everyday...... consumption among Muslim groups, ‘the bigger institutional picture’ that frames such consumption production and regulation are not well understood. By studying halal production, I provide an ethnography of the overlapping technologies and techniques of production and regulation that together warrant a product...

  14. Spectrofluorimetric determination of stoichiometry and association constants of the complexes of harmane and harmine with beta-cyclodextrin and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; León, A; Olives, A I; Del Castillo, B; Martín, M A

    2003-06-13

    The association characteristics of the inclusion complexes of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmane and harmine with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and chemically modified beta-cyclodextrins such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbeta-CD), 2,3-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbeta-CD) and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbeta-CD) are described. The association constants vary from 112 for harmine/DMbeta-CD to 418 for harmane/HPbeta-CD. The magnitude of the interactions between the host and the guest molecules depends on the chemical and geometrical characteristics of the guest molecules and therefore the association constants vary for the different cyclodextrin complexes. The steric hindrance is higher in the case of harmine due to the presence of methoxy group on the beta-carboline ring. The association obtained for the harmane complexes is stronger than the one observed for harmine complexes except in the case of harmine/TMbeta-CD. Important differences in the association constants were observed depending on the experimental variable used in the calculations (absolute value of fluorescence intensity or the ratio between the fluorescence intensities corresponding to the neutral and cationic forms). When fluorescence intensity values were considered, the association constants were higher than when the ratio of the emission intensity for the cationic and neutral species was used. These differences are a consequence of the co-existence of acid-base equilibria in the ground and in excited states together with the complexation equilibria. The existence of a proton transfer reaction in the excited states of harmane or harmine implies the need for the experimental dialysis procedure for separation of the complexes from free harmane or harmine. Such methodology allows quantitative results for stoichiometry determinations to be obtained, which show the existence of both 1:1 and 1:2 beta-carboline alkaloid:CD complexes with different solubility properties.

  15. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  16. Materials processing in zero gravity. [space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuenscher, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Manufacturing processes which are expected to show drastic changes in a space environment due to the absence of earth gravity are classified according to (1) buoyancy and thermal convection sensitive processes and (2) processes where molecular forces like cohesion and adhesion remain as the relatively strongest and hence controlling factors. Some specific process demonstration experiments carried out during the Apollo 14 mission and in the Skylab program are described. These include chemical separation by electrophoresis, the M551 metals melting experiment, the M552 exothermic brazing experiment, the M553 sphere forming experiment, the M554 composite casting experiment, and the M555 gallium arsenide crystal growth experiment.

  17. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  18. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These estimates are based on data from the 1991 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). This survey--administered by the Energy End Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Energy Information Administration (EIA)--is the most comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries.

  19. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  20. The state of biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molowa, David T; Mazanet, Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    The manufacturing of protein-based biopharmaceuticals is done in bacterial or mammalian cell cultures. While bacterial cultures are inexpensive, dependable, and approved by regulatory authorities, many complex proteins cannot be manufactured this way. Complex proteins must be manufactured in mammalian cell cultures to produce active products. Mammalian cell culture capacity is limited and has slowed the delivery of necessary biopharmaceutical products to patients. The nature of the production capacity problem and future outlook are critically examined.

  1. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  2. Virtual CIM and Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sev V.Nagalingam; Grier C.I.Lin

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises play an important role in improving the economic environment of a country.Today, the capability to produce high quality products with shorter delivery time and the ability to produce according to the diverse customer requirements has become the characteristics of successful manufacturing industries. Application of intelligent manufacturing systems and Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) are the most effective methods for overcoming the issues faced by present day manufactures while retaining the employment level and revenue of a country in today's highly competitive global market. With the developments taking place in CIM and its related technologies, the application of CIM in manufacturing enterprises has become a reality from the dream. This paper highlights the historical developments towards automation and the need for CIM systems. Furthermore, it analyses some new terms such as agile manufacturing, digital manufacturing, agent-based manufacturing and others, which have been emerging recently, and argues all these new technologies are the subsystems of CIM. In addition, this paper provides a new direction in CIM to fulfil the emerging challenges in today's global market and to satisfy the emerging need of virtual enterprises in the form of Virtual CIM.

