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Sample records for chemical looping combustion

  1. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  2. Tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying

    2017-10-25

    The disclosure provides a tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier comprises Cu.sub.xFe.sub.yMn.sub.zO.sub.4-.delta., where Cu.sub.xFe.sub.yMn.sub.zO.sub.4-.delta. is a chemical composition. Generally, 0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2.0, 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.5, and 0.2.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.2.5, and in some embodiments, 0.8.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.2, y.ltoreq.1.2, and z.gtoreq.0.8. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier may be used in various applications for the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, including as an oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

  3. Chemical-looping combustion - status of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngfelt, Anders; Johansson, Marcus; Mattisson, Tobias

    2008-05-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide is reduced by the reaction with the fuel and in the air reactor; the reduced metal oxide is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and almost pure stream of CO{sub 2} is obtained when water is condensed. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last years with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. In 2002 the process was a paper concept, albeit with some important but limited laboratory work on oxygen carrier particles. Today more than 600 materials have been tested and the technique has been successfully demonstrated in chemical-looping combustors in the size range 0.3 - 50 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. The total time of operational experience is more than a thousand hours. From these tests it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO{sub 2} capture is possible. Most work so far has been focused on gaseous fuels, but the direct application to solid fuels is also being studied. Moreover, the same principle of oxygen transfer is used in chemical-looping reforming (CLR), which involves technologies to produce hydrogen with inherent CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents an overview of the research performed on CLC and CLR highlights the current status of the technology

  4. Chemical looping combustion: A new low-dioxin energy conversion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiuning; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Dioxin production is a worldwide concern because of its persistence and carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects. The pyrolysis-chemical looping combustion process of disposing solid waste is an alternative to traditional solid waste incineration developed to reduce the dioxin production. Based on the equilibrium composition of the Deacon reaction, pyrolysis gas oxidized by seven common oxygen carriers, namely, CuO, NiO, CaSO4, CoO, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, and FeTiO3, is studied and compared with the pyrolysis gas directly combusted by air. The result shows that the activity of the Deacon reaction for oxygen carriers is lower than that for air. For four typical oxygen carriers (CuO, NiO, Fe2O3, and FeTiO3), the influences of temperature, pressure, gas composition, and tar on the Deacon reaction are discussed in detail. According to these simulation results, the dioxin production in China, Europe, the United States, and Japan is predicted for solid waste disposal by the pyrolysis-chemical looping combustion process. Thermodynamic analysis results in this paper show that chemical looping combustion can reduce dioxin production in the disposal of solid waste. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Packed Bed Reactor Technology for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as an alternative for conventional power production processes to intrinsically integrate power production and CO2 capture. In this work a new reactor concept for CLC is proposed, based on dynamically operated packed bed reactors. With analytical

  6. Advancements in Development of Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of greenhouse CO2. Extensive research has been performed on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reaction kinetics, reactor design, system efficiencies, and prototype testing. Transition metal oxides, such as Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn oxides, were reported as reactive species in the oxygen carrier particles. Ni-based oxygen carriers exhibited the best reactivity and stability during multiredox cycles. The performance of the oxygen carriers can be improved by changing preparation method or by making mixedoxides. The CLC has been demonstrated successfully in continuously operated prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized-bed system in the size range of 0.3–50 kW. High fuel conversion rates and almost 100%  CO2 capture efficiencies were obtained. The CLC system with two interconnected fluidized-bed reactors was considered the most suitable reactor design. Development of oxygen carriers with excellent reactivity and stability is still one of the challenges for CLC in the near future. Experiences of building and operating the large-scale CLC systems are needed before this technology is used commercially. Chemical-looping reforming (CLR and chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH are novel chemical-looping techniques to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen deserving more attention and research.

  7. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  8. CO2 capture by chemical looping combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Carmen R; Adanez, Juan; Gayan, Pilar; Garcia L, Francisco; Abad, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    NiO and CuO based oxygen carriers (OCs) supported on Al 2 O 3 prepared by impregnation were selected for its evaluation in a continuous pilot plant of 500 Wth of two interconnected fluidized beds, where both methane and syngas were used as fuel gas. In addition, the effect of possible impurities in the fuel gas such as sulphur compounds and other hydrocarbons in the combustion efficiency of the process and the behaviour of the OCs were studied. Based on these results, it can be concluded that both OCs are suitable for a chemical looping combustion (CLC) process with methane, syngas and methane with impurities such as light hydrocarbons or sulphur.

  9. Simulation of an integrated gasification combined cycle with chemical-looping combustion and carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez Álvaro, Ángel; López Paniagua, Ignacio; González Fernández, Celina; Rodríguez Martín, Javier; Nieto Carlier, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A chemical-looping combustion based integrated gasification combined cycle is simulated. • The energetic performance of the plant is analyzed. • Different hydrogen-content synthesis gases are under study. • Energy savings accounting carbon dioxide sequestration and storage are quantified. • A notable increase on thermal efficiency up to 7% is found. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion is an interesting technique that makes it possible to integrate power generation from fuels combustion and sequestration of carbon dioxide without energy penalty. In addition, the combustion chemical reaction occurs with a lower irreversibility compared to a conventional combustion, leading to attain a somewhat higher overall thermal efficiency in gas turbine systems. This paper provides results about the energetic performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant based on chemical-looping combustion of synthesis gas. A real understanding of the behavior of this concept of power plant implies a complete thermodynamic analysis, involving several interrelated aspects as the integration of energy flows between the gasifier and the combined cycle, the restrictions in relation with heat balances and chemical equilibrium in reactors and the performance of the gas turbines and the downstream steam cycle. An accurate thermodynamic modeling is required for the optimization of several design parameters. Simulations to evaluate the energetic efficiency of this chemical-looping-combustion based power plant under diverse working conditions have been carried out, and a comparison with a conventional integrated gasification power plant with precombustion capture of carbon dioxide has been made. Two different synthesis gas compositions have been tried to check its influence on the results. The energy saved in carbon capture and storage is found to be significant and even notable, inducing an improvement of the overall power plant thermal efficiency of

  10. A reduced fidelity model for the rotary chemical looping combustion reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike O.; Zhao, Zhenlong; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2017-01-01

    The rotary chemical looping combustion reactor has great potential for efficient integration with CO capture-enabled energy conversion systems. In earlier studies, we described a one-dimensional rotary reactor model, and used it to demonstrate

  11. Carbon Capture via Chemical-Looping Combustion and Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Marcus; Mattisson, Tobias; Ryden, Magnus; Lyngfelt, Anders

    2006-10-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide is reduced by the reaction with the fuel and in the air reactor; the reduced metal oxide is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and almost pure stream of CO{sub 2} is obtained when water is condensed. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. The technique has been demonstrated successfully with both natural gas and syngas as fuel in continuous prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized beds within the size range 0.3 - 50 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. From these tests it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO{sub 2} capture is possible. Further, two different types of chemical-looping reforming (CLR) have been presented in recent years. CLR is a technology to produce hydrogen with inherent CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents an overview of the research performed on CLC and CLR highlights the current status of the technology.

  12. Thermodynamic evaluation of chemical looping combustion for combined cooling heating and power production driven by coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Junming; Hong, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Zefeng; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with CCHP process has been presented. • This novel process maintains a maximum energy efficiency of 60.34%. • The fossil energy saving ratio of this process is optimize to be 27.20%. - Abstract: This study carries out an investigation concerning on the benefits of ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP-CLC) by means of thermodynamic evaluation. The coal gasification syngas is introduced into chemical looping combustion for inherent separation of CO_2 without extra energy consumed. The combustion flue gases from both air reactor and fuel reactor are sequentially fed into gas turbines for electricity production, a heat recovery vapor generator unit for further electricity generation with driving a LiBr-H_2O absorption chiller for cooling production in summer and finally a heat exchanger for daily heat water production. A preliminary parameter analysis helps to obtain the optimum operating condition, as steam-to-coal ratio (S/C) of 0.05, oxygen-to-coal ratio (O/C) of 0.75, and operating pressure of chemical looping combustion process of 5 bar. The overall energy efficiency of the CCHP-CLC process is calculated equal to 58.20% in summer compared with that of 60.34% in winter. Importantly, by utilization of such process, the reduction potential of fossil fuel (coal) consumption has been demonstrated to be 23.36% in summer and 27.20% in winter.

  13. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing

    2016-12-20

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of 600.degree. C.-1000.degree. C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  15. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore

  16. A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system with a high solar share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system is presented. • This hybrid CLC system integrates a CLC plant with a solar thermal energy plant. • The oxygen carrier particles are used for chemical and sensible thermal energy storage. • A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. • The calculations show a total solar share of around 60% can be achieved. - Abstract: A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion (Hy-Sol-CLC) is presented, in which the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system are employed to provide thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. This hybrid aims to take advantage of key features of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system that are desirable for solar energy systems, notably their inherent chemical and sensible energy storage systems, the relatively low temperature of the “fuel” reactor (to which the concentrated solar thermal energy is added in a hybrid) relative to that of the final temperature of the product gas and the potential to operate the fuel reactor at a different pressure to the heated gas stream. By this approach, it is aimed to achieve high efficiency of the solar energy, infrastructure sharing, economic synergy, base load power generation and a high solar fraction of the total energy. In the proposed Hy-Sol-CLC system, a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for fuel reactor while for the storage of the oxygen carrier particles two reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC. A heat exchanger is also proposed to provide independent control of the temperatures of the storage reservoirs from those of solar fuel and air reactors. The system is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The operating temperature of the fuel reactor, solar absorption efficiency, solar share, fraction of the solar thermal energy stored within the solar reactor, the fractions of sensible and

  17. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, S; Suzuki, T; Yamamoto, M [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Study of dimensional changes during redox cycling of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossdal, A.; Darell, O.; Lambert, A.; Schols, E.; Comte, E.; Leenman, R.N.; Blom, R.

    2015-01-01

    Dimensional and phase changes of four candidate oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion are investigated by dilatometry and high-temperature X-ray diffraction during four redox cycles. NiO/Ni2AlO4 does not exhibit significant dimensional changes during cycling, and it is shown that

  20. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong; Chen, Tianjiao; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of in situ gasification-chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) of Indian coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Menon, Kavitha G; Prakash, K S; Prudhvi, S; Anudeep, A

    2016-10-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an inherent CO 2 capture technology. It is gaining much interest in recent years mainly because of its potential in addressing climate change problems associated with CO 2 emissions from power plants. A typical chemical looping combustion unit consists of two reactors-fuel reactor, where oxidation of fuel occurs with the help of oxygen available in the form of metal oxides and, air reactor, where the reduced metal oxides are regenerated by the inflow of air. These oxides are then sent back to the fuel reactor and the cycle continues. The product gas from the fuel reactor contains a concentrated stream of CO 2 which can be readily stored in various forms or used for any other applications. This unique feature of inherent CO 2 capture makes the technology more promising to combat the global climate changes. Various types of CLC units have been discussed in literature depending on the type of fuel burnt. For solid fuel combustion three main varieties of CLC units exist namely: syngas CLC, in situ gasification-CLC (iG-CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). In this paper, theoretical studies on the iG-CLC unit burning Indian coal are presented. Gibbs free energy minimization technique is employed to determine the composition of flue gas and oxygen carrier of an iG-CLC unit using Fe 2 O 3 , CuO, and mixed carrier-Fe 2 O 3 and CuO as oxygen carriers. The effect of temperature, suitability of oxygen carriers, and oxygen carrier circulation rate on the performance of a CLC unit for Indian coal are studied and presented. These results are analyzed in order to foresee the operating conditions at which economic and smooth operation of the unit is expected.

  2. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 2: Base Case and Sensitivity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong; Chen, Tianjiao; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 (10.1021/ef3014103) of this series describes a new rotary reactor for gas-fueled chemical-looping combustion (CLC), in which, a solid wheel with microchannels rotates between the reducing and oxidizing streams. The oxygen carrier (OC) coated

  3. FY1995 study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; 1995 nendo chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Synthesis of highly efficient and low emission power generation plant with chemical-looping combustion using various fuels such as natural gas, coal gas and hydrogen. Development of new looping materials with suitable reactivity, regenerative ability, and avoidance of carbon deposition. To obtain the design data for demo-plant by using the current experiment high- pressure fixed bed reactor. From the viewpoint of application of the proposed power generation system with chemical-looping combustion, the following main results were obtained. 1. New looping materials: NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CoO-NiO/YSZ, and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. These materials have high reactivity, repeatability, and avoidance of carbon deposition which play important roles in application of this new combustor. 2. NO{sub x} formation can be completely avoided; both fuel NO{sub x} in reduction reactor for coal gas as fuel and thermal NO{sub x} in oxidation reactor. 3. It is identified from the experiment using fixed bed reactor with the elevated pressure that NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a suitable material for coal gas or hydrogen. These promising results have provided valuable data for industrial application. (NEDO)

  4. Performance of calcium manganate as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion of biochar in a 10 kW pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Linderholm, Carl Johan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A manganese-based perovskite material was used as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion. • The oxygen carrier’s performance was superior to materials previously tested in this reactor throughout the testing period. • Under stable conditions, oxygen demand was as low as 2.1% with a carbon capture efficiency of up to 98%. • No signs of agglomeration were detected. • Gaseous oxygen was released at all relevant fuel reactor temperatures. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are carbon capture technologies which achieve gas separation by means of cycling oxidation and reduction of a solid oxygen carrier. In this study, the performance and CLOU properties of an oxygen carrier with perovskite structure, CaMn_0_._9Mg_0_._1O_3_−_δ_, were investigated in a 10 kW pilot. The fuel consisted of biochar with very low sulphur content. Around 37 h of operation with fuel were carried out in the 10 kW chemical looping combustor. Previous operational experience in this unit has been achieved using different natural minerals as oxygen carrier – mainly ilmenite and manganese ore. Parametric studies performed in this work included variation of fuel flow, solids circulation rate, temperature and fluidization gas in the fuel reactor. The oxygen carrier was exposed to a total 73 h of hot fluidization (T > 600 °C). No hard particle agglomerations were formed during the experiments. An oxygen demand as low as 2.1% could be reached under stable operating conditions, with a carbon capture efficiency of up to 98%. CLOU properties were observed at all fuel reactor temperatures, ensuring stable operation even without steam as gasification agent present in the fuel reactor. The results suggest that CaMn_0_._9Mg_0_._1O_3_−_δ is suitable for the use as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion of solid biochar and offers higher gas conversion than previously tested materials without CLOU

  5. Energetic analysis of a syngas-fueled chemical-looping combustion combined cycle with integration of carbon dioxide sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez Álvaro, Ángel; Paniagua, Ignacio López; Fernández, Celina González; Carlier, Rafael Nieto; Martín, Javier Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion for power generation has significant advantages over conventional combustion. Mainly, it allows an integration of CO 2 capture in the power plant without energy penalty; secondly, a less exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation is achieved, leading to a greater overall thermal efficiency. Most efforts have been devoted to systems based on methane as a fuel, although other systems for alternative fuels have can be proposed. This paper focus on the study of the energetic performance of this concept of combustion in a gas turbine combined cycle when synthesis gas is used as fuel. After optimization of some thermodynamic parameters of the cycle, the power plant performance is evaluated under diverse working conditions and compared to a conventional gas turbine system. Energy savings related with CO 2 capture and storage have been quantified. The overall efficiency increase is found to be significant, reaching values of around 5% (even more in some cases). In order to analyze the influence of syngas composition on the results, different H 2 -content fuels are considered. In a context of real urgency to reduce green house gas emissions, this work is intended to contribute to the conceptual development of highly efficient alternative power generation systems. - Highlights: • Analysis of the energetic performance of a CLC (chemical-looping combustion) gas turbine system is done. • Syngas as fuel and iron oxides as oxygen carrier are considered. • Different H 2 -content syngas are under study. • Energy savings accounting CO 2 sequestration and storage are quantified. • A significant increase on thermal efficiency of about 5–6% is found

  6. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion in a packed bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.; Van Noyen, J.; Larring, Y.; McCann, M.; Pishahang, M.; Amini, S.; Ortiz, M.; Galluci, F.; Sint-Annaland, M. V.; Tournigant, D.; Louradour, E.; Snijkers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising carbon capture technology where cyclic reduction and oxidation of a metallic oxide, which acts as a solid oxygen carrier, takes place. With this system, direct contact between air and fuel can be avoided, and so, a concentrated CO2 stream is generated

  7. Fabrication and processing of next-generation oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadarajah, Arunan [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Among numerous methods of controlling the global warming effect, Chemical Looping Combustion is known to be the most viable option currently. A key factor to a successful chemical looping process is the presence of highly effective oxygen carriers that enable fuel combustion by going through oxidation and reduction in the presence of air and fuel respectively. In this study, CaMnO3-δ was used as the base material and doped on the A-site (Sr or La) and B-site (Fe, Ti, Zn and Al) by 10 mol % of dopants. Solid state reaction followed by mechanical extrusion (optimized paste formula) was used as the preparation method A series of novel doped perovskite-type oxygen carrier particles (CaxLa (Or Sa)1-x Mn1-yByO3-δ (B-site = Fe, Ti, Al, or Zr)) were synthesized by the proposed extrusion formula. The produced samples were characterized with XRD, SEM, BET and TGA techniques. According to the results obtained from TGA analysis, the oxygen capacity of the samples ranged between 1.2 for CLMZ and 1.75 for CSMF. Reactivity and oxygen uncoupling behaviors of the prepared samples were also evaluated using a fluidized bed chemical looping reactor using methane as the fuel at four different temperatures (800, 850, 900, 950 °C). All of the oxygen carriers showed oxygen uncoupling behavior and they were able to capture and release oxygen. Mass-based conversion of the perovskites was calculated and temperature increase proved to increase the mass-based conversion rate in all of the samples under study. Gas yield was calculated at 950 °C as well, and results showed that CLMZ, CM and CSMF showed 100% gas yields and CLMF and CSMZ showed approximately 85% yield in fluidized bed reactor, which is a high and acceptable quantity. Based on extended reactor tests the modified calcium manganese perovskite structures (CSMF) can be a good candidate for future pilot tests.

  8. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  9. Reactor design, cold-model experiment and CFD modeling for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Ma, Jinchen; Hu, Xintao; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Baowen; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an efficient, clean and cheap technology for CO{sub 2} capture, and an interconnected fluidized bed is more appropriate solution for CLC. This paper aims to design a reactor system for CLC, carry out cold-model experiment of the system, and model fuel reactor using commercial CFD software. As for the CLC system, the air reactor (AR) is designed as a fast fluidized bed while the fuel reactor (FR) is a bubbling bed; a cyclone is used for solid separation of the AR exit flow. The AR and FR are separated by two U-type loop seals to remain gas sealed. Considered the chemical kinetics of oxygen carrier, fluid dynamics, pressure balance and mass balance of the system simultaneously, some key design parameters of a CH{sub 4}-fueled and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based CLC reactor (thermal power of 50 kWth) are determined, including key geometric parameters (reactor cross-sectional area and reactor height) and operation parameters (bed material quantity, solid circulation rate, apparent gas velocity of each reactor). A cold-model bench having same geometric parameters with its prototype is built up to study the effects of various operation conditions (including gas velocity in the reactors and loop seals, and bed material height, etc.) on the solids circulation rate, gas leakage, and pressure balance. It is witnessed the cold-model system is able to meet special requirements for CLC system such as gas sealing between AR and FR, the circulation rate and particles residence time. Furthermore, the thermal FR reactor with oxygen carrier of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and fuel of CH{sub 4} is simulated by commercial CFD solver FLUENT. It is found that for the design case the combustion efficiency of CH{sub 4} reaches 88.2%. A few part of methane is unburned due to fast, large bubbles rising through the reactor.

  10. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ling [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  11. Feasibility study of sulfates as oxygen carriers for chemical looping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The operational feasibility temperature range of chemical looping combustion (CLC and chemical looping reforming (CLR of the fuels methane, propane, iso-octane and ethanol was explored using the common sulphates

  12. Exergy Analysis of a Syngas-Fueled Combined Cycle with Chemical-Looping Combustion and CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Urdiales Montesino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are still widely used for power generation. Nevertheless, it is possible to attain a short- and medium-term substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere through a sequestration of the CO2 produced in fuels’ oxidation. The chemical-looping combustion (CLC technique is based on a chemical intermediate agent, which gets oxidized in an air reactor and is then conducted to a separated fuel reactor, where it oxidizes the fuel in turn. Thus, the oxidation products CO2 and H2O are obtained in an output flow in which the only non-condensable gas is CO2, allowing the subsequent sequestration of CO2 without an energy penalty. Furthermore, with shrewd configurations, a lower exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation can be achieved. This paper focus on a second law analysis of a CLC combined cycle power plant with CO2 sequestration using syngas from coal and biomass gasification as fuel. The key thermodynamic parameters are optimized via the exergy method. The proposed power plant configuration is compared with a similar gas turbine system with a conventional combustion, finding a notable increase of the power plant efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of syngas composition on the results is investigated by considering different H2-content fuels.

  13. Importance of spinel reaction kinetics in packed-bed chemical looping combustion using a CuO/Al2O3 oxygen carrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Pio, M.A.; Sabatino, F.; Gallucci, F.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    2018-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion is especially competitive for electrical power generation with integrated CO2 capture when it is operated at high temperatures (1000–1200 °C) and high pressures (15 bar or higher). For these demanding conditions, dynamically operated packed bed reactors have been

  14. Computational fluid dynamics simulation for chemical looping combustion of coal in a dual circulation fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Mingze; Zhao, Haibo; Ma, Jinchen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation of a 5 kW_t_h CLC reactor of coal was conducted. • Gas leakage, flow pattern and combustion efficiency of the reactor was analyzed. • Optimal condition was achieved based on operation characteristics understanding. - Abstract: A dual circulation fluidized bed system is widely accepted for chemical looping combustion (CLC) for enriching CO_2 from the utilization of fossil fuels. Due to the limitations of the measurement, the details of multiphase reactive flows in the interconnected fluidized bed reactors are difficult to obtain. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation provides a promising method to understand the hydrodynamics, chemical reaction, and heat and mass transfers in CLC reactors, which are very important for the rational design, optimal operation, and scaling-up of the CLC system. In this work, a 5 kW_t_h coal-fired CLC dual circulation fluidized bed system, which was developed by our research group, was first simulated for understanding gas leakage, flow pattern and combustion efficiency. The simulation results achieved good agreement with the experimental measurements, which validates the simulation model. Subsequently, to improve the combustion efficiency, a new operation condition was simulated by increasing the reactor temperature and decreasing the coal feeding. An improvement in the combustion efficiency was attained, and the simulation results for the new operation condition were also validated by the experimental measurements in the same CLC combustor. All of the above processes demonstrated the validity and usefulness of the simulation results to improve the CLC reactor operation.

  15. Chemical-looping combustion as a new CO{sub 2} management technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, Tobias; Lyngfelt, Anders [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment; Zafar, Qamar; Johansson, Marcus [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The technique involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide is reduced by the reaction with the fuel and in the air reactor; the reduced metal oxide is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, and almost pure stream of CO{sub 2} is obtained when water is condensed. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. The technique has been demonstrated successfully with both natural gas and syngas as fuel in continuous prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized beds within the size range 0.3-50 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. From these tests it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO{sub 2} capture is possible at a low cost. Further, work is going on to adapt the technique for use with solid fuels and for hydrogen production. This paper presents an overview of the research performed on CLC and highlights the current status of the technology.