  3. Synthesis of the IRSN report of the management of effluents in operating nuclear plants, and of associated radioactive and chemical rejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This report discusses the various improvements proposed by the IRSN to EDF for a better management of effluents and rejections in nuclear plants. These improvements should bear on a better understanding of the production, of the behaviour and of the treatment of radioactive compounds and of associated chemical compounds. They should also bear on the design of the installations and their inspection, operation practices, the use of local good practices, the organisation, the control of rejections, the control of underground waters of nuclear sites, experience feedback, the documentation on effluents and rejections

  4. Chemical Data Reporting: Factors to Consider When Using the Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) database provides non-confidential information on the manufacture, import, processing, and use of chemicals in commerce at national and regional levels. This fact sheet highlights factors to consider.

  5. 189 An Analysis of the Operational Environments of Manufacturing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Specifically, the case study was Manufacturers Association of. Nigeria (MAN), Abia ... enterprises in Aba are concentrated in the production of light and consumer oriented goods. ..... beneficiaries in designing. Source: Field ...

  6. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  7. Advanced manufacturing technologies modern machining, advanced joining, sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides details and collective information on working principle, process mechanism, salient features, and unique applications of various advanced manufacturing techniques and processes belong. The book is divided in three sessions covering modern machining methods, advanced repair and joining techniques and, finally, sustainable manufacturing. The latest trends and research aspects of those fields are highlighted.

  8. Manufacturing Math Classes: An Instructional Program Guide for Manufacturing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Pamela G.; And Others

    This program guide documents a manufacturing job family curriculum that develops competence in generic work force education skills through three courses: Reading Rulers, Charts, and Gauges and Math for Manufacturing Workers I and II. An annotated table of contents lists a brief description of the questions answered in each section. An introduction…

  9. Manufacturing strategy issues in selected Indian manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahender Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some findings of Indian manufacturing sectors viz. automobile (especially two-wheeler, tractor and general manufacturing industry. Various manufacturing strategy issues such as competitive priorities, improvement activities, and performance measures, have been identified and assessed in Indian context. Sector wise comparison of competitive priorities, improvement activities i.e. advanced manufacturing technology (AMT, integrated information systems (IIS, and advanced management systems (AMS, and performance measure, is provided. Our results showed that most of the Indian companies are still emphasizing on quality. However, automobile sector has set to compete globally with high innovation rate, faster new product development, and continuous improvement. It is also observed that Indian companies are investing more in AMS as compared to IIS and AMT. Manufacturing competence index is also computed for each sector.

  10. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  11. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  12. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    "Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry...

  13. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analyses of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentration of estrogens in streams from these manures is of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. S...

  14. Manufacture of spent fuel chopper (Paper No. 26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan Rao, A.; Suthar, R.L.; Mahajan, C.P.

    1987-02-01

    In-house manufacture of spent fuel chopper was the most significant step towards indigenisation of vital equipment needed in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The chopper used in such a plant receives the highly radioactive spent fuel rods for chopping and distributing the cut pieces into desired online chemical processing equipment. Its design, engineering and manufacture has to be carefully planned and executed to ensure the reliability of the equipment for continuous safe operation, as well as the simplicity from the point of view of maintenance, which essentially has to be done using remote handling equipment. In this paper an attempt has been made to explain briefly the preparation of engineering details, manufacturing layouts and the problems encountered during the manufacture of some of the critical parts of the chopper. (author). 5 figs

  15. NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2003-01-01

    , Tennessee Technological University, Texas A&M University, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University provided wide-ranging engineering research, new degree/curriculum programs, and a web-based lecture series. NCAM has fostered an important presence and leadership role within the national manufacturing community. Its progressive influence can be seen in government, industry and academia, and in national associations, professional organizations, conferences, workshops, and forums.