  16. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydé n, Magnus; Lyngfelt, Anders; Mattisson, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor

  17. Rational Design of Mixed-Metal Oxides for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal via Coupled Computational-Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Amit [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Fanxing [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Santiso, Erik [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Energy and global climate change are two grand challenges to the modern society. An urgent need exists for development of clean and efficient energy conversion processes. The chemical looping strategy, which utilizes regenerable oxygen carriers (OCs) to indirectly convert carbonaceous fuels via redox reactions, is considered to be one of the more promising approaches for CO2 capture by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). To date, most long-term chemical looping operations were conducted using gaseous fuels, even though direct conversion of coal is more desirable from both economics and CO2 capture viewpoints. The main challenges for direct coal conversion reside in the stringent requirements on oxygen carrier performances. In addition, coal char and volatile compounds are more challenging to convert than gaseous fuels. A promising approach for direct conversion of coal is the so called chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) technique. In the CLOU process, a metal oxide that decomposes at the looping temperature, and releases oxygen to the gas phase is used as the OC. The overarching objective of this project was to discover the fundamental principles for rational design and optimization of oxygen carriers (OC) in coal chemical looping combustion (CLC) processes. It directly addresses Topic Area B of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) in terms of “predictive description of the phase behavior and mechanical properties” of “mixed metal oxide” based OCs and rational development of new OC materials with superior functionality. This was achieved through studies exploring i) iron-containing mixed-oxide composites as oxygen carriers for CLOU, ii) Ca1-xAxMnO3-δ (A = Sr and Ba) as oxygen carriers for CLOU, iii) CaMn1-xBxO3-δ (B=Al, V, Fe, Co, and Ni) as oxygen carrier for CLOU and iv) vacancy creation energy in Mn-containing perovskites as an indicator chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling.

  18. The energetic performance of a novel hybrid solar thermal and chemical looping combustion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion power cycle is reported. • The cycle is studied for two configurations, with and without an after-burner. • The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for solar thermal energy. • Total solar shares of 41.4% and 60% are achieved with and without the after-burner. • Efficiencies of 50% and 44.0% are achieved with and without the after-burner. - Abstract: The overall energetic performance of a gas turbine combined cycle powered by a hybrid cycle between a solar thermal and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system firing methane is reported for two configurations. In one case, the outlet from the air reactor is fed directly to a gas turbine, while in the other an after-burner, also firing methane, is added to increase the gas turbine inlet temperature. The cycle is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The first law efficiency, total solar absorption efficiency, average and peak fractional power boosts, total solar share, net solar to electrical efficiency, fraction of pressurised CO 2 , incremental CO 2 avoidance and the exergy efficiency for both cycles are reported. The calculations predict a first law efficiency of 50.0% for the cycle employing an after-burner, compared with 44.0% for that without the after-burner. However, this is achieved at the cost of decreasing the solar share from 60.0%, without the after-burner, to 41.4% with it. Also reported is the sensitivity analysis of performance to variations in key operating parameters. The sensitivity analysis shows that further improvements to the performance of the cycle are possible

  19. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind

    2005-07-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a new concept for fuel energy conversion with CO2 capture. In CLC, fuel combustion is split into separate reduction and oxidation processes, in which a solid carrier is reduced and oxidized, respectively. The carrier is continuously recirculated between the two vessels, and hence direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. As a result, a stoichiometric amount of oxygen is transferred to the fuel by a regenerable solid intermediate, and CLC is thus a variant of oxy-fuel combustion. In principle, pure CO2 can be obtained from the reduction exhaust by condensation of the produced water vapour. The thermodynamic potential and feasibility of CLC has been studied by means of process simulations and experimental studies of oxygen carriers. Process simulations have focused on parameter sensitivity studies of CLC implemented in 3 power cycles; CLC-Combined Cycle, CLC-Humid Air Turbine and CLC-Integrated Steam Generation. Simulations indicate that overall fuel conversion ratio, oxidation temperature and operating pressure are among the most important process parameters in CLC. A promising thermodynamic potential of CLC has been found, with efficiencies comparable to, - or better than existing technologies for CO2 capture. The proposed oxygen carrier nickel oxide on nickel spinel (NiONiAl) has been studied in reduction with hydrogen, methane and methane/steam as well as oxidation with dry air. It has been found that at atmospheric pressure and temperatures above 600 deg C, solid reduction with dry methane occurs with overall fuel conversion of 92%. Steam methane reforming is observed along with methane cracking as side reactions, yielding an overall selectivity of 90% with regard to solid reduction. If steam is added to the reactant fuel, coking can be avoided. A methodology for long-term investigation of solid chemical activity in a batch reactor is proposed. The method is based on time variables for oxidation. The results for Ni

  20. A Study on the Role of Reaction Modeling in Multi-phase CFD-based Simulations of Chemical Looping Combustion; Impact du modele de reaction sur les simulations CFD de la combustion en boucle chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruggel-Emden, H.; Stepanek, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Kruggel-Emden, H.; Munjiza, A. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Chemical Looping Combustion is an energy efficient combustion technology for the inherent separation of carbon dioxide for both gaseous and solid fuels. For scale up and further development of this process multi-phase CFD-based simulations have a strong potential which rely on kinetic models for the solid/gaseous reactions. Reaction models are usually simple in structure in order to keep the computational cost low. They are commonly derived from thermogravimetric experiments. With only few CFD-based simulations performed on chemical looping combustion, there is a lack in understanding of the role and of the sensitivity of the applied chemical reaction model on the outcome of a simulation. The aim of this investigation is therefore the study of three different carrier materials CaSO{sub 4}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiO with the gaseous fuels H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in a batch type reaction vessel. Four reaction models namely the linear shrinking core, the spherical shrinking core, the Avrami-Erofeev and a recently proposed multi parameter model are applied and compared on a case by case basis. (authors)

  1. Integration of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and chemical looping combustion (CLC) for ultra-high efficiency power generation and CO2 production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, Vincenzo; Nocerino, Pasquale; Romano, Matteo C.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Campanari, Stefano; Gallucci, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of the integration of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with chemical looping combustion (CLC) in natural gas power plants. The fundamental idea of the proposed process integration is to use a dual fluidized-bed CLC process to complete the oxidation of the

  2. Metal ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying

    2017-01-31

    The disclosure provides a metal ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The metal ferrite oxygen carrier comprises MFe.sub.xO.sub.y on an inert support, where MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is a chemical composition and M is one of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof. For example, MFe.sub.xO.sub.y may be one of MgFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, SrFe.sub.2O.sub.4, BaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CoFe.sub.2O.sub.4, MnFeO.sub.3, and combinations thereof. The MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is supported on an inert support. The inert support disperses the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y oxides to avoid agglomeration and improve performance stability. In an embodiment, the inert support comprises from about 5 wt. % to about 60 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier and the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y comprises at least 30 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier. The metal ferrite oxygen carriers disclosed display improved reduction rates over Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and improved oxidation rates over CuO.

  3. Design and evaluation of an IGCC power plant using iron-based syngas chemical-looping (SCL) combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorgenfrei, Max; Tsatsaronis, George

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept for power generation including carbon capture was found. • The air reactor temperature significantly influences the net efficiency. • The use of a CO 2 turbine decreases the net efficiency. • Compared to a conventional IGCC with 90% CO 2 capture the net efficiency increases. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO 2 . This paper focuses on the design and thermodynamic evaluation of an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process using syngas chemical looping (SCL) combustion for generating electricity. The syngas is provided by coal gasification; the gas from the gasifier is cleaned using high-temperature gas desulfurization (HGD). In this study, the oxygen carrier iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) is selected to oxidize the syngas in a multistage moving-bed reactor. The resulting reduced iron particles then consist of FeO and Fe 3 O 4 . To create a closed-cycle operation, these particles are partially re-oxidized with steam in a fluidized-bed regenerator to pure Fe 3 O 4 and then fully re-oxidized in a fluidized-bed air combustor to Fe 2 O 3 . One advantage of this process is the co-production of hydrogen diluted with water vapor within the steam regenerator. Both the HGD and CLC systems are not under commercial operation so far. This mixture is fed to a gas turbine for the purpose of generating electricity. The gas turbine is expected to exhibit low NO x emissions due to the high ratio of water in the combustion chamber. Cooling the flue gas in the HRSG condenses the water vapor to yield high-purity CO 2 for subsequent compression and disposal. To evaluate the net efficiency, two conventional syngas gasifiers are considered, namely the BGL slagging gasifier and the Shell entrained-flow gasifier. The option of using a CO 2 turbine after the SCL-fuel reactor is also investigated. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the SCL

  4. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2013-01-17

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two-part series, a new rotary reactor concept for gas-fueled CLC is proposed and analyzed. In part 1, the detailed configuration of the rotary reactor is described. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet and exit. Two purging sectors are used to avoid the mixing between the fuel stream and the air stream. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of channels with copper oxide coated on the inner surface of the channels. The support material is boron nitride, which has high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Gas flows through the reactor at elevated pressure, and it is heated to a high temperature by fuel combustion. Typical design parameters for a thermal capacity of 1 MW have been proposed, and a simplified model is developed to predict the performances of the reactor. The potential drawbacks of the rotary reactor are also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  6. CFD analysis of bubble hydrodynamics in a fuel reactor for a hydrogen-fueled chemical looping combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harichandan, Atal Bihari; Shamim, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational study of the fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion technology. • The results yield better understanding of the bubble hydrodynamics in fuel reactor. • Increasing the reactor bed length increases the conversion rate. • Small oxygen carrier particles improves the conversion rate. - Abstract: This study investigates the temporal development of bubble hydrodynamics in the fuel reactor of a hydrogen-fueled chemical looping combustion (CLC) system by using a computational model. The model also investigates the molar fraction of products in gas and solid phases. The study assists in developing a better understanding of the CLC process, which has many advantages such as being a potentially promising candidate for an efficient carbon dioxide capture technology. The study employs the kinetic theory of granular flow. The reactive fluid dynamic system of the fuel reactor is customized by incorporating the kinetics of an oxygen carrier reduction into a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. An Eulerian multiphase treatment is used to describe the continuum two-fluid model for both gas and solid phases. CaSO 4 and H 2 are used as an oxygen carrier and a fuel, respectively. The computational results are validated with the experimental and numerical results available in the open literature. The CFD simulations are found to capture the features of the bubble formation, rise and burst in unsteady and quasi-steady states very well. The results show a significant increase in the conversion rate with higher dense bed height, lower bed width, higher free board height and smaller oxygen carrier particles which upsurge an overall performance of the CLC plant

  7. Chemical Looping Combustion of Hematite Ore with Methane and Steam in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bayham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical looping combustion is considered an indirect method of oxidizing a carbonaceous fuel, utilizing a metal oxide oxygen carrier to provide oxygen to the fuel. The advantage is the significantly reduced energy penalty for separating out the CO2 for reuse or sequestration in a carbon-constrained world. One of the major issues with chemical looping combustion is the cost of the oxygen carrier. Hematite ore is a proposed oxygen carrier due to its high strength and resistance to mechanical attrition, but its reactivity is rather poor compared to tailored oxygen carriers. This problem is further exacerbated by methane cracking, the subsequent deposition of carbon and the inability to transfer oxygen at a sufficient rate from the core of the particle to the surface for fuel conversion to CO2. Oxygen needs to be readily available at the surface to prevent methane cracking. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the use of steam to overcome this issue and improve the conversion of the natural gas to CO2, as well as to provide data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD validation. The steam will gasify the deposited carbon to promote the methane conversion. This work studies the performance of hematite ore with methane and steam mixtures in a 5 cm fluidized bed up to approximately 140 kPa. Results show an increased conversion of methane in the presence of steam (from 20–45% without steam to 60–95% up to a certain point, where performance decreases. Adding steam allows the methane conversion to carbon dioxide to be similar to the overall methane conversion; it also helped to prevent carbon accumulation from occurring on the particle. In general, the addition of steam to the feed gas increased the methane conversion. Furthermore, the addition of steam caused the steam methane reforming reaction to form more hydrogen and carbon monoxide at higher steam and methane concentrations, which was not completely converted at higher concentrations and

  8. Simulations of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Chemical Looping Combustion System Utilizing Gaseous Fuel; Simulation de la combustion en boucle chimique d'une charge gazeuse dans un lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalatkar, K.; Kuhlman, J. [West Virginia University, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Morgantown, WV, 26506 (United States); Mahalatkar, K. [ANSYS Inc., 3647 Collins Ferry Road Suite A, Morgantown, WV, 26505 (United States); Kuhlman, J.; Huckaby, E.D.; O' Brien, T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV, 26507 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been carried out for a complete circulating fluidized bed chemical looping combustor described in the literature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185). There have been extensive experimental studies in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC), however CFD simulations of this concept are quite limited. The CLC experiments that were simulated used methane as fuel. A 2-D continuum model was used to describe both the gas and solid phases. Detailed sub-models to account for fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction forces were included. Global models of fuel and carrier chemistry were utilized. The results obtained from CFD were compared with experimental outlet species concentrations, solid circulation rates, solid mass distribution in the reactors, and leakage and dilution rates. The transient CFD simulations provided a reasonable match with the reported experimental data. (authors)

  9. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  11. Chemical-looping combustion in a reverse-flow fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    A reverse-flow fixed bed reactor concept for CLC (chemical-looping combustion) is explored. The limitations of conventional fixed bed reactors, as applied to CLC, are overcome by reversing the gas flow direction periodically to enhance the mixing characteristics of the bed, thus improving oxygen carrier utilization and energy efficiency with respect to power generation. The reverse-flow reactor is simulated by a dusty-gas model and compared with an equivalent fixed bed reactor without flow reversal. Dynamic optimization is used to calculate conditions at which each reactor operates at maximum energy efficiency. Several cases studies illustrate the benefits of reverse-flow operation for the CLC with CuO and NiO oxygen carriers and methane and syngas fuels. The results show that periodic reversal of the flow during reduction improves the contact between the fuel and unconverted oxygen carrier, enabling the system to suppress unwanted catalytic reactions and axial temperature and conversion gradients. The operational scheme presented reduces the fluctuations of temperature during oxidation and increases the high-temperature heat produced by the process. CLC in a reverse-flow reactor has the potential to achieve higher energy efficiency than conventional fixed bed CLC reactors, when integrated with a downstream gas turbine of a combined cycle power plant. - Highlights: • Reverse-flow fixed bed CLC reactors for combined cycle power systems. • Dynamic optimization tunes operation of batch and transient CLC systems. • The reverse-flow CLC system provides stable turbine-ready gas stream. • Reverse-flow CLC fixed bed reactor has superior CO 2 capture and thermal efficiency.

  12. Use of Hopcalite derived Cu-Mn mixed oxide as Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Adánez-Rubio, Iñaki; Abad Secades, Alberto; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Adánez-Rubio, Imanol; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Garcia-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez Elorza, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) is an alternative Chemical Looping process for the combustion of solid fuels with inherent CO2 capture. The CLOU process needs a material as oxygen carrier with the ability to give gaseous O2 at suitable temperatures for solid fuel combustion, e.g. copper oxide and manganese oxide. In this work, treated commercial Carulite 300® was evaluated as oxygen carrier for CLOU. Carulite 300® is a hopcalite material composed of 29.2 wt.% CuO and 67.4 wt.% ...

  13. A reduced fidelity model for the rotary chemical looping combustion reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike O.

    2017-01-11

    The rotary chemical looping combustion reactor has great potential for efficient integration with CO capture-enabled energy conversion systems. In earlier studies, we described a one-dimensional rotary reactor model, and used it to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous reactor operation. Though this detailed model provides a high resolution representation of the rotary reactor performance, it is too computationally expensive for studies that require multiple model evaluations. Specifically, it is not ideal for system-level studies where the reactor is a single component in an energy conversion system. In this study, we present a reduced fidelity model (RFM) of the rotary reactor that reduces computational cost and determines an optimal combination of variables that satisfy reactor design requirements. Simulation results for copper, nickel and iron-based oxygen carriers show a four-order of magnitude reduction in simulation time, and reasonable prediction accuracy. Deviations from the detailed reference model predictions range from 3% to 20%, depending on oxygen carrier type and operating conditions. This study also demonstrates how the reduced model can be modified to deal with both optimization and design oriented problems. A parametric study using the reduced model is then applied to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal reactor design to changes in selected operating and kinetic parameters. These studies show that temperature and activation energy have a greater impact on optimal geometry than parameters like pressure or feed fuel fraction for the selected oxygen carrier materials.

  14. Viability of fuel switching of a gas-fired power plant operating in chemical looping combustion mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraja, R.J.; Jayanti, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLC (chemical looping combustion) promises to be a more efficient way of CO 2 capture than conventional oxy-fuel combustion or post-combustion absorption. While much work has been done on CLC in the past two decades, the issue of multi-fuel compatibility has not been addressed sufficiently, especially with regard to plant layout and reactor design. In the present work, it is shown that this is non-trivial in the case of a CLC-based power plant. The underlying factors have been examined in depth and design criteria for fuel compatibility have been formulated. Based on these, a layout has been developed for a power plant which can run with either natural gas or syngas without requiring equipment changes either on the steam side or on the furnace side. The layout accounts for the higher CO 2 compression costs associated with the use of syngas in place of natural gas. The ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiency, after accounting for the energy penalty of CO 2 compression, is 43.11% and 41.08%, when a supercritical steam cycle is used with natural gas and syngas, respectively. It is shown that fuel switching can be enabled by incorporating the compatibility conditions at the design stage itself. - Highlights: • Concept of fuel sensitivity of plant layout with carbon capture and sequestration. • Power plant layout for natural gas and syngas as fuels. • Criteria for compatibility of air and fuel reactors for dual fuel mode operation. • Layout of a plant for carbon-neutral or carbon negative power generation

  15. Coal gasification integration with solid oxide fuel cell and chemical looping combustion for high-efficiency power generation with inherent CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shiyi; Lior, Noam; Xiang, Wenguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power system integrating coal gasification with SOFC and chemical looping combustion. • The plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with complete CO 2 separation. • Energy and exergy analysis of the entire plant is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis shows a nearly constant power output when SOFC temperature and pressure vary. • NiO oxygen carrier shows higher plant efficiency than using Fe 2 O 3 and CuO. - Abstract: Since solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) produce electricity with high energy conversion efficiency, and chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process for fuel conversion with inherent CO 2 separation, a novel combined cycle integrating coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cell, and chemical looping combustion was configured and analyzed. A thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy was performed to investigate the performance of the integrated system and its sensitivity to major operating parameters. The major findings include that (1) the plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with ∼100% CO 2 capture for SOFC at 900 °C, 15 bar, fuel utilization factor = 0.85, fuel reactor temperature = 900 °C and air reactor temperature = 950 °C, using NiO as the oxygen carrier in the CLC unit. (2) In this parameter neighborhood the fuel utilization factor, the SOFC temperature and SOFC pressure have small effects on the plant net power efficiency because changes in pressure and temperature that increase the power generation by the SOFC tend to decrease the power generation by the gas turbine and steam cycle, and v.v.; an advantage of this system characteristic is that it maintains a nearly constant power output even when the temperature and pressure vary. (3) The largest exergy loss is in the gasification process, followed by those in the CO 2 compression and the SOFC. (4) Compared with the CLC Fe 2 O 3 and CuO oxygen carriers, NiO results in higher plant net power efficiency. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first

  16. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph

    2012-07-31

    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  17. Chemical looping reactor system design double loop circulating fluidized bed (DLCFB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischi, Aldo

    2012-05-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is continuously gaining more importance among the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. It is an unmixed combustion process which takes place in two steps. An effective way to realize CLC is to use two interconnected fluidized beds and a metallic powder circulating among them, acting as oxygen carrier. The metallic powder oxidizes at high temperature in one of the two reactors, the air reactor (AR). It reacts in a highly exothermic reaction with the oxygen of the injected fluidising air. Afterwards the particles are sent to the other reactor where the fuel is injected, the fuel reactor (FR). There, they transport heat and oxygen necessary for the reaction with the injected fuel to take place. At high temperatures, the particle's oxygen reacts with the fuel producing Co2 and steam, and the particles are ready to start the loop again. The overall reaction, the sum of the enthalpy changes of the oxygen carrier oxidation and reduction reactions, is the same as for the conventional combustion. Two are the key features, which make CLC promising both for costs and capture efficiency. First, the high inherent irreversibility of the conventional combustion is avoided because the energy is utilized stepwise. Second, the Co2 is intrinsically separated within the process; so there is in principle no need either of extra carbon capture devices or of expensive air separation units to produce oxygen for oxy-combustion. A lot of effort is taking place worldwide on the development of new chemical looping oxygen carrier particles, reactor systems and processes. The current work is focused on the reactor system: a new design is presented, for the construction of an atmospheric 150kWth prototype working with gaseous fuel and possibly with inexpensive oxygen carriers derived from industrial by-products or natural minerals. It consists of two circulating fluidized beds capable to operate in fast fluidization regime; this will increase the

  18. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  19. Analysis of thermally coupled chemical looping combustion-based power plants with carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. A number of CO2 capture-enabled power generation technologies have been proposed to address the negative environmental impact of CO2 emission. One important barrier to adopting these technologies is the associated energy penalty. Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) is an oxy-combustion technology that can significantly lower this penalty. It utilizes an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from air/oxidizing stream in an oxidation reactor to the fuel in a reduction reactor. Conventional CLC reactor designs employ two separate reactors, with metal/metal oxide particles circulating pneumatically in-between. One of the key limitations of these designs is the entropy generation due to reactor temperature difference, which lowers the cycle efficiency. Zhao et al. (Zhao et al., 2014; Zhao and Ghoniem, 2014) proposed a new CLC rotary reactor design, which overcomes this limitation. This reactor consists of a single rotating wheel with micro-channels designed to maintain thermal equilibrium between the fuel and air sides. This study uses three thermodynamic models of increasing fidelity to demonstrate that the internal thermal coupling in the rotary CLC reactor creates the potential for improved cycle efficiency. A theoretical availability model and an ideal thermodynamic cycle model are used to define the efficiency limits of CLC systems, illustrate the impact of reactor thermal coupling and discuss relevant criteria. An Aspen Plus® model of a regenerative CLC cycle is then used to show that this thermal coupling raises the cycle efficiency by up to 2% points. A parametric study shows that efficiency varies inversely with pressure, with a maximum of 51% at 3bar, 1000C and 60% at 4bar, 1400C. The efficiency increases with CO2 fraction at high pressure ratios but exhibits a slight inverse dependence at low pressure ratios. The parametric study shows that for low purge steam demand, steam generation improves exhaust heat recovery and increases efficiency

  20. Simulations of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Chemical Looping Combustion System Utilizing Gaseous Fuel Simulation de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une charge gazeuse dans un lit fluidisé circulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalatkar K.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD have been carried out for a complete circulating fluidized bed chemical looping combustor described in the literature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. There have been extensive experimental studies in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC, however CFD simulations of this concept are quite limited. The CLC experiments that were simulated used methane as fuel. A 2-D continuum model was used to describe both the gas and solid phases. Detailed sub-models to account for fluid-particle and particleparticle interaction forces were included. Global models of fuel and carrier chemistry were utilized. The results obtained from CFD were compared with experimental outlet species concentrations, solid circulation rates, solid mass distribution in the reactors, and leakage and dilution rates. The transient CFD simulations provided a reasonable match with the reported experimental data. Des études numériques de simulation des écoulements (CFD ont été réalisées sur un lit fluidisé circulant opérant en combustion par boucle chimique (CLC décrit dans la littérature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. Si de nombreuses études expérimentales ont été conduites pour étudier le procédé CLC, les études concernant la simulation des écoulements par CFD de ce concept sont très limitées. Le système de combustion en boucle chimique simulé dans cette étude concerne la combustion d’une charge gazeuse (méthane. Un modèle 2-D à deux phases continues a été utilisé pour décrire les phases gaz et solide avec des sous-modèles détaillés pour décrire les forces d’interactions entre fluideparticule et particule-particule. Des modèles cinétiques globaux ont été intégrés pour décrire les réactions de combustion et de transformation du matériau transporteur d’oxygène. Les résultats obtenus par CFD ont été comparés aux concentrations expérimentales mesurées des diff

  1. A reduced fidelity model for the rotary chemical looping combustion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike O.; Zhao, Zhenlong; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for developing a reduced fidelity rotary CLC reactor model is presented. • The reduced model determines optimal reactor configuration that meets design and operating requirements. • A 4-order of magnitude reduction in computational cost is achieved with good prediction accuracy. • Sensitivity studies demonstrate importance of accurate kinetic parameters for reactor optimization. - Abstract: The rotary chemical looping combustion reactor has great potential for efficient integration with CO_2 capture-enabled energy conversion systems. In earlier studies, we described a one-dimensional rotary reactor model, and used it to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous reactor operation. Though this detailed model provides a high resolution representation of the rotary reactor performance, it is too computationally expensive for studies that require multiple model evaluations. Specifically, it is not ideal for system-level studies where the reactor is a single component in an energy conversion system. In this study, we present a reduced fidelity model (RFM) of the rotary reactor that reduces computational cost and determines an optimal combination of variables that satisfy reactor design requirements. Simulation results for copper, nickel and iron-based oxygen carriers show a four-order of magnitude reduction in simulation time, and reasonable prediction accuracy. Deviations from the detailed reference model predictions range from 3% to 20%, depending on oxygen carrier type and operating conditions. This study also demonstrates how the reduced model can be modified to deal with both optimization and design oriented problems. A parametric study using the reduced model is then applied to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal reactor design to changes in selected operating and kinetic parameters. These studies show that temperature and activation energy have a greater impact on optimal geometry than parameters like pressure or feed fuel

  2. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion in a packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.; Van Noyen, J.; Larring, Y.; Mccann, M.; Pishahang, M.; Amini, S.; Ortiz, M.; Galluci, F.; Sint-Annaland, M.V.; Tournigant, D.; Louradour, E.; Snijkers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ilmenite-based oxygen carriers were developed for packed-bed chemical looping. • Addition of Mn_2O_3 increased mechanical strength and microstructure of the carriers. • Oxygen carriers were able to withstand creep and thermal cycling up to 1200 °C. • Ilmenite-based granules are a promising shape for packed-bed reactor conditions. - Abstract: Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising carbon capture technology where cyclic reduction and oxidation of a metallic oxide, which acts as a solid oxygen carrier, takes place. With this system, direct contact between air and fuel can be avoided, and so, a concentrated CO_2 stream is generated after condensation of the water in the exit gas stream. An interesting reactor system for CLC is a packed bed reactor as it can have a higher efficiency compared to a fluidized bed concept, but it requires other types of oxygen carrier particles. The particles must be larger to avoid a large pressure drop in the reactor and they must be mechanically strong to withstand the severe reactor conditions. Therefore, oxygen carriers in the shape of granules and based on the mineral ilmenite were subjected to thermal cycling and creep tests. The mechanical strength of the granules before and after testing was investigated by crush tests. In addition, the microstructure of these oxygen particles was studied to understand the relationship between the physical properties and the mechanical performance. It was found that the granules are a promising shape for a packed bed reactor as no severe degradation in strength was noticed upon thermal cycling and creep testing. Especially, the addition of Mn_2O_3 to the ilmenite, which leads to the formation of an iron–manganese oxide, seems to results in stronger granules than the other ilmenite-based granules.