  16. Chemical cleaning-associated generation of dissolved organic matter and halogenated byproducts in ceramic MBR: Ozone versus hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Liu, Hang; Han, Jiarui; Zhang, Xiangru; Cheng, Fangqin; Liu, Yu

    2018-04-24

    This study characterized the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts generated after the exposure of activated sludge to ozone and NaClO in ceramic MBR. It was found that NaClO triggered more significant release of DOM than ozone. Proteins with the molecular weight greater than 20 kDa and humic acid like-substances were the principal components of DOM generated by NaClO, while ozone was found to effectively degrade larger biopolymers to low molecular weight substances. The results showed that more than 80% of DOM generated by NaClO and ozone could pass through the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. Furthermore, total organic chlorine (TOCl) was determined to be the principal species of halogenated byproducts in both cases, while the generation of TOCl by NaClO was much more significant than that by ozone. Only a small fraction of TOCl was removed by the 0.2-μm ceramic membrane. More importantly, the toxic bioassays further revealed that the supernatant of sludge suspension and permeate in the MBR with NaClO cleaning exhibited higher developmental toxicity to the polychaete embryos than those by ozone. The results clearly showed that on-line chemical cleaning with ozone should be a more eco-friendly and safer approach for sustaining long-term membrane permeability in ceramic MBR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  18. NICE3 SO3 Cleaning Process in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This fact sheet explains how Anon, Inc., has developed a novel method of removing photoresist--a light-sensitive material used to produce semiconductor wafers for computers--from the computer manufacturing process at reduced cost and greater efficiency. The new technology is technically superior to existing semiconductor cleaning methods and results in reduced use of hazardous chemicals

  19. 76 FR 36577 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 4, 2011, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive...

  20. 75 FR 32506 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a) of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 12, 2010, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive...

  1. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval......, and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...... are included about the OASIS database and platform and the Danish (Q)SAR Database online. Various types of chemical database resources are discussed, together with a list of examples....

  2. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  3. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  4. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  5. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  6. Application of manufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.

    1992-01-01

    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  7. A case of chemical pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Eun, Choung Ki; Choi, Byung Soo; Park, Soo Sung [Chungang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    A case of chemical pneumonia due to the fumes of nitric acid and chemical compounds was encountered, and it is reported with a review of the literatures. A 19 year old Korean male working in an electric materials manufacturing factory of poor facilities dealing with chemical compounds showed initial symptoms closely similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis of hematogenous disseminating type, and a roentgenogram was hardly helpful for differentiating chemical pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculous of hematogenous disseminating type. The clinical course in this case was very favourable as compared with those of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia.

  8. A case of chemical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Eun, Choung Ki; Choi, Byung Soo; Park, Soo Sung

    1974-01-01

    A case of chemical pneumonia due to the fumes of nitric acid and chemical compounds was encountered, and it is reported with a review of the literatures. A 19 year old Korean male working in an electric materials manufacturing factory of poor facilities dealing with chemical compounds showed initial symptoms closely similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis of hematogenous disseminating type, and a roentgenogram was hardly helpful for differentiating chemical pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculous of hematogenous disseminating type. The clinical course in this case was very favourable as compared with those of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia

  9. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  10. Training for New Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effects of computer-based manufacturing technologies on employment opportunities and job skills. Describes the establishment of the Industrial Technology Institute in Michigan to develop and utilize advanced manufacturing technologies, and the institute's relationship to the state's community colleges. Reviews lessons learned from…

  11. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... convenience. Pending applicants remain under consideration and do not need to resubmit their applications..., particularly seeking the representation of small- and medium-sized enterprises. Additional factors which may be... marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing sector, or the...

  12. Spatial Associations and Chemical Composition of Organic Carbon Sequestered in Fe, Ca, and Organic Carbon Ternary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Tyler D; Adhikari, Dinesh; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yu; Sparks, Donald L

    2018-05-25

    Organo-mineral associations of organic carbon (OC) with iron (Fe) oxides play a major role in environmental OC sequestration, a process crucial to mitigating climate change. Calcium has been found to have high coassociation with OC in soils containing high Fe content, increase OC sorption extent to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and has long been suspected to form bridging complexes with Fe and OC. Due to the growing realization that Ca may be an important component of C cycling, we launched a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) investigation, paired with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, in order to spatially resolve Fe, Ca, and OC relationships and probe the effect of Ca on sorbed OC speciation. We performed STXM-NEXAFS analysis on 2-line ferrihydrite reacted with leaf litter-extractable dissolved OC and citric acid in the absence and presence of Ca. Organic carbon was found to highly associate with Ca ( R 2 = 0.91). Carboxylic acid moieties were dominantly sequestered; however, Ca facilitated the additional sequestration of aromatic and phenolic moieties. Also, C NEXAFS revealed polyvalent metal ion complexation. Our results provide evidence for the presence of Fe-Ca-OC ternary complexation, which has the potential to significantly impact how organo-mineral associations are modeled.

  13. Evaluation of Physico-Chemical and Fungal Species Associated with Oil Contaminated Soil from Selected Automobile Garage in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Muhammad Maishanu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with a view to evaluating the physicochemical and mycological properties of different oil contaminated soils collected from three different automobile garages in Sokoto Metropolis, and uncontaminated soil from the temporary site, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (UDUS was used as the control. The pH was determined using pH meter model Hanna (H1991301, quantity of mineral elements was evaluated in accordance with Murphy and Fungi were isolated from the three oil contaminated samples (A, B. and C and the uncontaminated (sample D as control, this was done by standard procedure using the method of P. Ren, T. Jankun & B. Leaderer. The physical, chemical, and mineral elements from the oil-contaminated soils of the three automobile garages and control. The results of particle soil analysis revealed the high content of sandy soil (96.2 to 87.3 and silt is the lowest with (2.5–0.6. Magnesium had the highest concentration of studied minerals, ranging from 193 to 649.2 mg/kg. while PH result revealed that the soil samples were pH value ranged from (16.85–16.20 in oil Contaminated samples, while the control had 15.90, and electrical conductivity ranged from 12.8–13.8 % and 28 % in control, four fungal isolates Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., Mucor sp. and Sporobolomyces sp. were identified based on colonial, sexual and morphological characteristics. These fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  15. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  16. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  17. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  18. Urine, peritoneal fluid and omental fat proteomes of reproductive age women: Endometriosis-related changes and associations with endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Johansen, Eric B; Niles, Richard K; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Albertolle, Matthew; Zhou, Yan; Prasad, Namrata; Drake, Penelope M; Giudice, Linda C; Hall, Steven C; Witkowska, H Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Fisher, Susan J

    2015-01-15

    Endometriosis, ectopic growth of the uterine lining (endometrium), which affects 6-11% of reproductive age women, is associated with pelvic pain and infertility. We investigated the peritoneal fluid (PF), urine and omental fat (OF) proteomes of women with endometriosis vs. individuals with no surgically visualized endometriosis. All participants were enrolled in the NICHD-funded ENDO Study. A two-step proteomic study was performed. The first, a broad survey, employed a semi-quantitative gel LC-mass spectrometry (MS) workflow: SDS PAGE fractionation, trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS. The results showed sample integrity but failed to detect any differences between women with and without endometriosis. The second step was a quantitative analysis of OF samples. We employed another sample set (n=30) from women ± disease and isobaric mass-tag (iTRAQ) chemistry to label peptides and 2D LC-MS/MS for protein identification and quantification. Three proteins-matrix metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase, and FAM49B-were significantly lower in abundance in samples from women with endometriosis. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase and FAM49B levels were associated with higher levels of a subset of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that were previously measured in the same samples. The results of these experiments showed the feasibility of associating endometriosis with changes in the OF protein repertoire and EDC levels. Endometriosis, pathological growth of the uterine lining, is associated with significant morbidities, including pain and infertility. However, the causes of this common condition are poorly understood. This study determined whether endometriosis was associated with changes in the protein composition of peritoneal fluid, urine and/or omental fat. A protein of unknown function (FAM49B) and two proteinases (metalloproteinase-9, neutrophil elastase) were down regulated in OF samples from women with versus without endometriosis. These findings suggested