  3. Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plants with Chemical Looping Reforming of Natural Gas and Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareq Mohd Nazir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gas-fired combined cycle power plant subjected to a pre-combustion CO2 capture method has been analysed under different design conditions and different heat integration options. The power plant configuration includes the chemical looping reforming (CLR of natural gas (NG, water gas shift (WGS process, CO2 capture and compression, and a hydrogen fuelled combined cycle to produce power. The process is denoted as a CLR-CC process. One of the main parameters that affects the performance of the process is the pressure for the CLR. The process is analysed at different design pressures for the CLR, i.e., 5, 10, 15, 18, 25 and 30 bar. It is observed that the net electrical efficiency increases with an increase in the design pressure in the CLR. Secondly, the type of steam generated from the cooling of process streams also effects the net electrical efficiency of the process. Out of the five different cases including the base case presented in this study, it is observed that the net electrical efficiency of CLR-CCs can be improved to 46.5% (lower heating value of NG basis by producing high-pressure steam through heat recovery from the pre-combustion process streams and sending it to the Heat Recovery Steam Generator in the power plant.

  4. Analysis of exergy loss of gasoline surrogate combustion process based on detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongjie; Yan, Feng; Yu, Hao; Su, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored the exergy loss sources of gasoline engine like combustion process. • The model combined non-equilibrium thermodynamics with detailed chemical kinetics. • We explored effects of initial conditions on exergy loss of combustion process. • Exergy loss decreases 15% of fuel chemical exergy by design of initial conditions. • Correspondingly, the second law efficiency increases from 38.9% to 68.9%. - Abstract: Chemical reaction is the most important source of combustion irreversibility in premixed conditions, but details of the exergy loss mechanisms have not been explored yet. In this study numerical analysis based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics combined with detailed chemical kinetics is conducted to explore the exergy loss mechanism of gasoline engine like combustion process which is simplified as constant volume combustion. The fuel is represented by the common accepted gasoline surrogates which consist of four components: iso-octane (57%), n-heptane (16%), toluene (23%), and 2-pentene (4%). We find that overall exergy loss is mainly composed of three peaks along combustion generated from chemical reactions in three stages, the conversion from large fuel molecules into small molecules (as Stage 1), the H 2 O 2 loop-related reactions (as Stage 2), and the violent oxidation reactions of CO, H, and O (as Stage 3). The effects of individual combustion boundaries, including temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio, oxygen concentration, on combustion exergy loss have been widely investigated. The combined effects of combustion boundaries on the total loss of gasoline surrogates are also investigated. We find that in a gasoline engine with a compression ratio of 10, the total loss can be reduced from 31.3% to 24.3% using lean combustion. The total loss can be further reduced to 22.4% by introducing exhaust gas recirculation and boosting the inlet charge. If the compression ratio is increased to 17, the total loss can be decreased to

  5. Off-design performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle: effects of ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jinling; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan

    2010-02-01

    The present work investigates the influence of ambient temperature on the steady-state off-design thermodynamic performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle. A sensitivity analysis of the CLC reactor system was conducted, which shows that the parameters that influence the temperatures of the CLC reactors most are the flow rate and temperature of air entering the air reactor. For the ambient temperature variation, three off-design control strategies have been assumed and compared: 1) without any Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) control, 2) IGV control to maintain air reactor temperature and 3) IGV control to maintain constant fuel reactor temperature, aside from fuel flow rate adjusting. Results indicate that, compared with the conventional combined cycle, due to the requirement of pressure balance at outlet of the two CLC reactors, CLC combined cycle shows completely different off-design thermodynamic characteristics regardless of the control strategy adopted. For the first control strategy, temperatures of the two CLC reactors both rise obviously as ambient temperature increases. IGV control adopted by the second and the third strategy has the effect to maintain one of the two reactors' temperatures at design condition when ambient temperature is above design point. Compare with the second strategy, the third would induce more severe decrease of efficiency and output power of the CLC combined cycle.

  6. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayham, Sanuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metaloxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections.

  7. Advanced closed loop combustion control of a LTC diesel engine based on in-cylinder pressure signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, A.P.; Laforgia, D.; Motz, S.; Saracino, R.; Wenzel, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have proposed an in-cylinder pressure-based closed loop combustion control. • We have tested the control on an engine at the test bench. • We have tested the control on the engine equipping a Euro 6-compliant vehicle. • The control is effective in increasing torque stability and reduce engine noise. - Abstract: The adoption of diesel LTC combustion concepts is widely recognised as a practical way to reduce simultaneously nitric oxides and particulate emission levels from diesel internal combustion engines. However, several challenges have to be faced up when implementing diesel LTC concepts in real application vehicles. In particular, achieving acceptable performance concerning the drivability comfort, in terms of output torque stability and combustion noise during engine dynamic transients, is generally a critical point. One of the most promising solutions to improve the LTC combustion operation lays in the exploitation of closed loop combustion control, based on in-cylinder pressure signals. In this work, the application of an in-cylinder pressure-based closed loop combustion control to a Euro 6-compliant demonstrator vehicle has been developed. The main challenges deriving from the control of the LTC combustion, directly affecting the engine/vehicle performance, have been analysed in detail. In order to overcome these drawbacks, a new control function, integrated into the base closed loop system, has been designed. The performance of the new function have been experimentally tested at the engine test bench. Results showed a significant enhancement of the LTC operation, in terms of both combustion stability and noise reduction during engine transients. The new function was also implemented on a real vehicle, thus proving the potential of the new control concept in realistic operating conditions

  8. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  9. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 1: Fundamentals and design methodology

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet, and depleted air and product streams at exit. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of micro-channels with oxygen carriers (OC) coated on the inner surface of the channel walls. In the CC application, the OC oxidizes the fuel while the channel is in the fuel zone to generate undiluted CO2, and is regenerated while the channel is in the air zone. In this two-part series, the effect of the reactor design parameters is evaluated and its performance with different OCs is compared. In Part 1, the design objectives and criteria are specified and the key parameters controlling the reactor performance are identified. The fundamental effects of the OC characteristics, the design parameters, and the operating conditions are studied. The design procedures are presented on the basis of the relative importance of each parameter, enabling a systematic methodology of selecting the design parameters and the operating conditions with different OCs. Part 2 presents the application of the methodology to the designs with the three commonly used OCs, i.e., nickel, copper, and iron, and compares the simulated performances of the designs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 2: Base Case and Sensitivity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2013-01-17

    Part 1 (10.1021/ef3014103) of this series describes a new rotary reactor for gas-fueled chemical-looping combustion (CLC), in which, a solid wheel with microchannels rotates between the reducing and oxidizing streams. The oxygen carrier (OC) coated on the surfaces of the channels periodically adsorbs oxygen from air and releases it to oxidize the fuel. A one-dimensional model is also developed in part 1 (10.1021/ef3014103). This paper presents the simulation results based on the base-case design parameters. The results indicate that both the fuel conversion efficiency and the carbon separation efficiency are close to unity. Because of the relatively low reduction rate of copper oxide, fuel conversion occurs gradually from the inlet to the exit. A total of 99.9% of the fuel is converted within 75% of the channel, leading to 25% redundant length near the exit, to ensure robustness. In the air sector, the OC is rapidly regenerated while consuming a large amount of oxygen from air. Velocity fluctuations are observed during the transition between sectors because of the complete reactions of OCs. The gas temperature increases monotonically from 823 to 1315 K, which is mainly determined by the solid temperature, whose variations with time are limited within 20 K. The overall energy in the solid phase is balanced between the reaction heat release, conduction, and convective cooling. In the sensitivity analysis, important input parameters are identified and varied around their base-case values. The resulting changes in the model-predicted performance revealed that the most important parameters are the reduction kinetics, the operating pressure, and the feed stream temperatures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant; Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-08-27

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO{sub 2} emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO{sub 2}. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO{sub 2} can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  12. Kinetics of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by methane (CH{sub 4}) during chemical looping combustion: A global mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Carpenter, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion which produces a sequestration ready concentrated CO{sub 2} stream in power production. A CLC system is composed with two reactors, an air and a fuel reactor. An oxygen carrier such as hematite (94%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) circulates between the reactors, which transfers the oxygen necessary for the fuel combustion from the air to the fuel. An important issue for the CLC process is the selection of metal oxide as oxygen carrier, since it must retain its reactivity through many cycles. The primary objective of this work is to develop a global mechanism with respective kinetics rate parameters such that CFD simulations can be performed for large systems. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in a continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (15, 20, and 35%) was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825{degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at the early stage of reaction and H{sub 2} and CO at the final stage of reactions. A kinetic model based on two parallel reactions, 1) first-order irreversible rate kinetics and 2) Avrami equation describing nucleation and growth processes, was applied to the reduction data. It was found, that the reaction rates for both reactions increase with, both, temperature and the methane concentration in inlet gas.

  13. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D

    2013-10-01

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite –5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  14. Gas-solids kinetics of CuO/Al2O3 as an oxygen carrier for high-pressure chemical looping processes : the influence of the total pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Pio Bordeje, M.A.; Gallucci, F.; Roghair, I.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide on alumina is often used as oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion owing to its very high reduction rates at lower temperatures and its very good mechanical and chemical stability at not too high temperatures. In this work, the redox kinetics of CuO/Al2O3 have been studied at

  15. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  16. Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2013-08-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to

  17. Simulation of the Fuel Reactor of a Coal-Fired Chemical Looping Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalatkar, Kartikeya; O'Brien, Thomas; Huckaby, E. David; Kuhlman, John

    2009-06-01

    Responsible carbon management (CM) will be required for the future utilization of coal for power generation. CO2 separation is the more costly component of CM, not sequestration. Most methods of capture require a costly process of gas separation to obtain a CO2-rich gas stream. However, recently a process termed Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) has been proposed, in which an oxygen-carrier is used to provide the oxygen for combustion. This process quite naturally generates a separate exhaust gas stream containing mainly H2O and CO2 but requires two reaction vessels, an Air Reactor (AR) and a Fuel Reactor (FR). The carrier (M for metal, the usual carrier) is oxidized in the AR. This highly exothermic process provides heat for power generation. The oxidized carrier (MO) is separated from this hot, vitiated air stream and transported to the FR where it oxidizes the hydrocarbon fuel, yielding an exhaust gas stream of mainly H2O and CO2. This process is usually slightly endothermic so that the carrier must also transport the necessary heat of reaction. The reduced carrier (M) is then returned to the air reactor for regeneration, hence the term "looping." The net chemical reaction and energy release is identical to that of conventional combustion of the fuel. However, CO2 separation is easily achieved, the only operational penalty being the slight pressure losses required to circulate the carrier. CLC requires many unit operations involving gas-solid or granular flow. To utilize coal in the fuel reactor, in either a moving bed or bubbling fluidized bed, the granular flow is especially critical. The solid coal fuel must be heated by the recycled metal oxide, driving off moisture and volatile material. The remaining char must be gasified by H2O (or CO2), which is recycled from the product stream. The gaseous product of these reactions must then contact the MO before leaving the bed to obtain complete conversion to H2O and CO2. Further, the reduced M particles must be

  18. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  19. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  20. The redox reaction kinetics of Sinai ore for chemical looping combustion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksepko, Ewelina; Babiński, Piotr; Nalbandian, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Redox reaction kinetics of Fe-Mn-rich Sinai ore was determined by TGA. • The most suitable model for reduction was D3, while R3 for oxidation. • Activation energies 35.3 and 16.70 kJ/mole were determined for reduction and oxidation. • Repetitive redox reactions favor the formation of spinel phases in Sinai ore. • Multiple redox cycles induce formation of extensive porosity of the particles. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the use of Sinai ore, a Fe–Mn-based ore from Egypt, as a low-cost oxygen carrier (OC) in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). The Sinai ore was selected because it possesses relatively high amounts of iron and manganese oxides. Furthermore, those oxides have low cost, very favorable environmental and thermodynamic properties for the CLC process. The performance of the Sinai ore as an OC in CLC was compared to that of ilmenite (Norway Tellnes mine), the most extensively studied naturally occurring Fe-based mineral. The kinetics of the reduction and oxidation reactions with the two minerals were studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Experiments were conducted under isothermal conditions, with multiple redox cycles, at temperatures between 750 and 950 °C. For the reduction and oxidation reactions, different concentrations of CH_4 (10–25 vol.%) and O_2 (5–20 vol.%) were applied, respectively. The kinetic parameters, such as the activation energy (E_a), pre-exponential factor (A_0), and reaction order (n), were determined for the redox reactions. Furthermore, models of the redox reactions were selected by means of a model-fitting method. For the Sinai ore, the D3 model (3-dimensional diffusion) was suitable for modeling reduction reaction kinetics. The calculated E_a was 35.3 kJ/mole, and the reaction order was determined to be approximately 0.76. The best fit for the oxidation reaction was obtained for the R3 model (shrinking core). The oxidation (regeneration) reaction E_a was equal to 16

  1. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Bayham, Samuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The proposed Clean Power Plan requires CO2 emission reductions of 30% by 2030 and further reductions are targeted by 2050. The current strategies to achieve the 30% reduction targets do not include options for coal. However, the 2016 Annual Energy Outlook suggests that coal will continue to provide more electricity than renewable sources for many regions of the country in 2035. Therefore, cost effective options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel power plants are vital in order to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets beyond 2030. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metal-oxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections. The solid material that is used to transport oxygen is called an oxygen carrier material. The cost, durability, and performance of this material is a key issue for the CLC technology. Researchers at the NETL R&IC have developed an oxygen carrier material that consists of copper, iron, and alumina. This material has been tested extensively using lab scale instruments such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical attrition (ASTM D5757), and small fluidized bed reactor tests. This report will describe the results from a realistic, circulating, proof-of-concept test that was

  2. Theoretical Adiabatic Temperature and Chemical Composition of Sodium Combustion Flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Sodium fire safety analysis requires fundamental combustion properties, e.g., heat of combustion, flame temperature, and composition. We developed the GENESYS code for a theoretical investigation of sodium combustion flame.Our principle conclusions on sodium combustion under atmospheric air conditions are (a) the maximum theoretical flame temperature is 1950 K, and it is not affected by the presence of moisture; the uppermost limiting factor is the chemical instability of the condensed sodium-oxide products under high temperature; (b) the main combustion product is liquid Na 2 O in dry air condition and liquid Na 2 O with gaseous NaOH in moist air; and (c) the chemical equilibrium prediction of the residual gaseous reactants in the flame is indispensable for sodium combustion modeling

  3. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO 2 emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO 2 emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO 2 . Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO 2 can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  4. The fate of sulphur in the Cu-based Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adánez-Rubio, Iñaki; Abad, Alberto; Gayán, Pilar; García-Labiano, Francisco; Diego, Luis F. de; Adánez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 15 h of CLOU experiments using lignite were carried out in a continuously unit. • The sulphur split between fuel- and air-reactor streams in the process was analysed. • Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exits as SO 2 at the fuel-reactor. • The use of a carbon separation system to reduce the S emission was evaluated. • Coals with high S content can be burnt in a CLOU process with a Cu-based material. - Abstract: The Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process is a type of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) technology that allows the combustion of solid fuels with air, as with conventional combustion, through the use of oxygen carriers that release gaseous oxygen inside the fuel reactor. The aim of this work was to study the behaviour of the sulphur present in fuel during CLOU combustion. Experiments using lignite as fuel were carried out in a continuously operated 1.5 kW th CLOU unit during more than 15 h. Particles containing 60 wt.% CuO on MgAl 2 O 4 , prepared by spray drying, were used as the oxygen carrier in the CLOU process. The temperature in the fuel reactor varied between 900 and 935 °C. CO 2 capture, combustion efficiency and the sulphur split between fuel and air reactor streams in the process were analysed. Complete combustion of the fuel to CO 2 and H 2 O was found in all experiments. Most of the sulphur introduced with the fuel exited as SO 2 at the fuel reactor outlet, although a small amount of SO 2 was measured at the air reactor outlet. The SO 2 concentration in the air reactor exit flow decreased as the temperature in the fuel reactor increased. A carbon capture efficiency of 97.6% was achieved at 935 °C, with 87.9 wt.% of the total sulphur exiting as SO 2 in the fuel reactor. Both the reactivity and oxygen transport capacity of the oxygen carrier were unaffected during operation with a high sulphur content fuel, and agglomeration problems did not occur. Predictions were calculated regarding the use

  5. Comparison of different chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion in an internal combustion engine configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Ennetta Ridha; Hamdi Mohamed; Said Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion were tested and compared using the internal combustion engine model of Chemkin 4.02 [1]: one-step global reaction mechanism, four-step mechanism, and the standard detailed scheme GRIMECH 3.0. This study shows good concordances, especially between the four-step and the detailed mechanisms in the prediction of temperature and main species profiles. But reduced schemes were incapables to predict pollutant emissions in an internal combustion...

  6. Effect of surface Fe-S hybrid structure on the activity of the perfect and reduced α-Fe2O3(001) for chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Qin, Wu; Wang, Jianye; Li, Junhao; Dong, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    Sulfurization of the gradually reduced Fe2O3 surfaces is inevitable while Fe2O3 is used as an oxygen carrier (OC) for coal chemical looping combustion (CLC), which will result in formation of Fe-S hybrid structure on the surfaces. The Fe-S hybrid structure will directly alter the reactivity of the surfaces. Therefore, detailed properties of Fe-S hybrid structure over the perfect and reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, and its effect on the interfacial interactions, including CO oxidization and decomposition on the surfaces, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The S atom prefers to chemically bind to Fe site with electron transfer from the surfaces to the S atom, and a deeper reduction of Fe2O3(001) leads to an increasing interaction between S and Fe. The formation of Fe-S hybrid structure alters the electronic properties of the gradually reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, promoting CO oxidation on the surfaces ranging from Fe2O3 to FeO, but depressing carbon deposition on the surfaces ranging from FeO to Fe. The sulfurized FeO acts as a watershed to realize relatively high CO oxidation rate and low carbon deposition. Results provided a fundamental understanding for controlling and optimizing the CLC processes.

  7. Combustion behaviour of ultra clean coal obtained by chemical demineralisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Rubiera; A. Arenillas; B. Arias; J.J. Pis; I. Suarez-Ruiz; K.M. Steel; J.W. Patrick [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    The increasing environmental concern caused by the use of fossil fuels and the concomitant need for improved combustion efficiency is leading to the development of new coal cleaning and utilisation processes. However, the benefits achieved by the removal of most mineral matter from coal either by physical or chemical methods can be annulled if poor coal combustibility characteristics are attained. In this work a high volatile bituminous coal with 6% ash content was subjected to chemical demineralisation via hydrofluoric and nitric acid leaching, the ash content of the clean coal was reduced to 0.3%. The original and treated coals were devolatilised in a drop tube furnace and the structure and morphology of the resultant chars was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopies. The reactivity characteristics of the chars were studied by isothermal combustion tests in air at different temperatures in a thermogravimetric system. Comparison of the combustion behaviour and pollutant emissions of both coals was conducted in a drop tube furnace operating at 1000{sup o}C. The results of this work indicate that the char obtained from the chemically treated coal presents very different structure, morphology and reactivity behaviour than the char from the original coal. The changes induced by the chemical treatment increased the combustion efficiency determined in the drop tube furnace, in fact higher burnout levels were obtained for the demineralised coal.

  8. Combustion driven NF3 chemical laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Stable, inert, non-corrosive nitrogen trifluoride gas and an inorganic source of hydrogen or deuterium gas are used as reactants in a compact combustion driven chemical laser. Nitrogen trifluoride is introduced into the combustion chamber of a chemical laser together with a hydrogen source selected from hydrogen, hydrazine, ammonia, acetylene, or benzene and the deuterated isotopes thereof and an optional inert diluent gas wherein the nitrogen trifluoride and the hydrogen- or deuterium-source gas hypergolically reacted upon heating to initiation temperature. Dissociated products from the reaction pass into a laser cavity at supersonic velocities where they are reacted with a source gas which is the isotopic opposite of the gas introduced into the combustor and which has been heated by regenerative cooling. Excited molecules of hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride produce laser radiation which leaves the optical resonator cavity transversely to the flow of gases

  9. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  10. Apparatus and method for solid fuel chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Weber, Justin M

    2015-04-14

    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method utilizing fuel reactor comprised of a fuel section, an oxygen carrier section, and a porous divider separating the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section. The porous divider allows fluid communication between the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section while preventing the migration of solids of a particular size. Maintaining particle segregation between the oxygen carrier section and the fuel section during solid fuel gasification and combustion processes allows gases generated in either section to participate in necessary reactions while greatly mitigating issues associated with mixture of the oxygen carrier with char or ash products. The apparatus and method may be utilized with an oxygen uncoupling oxygen carrier such as CuO, Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, or Co.sub.3O.sub.4, or utilized with a CO/H.sub.2 reducing oxygen carrier such as Fe.sub.2O.sub.3.