  19. Organizing for manufacturing innovation. The case of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Krabbendam, Koos

    1992-01-01

    addressing the manufacturing innovation process are even fewer and provide little insight into its true nature. Consequently, little is known about the effective organization of such processes. In the present article an organization model of manufacturing innovation is described, and its practicability...... the implementation of new technology effectively. This is not surprising, considering the innovative nature of this process. Although there is a host of literature on innovation, organization and (the benefits of) new technology, the literature in which these areas are linked together is scarce. Publications...... assessed using the results of seven case studies of the implementation of flexible manufacturing systems in British, Belgian and Dutch mechanical engineering companies....

  20. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...

  1. Occupational skin hazards and prevalence of occupational skin diseases in shoe manufacturing workers in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    Purpose Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we

  2. Transformation Leadership in Chemical Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Alsherehy, Fahad A.

    2018-01-16

    SABIC is a global leader in diversified chemicals headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It manufactures on a global scale in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific, making distinctly different kinds of products: chemicals, commodity and high performance plastics, agri-nutrients and metals. The company has more than 35,000 employees worldwide and operates in more than 50 countries, with innovation hubs in five key geographies ヨ USA, Europe, Middle East, South East Asia and North East Asia.

  3. Transformation Leadership in Chemical Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Alsherehy, Fahad A.

    2018-01-01

    SABIC is a global leader in diversified chemicals headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It manufactures on a global scale in the Americas, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific, making distinctly different kinds of products: chemicals, commodity and high performance plastics, agri-nutrients and metals. The company has more than 35,000 employees worldwide and operates in more than 50 countries, with innovation hubs in five key geographies ヨ USA, Europe, Middle East, South East Asia and North East Asia.

  4. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_2_._5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM_2_._5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = −15.9 g, 95% CI: −26.8, −5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM_2_._5 exposure (per 10 μg/m"3 increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM_2_._5 exposure during the second (β = −12.6 g) and third (β = −10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM_2_._5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM_2_._5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM_2_._5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies. - Highlights: • Effects of prenatal PM_2_._5 exposure on birth weight were assessed. • A meta-analysis was performed on studies published before March 2015. • PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy might induce lower birth weight. • Late pregnancy might be the critical window of PM_2_._5 effects. • Some specific PM_2_._5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. - PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth

  5. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  7. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the

  8. Detecting Attacks in CyberManufacturing Systems: Additive Manufacturing Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingtao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CyberManufacturing System is a vision for future manufacturing where physical components are fully integrated with computational processes in a connected environment. However, realizing the vision requires that its security be adequately ensured. This paper presents a vision-based system to detect intentional attacks on additive manufacturing processes, utilizing machine learning techniques. Particularly, additive manufacturing systems have unique vulnerabilities to malicious attacks, which can result in defective infills but without affecting the exterior. In order to detect such infill defects, the research uses simulated 3D printing process images as well as actual 3D printing process images to compare accuracies of machine learning algorithms in classifying, clustering and detecting anomalies on different types of infills. Three algorithms - (i random forest, (ii k nearest neighbor, and (iii anomaly detection - have been adopted in the research and shown to be effective in detecting such defects.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Modular Rapidly Manufactured SmallSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize advanced manufacturing processes to design and fabricate a fully functional prototype flight model, with the goal of demonstrating rapid on-orbit assembly of...

  10. Knowledge Transfer and Manufacturing Relocation in International Manufacturing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov

    2014-01-01

    This paper is built on six longitudinal case studies of knowledge transfer in manufacturing relocation. By focusing on tacit and explicit knowledge the paper introduces a model for identification of knowledge in relation to four task situations on the shop floor in a manufacturing environment...... after relocation. Finally the paper discusses how “dispatching capacity” and “absorptive capacity” can improve the process....

  11. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  12. Support given by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomer, E.

    1993-01-01

    As regards German NPP, the purchaser has the control function and the manufacturer the role of a general planner binding together all supply lots. Therefore the manufacturer possesses a very broad and thorough detailed knowledge of the plant functioning and becomes a life-long important partner of the plant. Such partnership requires from the manufacturer to provide continuously available and economical services to the plant; he must work purposefully in a quality-conscious and innovative way. This is his vision, and he will comply with it over the whole service life of the plant. The importance of services is illustrated by a large number of examples. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Micro manufacturing techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu; Li, Zifu

    2013-01-01

    Micro/meso-scale manufacturing has been developed in research fields of machining, forming, materials and others, but its potential to industries are yet to be fully realized. The theme of the current volume was to build a bridge joining academic research and industrial needs in micro manufacturing. Among the 12 papers selected for publication are three keynote addresses onmicro and desktop factories for micro/meso-scale manufacturing applicationsand future visions, tissue cutting mechanics and applications for needlecore biopsy and guidance, and micro-texturing onto amorphous carbonmaterials

  14. An Assessment of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies Implementation in Manufacturing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Yasin Shaikh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AMTs (Advanced Manufacturing Technologies has always been the high interest and core issue for the manufacturing enterprises to get rapid production for global market place. The developed countries have achieved its competitive advantage by implementing this unique model of technologies with full range of systems. In developing countries, the implementation of such technologies is not much common due to so many reasons, (political, social, economical and technical but entrepreneurs of growing economies are contemplating to reshape long term strategy to adopt Computer systems oriented technologies in their manufacturing companies to meet the growing needs of their indigenous market on one hand and to make a place in the international market on the other. Although, very few manufacturing organization do meet the global market requirements. But there is still lot of efforts to be taken for world class competition. An attempt has been made in this paper to develop a conceptual model taking in to account the three parameters such as, Direct, Indirect and Administrative AMTs. This research work further attempts to present an empirical data analysis conducted in the manufacturing enterprises in province of Sindh, Pakistan. The overall indigenous progress of manufacturing enterprises as according to the data collected from 60 companies reveals that the AMTs systems are partially understood and practiced that is also one of the cause towards slow progress of national exchequer.

  15. Cloud Manufacturing Service Paradigm for Group Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous refinement of specialization requires that the group manufacturing company must be constantly focused on how to concentrate its core resources in special sphere to form its core competitive advantage. However, the resources in enterprise group are usually distributed in different subsidiary companies, which means they cannot be fully used, constraining the competition and development of the enterprise. Conducted as a response to a need for cloud manufacturing studies, systematic and detailed studies on cloud manufacturing schema for group companies are carried out in this paper. A new hybrid private clouds paradigm is proposed to meet the requirements of aggregation and centralized use of heterogeneous resources and business units distributed in different subsidiary companies. After the introduction of the cloud manufacturing paradigm for enterprise group and its architecture, this paper presents a derivation from the abstraction of paradigm and framework to the application of a practical evaluative working mechanism. In short, the paradigm establishes an effective working mechanism to translate collaborative business process composed by the activities into cloud manufacturing process composed by services so as to create a foundation resulting in mature traditional project monitoring and scheduling technologies being able to be used in cloud manufacturing project management.

  16. Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rar, A.; Martchevskii, M.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.; Herrin, J.

    2008-01-01

    2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6-7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. These kilometer lengths are produced at high speeds of about 350 m/h of 4 mm wide tape. In combination with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 2G wires up to single piece lengths to 790 m with a minimum critical current value of 190 A/cm corresponding to a Critical current x Length performance of 150,100 Am have been achieved. Tape speeds up to 180 m/h have been reached MOCVD while maintaining critical currents above 200 A/cm in 100+ m lengths. Thick film MOCVD technology has been transitioned to Pilot manufacturing system where a minimum critical current of 320 A/cm has been demonstrated over a length of 155 m processed at a speed of 70 m/h in 4 mm width. Finally, nearly 10,000 m of 2G wire has been produced, exhaustively tested, and delivered to the Albany Cable project. The average minimum critical current of the wire delivered in 225 segments of 43-44 m is 70 A in 4 mm widths. A 30 m cable has been fabricated with this wire by Sumitomo Electric and has been installed in the power grid of National Grid in downtown Albany and is the world's first 2G device installed in the grid