  11. Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for JP-8 Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Christopher J; Cannon, S. M; Mawid, M. A; Sekar, B

    2002-01-01

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, six different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for JP-8 combustion have been generated...

  12. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of 2-Methylhexane Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Samah Y.

    2015-03-30

    Accurate chemical kinetic combustion models of lightly branched alkanes (e.g., 2-methylalkanes) are important for investigating the combustion behavior of diesel, gasoline, and aviation fuels. Improving the fidelity of existing kinetic models is a necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracy in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and kinetic model for a gasoline surrogate fuel, 2-methylhexane, with recently published group values and rate rules. These update provides a better agreement with rapid compression machine measurements of ignition delay time, while also strengthening the fundamental basis of the model.

  13. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  14. Analysis of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet with indirect combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiang; Cheng, Kunlin; Zhang, Silong; Zhang, Duo; Bao, Wen; Han, Jiecai

    2016-01-01

    The working process of scramjet with regenerative cooling, which was actually the chemical recuperation process, was analyzed in view of energy cascade utilization. The indirect combustion was realized through pyrolysis reaction of fuel. The relative yields of thermal exergy obtained by indirect combustion have been predicted both assuming an ideal pyrolysis reaction and using the experimental results of thermal pyrolysis of n-decane. The results showed that the influence mechanism of regenerative cooling improved the scramjet engine performance by the energy cascade utilization, and the combustion process was supposed to be designed with the cooling process together to utilize the chemical energy of fuel in a more effective way. A maximum value of 11% of the relative yield was obtained with the ideal pyrolysis reaction while a value less than 3% existed in the thermal pyrolysis experiments because of the domination of chemical kinetics rather than chemical thermodynamics in the real experiments. In spite of the difference between the ideal and the present experimental results, the indirect combustion was prospective to achieve a better energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet if the pyrolysis reaction was further optimized. The results in this paper were beneficial for the performance optimization of a regenerative cooling scramjet. - Highlights: • A new method of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet. • 11% exergy loss is reduced by ideal pyrolysis reaction with indirect combustion. • Regenerative cooling with chemical recuperation can improve engine performance.

  15. Process integration of chemical looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling in a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, Maurizio; Peltola, Petteri; Bischi, Aldo; Ritvanen, Jouni; Hyppänen, Timo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature solid looping processes for CCS (carbon capture and storage) represent a class of promising technologies that enables CO2 capture with relatively low net efficiency penalties. The novel concept of the CLOU (Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling) process is based on a system of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors that operate at atmospheric pressure. In the fuel reactor, the capability of certain metal oxides to spontaneously release molecular oxygen at high temperatures is exploited to promote the direct conversion of coal in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. As a novel CO_2 capture concept, the CLOU process requires the optimization of design and operation parameters, which may substantially influence the total power plant performance. This study approaches this issue by performing joint simulations of CLOU reactors using a 1.5D model and a steam cycle power plant. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to investigate the performance and main technical issues that are related to the integration of a CLOU island in a state-of-the-art USC (ultra-supercritical) power plant. In particular, the effect of the key process parameters has been evaluated. Superior performance has been estimated for the power plant, with electrical efficiencies of approximately 42% and more than 95% CO2 avoided. - Highlights: • Process modeling and simulation of CLOU integrated in USC coal power plant carried out. • Comprehensive sensitivity analysis on Cu-based CLOU process performed. • Electrical efficiencies of 42% and more than 95% CO_2 avoided obtained. • Reactor size and operating conditions suitable for industrial applications.

  16. Hydrogen production from natural gas using an iron-based chemical looping technology: Thermodynamic simulations and process system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathe, Mandar V.; Empfield, Abbey; Na, Jing; Blair, Elena; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of iron-based chemical looping process using moving bed for H_2 from CH_4. • Auto-thermal operation design using thermodynamic rationale for 90% carbon capture. • Cold gas efficiency: 5% points higher than Steam Methane Reforming baseline case. • Net thermal efficiency: 6% points higher than Steam Methane Reforming baseline case. • Sensitivity analysis: Energy recovery scheme, operating pressure, no carbon capture. - Abstract: Hydrogen (H_2) is a secondary fuel derived from natural gas. Currently, H_2 serves as an important component in refining operations, fertilizer production, and is experiencing increased utilization in the transportation industry as a clean combustion fuel. In recent years, industry and academia have focused on developing technology that reduces carbon emissions. As a result, there has been an increase in the technological developments for producing H_2 from natural gas. These technologies aim to minimize the cost increment associated with clean energy production. The natural gas processing chemical looping technology, developed at The Ohio State University (OSU), employs an iron-based oxygen carrier and a novel gas–solid counter-current moving bed reactor for H_2 production. Specifically, this study examines the theoretical thermodynamic limits for full conversion of natural gas through iron-based oxygen carrier reactions with methane (CH_4), by utilizing simulations generated with ASPEN modeling software. This study initially investigates the reducer and the oxidizer thermodynamic phase diagrams then derives an optimal auto-thermal operating condition for the complete loop simulation. This complete loop simulation is initially normalized for analysis on the basis of one mole of carbon input from natural gas. The H_2 production rate is then scaled to match that of the baseline study, using a full-scale ASPEN simulation for computing cooling loads, water requirements and net parasitic energy consumption. The

  17. Chemical kinetics and combustion modelling with CFX 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P [AEA Technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics Services Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation describes some recent developments in combustion and kinetics models used in the CFX software of AEA Technology. Three topics are highlighted: the development of coupled solvers in a traditional `SIMPLE`-based CFD code, the use of detailed chemical kinetics mechanism via `look-up` tables and the application of CFD to large-scale multi-burner combustion plant. The aim is identify those physical approximations and numerical methods that are likely to be most useful in the future and those areas where further developments are required. (author) 6 refs.

  18. Chemical kinetics and combustion modelling with CFX 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P. [AEA Technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics Services Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation describes some recent developments in combustion and kinetics models used in the CFX software of AEA Technology. Three topics are highlighted: the development of coupled solvers in a traditional `SIMPLE`-based CFD code, the use of detailed chemical kinetics mechanism via `look-up` tables and the application of CFD to large-scale multi-burner combustion plant. The aim is identify those physical approximations and numerical methods that are likely to be most useful in the future and those areas where further developments are required. (author) 6 refs.

  19. Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Im Zeichen des Klimawandels haben sich führende Industrienationen geeinigt, ihre jeweiligen CO2-Emissionen signifikant zu senken. Diese Reduktionsziele können nur erreicht werden, wenn die Emissionen bei der Energieerzeugung deutlich gesenkt werden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das sogenannte Chemical Looping Verfahren untersucht, bei dem Energie aus fossilen Energieträgern gewonnen und das dabei entstehende CO2 abgeschieden wird. Die aktuelle Forschung im Bereich Chemical Looping konzentr...

  20. Nonlinear model predictive control for chemical looping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao; Lou, Xinsheng

    2017-08-22

    A control system for optimizing a chemical looping ("CL") plant includes a reduced order mathematical model ("ROM") that is designed by eliminating mathematical terms that have minimal effect on the outcome. A non-linear optimizer provides various inputs to the ROM and monitors the outputs to determine the optimum inputs that are then provided to the CL plant. An estimator estimates the values of various internal state variables of the CL plant. The system has one structure adapted to control a CL plant that only provides pressure measurements in the CL loops A and B, a second structure adapted to a CL plant that provides pressure measurements and solid levels in both loops A, and B, and a third structure adapted to control a CL plant that provides full information on internal state variables. A final structure provides a neural network NMPC controller to control operation of loops A and B.

  1. Method for the combustion of a gas, in fixed bed, with an oxidized solid and associated installation

    OpenAIRE

    Abanades García, Juan Carlos; Fernández García, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The present invention pertains to the field of the generation of energy from combustible gases, incorporating the capture of carbon dioxide for use or permanent storage and, specifically relates to cyclical methods of gas combustion with oxidized solids (chemical looping processes), in fixed bed, for solving the problem of controlling temperature in the combustion of gaseous fuels in fixed beds of metal oxides operating at high pressures, and also the associated installation.

  2. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  3. Solar chemical heat pipe in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.

    1990-06-01

    The work on the solar CO 2 reforming of methane was completed. A computer program was developed for simulation of the whole process. The calculations agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The work was written up and submitted for publication in Solar Energy. A methanator was built and tested first with a CO/H 2 mixture from cylinders, and then with the products of the solar reformer. The loop was then closed by recirculating the products from the methanator into the solar reformer. Nine closed loop cycles were performed, so far, with the same original gas mixture. This is the first time that a closed loop solar chemical heat pipe was operated anywhere in the world. (author). 13 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Three loop HTL perturbation theory at finite temperature and chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Andersen, Jens O. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Haque, Najmul; Mustafa, Munshi G. [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Su, Nan [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In this proceedings contribution we present a recent three-loop hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the thermodynamic potential for a finite temperature and chemical potential system of quarks and gluons. We compare the resulting pressure, trace anomaly, and diagonal/off-diagonal quark susceptibilities with lattice data. We show that there is good agreement between the three-loop HTLpt analytic result and available lattice data.

  5. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  6. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  7. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Kilpinen, P [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  8. Heat Integration of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction System for Carbon Sequestration Ready IGCC Process with Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2010-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been considered as an important alternative for efficient power systems that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of the technological schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion as post gasification techniques in order to produce sequestration-ready CO2 and potentially reduce the size of the gas turbine. However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be applied to obtain an optimal flowsheet. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). This approach allows a rigorous evaluation of the alternative designs and their combinations avoiding all the AEA simplifications (linearized models of heat exchangers). A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case. Highly influential parameters for the pos gasification technologies (i.e. CO/steam ratio, gasifier temperature and pressure) were calculated to obtain the minimum cost of energy while chemical looping parameters (oxidation and reduction temperature) were ensured to be satisfied.

  9. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  10. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  11. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  12. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  13. The pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of five typical biomass from Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C.Q.; Shan, L.; Yang, Y.P.; Zhang, J.J. [Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment; North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Security and Clean Energy Technology

    2008-07-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal gravimetric (DTG) methods were used to conduct pyrolysis and combustion tests of winter wheat, highland barley, sawdust, cattle manure, and sheep manure from Tibet. The aim of the study was to determine the combustion characteristics of biomass grown in regions with lower levels of atmospheric oxygen. A reaction kinetic model was used to determine kinetic parameters of the biomass samples. The study showed that oxygen concentrations did not influence activation energy. Combustion efficiency was influenced by the nitrogen dilute effect located in Tibet. The sawdust combustion analysis demonstrated that heat losses from flue gases were approximately 5 per cent higher when oxygen levels were 11 per cent, than when oxygen levels were 21 per cent. It was concluded that chemical looping processes can be used to improve efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts associated with biomass combustion in Tibet. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Effects of combustion efficiency on a Dual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsoysal, Osman Azmi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a Dual cycle model containing irreversibilities coming exclusively from expansion and compression processes. It is assumed that any fraction of the fuel's chemical energy can not fully released inside the engine because of the incomplete combustion. Utilizing the combustion efficiency is found to be more useful to realize the cycle feasibility. Amount of the released energy from fuel into the cylinder restricts the compression ratio. It is presented how the upper limit of compression ratio is evaluated by means of using some constraints for realizing a Dual cycle. Valid ranges of the constraints given in literature seriously affect the feasibility of cycle. Developed mathematical model leads to a qualitative understanding of how engine loss can be reduced. Thermal efficiency-work curves cannot have a closed loop shape because there is a close relationship between the fuel energy, air-fuel mass ratio, combustion efficiency, maximum cycle temperature and the heat losses into the cylinder wall. If these are all omitted, while heat losses are determined independently without establishing any relationship between the released fuel energy, the thermal efficiency versus work curves will just be able to have a closed loop shape. This is the original perspective and contribution of paper.

  15. Comparative study in LTC Combustion between a short HP EGR loop without cooler and a variable lift and duration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bression, Guillaume; Pacaud, Pierre; Soleri, Dominique; Cessou, Jerome [IFP (France); Azoulay, David [Renault Powertrain Div. (France); Lawrence, David [Mechadyne (United Kingdom); Doradoux, Laurent; Guerrassi, Noureddine [Delphi Diesel Systems (France)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reach future Diesel emission standards such as Euro 6 or Tier 2 Bin 5, NO{sub x} emissions need to be dramatically reduced. Advanced technologies and engine settings such as higher EGR rates, reduced compression ratio, EGR cooler and low-pressure EGR loop - depending on vehicle application - may help to reach this target whilst maintaining low CO{sub 2} emissions and fuel consumption. However, the resulting low combustion temperatures and the low air-fuel ratios lead to a significant increase in HC and CO emissions, especially during the start-up phase prior to catalyst light-off. Moreover, high levels of EGR make transient operation even more difficult. So HC-CO emissions and EGR transient operation represent two key issues that could limit the extension of this alternative combustion mode. Consequently, an in-depth investigation of a variable lift and duration (VLD) system was performed to overcome these problems on a 4-cylinder engine, which was also equipped with a dual HP-LP EGR loop. The VLD system tested in this paper produces a variable camshaft-operated exhaust valve re-opening, which is controlled by a hydraulic rotary actuator, ensuring quick and accurate regulation of the internal gas recirculation (IGR). By increasing gas temperature in the combustion chamber, this advanced technology allows us to reduce HC-CO emissions by 50% under 3 bar BMEP. Although efficient, this technology has to be compared with other solutions from a cost-to-value point of view. The aim of this paper is firstly to compare the double lift exhaust system with a short route high-performance EGR loop without cooler by quantifying their respective gains on steady state points of the NEDC cycle, then by evaluating their potential performances during transient conditions. With the short-route EGR, the potential in HC-CO emission reduction remains significant on a large scale of engine temperatures representative of engine warm up. However, the VLD system allows us to

  16. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  17. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  18. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  19. Process design of a hydrogen production plant from natural gas with CO2 capture based on a novel Ca/Cu chemical loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, I.; Romano, M.C.; Fernández, J.R.; Chiesa, P.; Murillo, R.; Abanades, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process design of a H 2 production plant based on a novel Ca/Cu looping process is presented. • CuO reduction with syngas provides energy for CaCO 3 calcination. • The effect of operating conditions on plant performance indexes is analysed. • Carbon capture efficiencies of around 94% are obtained. • Around 6% points of equivalent H 2 efficiency improvement on conventional reforming. - Abstract: A detailed and comprehensive design of a H 2 production plant based on a novel Ca/Cu chemical looping process is presented in this work. This H 2 production process is based on the sorption-enhanced reforming concept using natural gas together with a CaO/CaCO 3 chemical loop. A second Cu/CuO loop is incorporated to supply energy for the calcination of the CaCO 3 via the reduction of CuO with a fuel gas. A comprehensive energy integration description of the different gas streams available in the plant is provided to allow a thermodynamic assessment of the process and to highlight its advantages and drawbacks. Hydrogen equivalent efficiencies of up to 77% are feasible with this novel Ca/Cu looping process, using an active reforming catalyst based on Pt, high oxidation temperatures and moderate gas velocities in the fixed bed system, which are around 6% points above the efficiency of a reference H 2 production plant based on conventional steam reforming including CO 2 capture with MDEA. Non-converted carbon compounds in the reforming stage are removed as CO 2 in the calcination stage of the Ca/Cu looping process, which will be compressed and sent for storage. Carbon capture efficiencies of around 94% can be obtained with this Ca/Cu looping process, which are significantly higher than those obtained in the reference plant that uses MDEA absorption (around 85%). Additional advantages, such as its compact design and the use of cheaper materials compared to other commercial processes for H 2 production with CO 2 capture, confirm the potential of the Ca

  20. An optimized chemical kinetic mechanism for HCCI combustion of PRFs using multi-zone model and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshat, Elaheh; Saray, Rahim Khoshbakhti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new chemical kinetic mechanism for PRFs HCCI combustion is developed. • New mechanism optimization is performed using genetic algorithm and multi-zone model. • Engine-related combustion and performance parameters are predicted accurately. • Engine unburned HC and CO emissions are predicted by the model properly. - Abstract: Development of comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms is required for HCCI combustion and emissions prediction to be used in engine development. The main purpose of this study is development of a new chemical kinetic mechanism for primary reference fuels (PRFs) HCCI combustion, which can be applied to combustion models to predict in-cylinder pressure and exhaust CO and UHC emissions, accurately. Hence, a multi-zone model is developed for HCCI engine simulation. Two semi-detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms those are suitable for premixed combustion are used for n-heptane and iso-octane HCCI combustion simulation. The iso-octane mechanism contains 84 species and 484 reactions and the n-heptane mechanism contains 57 species and 296 reactions. A simple interaction between iso-octane and n-heptane is considered in new mechanism. The multi-zone model is validated using experimental data for pure n-heptane and iso-octane. A new mechanism is prepared by combination of these two mechanisms for n-heptane and iso-octane blended fuel, which includes 101 species and 594 reactions. New mechanism optimization is performed using genetic algorithm and multi-zone model. Mechanism contains low temperature heat release region, which decreases with increasing octane number. The results showed that the optimized chemical kinetic mechanism is capable of predicting engine-related combustion and performance parameters. Also after implementing the optimized mechanism, engine unburned HC and CO emissions predicted by the model are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data

  1. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another

  2. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  3. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC to solid fuels is being investigated at the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER with the aim of the development of a Pressurized Chemical Looping Combustion/Gasification (PCLC/G process for the generation of electricity from coal. One important aspect of the CLC of solid fuel is the understanding of the effect of ash on the reactivity of Oxygen Carriers (OCs. The effect of ash on the redox capabilities of two different iron oxide OCs and on their ability to oxidize coal char was studied. To determine the effect of ash on the reactivity and recycle of the OCs through multiple redox cycles, fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was used. These experiments were performed in a TGMS system using 500 mg of ash/OC mixtures containing different ash concentrations up to 75%. The reducing gas was composed of 10% H2, 15% CO, 20% CO2, and a balance of Ar and the oxidizing gas was 20% O2 in Ar. Oxidation/reductions were carried to near completion. The ash was found to contain OC activity related to inherent iron present in the ash confirmed by XRD. This resulted in increased weight gain/loss on oxidation/reduction. The rate of oxidation/reduction increased with ash concentration due to increased porosity of the OC/ash mixture and better access of the reactive gases to the OC target sites. The two OCs were then used to combust a beneficiated coal char in the TGMS with the only oxygen supplied by an iron oxide OC. The starting mixture was 10% char and 90% of one of two OCs studied. The spent material containing reduced OC and ash was re-oxidized and 10% more char was added for a second reduction of the OC and oxidation of the added char. This procedure was repeated for 5 cycles increasing the ash concentrations from 5 to 25% in the char/ash/OC mixture. Carbon removal was 92 to 97.8 and 97.3 to 99.7% for the two different iron oxide OCs tested. Ash was not detrimental to the

  4. Theoretical study of stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO{sub 2} during chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minjun; Liu, Jing, E-mail: liujing27@mail.hust.edu.cn; Shen, Fenghua; Cheng, Hao; Dai, Jinxin; Long, Yan

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO{sub 2} were studied by DFT. • ZrO{sub 2} provides a high resistance to CuO sintering. • ZrO{sub 2} promotes the activity of CuO for CO oxidation in fuel reactor. • The energy barriers are low enough for CuO/ZrO{sub 2} oxidation reaction in air reactor. - Abstract: The addition of inert support is important for the Cu-based oxygen carrier used in chemical looping combustion (CLC). The effects of the ZrO{sub 2} support on the stability and reactivity of Cu-based oxygen carrier were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). First, the sintering inhibition mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} that support active CuO was investigated. The optimized Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} structure showed a strong interaction occurred between the Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4} cluster and ZrO{sub 2}(1 0 1) surface. The interaction prevented the migration and agglomeration of CuO. Next, the adsorption of CO on Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} and the mechanism of the CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO were studied. CO mainly chemisorbed on the Cu site and ZrO{sub 2} acted as an electron donor in the adsorption system. The energy barrier of CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO (0.79 eV) was much lower than that of the pure CuO cluster (1.44 eV), indicating that ZrO{sub 2} had a positive effect on CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO. After CO was oxidized in the fuel reactor, the CuO was reduced into Cu. The adsorption of O{sub 2} on Cu{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and the most likely pathway of Cu{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2} were investigated. The adsorption of O{sub 2} was found a strong chemisorption behavior. The energy barriers were low enough for the Cu-based oxygen carrier oxidation reaction.

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a 10 kWth Unit Combustion de charge solide en boucle chimique dans une unité de 10 kWth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berguerand N.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on previous results from batch experiments which were conducted in a 10 kWth chemical looping combustor for solid fuels using ilmenite, an iron titanium oxide, as the oxygen carrier with two solid fuels: a Mexican petroleum coke and a South African bituminous coal. These experiments involved testing at different fuel reactor temperatures, up to 1030°C, and different particle circulation rates between the air and fuel reactors. Previous results enabled modeling of the reactor system. In particular, it was possible to derive a correlation between measured operational data and actual circulation mass flow, as well as a model that describes the carbon capture efficiency as a function of the residence time and the char reactivity. Moreover, the kinetics of char conversion could be modeled and results showed good agreement with experimental values. The purpose of the present study was to complete these results by developing a model to predict the conversion of syngas with ilmenite in the fuel reactor. Here, kinetic data from investigations of ilmenite in TGA and batch fluidized bed reactors were used. Results were compared with the actual conversions during operation in this 10 kWth unit. Cette étude est basée sur des résultats antérieurs obtenus dans une unité de combustion de charges solides en boucle chimique d’une puissance de 10 kWth. Le transporteur d’oxygène utilisé est de l’ilménite, un minerai de fer et de titane, et les charges solides étudiées sont, d’une part, un coke de pétrole mexicain et, d’autre part, un charbon bitumineux sud africain. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été obtenus à des températures allant jusqu’à 1030°C avec différents débits de transporteur d’oxygène entre les réacteurs d’oxydation et de réduction. La modélisation de la combustion en boucle chimique de charges solides a déjà permis d’établir une corrélation entre le débit de circulation de

  6. Prediction of Combustion Instability with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of combustion instability. The mechanisms used for methane oxidation are the GRI 1.2 set that comprises of 32 chemical species and 177 reactions. All...with a single step global reaction and the GRI -1.2 kinetics mechanism which contains 177 reactions. The paper is organized as follows, Section II...flame speeds10. GRI -1.2 is a more complete set of hydrocarbon reactions consisting of 177 reactions involving 32 species and was optimized for natural

  7. Chemical Distances for Percolation of Planar Gaussian Free Fields and Critical Random Walk Loop Soups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-06-01

    We initiate the study on chemical distances of percolation clusters for level sets of two-dimensional discrete Gaussian free fields as well as loop clusters generated by two-dimensional random walk loop soups. One of our results states that the chemical distance between two macroscopic annuli away from the boundary for the random walk loop soup at the critical intensity is of dimension 1 with positive probability. Our proof method is based on an interesting combination of a theorem of Makarov, isomorphism theory, and an entropic repulsion estimate for Gaussian free fields in the presence of a hard wall.

  8. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  9. Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description Oxydation et réduction des minerais de fer-titane dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Hoed P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ilmenite (FeTiO3 is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes. Its reduction and oxidation are described by the system Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-Ti2O3. The phase diagram at 1 000°C, presented here, offers a useful tool for predicting reactions and their products. We see that Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite and TiO2 (rutile form a stable phase assemblage following the oxidation of FeTiO3 (ilmenite in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe2TiO5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10-15.5atm stabilizes Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes. We speculate that the reduction of Fe-Ti oxides in several practical instances does not reach completion (and equilibrium under the imposed atmospheres operating in fuel reactors. L’ilménite (FeTiO3 est considéré comme un transporteur d’oxygène potentiel pour les procédés en boucle chimique. Ses mécanismes de réduction et d’oxydation sont décrits à travers le système Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-TiO3. Le diagramme de phase à 1 000°C, présenté ici, est un outil utile pour prédire les réactions et les produits. Nous constatons que Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite et TiO2 (rutile forment un assemblage de phase stable après oxydation de l’ilménite (FeTiO3 dans l’air. La réduction subséquente de Fe2TiO5 à la pression partielle de 10−15,5atm stabilise vers Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, une solution solide d’ilménite. Une réduction plus poussée va produire du fer métallique et compromettre l’intégrité du transporteur d’oxygène dans la boucle chimique. Il est probable que la réduction des oxydes Fe-Ti ne soit pas, en pratique, complète et n’atteigne pas l’équilibre dans les conditions rencontrées en opération dans les réacteurs de réduction.

  10. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers

  11. CSP-based chemical kinetics mechanisms simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion: An application to hybrid rocket propulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Ciottoli, Pietro P.

    2017-08-14

    A set of simplified chemical kinetics mechanisms for hybrid rocket applications using gaseous oxygen (GOX) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is proposed. The starting point is a 561-species, 2538-reactions, detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for hydrocarbon combustion. This mechanism is used for predictions of the oxidation of butadiene, the primary HTPB pyrolysis product. A Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) based simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion is proposed. The simplification algorithm is fed with the steady-solutions of classical flamelet equations, these being representative of the non-premixed nature of the combustion processes characterizing a hybrid rocket combustion chamber. The adopted flamelet steady-state solutions are obtained employing pure butadiene and gaseous oxygen as fuel and oxidizer boundary conditions, respectively, for a range of imposed values of strain rate and background pressure. Three simplified chemical mechanisms, each comprising less than 20 species, are obtained for three different pressure values, 3, 17, and 36 bar, selected in accordance with an experimental test campaign of lab-scale hybrid rocket static firings. Finally, a comprehensive strategy is shown to provide simplified mechanisms capable of reproducing the main flame features in the whole pressure range considered.

  12. Model experiments on simulation of the WWER water-chemical conditions at loop facilities of the MIR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderskaya, O.S.; Zotov, E.A.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Ovchinnikov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on simulation of the WWER type reactors water-chemical conditions have been started at the State Scientific Center RIAR. These experiments are being conducted at the multi-loop research MIR reactor at the PVK-2 loop facility. The dosage stand was created. It allows introduction of boric acid, potassium and lithium hydroxides, ammonia solutions and gaseous hydrogen. Corrosion tests of the Russian E-635 and E-110 alloys are being conducted at the PVK-2 loop under the WWER water-chemical conditions. If necessary, fuel elements are periodically extracted from the reactor to perform visual examination, to measure their length, diameter, to remove the deposits from the claddings, to measure the burnup and to distribute the fission products over the fuel element by gamma-spectrometry. The chemical analytical 'on line' equipment produced by the ORBISPHERE Laboratory (Switzerland) will be commissioned in the nearest future to measure concentration of the dissolved hydrogen and oxygen as well as pH and specific conductivity. The objective of the report is to familiarize the participants of the IAEA Technical Committee with the capabilities of performing the model water-chemical experiments under the MIR reactor loop facility conditions. (author)

  13. Combustion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  14. Chemical source characterization of residential wood combustion emissions in Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Goulet, J.M.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of residential wood combustion particulate emissions was determined for fireplaces and woodstoves. Burn rates, burn patterns, wood burning appliances, and cordwood types characteristic of Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California, were used during sample collection. Samples were collected using a dilution/cooling system to ensure that condensible compounds were captured. Analyses for 44 chemical species were conducted. Source profiles for use in chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling were calculated from the analytical data. The principal chemical species comprising the profiles were organic compounds and elemental carbon. The minor chemical species were sulfur, chlorine, potassium, sodium, calcium, zinc, nitrate, and ammonium. Virtually all potassium was in a water-soluble form, and sulfur emissions between fireplaces and woodstoves were noted. Area-specific source profiles for fireplaces, woodstoves, and overall residential wood combustion are presented

  15. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1997-01-01

    This Third Edition of Glassman's classic text clearly defines the role of chemistry, physics, and fluid mechanics as applied to the complex topic of combustion. Glassman's insightful introductory text emphasizes underlying physical and chemical principles, and encompasses engine technology, fire safety, materials synthesis, detonation phenomena, hydrocarbon fuel oxidation mechanisms, and environmental considerations. Combustion has been rewritten to integrate the text, figures, and appendixes, detailing available combustion codes, making it not only an excellent introductory text but also an important reference source for professionals in the field. Key Features * Explains complex combustion phenomena with physical insight rather than extensive mathematics * Clarifies postulates in the text using extensive computational results in figures * Lists modern combustion programs indicating usage and availability * Relates combustion concepts to practical applications.

  16. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilloux, L.

    1998-01-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  17. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Xu, Dikai [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hsieh, Tien-Lin [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Simpson, James [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Statnick, Robert [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Tong, Andrew [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  19. Chemical Kinetic Study of Nitrogen Oxides Formation Trends in Biodiesel Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in increased NOx emissions; this presents a barrier to the widespread use of biodiesel. The origins of this phenomenon were investigated using the chemical kinetics simulation tool: CHEMKIN-2 and the CFD KIVA3V code, which was modified to account for the physical properties of biodiesel and to incorporate semidetailed mechanisms for its combustion and the formation of emissions. Parametric ϕ-T maps and 3D engine simulations were used to assess the impact of using oxygen-containing fuels on the rate of NO formation. It was found that using oxygen-containing fuels allows more O2 molecules to present in the engine cylinder during the combustion of biodiesel, and this may be the cause of the observed increase in NO emissions.

  20. Use of catalytic reforming to aid natural gas HCCI combustion in engines: experimental and modelling results of open-loop fuel reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucheret, S.; Wyszynski, M.L.; Lehrle, R.S. [Future Power Systems Group, Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Golunski, S. [Johnson Matthey, Technology Centre, Blount' s Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Xu, H. [Jaguar Land Rover Research, Jaguar Land Rover W/2/021, Abbey Road, Coventry CV3 4LF (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process to deliver drastically reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and improved fuel economy from internal combustion engines is well known. The process is, however, difficult to initiate and control, especially when methane or natural gas are used as fuel. To aid the HCCI combustion of natural gas, hydrogen addition has been successfully used in this study. This hydrogen can be obtained from on-line reforming of natural gas. Methane reforming is achieved here by reaction with engine exhaust gas and air in a small scale monolith catalytic reactor. The benchmark quantity of H{sub 2} required to enhance the feasibility and engine load range of HCCI combustion is 10%. For low temperature engine exhaust gas, typical for HCCI engine operating conditions, experiments show that additional air is needed to produce this quantity. Experimental results from an open-loop fuel exhaust gas reforming system are compared with two different models of basic thermodynamic equilibria calculations. At the low reactor inlet temperatures needed for the HCCI application (approx. 400 deg C) the simplified three-reaction thermodynamic equilibrium model is in broad agreement with experimental results, while for medium (550-650 deg C) inlet temperature reforming with extra air added, the high hydrogen yields predicted from the multi-component equilibrium model are difficult to achieve in a practical reformer. (author)

  1. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    2008-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, a topic generally taught at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in most mechanical engineering programs, and many chemical engineering programs, is the study of rapid energy and mass transfer usually through the common physical phenomena of flame oxidation. It covers the physics and chemistry of this process and the engineering applications-from the generation of power such as the internal combustion automobile engine to the gas turbine engine. Renewed concerns about energy efficiency and fuel costs, along with continued concerns over toxic and particulate emissions have kept the interest in this vital area of engineering high and brought about new developments in both fundamental knowledge of flame and combustion physics as well as new technologies for flame and fuel control. *New chapter on new combustion concepts and technologies, including discussion on nanotechnology as related to combustion, as well as microgravity combustion, microcombustion, and catalytic combustion-all ...

  2. The chemical transformation of calcium in Shenhua coal during combustion in a muffle furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Sida [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering; Shu, Xinqian [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The chemical reaction characteristics of calcium in three samples of Shenhua coal, i.e. raw sample, hydrochloric acid washed sample and hydrochloric acid washed light fraction, during combustion in a muffle furnace have been investigated in this paper. Ca is bound by calcite and organic matter in Shenhua coal. X ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis has been conducted to these samples' combustion products obtained by heating at different temperatures. It has been found that the organically-bound calcium could easily react with clays and transform into gehlenite and anorthite partially if combusted under 815 C, whilst the excluded minerals promoted the conversion of gehlenite to anorthite. Calcite in Shenhua coal decomposed into calcium oxide and partially transformed into calcium sulfate under 815 C, and formed gehlenite and anorthite under 1,050 C. Calcite and other HCl-dissolved minerals in Shenhua coal were responsible mainly for the characteristic that the clay minerals in Shenhua coal hardly became mullite during combustion.

  3. Investigation of hydrogen generation in a three reactor chemical looping reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohammed N.; Shamim, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-reactor based chemical looping reforming system for hydrogen production. • Investigation of operating parameters using a system-level model. • Optimum operating conditions for hydrogen production are identified. • Different operating parameters affect the reactor temperatures differently. - Abstract: Chemical looping reforming (CLR) is a relatively new method to produce hydrogen (H_2) and is also used as an energy conversion method for solid, liquid or gaseous fuels. There are various advantages of this method such as inherent carbon dioxide (CO_2) capture, minimal NOx emissions and the H_2 production. In this process, there is no direct contact between the fuel and oxidizer. This method utilizes oxygen from an oxygen carrier which may be a transition metal. The idea is to split the combustion process into three separate sub-processes by employing three separate reactors: air reactor where the oxygen carrier is oxidized by air, fuel reactor where natural gas is oxidized to produce a stream of CO_2 and H_2O and steam reactor where the steam is reduced to produce H_2. In this study, a thermodynamic model with iron oxides as oxygen carrier has been developed using Aspen Plus by employing conservation of mass and energy for all the components of the CLR system. The developed model was employed to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as mass flow rates of air, fuel, steam and oxygen carrier and fraction of inert material on H_2 and CO_2 production and key reactor temperatures. The results show that the H_2 production increases with the increase in air, fuel and steam flow rates up to a certain limit and stays constant for higher flow rates. The CO_2 production follows a similar trend. Similarly, the H_2 production also increases with the increase in oxide flow rate and fraction of inert material up to a particular value, but then decrease for higher oxide flow rates and inert fractions. Reactor temperatures were also

  4. Experimental validation of combustion control with multi-pulse fuel injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Velayutham, S.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Closed-loop combustion control helps to achieve precise fuel injection and robust engine performance against disturbances. The controller design complexity increases greatly with larger number of fuel injection pulses due to the coupled influence of changing individual pulse on the combustion

  5. Robust Multivariable Feedback Control of Natural Gas-Diesel RCCI Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrajuana, A.; Bekdemir, C.; Luo, X.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced combustion concepts such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) demonstrate very high thermal efficiencies combined with ultra low NOx emissions. As RCCI is sensitive for operating conditions, closed-loop control is a crucial enabler for stable and robust combustion. The

  6. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  7. An Integrated Photoelectrochemical-Chemical Loop for Solar-Driven Overall Splitting of Hydrogen Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Han, Jingfeng; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abundant and toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from industry and nature has been traditionally considered a liability. However, it represents a potential resource if valuable H-2 and elemental sulfur can be simultaneously extracted through a H2S splitting reaction. Herein a photochemical-chemical loop...... simulated solar light. This new conceptual design will not only provide a possible route for using solar energy to convert H2S into valuable resources, but also sheds light on some challenging photochemical reactions such as CH4 activation and CO2 reduction.......Abundant and toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from industry and nature has been traditionally considered a liability. However, it represents a potential resource if valuable H-2 and elemental sulfur can be simultaneously extracted through a H2S splitting reaction. Herein a photochemical-chemical loop...... linked by redox couples such as Fe2+/Fe3+ and I-/I-3(-) for photoelectrochemical H-2 production and H2S chemical absorption redox reactions are reported. Using functionalized Si as photoelectrodes, H2S was successfully split into elemental sulfur and H-2 with high stability and selectivity under...

  8. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have been investigated in single cylinder engine running in GCI combustion mode at part-load conditions both experimentally and numerically. The studied fuels are: Saudi Aramco light naphtha (SALN) (Research octane number (RON) = 62 and final boiling point (FBP) = 91 °C), Haltermann straight run naphtha (HSRN) (RON = 60 and FBP = 140 °C) and a primary reference fuel (PRF65) (RON = 65 and FBP = 99 °C). Injection sweeps, where the start of injection (SOI) is changed between −60 and −11 CAD aTDC, have been performed for the three fuels. Full cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were executed using PRFs as chemical surrogates for the naphtha fuels. Physical surrogates based on the evaporation characteristics of the naphtha streams have been developed and their properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. It was found that the three fuels have similar combustion phasings and emissions at the conditions tested in this work with minor differences at SOI earlier than −30 CAD aTDC. These trends were successfully reproduced by the CFD calculations. The chemical and physical effects were further investigated numerically. It was found that the physical characteristics of the fuel significantly affect the combustion for injections earlier than −30 CAD aTDC because of the low evaporation rates of the fuel because of the higher boiling temperature of the fuel and the colder in-cylinder air during injection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  10. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  11. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xia Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the air-staged combustion technology is one of the key technologies with low investment running costs and high emission reduction efficiency for the pulverized boiler, it is important to reveal the chemical reaction kinetics mechanism for developing various technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction emissions. At the present work, a three-dimensional mesh model of the large-scale four corner tangentially fired boiler furnace is established with the GAMBIT pre-processing of the FLUENT software. The partial turbulent premixed and diffusion flame was simulated for the air-staged combustion processing. Parameters distributions for the air-staged and no the air-staged were obtained, including in-furnace flow field, temperature field and nitrogen oxide concentration field. The results show that the air-staged has more regular velocity field, higher velocity of flue gas, higher turbulence intensity and more uniform temperature of flue gas. In addition, a lower negative pressure zone and lower O2 concentration zone is formed in the main combustion zone, which is conducive to the NO of fuel type reduced to N2, enhanced the effect of NOx reduction. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th November 2015; Revised: 14th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016  How to Cite: Zhang, J.X., Zhang, J.F. (2016. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 100-108. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108

  12. Perturbative study of the QCD phase diagram for heavy quarks at nonzero chemical potential: Two-loop corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelger, J.; Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.

    2018-04-01

    We extend a previous investigation [U. Reinosa et al., Phys. Rev. D 92, 025021 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.025021] of the QCD phase diagram with heavy quarks in the context of background field methods by including the two-loop corrections to the background field effective potential. The nonperturbative dynamics in the pure-gauge sector is modeled by a phenomenological gluon mass term in the Landau-DeWitt gauge-fixed action, which results in an improved perturbative expansion. We investigate the phase diagram at nonzero temperature and (real or imaginary) chemical potential. Two-loop corrections yield an improved agreement with lattice data as compared to the leading-order results. We also compare with the results of nonperturbative continuum approaches. We further study the equation of state as well as the thermodynamic stability of the system at two-loop order. Finally, using simple thermodynamic arguments, we show that the behavior of the Polyakov loops as functions of the chemical potential complies with their interpretation in terms of quark and antiquark free energies.

  13. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  14. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  15. Numerical investigation of a straw combustion boiler – Part I: Modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernbecher Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a European project, a straw combustion boiler in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle is developed. One objective of the project is the enhancement of the combustion chamber by numerical methods. A comprehensive simulation of the combustion chamber is prepared, which contains the necessary submodels for the thermo-chemical conversion of straw and for the homogeneous gas phase reactions. Part I introduces the modelling approach for the thermal decomposition of the biomass inside the fuel bed, whereas part II deals with the simulation of the gas phase reactions in the freeboard.

  16. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  17. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for NOx emission prediction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshfar, Ehsan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Glarborg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Because of the complex composition of biomass, the chemical mechanism contains many different species and therefore a large number of reactions. Although biomass gas‐phase combustion is fairly well researched and understood, the proposed mechanisms are still complex and need very long computational...... time and powerful hardware resources. A reduction of the mechanism for biomass volatile oxidation has therefore been performed to avoid these difficulties. The selected detailed mechanism in this study contains 81 species and 703 elementary reactions. Necessity analysis is used to determine which...... reactions and chemical species, that is, 35 species and 198 reactions, corresponding to 72% reduction in the number of reactions and, therefore, improving the computational time considerably. Yet, the model based on the reduced mechanism predicts correctly concentrations of NOx and CO that are essentially...

  18. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Robers [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ju, Yiguang [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  19. Removal of CO2 in closed loop off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, M.K.; Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A closed loop test system has been installed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to demonstrate off-gas treatment, absorption, and purification systems to be used for incineration and vitrification of hazardous and mixed waste. Closed loop systems can virtually eliminate the potential for release of hazardous or toxic materials to the atmosphere during both normal and upset conditions. In initial tests, a 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW thermal) combustor was operated in an open loop to produce a combustion product gas. The CO 2 in these tests was removed by reaction with a fluidized bed of time to produce CaCO 3 . Subsequently, recirculation system was installed to allow closed loop operation with the addition of oxygen to the recycle stream to support combustion. Commercially marketed technologies for removal of CO 2 can be adapted for use on closed loop incineration systems. The paper also describes the Absorbent Solution Treatment (AST) process, based on modifications to commercially demonstrated gas purification technologies. In this process, a side loop system is added to the main loop for removing CO 2 in scrubbing towers using aqueous-based CO 2 absorbents. The remaining gas is returned to the incinerator with oxygen addition. The absorbent is regenerated by driving off the CO 2 and water vapor, which are released to the atmosphere. Contaminants are either recycled for further treatment or form precipitates which are removed during the purification and regeneration process. There are no direct releases of gases or particulates to the environment. The CO 2 and water vapor go through two changes of state before release, effectively separating these combustion products from contaminants released during incineration. The AST process can accept a wide range of waste streams. The system may be retrofitted to existing Facilities or included in the designs for new installations

  20. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-01-15

    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.

    2005-12-15

    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  2. On mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of chemical kinetics in turbulent lean premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, Bjorn

    2011-07-01

    This thesis investigates turbulent reacting lean premixed flows with detailed treatment of the chemistry. First, the fundamental equations which govern laminar and turbulent reacting flows are presented. A perfectly stirred reactor numerical code is developed to investigate the role of unmixedness and chemical kinetics in driving combustion instabilities. This includes both global single-step and detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. The single-step mechanisms predict to some degree a similar behavior as the detailed mechanisms. However, it is shown that simple mechanisms can by themselves introduce instabilities. Magnussens Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) for turbulent combustion is implemented in the open source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM R for treatment of both fast and detailed chemistry. RANS turbulence models account for the turbulent compressible flow. A database of pre-calculated chemical time scales, which contains the influence of chemical kinetics, is coupled to EDC with fast chemistry to account for local extinction in both diffusion and premixed flames. Results are compared to fast and detailed chemistry calculations. The inclusion of the database shows significantly better results than the fast chemistry calculations while having a comparably small computational cost. Numerical simulations of four piloted lean premixed jet flames falling into the 'well stirred reactor/broken reaction zones' regime, with strong finite-rate chemistry effects, are performed. Measured and predicted scalars compare well for the two jets with the lowest velocities. The two jets with the highest velocities experience extinction and reignition, and the simulations are able to capture the decrease and increase of the OH mass fractions, but the peak values are higher than in the experiments. Also numerical simulations of a lean premixed lifted jet flame with high sensitivity to turbulence modeling and chemical kinetics are performed. Limitations of the applied turbulence and

  3. Development and validation of double and single Wiebe function for multi-injection mode Diesel engine combustion modelling for hardware-in-the-loop applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroteaux, Fadila; Saad, Charbel; Aubertin, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling of Diesel engine combustion with multi-injection mode was conducted. • Double and single Wiebe correlations for pilot, main and post combustion processes were calibrated. • Ignition delay time correlations have been developed and calibrated using experimental data for each injection. • The complete in-cylinder model has been applied successfully to real time simulations on HiL test bed. - Abstract: The improvement of Diesel engine performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions has a huge impact on management system and diagnostic procedure. Validation and testing of engine performances can benefit from the use of theoretical models, for the reduction of development time and costs. Hardware in the Loop (HiL) test bench is a suitable way to achieve these objectives. However, the increasing complexity of management systems rises challenges for the development of very reduced physical models able to run in real time applications. This paper presents an extension of a previously developed phenomenological Diesel combustion model suitable for real time applications on a HiL test bench. In the earlier study, the modelling efforts have been targeted at high engine speeds with a very short computational time window, and where the engine operates with single injection. In the present work, a modelling of in-cylinder processes at low and medium engine speeds with multi-injection is performed. In order to reach an adequate computational time, the combustion progress during the pilot and main injection periods has been treated through a double Wiebe function, while the post combustion period has required a single Wiebe function. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against experimental data. The use of the developed correlations of Wiebe coefficients and ignition delay times for each combustion phase, included in the in-cylinder crank angle global model, is applied for the prediction

  4. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  5. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  6. Morphology evolution and nanostructure of chemical looping transition metal oxide materials upon redox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lang; Cheng, Zhuo; Guo, Mengqing; Fan, Jonathan A.; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal are heavily used in chemical looping technologies because of their high oxygen carrying capacity and high thermal reactivity. These oxygen activities result in the oxide formation and oxygen vacancy formation that affect the nanoscale crystal phase and morphology within these materials and their subsequent bulk chemical behavior. In this study, two selected earlier transition metals manganese and cobalt as well as two selected later transition metals copper and nickel that are important to chemical looping reactions are investigated when they undergo cyclic redox reactions. We found Co microparticles exhibited increased CoO impurity presence when oxidized to Co_3O_4 upon cyclic oxidation; CuO redox cycles prefer to be limited to a reduced form of Cu_2O and an oxidized form of CuO; Mn microparticles were oxidized to a mixed phases of MnO and Mn_3O_4, which causes delamination during oxidation. For Ni microparticles, a dense surface were observed during the redox reaction. The atomistic thermodynamics methods and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to elucidate the effect of oxygen dissociation and migration on the morphological evolution of nanostructures during the redox processes. Our results indicate that the earlier transition metals (Mn and Co) tend to have stronger interaction with O_2 than the later transition metals (Ni and Cu). Also, our modified Brønsted−Evans−Polanyi (BEP) relationship for reaction energies and total reaction barriers reveals that reactions of earlier transition metals are more exergonic and have lower oxygen dissociation barriers than those of later transition metals. In addition, it was found that for these transition metal oxides the oxygen vacancy formation energies increase with the depth. The oxide in the higher oxidation state of transition metal has lower vacancy formation energy, which can facilitate forming the defective nanostructures. The fundamental understanding of these metal

  7. Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of a near-zero emission power plant with chemical looping combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana

    2012-03-06

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from power plants can be used to mitigate CO(2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, CCS technologies are energy intensive, decreasing the operating efficiency of a plant and increasing its costs. Recently developed advanced exergy-based analyses can uncover the potential for improvement of complex energy conversion systems, as well as qualify and quantify plant component interactions. In this paper, an advanced exergoenvironmental analysis is used for the first time as means to evaluate an oxy-fuel power plant with CO(2) capture. The environmental impacts of each component are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. In an effort to minimize the environmental impact of the plant operation, we focus on the avoidable part of the impact (which is also split into endogenous and exogenous parts) and we seek ways to decrease it. The results of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis show that the majority of the environmental impact related to the exergy destruction of individual components is unavoidable and endogenous. Thus, the improvement potential is rather limited, and the interactions of the components are of lower importance. The environmental impact of construction of the components is found to be significantly lower than that associated with their operation; therefore, our suggestions for improvement focus on measures concerning the reduction of exergy destruction and pollutant formation.