  17. Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: vselva@superpower-inc.com; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Rar, A.; Martchevskii, M.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.; Herrin, J. [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    2007 has marked yet another year of continued rapid progress in developing and manufacturing high-performance, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS wires at high speeds. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6-7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. These kilometer lengths are produced at high speeds of about 350 m/h of 4 mm wide tape. In combination with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), 2G wires up to single piece lengths to 790 m with a minimum critical current value of 190 A/cm corresponding to a Critical current x Length performance of 150,100 Am have been achieved. Tape speeds up to 180 m/h have been reached MOCVD while maintaining critical currents above 200 A/cm in 100+ m lengths. Thick film MOCVD technology has been transitioned to Pilot manufacturing system where a minimum critical current of 320 A/cm has been demonstrated over a length of 155 m processed at a speed of 70 m/h in 4 mm width. Finally, nearly 10,000 m of 2G wire has been produced, exhaustively tested, and delivered to the Albany Cable project. The average minimum critical current of the wire delivered in 225 segments of 43-44 m is 70 A in 4 mm widths. A 30 m cable has been fabricated with this wire by Sumitomo Electric and has been installed in the power grid of National Grid in downtown Albany and is the world's first 2G device installed in the grid.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Quasi-Chemical PC-SAFT: An Extended Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for Lattice-Fluid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaneh, Khalil; Shariati, Alireza

    2017-09-07

    In this study, a new modification of the perturbed chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) has been proposed by incorporating the lattice fluid theory of Guggenheim as an additional term to the original PC-SAFT terms. As the proposed model has one more term than the PC-SAFT, a new mixing rule has been developed especially for the new additional term, while for the conventional terms of the PC-SAFT, the one-fluid mixing rule is used. In order to evaluate the proposed model, the vapor-liquid equilibria were estimated for binary CO 2 mixtures with 16 different ionic liquids (ILs) of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium family with various anions consisting of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, hexafluorophosphate, tetrafluoroborate, and trifluoromethanesulfonate. For a comprehensive comparison, three different modes (different adjustable parameters) of the proposed model were compared with the conventional PC-SAFT. Results indicate that the proposed modification of the PC-SAFT EoS is generally more reliable with respect to the conventional PC-SAFT in all the three proposed modes of vapor-liquid equilibria, giving good agreement with literature data.

  20. The complexity and cost of vaccine manufacturing - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley; Robinson, James M; Cunningham, Gerard; Iqbal, Robyn; Larsen, Shannon

    2017-07-24

    As companies, countries, and governments consider investments in vaccine production for routine immunization and outbreak response, understanding the complexity and cost drivers associated with vaccine production will help to inform business decisions. Leading multinational corporations have good understanding of the complex manufacturing processes, high technological and R&D barriers to entry, and the costs associated with vaccine production. However, decision makers in developing countries, donors and investors may not be aware of the factors that continue to limit the number of new manufacturers and have caused attrition and consolidation among existing manufacturers. This paper describes the processes and cost drivers in acquiring and maintaining licensure of childhood vaccines. In addition, when export is the goal, we describe the requirements to supply those vaccines at affordable prices to low-resource markets, including the process of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification and supporting policy recommendation. By providing a generalized and consolidated view of these requirements we seek to build awareness in the global community of the benefits and costs associated with vaccine manufacturing and the challenges associated with maintaining consistent supply. We show that while vaccine manufacture may prima facie seem an economic growth opportunity, the complexity and high fixed costs of vaccine manufacturing limit potential profit. Further, for most lower and middle income countries a large majority of the equipment, personnel and consumables will need to be imported for years, further limiting benefits to the local economy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.