  8. Comparison of Iron and Tungsten Based Oxygen Carriers for Hydrogen Production Using Chemical Looping Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. N.; Shamim, T.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen production by using a three reactor chemical looping reforming (TRCLR) technology is an innovative and attractive process. Fossil fuels such as methane are the feedstocks used. This process is similar to a conventional steam-methane reforming but occurs in three steps utilizing an oxygen carrier. As the oxygen carrier plays an important role, its selection should be done carefully. In this study, two oxygen carrier materials of base metal iron (Fe) and tungsten (W) are analysed using a thermodynamic model of a three reactor chemical looping reforming plant in Aspen plus. The results indicate that iron oxide has moderate oxygen carrying capacity and is cheaper since it is abundantly available. In terms of hydrogen production efficiency, tungsten oxide gives 4% better efficiency than iron oxide. While in terms of electrical power efficiency, iron oxide gives 4.6% better results than tungsten oxide. Overall, a TRCLR system with iron oxide is 2.6% more efficient and is cost effective than the TRCLR system with tungsten oxide.

  9. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop

    2013-12-01

    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability and availability of data for combustion research. The architecture consists of an application layer, a communication layer and distributed cloud servers running in a mix environment of Windows, Macintosh and Linux systems. The application layer runs software such as CHEMKIN modeling application. The communication layer provides secure transfer/archive of kinetic, thermodynamic, transport and gas surface data using private/public keys between clients and cloud servers. A robust XML schema based on the Process Informatics Model (Prime) combined with a workflow methodology for digitizing, verifying and uploading data from scientific graphs/tables to Prime is implemented for chemical molecular structures of compounds. The outcome of using this system by combustion researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Clean Combustion Research Center and its collaborating partners indicated a significant improvement in efficiency in terms of speed of chemical kinetics and accuracy in searching for the right chemical kinetic data.

  10. Isothermal Oxidation of Magnetite to Hematite in Air and Cyclic Reduction/Oxidation Under Carbon Looping Combustion Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Tegan; Hayes, Peter C.

    2017-12-01

    In the carbon looping combustion process the oxygen carrier is regenerated through oxidation in air; this process has been simulated by the oxidation of dense synthetic magnetite for selected temperatures and times. The oxidation of magnetite in air is shown to occur through the formation of dense hematite layers on the particle surface. This dense hematite forms through lath type shear transformations or solid-state diffusion through the product layer. Cyclic reduction in CO-CO2/oxidation in air of hematite single crystals has been carried out under controlled laboratory conditions at 1173 K (900 °C). It has been shown that the initial reduction step is critical to determining the product microstructure, which consists of gas pore dendrites in the magnetite matrix with blocky hematite formed on the pore surfaces. The progressive growth of the magnetite layer with the application of subsequent cycles appears to continue until no original hematite remains, after which physical disintegration of the particles takes place.

  11. Chemical looping reforming in packed-bed reactors : modelling, experimental validation and large-scale reactor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Marinello, B.; Gallucci, F.; Romano, M.C.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    This paper addresses the experimental demonstration and model validation of chemical looping reforming in dynamically operated packed-bed reactors for the production of H2 or CH3OH with integrated CO2 capture. This process is a combination of auto-thermal and steam methane reforming and is carried

  12. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  13. IEA combustion agreement : a collaborative task on alternative fuels in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larmi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the alternative fuels in combustion task of the International Energy Agency is on high efficiency engine combustion, furnace combustion, and combustion chemistry. The objectives of the task are to develop optimum combustion for dedicated fuels by fully utilizing the physical and chemical properties of synthetic and renewable fuels; a significant reduction in carbon dioxide, NOx and particulate matter emissions; determine the minimum emission levels for dedicated fuels; and meet future emission standards of engines without or with minimum after-treatment. This presentation discussed the alternative fuels task and addressed issues such as synthetic fuel properties and benefits. The anticipated future roadmap was presented along with a list of the synthetic and renewable engine fuels to be studied, such as neat oxygenates like alcohols and ethers, biogas/methane and gas combustion, fuel blends, dual fuel combustion, high cetane number diesel fuels like synthetic Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel and hydrogenated vegetable oil, and low CN number fuels. Implementation examples were also discussed, such as fuel spray studies in optical spray bombs; combustion research in optical engines and combustion chambers; studies on reaction kinetics of combustion and emission formation; studies on fuel properties and ignition behaviour; combustion studies on research engines; combustion optimization; implementing the optimum combustion in research engines; and emission measurements. Overall milestone examples and the overall schedule of participating countries were also presented. figs.

  14. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  15. Impact of mixing chemically heterogeneous groundwaters on the sustainability of an open-loop groundwater heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burté, L.; Farasin, J.; Cravotta, C., III; Gerard, M. F.; Cotiche Baranger, C.; Aquilina, L.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal systems using shallow aquifers are commonly used for heating and cooling. The sustainability of these systems can be severely impacted by the occurrence of clogging process. The geothermal loop operation (including pumping of groundwater, filtering and heat extraction through exchangers and cooled water injection) can lead to an unexpected biogeochemical reactivity and scaling formation that can ultimately lead to the shutdown of the geothermal doublet. Here, we report the results of investigations carried out on a shallow geothermal doublet (dynamic). Hydrochemical data collected at the pumping well showed that groundwater was chemically heterogeneous long the 11 meters well screen. While the aquifer was dominantly oxic, a localized inflow of anoxic water was detected and evaluated to produce about 40% of the total flow . The mixture of chemically heterogeneous water induced by pumping lead to the oxidation of reductive species and thus to the formation of biogenic precipitates responsible for clogging. The impact of pumping waters of different redox potential and chemical characteristics was quantified by numerical modeling using PHREEQC. These results shows that natural chemical heterogeneity can occur at a small scale in heterogeneous aquifers and highlight the importance of their characterization during the production well testing and the geothermal loop operation in order to take preventive measures to avoid clogging.

  16. Study of mechanically activated coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatolij P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion and air gasification of mechanically activated micro-ground coals in the flux have been studied. Influence of mechanically activated methods at coals grinding on their chemical activeness at combustion and gasification has been determined. Intense mechanical activation of coals increases their chemical activeness that enables development of new highly boosted processing methods for coals with various levels of metamorphism.

  17. A review of active control approaches in stabilizing combustion systems in aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Lu, Zhengli; Zhao, He; Li, X. Y.; Wang, Bing; Liu, Peijin

    2018-02-01

    Self-sustained combustion instabilities are one of the most plaguing challenges and problems in lean-conditioned propulsion and land-based engine systems, such as rocket motors, gas turbines, industrial furnace and boilers, and turbo-jet thrust augmenters. Either passive or active control in open- or closed-loop configurations can be implemented to mitigate such instabilities. One of the classical disadvantages of passive control is that it is only implementable to a designed combustor over a limited frequency range and can not respond to the changes in operating conditions. Compared with passive control approaches, active control, especially in closed-loop configuration is more adaptive and has inherent capacity to be implemented in practice. The key components in closed-loop active control are 1) sensor, 2) controller (optimization algorithm) and 3) dynamic actuator. The present work is to outline the current status, technical challenges and development progress of the active control approaches (in open- or closed-loop configurations). A brief description of feedback control, adaptive control, model-based control and sliding mode control are provided first by introducing a simplified Rijke-type combustion system. The modelled combustion system provides an invaluable platform to evaluate the performance of these feedback controllers and a transient growth controller. The performance of these controllers are compared and discussed. An outline of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations are then provided to overview the research and development progress made during the last 4 decades. Finally, potential, challenges and issues involved with the design, application and implementation of active combustion control strategies on a practical engine system are highlighted.

  18. Gradual combustion - method for nitrogen oxide suppression during brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.P.; Verzakov, V.N.; Lobov, T.V.

    1990-10-01

    Discusses combustion of brown coal in BKZ-500-140-1 boilers and factors that influence emission of nitrogen oxides. Temperature distribution in the furnace was evaluated. Effects of burner position, burner number and burner type as well as air excess ratio on chemical reactions during brown coal combustion, formation of nitrogen oxides and their emission were comparatively evaluated. Analyses showed that by optimum arrangement of burners and selecting the optimum air excess ratio a part of nitrogen oxides formed during the initial phase of combustion was reduced to molecular nitrogen in the second phase. On the basis of evaluations the following recommendations for furnace design are made: use of straight-flow burners characterized by a reduced mixing ratio with secondary air, parallel arrangement of burners which guarantees mixing of the combustion products from the burners with stable and unstable combustion (products of incomplete coal combustion), reducing the air excess ratio to below 1.0. 5 refs.

  19. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  20. The Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.

  1. Combustion control for diesel engines with direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschke, J.; Henn, M.; Lang, T.; Wendt, J.; Nitzke, H.G.; Mannigel, D. [Volkswagen AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This article looks at a new cylinder pressure-based combustion control for DI diesel engines that has been developed by Volkswagen. This cylinder pressure-based control uses cylinder pressure sensors that are integrated in the glow plugs. The description and the evaluation of these sensors form a main part of this article as they are a central element in the new diesel management system. The test and development phase in connection with a rapid prototyping system and the realisation of the combustion control algorithms in a diesel control unit are also described. Finally, results from use of the closed-loop combustion control with different applications on a diesel engine are presented. (orig.)

  2. Analysis on reduced chemical kinetic model of N-heptane for HCCI combustion. Paper no. IGEC-1-072

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, M.; Zheng, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Because of high complexity coupled with multidimensional fluid dynamics, it is difficult to apply detailed chemical kinetic model to simulate practical engines. A reduced model of n-heptane has been developed on the basic of detailed mechanism by sensitivity analysis and reaction path analysis of every stage of combustion. The new reduced mechanism consists of 35 species and 41 reactions, and it is effective in engine condition. The results show that it gives predictions similar to the detailed model in ignition timing, in-cylinder temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the reduced mechanism can be used to simulate boundary condition of partial combustion in good agreement with the detailed mechanism. (author)

  3. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  4. Biofuels combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  5. Coupling of high temperature nuclear reactor with chemical plant by means of steam loop with heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeć Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature nuclear reactors (HTR can be used as an excellent, emission-free source of technological heat for various industrial applications. Their outlet helium temperature (700°-900°C allows not only for heat supply to all processes below 600°C (referred to as “steam class”, but also enables development of clean nuclear-assisted hydrogen production or coal liquefaction technologies with required temperatures up to 900°C (referred to as “chemical class”. This paper presents the results of analyses done for various configurations of the steam transport loop coupled with the high-temperature heat pump designed for “chemical class” applications. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the key issues are discussed in comparison with alternative solutions, trying to answer the question whether the system with the steam loop and the hightemperature heat pump is viable and economically justified.

  6. Syngas Generation from Methane Using a Chemical-Looping Concept: A Review of Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongzhai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of methane to syngas using a chemical-looping concept is a novel method for syngas generation. This process is based on the transfer of gaseous oxygen source to fuel (e.g., methane by means of a cycling process using solid oxides as oxygen carriers to avoid direct contact between fuel and gaseous oxygen. Syngas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and solid oxides (oxygen carriers, and then the reduced oxygen carriers can be regenerated by a gaseous oxidant, such as air or water. The oxygen carrier is recycled between the two steps, and the syngas with a ratio of H2/CO = 2.0 can be obtained successively. Air is used instead of pure oxygen allowing considerable cost savings, and the separation of fuel from the gaseous oxidant avoids the risk of explosion and the dilution of product gas with nitrogen. The design and elaboration of suitable oxygen carriers is a key issue to optimize this method. As one of the most interesting oxygen storage materials, ceria-based and perovskite oxides were paid much attention for this process. This paper briefly introduced the recent research progresses on the oxygen carriers used in the chemical-looping selective oxidation of methane (CLSOM to syngas.

  7. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linak, W P; Ryan, J V; Perry, E; Williams, R W; DeMarini, D M

    1989-06-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. Although a variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in the volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate fractions of these emissions, a substantial fraction of higher molecular weight organic material was not identified. No pesticides were identified in either combustion emission samples or dichloromethane washes of the used plastic. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. This mutagenicity compares approximately to that measured from residential wood heating on a revertant per unit heat release basis. Compared to pile burning, forced air slightly decreased the time necessary to burn a charge of plastic. There was not a substantial difference, however, in the variety or concentrations of organic compounds identified in samples from these two burn conditions. This study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions. These results may not reflect those of other types of plastic that may be used

  8. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.

    2006-11-01

    deux mécanismes totalement différents, par exemple entre le mécanisme d'ignition homogène et le mécanisme d'ignition hétérogène du charbon, avec des conséquences pratiques pour la stabilisation de la flamme industrielle ; autre exemple : la compétition entre les divers mécanismes homogènes de formation d'oxydes d'azote et les mécanismes hétérogènes de leur réduction sur des particules solides de coke, de suie et de cendre. Avec ces idées présentes comme un leitmotiv implicite, on passe en revue les grandes étapes de la flamme industrielle de charbon pulvérisé : la dévolatilisation rapide avec la formation progressive de volatils gazeux, de goudrons et de coke ; la transformation partielle des produits gazeux et liquides de pyrolyse en suies ainsi que leur oxydation en phase gazeuse ; la combustion hétérogène du coke ; l'ignition du charbon et sa dépendance par rapport à des processus critiques homogènes et (ou hétérogènes. Comme exemple typique d'un épiphénomènechimique, on suit la transformation des espèces azotées en NO et en N2, qui se greffe en contrepoint et à chaque pas sur tes différents thèmes successifs de cette symphonie de l'oxydation du charbon. En de nombreux points de cette évolution du charbon à travers la flamme, les connaissances de la chimie de com-bustion en phase gazeuse constituent un instrument utile d'interprétation (par exemple : pour l'oxydation des volatils, pour la discussion des modalités d'ignition. II n'en reste pas moins vrai que la plupart des problèmes chimiques hétérogènes sont bien spécifiques de la flamme de charbon ; leur traitement est rendu ardu à cause de la complexité, évolutive au cours de la combustion, du combustible solide lui-même. It is not easy to obtain a full picture of the multiple chemical phenomena which occur inside a pulverized coal flame. This bibliographie review attempts to give more than just a juxtaposition of data from the recent literature and risks making

  9. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    conditions). Results from a 3D-LES simulation model for chemically reacting flows have been validated using the experimental data obtained within this study. The simulations have been carried out at the Division of Combustion Physics. The 3D simulation model can be used as a tool for studying the complex phenomena encountered in pulsating combustion. Together with measurements of temperature fields and measurements of the concentration of different species (for example O{sub 2}, NO and CH{sub 4}) in the combustion chamber, even further enhanced understanding of the fundamental processes in pulse combustors can be achieved.

  10. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  11. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  12. Modelling of Combustion and Pollutant Formation in a Large, Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine using Integrated CFD-Skeletal Chemical Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Schramm, Jesper

    In this reported work, simulation studies of in-cylinder diesel combustion and pollutant formation processesin a two-stroke, low-speed uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engine are presented. Numerical computation is performed by integrating chemical kinetics into CFD computations. In order...... to minimize the computational runtime, an in-house skeletal n-heptane chemical mechanism is coupled with the CFD model. This surrogate fuel model comprises 89 reactions with 32 species essential to diesel ignition/combustion processes as well as the formation of soot precursors and nitrogen monoxide (NO......). Prior to the marine engine simulation,coupling of the newly developed surrogate fuel model and a revised multi-step soot model [1] is validated on the basis of optical diagnostics measurement obtained at varying ambient pressure levels [2]. It is demonstrated that the variation of ignition delay times...

  13. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  14. Process/Engineering Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, David [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Over the past several years, the DOE has sponsored various funded programs, collectively referred to as Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) programs, which have targeted the development of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants. The simulator allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts, either for preliminary conceptual design or detailed final design.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of a dual loop heat recovery system with trilateral cycle applied to exhaust gases of internal combustion engine for propulsion of the 6800 TEU container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Chul; Kim, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8 kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO 2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. - Highlights: • WHRS was theoretically applied to exhaust gas of a main engine for ship propulsion. • A dual loop EG-WHRS using water and R1234yf as working fluids has been suggested. • Limitation of single loop trilateral cycle was improved by the dual loop system. • The propulsion efficiency of 2.824% was improved by the dual loop EG-WHRS. • This resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the SFOC and specific CO

  16. Combustion of diesel fuel from a toxicological perspective. I. Origin of incomplete combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, P T; Bos, R P

    1992-01-01

    Since the use of diesel engines is still increasing, the contribution of their incomplete combustion products to air pollution is becoming ever more important. The presence of irritating and genotoxic substances in both the gas phase and the particulate phase constituents is considered to have significant health implications. The quantity of soot particles and the particle-associated organics emitted from the tail pipe of a diesel-powered vehicle depend primarily on the engine type and combustion conditions but also on fuel properties. The quantity of soot particles in the emissions is determined by the balance between the rate of formation and subsequent oxidation. Organics are absorbed onto carbon cores in the cylinder, in the exhaust system, in the atmosphere and even on the filter during sample collection. Diesel fuel contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some alkyl derivatives. Both groups of compounds may survive the combustion process. PAHs are formed by the combustion of crankcase oil or may be resuspended from engine and/or exhaust deposits. The conversion of parent PAHs to oxygenated and nitrated PAHs in the combustion chamber or in the exhaust system is related to the vast amount of excess combustion air that is supplied to the engine and the high combustion temperature. Whether the occurrence of these derivatives is characteristic for the composition of diesel engine exhaust remains to be ascertained. After the emission of the particles, their properties may change because of atmospheric processes such as aging and resuspension. The particle-associated organics may also be subject to (photo)chemical conversions or the components may change during sampling and analysis. Measurement of emissions of incomplete combustion products as determined on a chassis dynamometer provides knowledge of the chemical composition of the particle-associated organics. This knowledge is useful as a basis for a toxicological evaluation of the health hazards of

  17. Mechanistic studies of chemical looping desulfurization of Mn-based oxides using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    König, C.F.J.; Nachtegaal, M.; Seemann, M.; Clemens, F.; Garderen, N. van; Biollaz, S.M.A.; Schildhauer, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mn sorbents remove H 2 S from hot syngas in chemical looping desulfurization process. • State of Mn followed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. • Two-step mechanism explains the formation of SO 2 under reducing conditions. - Abstract: Cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification is required for further processing, e.g. to avoid catalyst poisoning in subsequent conversion steps. High-temperature gas cleaning, of which sulfur removal is an important part, is a promising way to improve the overall efficiency of biomass conversion. In a high temperature “chemical looping desulfurization” process, a sorbent material, here manganese oxide, is cycled between producer gas from the gasifier to remove sulfur species, and an oxidizing atmosphere, in which the sulfur species are released as SO 2 . Alternatively, the use of such material as reactive bed material could be integrated into an allothermal dual fluidized bed gasifier. In a laboratory reactor, we subjected manganese-based materials to a periodically changing gas atmosphere, simulating a “chemical looping desulfurization” reactor. The “fuel reactor” gas contained H 2 , CO, CH 4 and H 2 S, similar as in the producer gas, and the “oxidizing reactor” contained diluted O 2 . Mass spectrometry showed that most of the H 2 S is taken up by the sample in the “fuel reactor” part, while also some unwanted SO 2 is generated in the “fuel reactor” part. Most of the sulfur is released in the oxidizing reactor. Simultaneous in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the Mn materials during different stages of the chemical looping desulfurization process showed that the initial Mn 3 O 4 is transformed in the presence of H 2 S to MnS via a MnO intermediate in the fuel reactor. Oxygen from the reduction of Mn 3 O 4 oxidizes some H 2 S to the undesired SO 2 in the fuel reactor. Upon exposure to O 2 , MnS is again oxidized to Mn 3 O 4 via MnO, releasing SO

  18. Modeling and simulating combustion and generation of NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling and simulation of combustion processes and generation of NO x in a combustion chamber and boiler, with supplementary combustion in a gas turbine installation. The fuel burned in the combustion chamber was rich gas with a chemical composition more complex than natural gas. Pitcoal was used in the regenerative boiler. From the resulting combustion products, 17 compounds were retained, including nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Using the developed model, the simulation resulted in excess air for a temperature imposed at the combustion chamber exhaust. These simulations made it possible to determine the concentrations of combustion compounds with a variation in excess combustion. (author)

  19. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION OF METHANE OVER Pt/γ-Al2O3 IN MICRO-COMBUSTOR WITH DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUNJIE CHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-scale catalytic combustion characteristics and heat transfer processes of preheated methane-air mixtures (φ = 0.4 in the plane channel were investigated numerically with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. The plane channel of length L = 10.0 mm, height H =1.0 mm and wall thickness δ = 0.1 mm, which inner horizontal surfaces contained Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst washcoat. The computational results indicate that the presence of the gas phase reactions extends mildly the micro-combustion stability limits at low and moderate inlet velocities due to the strong flames establishment, and have a more profound effect on extending the high-velocity blowout limits by allowing for additional heat release originating mainly from the incomplete CH4 gas phase oxidation in the plane channel. When the same mass flow rate (ρin × Vin is considered, the micro-combustion stability limits at p: 0.1 MPa are much narrower than at p: 0.6 MPa due to both gas phase and catalytic reaction activities decline with decreasing pressure. Catalytic micro-combustor can achieve stable combustion at low solid thermal conductivity ks < 0.1 W∙m-1•K-1, while the micro-combustion extinction limits reach their larger extent for the higher thermal conductivity ks = 20.0-100.0 W∙m-1•K-1. The existence of surface radiation heat transfers significantly effects on the micro-combustion stability limits and micro-combustors energy balance. Finally, gas phase combustion in catalytic micro-combustors can be sustained at the sub-millimeter scale (plane channel height of 0.25 mm.

  20. A comprehensive study of combustion products generated from pulverized peat combustion in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, V. A.; Zagrai, I. A.

    2017-11-01

    The experimental and theoretical study of combustion products has been carried out for the conditions of pulverized peat combustion in BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. Sampling has been performed in different parts of the boiler system in order to determine the chemical composition, radiative properties and dispersity of slag and ash particles. The chemical composition of particles was determined using the method of x-ray fluorescence analysis. Shapes and sizes of the particles were determined by means of electron scanning microscopy. The histograms and the particle size distribution functions were computed. The calculation of components of the gaseous phase was based on the combustion characteristics of the original fuel. The software package of calculation of thermal radiation of combustion products from peat combustion was used to simulate emission characteristics (flux densities and emissivity factors). The dependence of emission characteristics on the temperature level and on the wavelength has been defined. On the basis of the analysis of emission characteristics the authors give some recommendations how to determine the temperature of peat combustion products in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. The findings can be used to measure the combustion products temperature, support temperature control in peat combustion and solve the problem of boiler furnace slagging.

  1. Molten salt combustion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.; Richards, W.L.; Oldenkamp, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible β-γ contaminated transuranic waste by utilizing air in a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. Typically, incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are below detection limits (i.e., 3 ) is directly related to the sodium chloride vapor pressure of the melt; >80% of the particulate is sodium chloride. Essentially all metal oxides (combustion ash) are retained in the melt, e.g., >99.9% of the plutonium, >99.6% of the europium, and >99.9% of the ruthenium are retained in the melt. Both bench-scale radioactive and pilot scale (50 kg/hr) nonradioactive combustion tests have been completed with essentially the same results. Design of three combustors for industrial applications are underway

  2. Ash chemistry and behavior in advanced co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Skrifvars, B J [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this LIEKKI 2 project is to report results achieved within the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project to the Finnish combustion research community through the LIEKKI program. The purpose of the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project is to find prediction methods for evaluating ash behavior, such as slagging, fouling and corrosion propensity, in full scale combustion systems through chemical or mineralogical analyses, intelligent laboratory tests and chemistry calculations. The project focuses on coals, coal mixtures and coal biomass mixtures fired in advanced combustion systems, such as fluidized bed boilers, pulverized fuel boilers with critical steam values etc. The project will make use of (1) advanced multi-component combustion equilibrium calculations, (2) ash sintering tendency laboratory tests and (3) chemical evaluations of slagging, fouling and corrosion measurements in full scale units. (orig.)

  3. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  4. Computational Study of Stratified Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-28

    Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics provide valuable information, the high fidelity simulations with matched parametric conditions improve fundamental understanding of relevant physical and chemical processes by accessing additional observables such as the local mixture distribution, intermediate species concentrations, and detailed chemical reaction rates. Commercial software, CONVERGE™, was used as the main simulation tool, with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model and the multi-zone (SAGE) combustion model to compute the chemical reaction terms. SOI is varied from late compression ignition (CI) to early partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The simulation results revealed a stronger correlation between fuel injection timing and combustion phasing for late SOI conditions, whereas the combustion phasing starts to decouple from SOI for early SOI cases. The predictions are consistent with the experimental observations, in terms of the overall trends in combustion and emission characteristics, while the high fidelity simulations provided further insights into the effects of mixture stratifications resulting from different SOI conditions.

  5. The effect of microwave pretreatment on chemical looping gasification of microalgae for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhifeng; Ma, Xiaoqian; Jiang, Enchen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave pretreatment is beneficial to chemical-looping gasification reaction. • Gasification efficiency and gas yield increased greatly under microwave pretreatment. • 60 s is the optimal microwave pretreatment time in CLG to produce syngas. • Suitable microwave pretreatment can make the structure of solid residue become loose. • 750 W is the optimal microwave pretreatment power in CLG to produce syngas. - Abstract: Chemical-looping gasification (CLG) of Chlorella vulgaris was carried out in a quartz tube reactor under different microwave pretreatment. The product fractional yields, conversion efficiency and analysis of performance parameters were analyzed in order to obtain the characterization and optimal conditions of microwave pretreatment for syngas production. The results indicate that microwave pretreatment is conducive to CLG reaction. Furthermore, the higher power or the longer time in the process of microwave pretreatment could not exhibit a better effect on CLG. In addition, 750 W and 60 s is the optimal microwave pretreatment power and time respectively to obtain a great reducibility of oxygen carrier, high conversion efficiency, high products yield and good LHV. The H_2 yield, LHV, gasification efficiency and gas yield increased obviously from 18.12%, 12.14 MJ/Nm"3, 59.76% and 1.04 Nm"3/kg of untreated Chlorella vulgaris to 24.55%, 13.13 MJ/Nm"3, 72.16% and 1.16 Nm"3/kg of the optimal microwave pretreatment condition, respectively.

  6. Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures: chemical characterization of combusted inventory red and violet smoke mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, I.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Red and violet smoke grenades (Grenade, Hand, Smoke, M18) were combusted within canvas tents and the combustion products were sampled and analyzed. Uncombusted red and violet smoke mixes from the same lots used to fill the combusted grenades were also analyzed. Approximately ten percent of the major dye component of the red smoke mix, methylaminoanthraquinone (MAA) was converted to aminoanthraquinones (1-AA and 2-AA). The violet smoke mix was formulated to contain 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DAA) and MAA. Upon combustion the DAA was converted almost completely to diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) which was a minor constituent of the uncombusted mix. As in the combusted red smoke mix, it was found that MAA was partially converted to aminoanthraquinones

  7. High resolution real time capable combustion chamber simulation; Zeitlich hochaufloesende echtzeitfaehige Brennraumsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piewek, J. [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The article describes a zero-dimensional model for the real time capable combustion chamber pressure calculation with analogue pressure sensor output. The closed-loop-operation of an Engine Control Unit is shown at the hardware-in-the-loop-simulator (HiL simulator) for a 4-cylinder common rail diesel engine. The presentation of the model focuses on the simulation of the load variation which does not depend on the injection system and thus the simulated heat release rate. Particular attention is paid to the simulation and the resulting test possibilities regarding to full-variable valve gears. It is shown that black box models consisting in the HiL mean value model for the aspirated gas mass, the exhaust gas temperature after the outlet valve and the mean indicated pressure can be replaced by calculations from the high-resolution combustion chamber model. (orig.)

  8. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Different species of mercury have different physical/chemical properties and thus behave quite differentially in air pollution control equipment and in the atmosphere. In general, emission of mercury from coal combustion sources are approximately 20-50% elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and 50-80% divalent mercury (Hg(II)), which may be predominantly HgCl 2 . Emissions of mercury from waste incinerators are approximately 10-20% Hg 0 and 75-85% Hg(II). The partitioning of mercury in flue gas between the elemental and divalent forms may be dependent on the concentration of particulate carbon, HCl and other pollutants in the stack emissions. The emission of mercury from combustion facilities depends on the species in the exhaust stream and the type of air pollution control equipment used at the source. Air pollution control equipment for mercury removal at combustion facilities includes activated carbon injection, sodium sulfide injection and wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization. White Hg(II) is water-soluble and may be removed form the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition close to the combustion sources, the combination of a high vapor pressure and low water-solubility facilitate the long-range transport of Hg 0 in the atmosphere. Background mercury in the atmosphere is predominantly Hg 0 . Elemental mercury is eventually removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition onto surfaces and by wet deposition after oxidation to water-soluble, divalent mercury. 62 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Determination of (BTEX) of the gasoline's combustion in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Nelson; Insuasti, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    The contents of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX) were determined and quantified in the gasoline's combustion on an internal combustion engine. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector were used for chemical determinations

  10. Chemical Kinetics in Support of Syngas Turbine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick

    2007-07-31

    This document is the final report on an overall program formulated to extend our prior work in developing and validating kinetic models for the CO/hydrogen/oxygen reaction by carefully analyzing the individual and interactive behavior of specific elementary and subsets of elementary reactions at conditions of interest to syngas combustion in gas turbines. A summary of the tasks performed under this work are: 1. Determine experimentally the third body efficiencies in H+O{sub 2}+M = HO{sub 2}+M (R1) for CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. 2. Using published literature data and the results in this program, further develop the present H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent and CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mechanisms for dilution with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} through comparisons with new experimental validation targets for H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} reaction kinetics in the presence of significant diluent fractions of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}O, at high pressures. (task amplified to especially address ignition delay issues, see below). 3. Analyze and demonstrate issues related to NOx interactions with syngas combustion chemistry (task amplified to include interactions of iron pentacarbonyl with syngas combustion chemistry, see below). 4. Publish results, including updated syngas kinetic model. Results are summarized in this document and its appendices. Three archival papers which contain a majority of the research results have appeared. Those results not published elsewhere are highlighted here, and will appear as part of future publications. Portions of the work appearing in the above publications were also supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER-13503. As a result of and during the research under the present contract, we became aware of other reported results that revealed substantial differences between experimental characterizations of ignition delays for syngas mixtures and ignition delay predictions based upon homogenous kinetic modeling. We

  11. Prediction of Non-Equilibrium Kinetics of Fuel-Rich Kerosene/LOX Combustion in Gas Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jung Min; Lee, Chang Jin

    2007-01-01

    Gas generator is the device to produce high enthalpy gases needed to drive turbo-pump system in liquid rocket engine. And, the combustion temperature in gas generator should be controlled below around 1,000K to avoid any possible thermal damages to turbine blade by using either fuel rich combustion or oxidizer rich combustion. Thus, nonequilibrium chemical reaction dominates in fuel-rich combustion of gas generator. Meanwhile, kerosene is a compounded fuel with various types of hydrocarbon elements and difficult to model the chemical kinetics. This study focuses on the prediction of the non-equilibrium reaction of fuel rich kerosene/LOX combustion with detailed kinetics developed by Dagaut using PSR (Perfectly Stirred Reactor) assumption. In Dagaut's surrogate model for kerosene, chemical kinetics of kerosene consists of 1,592 reaction steps with 207 chemical species. Also, droplet evaporation time is taken into account in the PSR calculation by changing the residence time of droplet in the gas generator. Frenklach's soot model was implemented along with detailed kinetics to calculate the gas properties of fuel rich combustion efflux. The results could provide very reliable and accurate numbers in the prediction of combustion gas temperature,species fraction and material properties

  12. Development of a Premixed Combustion Capability for Scramjet Combustion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Robert D.; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rice, Brian E.; Chelliah, Harsha; McDaniel, James C.; Edwards, Jack R.; Cantu, Luca M. L.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing engines rely on scramjet combustion processes, which involve high speed, compressible, and highly turbulent flows. The combustion environment and the turbulent flames at the heart of these engines are difficult to simulate and study in the laboratory under well controlled conditions. Typically, wind-tunnel testing is performed that more closely approximates engine testing rather than a careful investigation of the underlying physics that drives the combustion process. The experiments described in this paper, along with companion data sets being developed separately, aim to isolate the chemical kinetic effects from the fuel-air mixing process in a dual-mode scramjet combustion environment. A unique fuel injection approach is taken that produces a nearly uniform fuel-air mixture at the entrance to the combustor. This approach relies on the precombustion shock train upstream of the dual-mode scramjet combustor. A stable ethylene flame anchored on a cavity flameholder with a uniformly mixed combustor inflow has been achieved in these experiments allowing numerous companion studies involving coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to be performed.

  13. Infrared monitoring of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.C.; Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Solomon, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for combustion monitoring is described. A combination of emission, transmission, and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy yields data on the temperature and composition of the gases, surfaces and suspended particles in the combustion environment. Detection sensitivity of such trace exhaust gases as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and unburned hydrocarbons is at the ppm level. Tomographic reconstruction converts line-of-sight measurements into spatially resolved temperature and concentration data. Examples from various combustion processes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Industrial measurements are described that have been performed directly in the combustion zone and in the exhaust duct of a large chemical recovery boiler. Other measurements of hot slag show how FT-IR spectroscopy can determine the temperature and optical properties of surfaces. In addition, experiments with water droplets show that transmission FT-IR data yield spectra that characterize particle size and number density

  14. Application of bioethanol/RME/diesel blend in a Euro5 automotive diesel engine: Potentiality of closed loop combustion control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, Chiara; Beatrice, Carlo; Napolitano, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of a bioethanol/biodiesel/diesel blend on Euro5 diesel engine. ► Potentiality of combustion control technology with alternative fuels. ► Strong smoke and NOx emissions reduction. ► No power penalties burning bioethanol blend by means of combustion control activation. -- Abstract: The latest European regulations require the use of biofuels by at least 10% as energy source in transport by 2020. This goal could be reached by means of the use of different renewable fuels; bioethanol (BE) is one of the most interesting for its low production cost and availability. BE usually replaces gasoline in petrol engines but it can be also blended in low concentrations to feed diesel engines. In this paper the results of an experimental activity aimed to study the impact of a BE/biodiesel/mineral diesel blend on performance and emissions in a last generation automotive diesel engine are presented. The tests were performed in steady-state in eight partial load engine conditions and at 2500 rpm in full load. Two fuel blends have been compared: the Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)/diesel with 10% of biodiesel by volume (B10), and the BE/RME/diesel with 20% of BE and 10% of biodiesel by volume (E20B10). The experimental campaign was carried out on a 2.0 L diesel engine compliant with Euro5 regulation. The engine features the closed loop combustion control (CLCC), which enables individual and real-time control of injection phasing and cylinder inner torque by means of in-cylinder pressure sensors connected with the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As expected, the results showed a strong smoke emissions reduction for E20B10 in all tested conditions, mainly due to the high oxygen content of BE. Also a reduction of NOx emissions were observed with BE addiction. The results confirm that the CLCC adoption enables a significant improvement in the robustness of the engine performance and emissions when blends with low heat content and very low cetane number (as BE

  15. The 5S rRNA loop E: chemical probing and phylogenetic data versus crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontis, N B; Westhof, E

    1998-09-01

    A significant fraction of the bases in a folded, structured RNA molecule participate in noncanonical base pairing interactions, often in the context of internal loops or multi-helix junction loops. The appearance of each new high-resolution RNA structure provides welcome data to guide efforts to understand and predict RNA 3D structure, especially when the RNA in question is a functionally conserved molecule. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the "Loop E" region of bacterial 5S ribosomal RNA is such an event [Correll CC, Freeborn B, Moore PB, Steitz TA, 1997, Cell 91:705-712]. In addition to providing more examples of already established noncanonical base pairs, such as purine-purine sheared pairings, trans-Hoogsteen UA, and GU wobble pairs, the structure provides the first high-resolution views of two new purine-purine pairings and a new GU pairing. The goal of the present analysis is to expand the capabilities of both chemical probing and phylogenetic analysis to predict with greater accuracy the structures of RNA molecules. First, in light of existing chemical probing data, we investigate what lessons could be learned regarding the interpretation of this widely used method of RNA structure probing. Then we analyze the 3D structure with reference to molecular phylogeny data (assuming conservation of function) to discover what alternative base pairings are geometrically compatible with the structure. The comparisons between previous modeling efforts and crystal structures show that the intricate involvements of ions and water molecules in the maintenance of non-Watson-Crick pairs render the process of correctly identifying the interacting sites in such pairs treacherous, except in cases of trans-Hoogsteen A/U or sheared A/G pairs for the adenine N1 site. The phylogenetic analysis identifies A/A, A/C, A/U and C/A, C/C, and C/U pairings isosteric with sheared A/G, as well as A/A and A/C pairings isosteric with both G/U and G/G bifurcated pairings

  16. Hydrogen enrichment of an internal combustion engine via closed loop thermochemical recuperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, J.G.; Hofman, T.; Erickson, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment in an internal combustion engine can greatly improve efficiency and at the same time reduce emissions without the need for extensive engine modifications. One option for a hydrogen source for the enrichment is actively producing hydrogen on-board the vehicle through steam

  17. Recent Trends in the Production, Combustion and Modeling of Furan-Based Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen A. Eldeeb

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of furans, a class of alternative fuels derived from biomass, as transportation fuels. This paper reviews recent progress in the characterization of its combustion properties. It reviews their production processes, theoretical kinetic explorations and fundamental combustion properties. The theoretical efforts are focused on the mechanistic pathways for furan decomposition and oxidation, as well as the development of detailed chemical kinetic models. The experiments reviewed are mostly concerned with the temporal evolutions of homogeneous reactors and the propagation of laminar flames. The main thrust in homogeneous reactors is to determine global chemical time scales such as ignition delay times. Some studies have adopted a comparative approach to bring out reactivity differences. Chemical kinetic models with varying degrees of predictive success have been established. Experiments have revealed the relative behavior of their combustion. The growing body of literature in this area of combustion chemistry of alternative fuels shows a great potential for these fuels in terms of sustainable production and engine performance. However, these studies raise further questions regarding the chemical interactions of furans with other hydrocarbons. There are also open questions about the toxicity of the byproducts of combustion.

  18. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  19. Combustion of hydrogen-air jets in local chemical equilibrium: A guide to the CHARNAL computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, D. B.; Launder, B. E.; Morse, A. P.; Maples, G.

    1974-01-01

    A guide to a computer program, written in FORTRAN 4, for predicting the flow properties of turbulent mixing with combustion of a circular jet of hydrogen into a co-flowing stream of air is presented. The program, which is based upon the Imperial College group's PASSA series, solves differential equations for diffusion and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy and also of the R.M.S. fluctuation of hydrogen concentration. The effective turbulent viscosity for use in the shear stress equation is computed. Chemical equilibrium is assumed throughout the flow.

  20. Chemical, structural and combustion characteristics of carbonaceous products obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Kent Hoekman, S; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-05-01

    A carbon-rich solid product, denoted as hydrochar, was synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB), at different pre-treatment temperatures of 150, 250 and 350 °C. The conversion of the raw biomass to its hydrochar occurred via dehydration and decarboxylation processes. The hydrochar produced at 350 °C had the maximum energy-density (>27 MJ kg(-1)) with 68.52% of raw EFB energy retained in the char. To gain a detailed insight into the chemical and structural properties, carbonaceous hydrochar materials were characterized by FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. This work also investigated the influence of hydrothermally treated hydrochars on the co-combustion characteristics of low rank Indonesian coal. Conventional thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) parameters, kinetics and activation energy of different hydrochar and coal blends were estimated. Our results show that solid hydrochars improve the combustion of low rank coals for energy generation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A method for determining the completeness of fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavger, M.D.; Chepkin, V.M.; Gruzdev, V.N.; Talantov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The current of conductivity (ionization) of gaseous combustion products, which forms with feeding of electric voltage to a special probe, is proposed for determining the completeness of fuel combustion. Here, the charged particles are formed from substances which form in the intermediate stages of the combustion reaction. The volume of charged particles is proportional to the volume of the intermediate substances, whose presence attests to the incompleteness of the combustion reaction. The fullness of fuel combustion is determined from a formula which includes the stoichiometric coefficient, a gas constant, the energy of activation, the characteristics of the chemical activity of the intermediate substances, the coefficient of air excess, the temperature of the combustion products and the conductivity current.

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Gd doped ceria by combustion technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadhav, L. D.; Chourashiya, M. G.; Subhedar, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    chemical method of combustion where in the combustion of precursors results in the formation of nanoparticles relatively at lower processing temperature. The thermogravimetric study was carried out to understand the ignition temperature and optimize the fuel-to-oxidant ratio. The successful synthesis...

  3. 3rd International Conference on Numerical Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Larrouturou, Bernard; Numerical Combustion

    1989-01-01

    Interest in numerical combustion is growing among applied mathematicians, physicists, chemists, engine manufacturers and many industrialists. This proceedings volume contains nine invited lectures and twenty seven contributions carefully selected by the editors. The major themes are numerical simulation of transsonic and supersonic combustion phenomena, the study of supersonic reacting mixing layers, and turbulent combustion. Emphasis is laid on hyperbolic models and on numerical simulations of hydrocarbon planes with a complete set of chemical reactions carried out in two-dimensional geometries as well as on complex reactive flow simulations.

  4. Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion Explosion, Flame, Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Most of the material covered in this book deals with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics of key processes and fundamental mechanisms for various combustion and combustion related phenomena in gaseous combustible mixture. It provides the reader with basic knowledge of burning processes and mechanisms of reaction wave propagation. The combustion of a gas mixture (flame, explosion, detonation) is necessarily accompanied by motion of the gas. The process of combustion is therefore not only a chemical phenomenon but also one of gas dynamics. The material selection focuses on the gas phase and

  5. Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)

  6. Development of sodium droplet combustion analysis methodology using direct numerical simulation in 3-dimensional coordinate (COMET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Ohira, Hiroaki

    1998-08-01

    In the early stage of sodium leak event of liquid metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, liquid sodium flows out from a piping, and ignition and combustion of liquid sodium droplet might occur under certain environmental condition. Compressible forced air flow, diffusion of chemical species, liquid sodium droplet behavior, chemical reactions and thermodynamic properties should be evaluated with considering physical dependence and numerical connection among them for analyzing combustion of sodium liquid droplet. A direct numerical simulation code was developed for numerical analysis of sodium liquid droplet in forced convection air flow. The numerical code named COMET, 'Sodium Droplet COmbustion Analysis METhodology using Direct Numerical Simulation in 3-Dimensional Coordinate'. The extended MAC method was used to calculate compressible forced air flow. Counter diffusion among chemical species is also calculated. Transport models of mass and energy between droplet and surrounding atmospheric air were developed. Equation-solving methods were used for computing multiphase equilibrium between sodium and air. Thermodynamic properties of chemical species were evaluated using dynamic theory of gases. Combustion of single sphere liquid sodium droplet in forced convection, constant velocity, uniform air flow was numerically simulated using COMET. Change of droplet diameter with time was closely agree with d 2 -law of droplet combustion theory. Spatial distributions of combustion rate and heat generation and formation, decomposition and movement of chemical species were analyzed. Quantitative calculations of heat generation and chemical species formation in spray combustion are enabled for various kinds of environmental condition by simulating liquid sodium droplet combustion using COMET. (author)

  7. Toward the modeling of combustion reactions through discrete element method (DEM) simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Martina Costa; Alobaid, Falah; Wang, Yongqi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the process of combustion of coal particles under turbulent regime in a high-temperature reaction chamber is modeled through 3D discrete element method (DEM) simulations. By assuming the occurrence of interfacial transport phenomena between the gas and solid phases, one investigates the influence of the physicochemical properties of particles on the rates of heterogeneous chemical reactions, as well as the influence of eddies present in the gas phase on the mass transport of reactants toward the coal particles surface. Moreover, by considering a simplistic chemical mechanism for the combustion process, thermochemical and kinetic parameters obtained from the simulations are employed to discuss some phenomenological aspects of the combustion process. In particular, the observed changes in the mass and volume of coal particles during the gasification and combustion steps are discussed by emphasizing the changes in the chemical structure of the coal. In addition to illustrate how DEM simulations can be used in the modeling of consecutive and parallel chemical reactions, this work also shows how heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions become a source of mass and energy for the gas phase.

  8. Reduced chemical kinetic model of detonation combustion of one- and multi-fuel gaseous mixtures with air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Two-step approximate models of chemical kinetics of detonation combustion of (i) one hydrocarbon fuel CnHm (for example, methane, propane, cyclohexane etc.) and (ii) multi-fuel gaseous mixtures (∑aiCniHmi) (for example, mixture of methane and propane, synthesis gas, benzene and kerosene) are presented for the first time. The models can be used for any stoichiometry, including fuel/fuels-rich mixtures, when reaction products contain molecules of carbon. Owing to the simplicity and high accuracy, the models can be used in multi-dimensional numerical calculations of detonation waves in corresponding gaseous mixtures. The models are in consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and Le Chatelier's principle. Constants of the models have a clear physical meaning. The models can be used for calculation thermodynamic parameters of the mixture in a state of chemical equilibrium.

  9. The Role of Attrition and Solids Recovery in a Chemical Looping Combustion Process Effet de l’attrition et de la récupération des particules dans le procédé de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramp M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state behavior of a Chemical Looping Combustion process of interconnected fluidized bed reactors is simulated. The simulations have been carried out in two different scales, 50 kWth and 100 MWth. Attrition model derived from small scale laboratory experiments has been employed for the prediction of the process behavior in terms of attrition and Oxygen Carrier loss. Information on Oxygen Carrier characteristics and reaction kinetics were taken from literature. Realistic circulation mass flows of Oxygen Carrier particles are obtained and Oxygen Carrier losses are quantified. The large scale process looses significantly more Oxygen Carrier than the small scale process based on the same amount of thermal energy produced. Incomplete conversion in the air reactor could be identified as a critical point. Another issue is the fuel gas bypassing the Oxygen Carrier particles through bubbles in the large scale process which leads to lowered fuel conversions. The simulations indicate that a similar performance of a pilot scale and a large scale process is not guaranteed due to the scale-up effect on fluid dynamics. Furthermore, the simulations allow an assessment of the influence of the quality of the solids recovery system on the Oxygen Carrier loss. The distribution of the losses between possible origins is investigated and different changes in the solids recovery system are discussed regarding their potential to decrease the Oxygen Carrier loss. For example, the addition of a second-stage cyclone after the air reactor of the large scale process reduces the Oxygen Carrier loss significantly. Le présent travail propose un modèle de simulation en continu du procédé de combustion en boucle chimique constitué de deux lits fluidisés interconnectés. Les simulations ont été conduites à deux échelles 50 kWth correspondant à une installation pilote et 100 MWth correspondant à une installation industrielle. Un modèle d

  10. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent; Obtencion de un compuesto de bario por combustion quimica y su evaluacion como adsorbente de Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas G, N [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  11. Tabulated chemical kinetics for efficient and detailed simulations of diesel engine combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekdemir, C.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and detailed computational tools to simulate engine combustion are of great importance. The internal combustion engine will remain the primary mean for transportation in the decades to come. Especially diesel engines are, and become increasingly more, popular because of their high

  12. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yik Siang Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study of a natural gas combustion burner focusing on the effect of combustion, thermal radiation and turbulence models on the temperature and chemical species concentration fields. The combustion was modelled using the finite rate/eddy dissipation (FR/EDM and partially premixed flame models. Detailed chemistry kinetics CHEMKIN GRI-MECH 3.0 consisting of 325 reactions was employed to model the methane combustion. Discrete ordinates (DO and spherical harmonics (P1 model were employed to predict the thermal radiation. The gas absorption coefficient dependence on the wavelength is resolved by the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM. Turbulence flow was simulated using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS based models. The findings showed that a combination of partially premixed flame, P1 and standard k-ε (SKE gave the most accurate prediction with an average deviation of around 7.8% of combustion temperature and 15.5% for reactant composition (methane and oxygen. The results show the multi-step chemistry in the partially premixed model is more accurate than the two-step FR/EDM. Meanwhile, inclusion of thermal radiation has a minor effect on the heat transfer and species concentration. SKE turbulence model yielded better prediction compared to the realizable k-ε (RKE and renormalized k-ε (RNG. The CFD simulation presented in this work may serve as a useful tool to evaluate a performance of a natural gas combustor. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 9th October 2017; Accepted: 30th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Pang, Y.S., Law, W.P., Pung, K.Q., Gimbun, J. (2018. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 155-169 (doi:10.9767/bcrec

  13. Coal-char combustion in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, S.P.; Pande, M. [Indian Institute of Technolgy, Kanpur (India)

    2001-12-01

    Combustion of bituminous coal chars ranging from 0.8 mm to 1.8 mm has been studied in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850{sup o}C. The fluidised bed consists of inert sand particles of average size of 0.5 mm and reactive coal char particles. A heat balance has been worked out to calculate the rate of combustion of char from measured incremental changes in the bed temperature during combustion. Investigations on partially burnt particles suggest that the ash layer which builds up around the burning core of char particles is non-flaking and the particles burn in a shrinking core manner. Analysis of rate data indicates that the rate of combustion is controlled by chemical reaction kinetics, though diffusion of oxygen through the bundary layer begins to influence the overall reaction kinetics at higher temperatures. The burnt out time varies linearly with particle size. Activation energy for the chemical reaction control regime is found to be around 68 kJ/mole.

  14. Alstom's development of advanced CFB based technologies for CO{sub 2} mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; David G. Turek; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Herbert E. Andrus; John H. Chiu; Jean-Xavier Morin [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) is actively working to develop advanced circulating fluidized bed (CFB) based technologies for the purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation. Two of the more promising ideas currently being investigated at ALSTOM are the oxygen-fired CFB and chemical looping technologies. The oxygen-fired CFB is a near-term CO{sub 2} capture technology, which uses pure oxygen tempered with recirculated flue gas to combust the fuel. The oxygen for combustion may be supplied by a cryogenic air separation unit, or in the future by more efficient processes such as oxygen transport membrane. This produces a flue gas stream comprising mostly CO{sub 2} and water vapor. Simple condensation of most of the water vapor leaves a CO{sub 2}-rich product stream which can be simply compressed for sequestration or purified for use in enhanced oil recovery or enhanced coal bed methane. Chemical looping is a longer-term development path towards CO{sub 2} mitigation. In ALSTOM's processes, a regenerable solid carrier extracts oxygen from air and transports it for combustion or gasification of the fuel. The chemical looping combustion process produces a high CO{sub 2} flue gas stream (similar to the O{sub 2} fired CFB flue gas stream) and steam for a Rankine cycle. The chemical looping gasification process captures CO{sub 2} in a separate chemical loop and produces hydrogen-rich synthesis gas for use in IGCCs, fuel cells, or for other industrial uses. This paper discusses ALSTOM's latest test work in these areas and the technical, economic and environmental implications of these advanced CFB-based systems. These advanced power generation units can be built from proven fluid bed design features and systems. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Modification of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Combustion aerosols particles are released on large scale into the atmosphere in the industrialized regions as well as in the tropics (by wood fires). The particles are subjected to various aging processes which depend on the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles. The interaction of combustion particles with sunlight and humidity as well as adsorption and desorption of volatile material to or from the particles considerably changes their physical and chemical properties and thus their residence time in the atmosphere. This is of importance because combustion particles are known to have a variety of health effects on people. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol particles have an influence on climate, directly through the reflection and absorption of solar radiation and indirectly through modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. In a first step, a field experiment was carried out to study the sources and characteristics of combustion aerosols that are emitted from vehicles in a road tunnel. It was found that most of the fine particles were tail pipe emissions of diesel powered vehicles. The calculation shows that on an average these vehicles emit about 300 mg fine particulate matter per driven kilometer. This emission factor is at least 100 times higher than the mean emission factor estimated for gasoline powered vehicles. Furthermore, it is found that during their residence time in the tunnel, the particles undergo significant changes: The particles change towards a more compact structure. The conclusion is reached that this is mainly due to adsorption of volatile material from the gas phase to the particle surface. In the atmosphere, the life cycle as well as the radiative and chemical properties of an aerosol particle is strongly dependent on its response to humidity. Therefore the hygroscopic behavior of combustion particles emitted from single sources (i.e. from a gasoline and a diesel engine) were studied in laboratory experiments.

  16. A comprehensive iso-octane combustion model with improved thermochemistry and chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour

    2017-02-05

    Iso-Octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) is a primary reference fuel and an important component of gasoline fuels. Moreover, it is a key component used in surrogates to study the ignition and burning characteristics of gasoline fuels. This paper presents an updated chemical kinetic model for iso-octane combustion. Specifically, the thermodynamic data and reaction kinetics of iso-octane have been re-assessed based on new thermodynamic group values and recently evaluated rate coefficients from the literature. The adopted rate coefficients were either experimentally measured or determined by analogy to theoretically calculated values. Furthermore, new alternative isomerization pathways for peroxy-alkyl hydroperoxide (ȮOQOOH) radicals were added to the reaction mechanism. The updated kinetic model was compared against new ignition delay data measured in rapid compression machines (RCM) and a high-pressure shock tube. These experiments were conducted at pressures of 20 and 40 atm, at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 1.0, and at temperatures in the range of 632–1060 K. The updated model was further compared against shock tube ignition delay times, jet-stirred reactor oxidation speciation data, premixed laminar flame speeds, counterflow diffusion flame ignition, and shock tube pyrolysis speciation data available in the literature. Finally, the updated model was used to investigate the importance of alternative isomerization pathways in the low temperature oxidation of highly branched alkanes. When compared to available models in the literature, the present model represents the current state-of-the-art in fundamental thermochemistry and reaction kinetics of iso-octane; and thus provides the best prediction of wide ranging experimental data and fundamental insights into iso-octane combustion chemistry.

  17. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop; Nettyam, Naveena; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability

  18. Identification and quantification of priority species from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zheng, L.; Hlavacek, T. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories

    1996-07-01

    The objective is to quantify and characterize emissions from pulverized coal combustion of seven coals and the circulating fluidized bed combustion of four coals. The species of particular interest are sulphur, nitrogen, chlorine, arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, potassium, and sodium. The Facility for Analysis of Chemical Thermodynamics (F{asterisk}A{asterisk}C{asterisk}T) method is used to predict type and amount of priority species. Prediction is made for combustion with and without the presence of limestone. The results show that the combustion technology used influences the amount of priority species emitted. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  19. 75 FR 32142 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    .... Contact Mat Chibbaro, P.E., Fire Protection Engineer, Office of Safety Systems, OSHA Directorate of..., and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium). Industries that may have combustible dust hazards include..., chemical manufacturing, textile manufacturing, furniture manufacturing, metal processing, fabricated metal...

  20. Quantum Chemical Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Effects on Combustion Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth E; Atlanov, Arseniy A; Vasu, Subith S

    2017-05-18

    In oxy-fuel combustion, the pure oxygen (O 2 ), diluted with CO 2 is used as oxidant instead air. Hence, the combustion products (CO 2 and H 2 O) are free from pollution by nitrogen oxides. Moreover, high pressures result in the near-liquid density of CO 2 at supercritical state (sCO 2 ). Unfortunately, the effects of sCO 2 on the combustion kinetics are far from being understood. To assist in this understanding, in this work we are using quantum chemistry methods. Here we investigate potential energy surfaces of important combustion reactions in the presence of the carbon dioxide molecule. All transition states and reactant and product complexes are reported for three reactions: H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 (R1), 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 (R2), and CO + OH → CO 2 + H (R3). In reaction R3, covalent binding of CO 2 to the OH radical and then the CO molecule opens a new pathway, including hydrogen transfer from oxygen to carbon atoms followed by CH bond dissociation. Compared to the bimolecular OH + CO mechanism, this pathway reduces the activation barrier by 5 kcal/mol and is expected to accelerate the reaction. In the case of hydroperoxyl self-reaction 2HO 2 → H 2 O 2 + O 2 the intermediates, containing covalent bonds to CO 2 are found not to be competitive. However, the spectator CO 2 molecule can stabilize the cyclic transition state and lower the barrier by 3 kcal/mol. Formation of covalent intermediates is also discovered in the H 2 CO + HO 2 → HCO + H 2 O 2 reaction, but these species lead to substantially higher activation barriers, which makes them unlikely to play a role in hydrogen transfer kinetics. The van der Waals complexation with carbon dioxide also stabilizes the transition state and reduces the reaction barrier. These results indicate that the CO 2 environment is likely to have a catalytic effect on combustion reactions, which needs to be included in kinetic combustion mechanisms in supercritical CO 2 .

  1. Repurposing Mass-produced Internal Combustion Engines Quantifying the Value and Use of Low-cost Internal Combustion Piston Engines for Modular Applications in Energy and Chemical Engineering Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Zara E.

    This thesis proposes that internal combustion piston engines can help clear the way for a transformation in the energy, chemical, and refining industries that is akin to the transition computer technology experienced with the shift from large mainframes to small personal computers and large farms of individually small, modular processing units. This thesis provides a mathematical foundation, multi-dimensional optimizations, experimental results, an engine model, and a techno-economic assessment, all working towards quantifying the value of repurposing internal combustion piston engines for new applications in modular, small-scale technologies, particularly for energy and chemical engineering systems. Many chemical engineering and power generation industries have focused on increasing individual unit sizes and centralizing production. This "bigger is better" concept makes it difficult to evolve and incorporate change. Large systems are often designed with long lifetimes, incorporate innovation slowly, and necessitate high upfront investment costs. Breaking away from this cycle is essential for promoting change, especially change happening quickly in the energy and chemical engineering industries. The ability to evolve during a system's lifetime provides a competitive advantage in a field dominated by large and often very old equipment that cannot respond to technology change. This thesis specifically highlights the value of small, mass-manufactured internal combustion piston engines retrofitted to participate in non-automotive system designs. The applications are unconventional and stem first from the observation that, when normalized by power output, internal combustion engines are one hundred times less expensive than conventional, large power plants. This cost disparity motivated a look at scaling laws to determine if scaling across both individual unit size and number of units produced would predict the two order of magnitude difference seen here. For the first

  2. Tritium Management Loop Design Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jordan D. [ORNL; Felde, David K. [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Qualls, A L. [ORNL; Calderoni, Pattrick [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2017-12-01

    This report summarizes physical, chemical, and engineering analyses that have been done to support the development of a test loop to study tritium migration in 2LiF-BeF2 salts. The loop will operate under turbulent flow and a schematic of the apparatus has been used to develop a model in Mathcad to suggest flow parameters that should be targeted in loop operation. The introduction of tritium into the loop has been discussed as well as various means to capture or divert the tritium from egress through a test assembly. Permeation was calculated starting with a Modelica model for a transport through a nickel window into a vacuum, and modifying it for a FLiBe system with an argon sweep gas on the downstream side of the permeation interface. Results suggest that tritium removal with a simple tubular permeation device will occur readily. Although this system is idealized, it suggests that rapid measurement capability in the loop may be necessary to study and understand tritium removal from the system.

  3. Obtaining of a barium compound by combustion chemistry and their evaluation as Co adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas G, N.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, barium carbonate synthesized by chemical combustion method using a chemical precursor prepared by the combination of barium nitrate and urea as a fuel, with a 1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, the chemical precursor was heated to evaporate excess water, producing a homogeneous viscous liquid, that when heated to 900 centi grades for 5 minutes an exothermic reaction was produced very quickly and abruptly, forming a white powder final product, fine porous, little spongy, dry and crystalline ready to be used as material adsorbent. Additionally, the effect of water on the synthesis by chemical combustion was studied. Simultaneously, and with the purpose of comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the method by chemical combustion, barium carbonate was synthesized by precipitation method using barium nitrate salts and sodium carbonate. Synthesized barium carbonate, was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. We studied the adsorption capacity of Co present in aqueous solution by static tests on materials synthesized at room temperature using the neutron activation analysis. It was found that the synthesis by chemical combustion provides an interesting alternative compared to the synthesis by precipitation because it offers simplicity of synthesis and speed to have a good adsorbent material. It was found that the barium carbonate synthesized by the chemical combustion method using in their synthesis 1.0 ml of water, was the one who achieved the maximum adsorption capacity of 95.6% compared with the barium carbonate prepared by precipitation, which reached a capacity adsorption of 51.48%. (Author)

  4. chemical kinetic study of nitrogen oxides formation in methane flameless combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado T, Pedro N; Cadavid S, Francisco; Mondragon, P Fanor; Ruiz, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the nitrogen oxides formation in a flameless combustion process characterized for using air highly diluted and preheated at high temperatures. The combustion model used in this study was the one dimensional counterflow methane air diffusion flame. The NOx production rate analysis showed that the thermal and prompt mechanisms are the most important for the formation and consumption of NO under dilution conditions for the oxidant in N 2 and combustion products. These mechanisms are related since the starting reaction for NO formation (N2 molecular dissociation) belongs to the prompt mechanism while the NO formation is reported mainly for the thermal mechanism reactions. On the other hand, the NO - NO 2 equilibrium showed that the reaction rates are comparable to that obtained by the thermal and prompt mechanisms, but its global contribution to NO formation are almost insignificant due to the oxidation reaction with radicals HO 2 .

  5. Carbonate Looping for De-Carbonization of Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Andersen, Maria Friberg; Lin, Weigang

    2011-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the largest emitter of CO2 other than power generation plants, which includes the emissions from combustion of fuel and also from calcination of limestone for clinker production. In order to reduce CO2 emissions from the cement industry an effective an economically...... feasible technology is to be developed. The carbonate looping process is a promising technology, which is particularly suitable for the cement industry as limestone could be used for capture and release of CO2. Integration of carbonate looping process into cement pyroprocess has two advantages: 1...... integrated into cement pyro-process. The energy required for regeneration in the calciner increases with increase in average conversion of calcined limestone and energy that can be extracted from carbonator decreases with increasing average conversion. Further the influence of type of limestone...

  6. Combustion in fluidized bed reactors; Verbrennung in Wirbelschichtreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Since the first application for the coal gasification, the fluidized bed technology has passed an impressive development. Nowadays, the fluidized bed technology is utilized at chemical processes, drying and cooling, gasification, combustion and purification of exhaust gas. In the firing technology, the fluidized technology initially has been proved in the combustion of very high ash coal and sewage sludge. Recently, the fluidized bed technology also is applied in the drying of sewage sludge, combustion of domestic waste - as in Japan and Sweden - as well as in the gasification and combustion of substitute fuels, biomass - wood pellets, wood chips, straw, cocoa shells and so forth - and residues from the paper manufacturing - such as in Germany and Austria. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the combustion of sewage sludge, substitute fuels and biomass.

  7. Efficient catalytic combustion in integrated micropellistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bársony, I; Ádám, M; Fürjes, P; Dücső, Cs; Lucklum, R; Hirschfelder, M; Kulinyi, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses two of the key issues of the development of catalytic combustion-type sensors: the selection and production of active catalytic particles on the micropellistor surface as well as the realization of a reliable thermal conduction between heater element and catalytic surface, for the sensing of temperature increase produced by the combustion. The report also demonstrates that chemical sensor product development by a MEMS process is a continuous struggle for elimination of all uncertainties influencing reliability and sensitivity of the final product

  8. Hadron–Quark Combustion as a Nonlinear, Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Amir; Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2018-03-01

    The hadron-quark combustion front is a system that couples various processes, such as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, diffusion, and neutrino transport. Previous numerical work has shown that this system is very nonlinear, and can be very sensitive to some of these processes. In these proceedings, we contextualize the hadron-quark combustion as a nonlinear system, subject to dramatic feedback triggered by leptonic weak decays and neutrino transport.

  9. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  10. Proceedings of the 2006 Combustion Institute Canadian Section spring technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaud, C.; Weckman, E.; Lam, C.; Spike, E.

    2006-01-01

    This conference provided a networking opportunity for academic, government and industrial combustion researchers from across Canada. All aspects of combustion were discussed, particularly those related to new engine technologies that reduce exhaust gas emissions while maintaining performance. Major engine operating and fuelling control parameters that improve combustion efficiency were identified. The conference was divided into several sessions dealing with combustion emissions and pollutants such as soot and particulates; alternative fuels including biofuels and fuel cells; chemical kinetics; droplet and spray combustion; combustion synthesis of materials; detonations, explosions, fires, flammability, flares and incineration; environmental issues and hazard analysis; and, numerical modeling and simulation. The conference featured 61 presentations, of which 39 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  11. A parametric investigation of hydrogen hcci combustion using a multi-zone model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komninos, N.P.; Hountalas, D.T.; Rakopoulos, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of various operating variables of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine fueled with hydrogen, using a multi-zone model developed by the authors. The multi-zone model consists of zones, which are allotted spatial locations within the combustion chamber. The model takes into account heat transfer between the zones and the combustion chamber walls, providing a spatial temperature distribution during the closed part of the engine cycle, i.e. compression, combustion and expansion. Mass transfer between zones is also accounted for, based on the geometric configuration of the zones, and includes the flow of mass in and out of the crevice regions, represented by the crevice zone. Combustion is incorporated using chemical kinetics based on a chemical reaction mechanism for the oxidation of hydrogen. This chemical reaction mechanism also includes the reactions for nitrogen oxides formation. Using the multi-zone model a parametric investigation is conducted, in order to determine the effect of engine speed, equivalence ratio, compression ratio, inlet pressure and inlet temperature, on the performance, combustion characteristics and emissions of an HCCI engine fueled with hydrogen

  12. Experimental and CFD investigation of gas phase freeboard combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jimmy

    Reliable and accurate modeling capabilities for combustion systems are valuable tools for optimization of the combustion process. This work concerns primary precautions for reducing NO emissions, thereby abating the detrimental effects known as “acid rain”, and minimizing cost for flue gas...... treatment. The aim of this project is to provide validation data for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models relevant for grate firing combustion conditions. CFD modeling is a mathematical tool capable of predicting fluid flow, mixing and chemical reaction with thermal conversion and transport. Prediction......, but under well-defined conditions. Comprehensive experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition are obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. Ammonia is added to the combustion setup in order to simulate fuel...

  13. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m−2 and 50 kW.m−2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  14. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  15. Research in Supercritical Fuel Properties and Combustion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    identified reactions needing further study and C-2 and C-3 species to add to the mechanism . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Supercritical fluids , Brillouin scattering...kinetics mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels containing up to 2 carbon atoms, including uncertainties. • We identified key reactions and...safety. The chemical mechanisms for combustion of all of these fuels share the same set of elementary reactions of smaller-fragment hydrocarbons , and

  16. Hadron–Quark Combustion as a Nonlinear, Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ouyed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hadron–quark combustion front is a system that couples various processes, such as chemical reactions, hydrodynamics, diffusion, and neutrino transport. Previous numerical work has shown that this system is very nonlinear, and can be very sensitive to some of these processes. In these proceedings, we contextualize the hadron–quark combustion as a nonlinear system, subject to dramatic feedback triggered by leptonic weak decays and neutrino transport.

  17. Research on combustion of black-liquor drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, A.

    1999-01-01

    Black liquor, the major by-product of the kraft process for production of pulp, is one of the most important industrial fuels. It is burned in recovery boilers in the form of large spray drops (mm), with the objective of simultaneous recovery of heat and chemicals (sodium and sulfur). Even though black-liquor combustion in boilers has been practised for over half a century, research efforts toward improvement of combustion efficiency and abatement of environmental emissions are much more recent. The present paper addresses a specific aspect of that research, namely, elucidation of processes which occur during combustion of black-liquor drops in boiler-gas streams. The paper (a) gives a brief description of the kraft process, (b) reviews the experimental and theoretical (modeling) research advances on combustion of kraft-liquor drops during the 1980s and 1990s, (c) re-examines the results of an earlier combustion study in which black-liquor drops were observed in free flight at temperatures near those in recovery boilers, and (d) recommends input for the modeling of in-flight combustion of kraft-liquor drops in recovery boilers. (author)

  18. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste

  19. Hybrid Approach for Modeling Chemical Kinetics and Turbulence Effects on Combustion-Instability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instabilities pose a significant technical risk in the development of liquid and solid rocket motors. Much of the effort in modeling combustion...

  20. Investigation of Spark Ignition and Autoignition in Methane and Air Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Reaction Kinetics. A numerical Study of Ignition Processes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordrik, R.

    1993-12-01

    The processes in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines have received increased attention in recent years because their efficiencies are important both economically and environmentally. This doctoral thesis studies the ignition phenomena by means of numerical simulation methods. The fundamental physical relations include flow field conservation equations, thermodynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, transport properties and spark modelling. Special attention is given to the inclusion of chemical kinetics in the flow field equations. Using his No Transport of Radicals Concept method, the author reduces the computational efforts by neglecting the transport of selected intermediate species. The method is validated by comparison with flame propagation data. A computational method is described and used to simulate spark ignition in laminar premixed methane-air mixtures and the autoignition process of a methane bubble surrounded by hot air. The spark ignition simulation agrees well with experimental results from the literature. The autoignition simulation identifies the importance of diffusive and chemical processes acting together. The ignition delay times exceed the experimental values found in the literature for premixed ignition delay, presumably because of the mixing process and lack of information on low temperature reactions in the skeletal kinetic mechanism. Transient turbulent methane jet autoignition is simulated by means of the KIVA-II code. Turbulent combustion is modelled by the Eddy Dissipation Concept. 90 refs., 81 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  2. Exergy analysis of a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from co-utilization of coal and biomass is very attractive since this technology can not only save the coal resource but make sufficient utilization of biomass. In addition, with this concept, net carbon discharge per unit electric power generation can also be sharply reduced. In this work, a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is presented and analyzed with the assistance of Aspen Plus. The effects of different operating conditions including the biomass mass fraction, R_b, the hydrogen recycle ratio, R_h_r, the hydrogasification pressure, P_h_g, the iron to fuel mole ratio, R_i_f, the reducer temperature, T_r_e, the oxidizer temperature, T_o_x, and the fuel utilization factor, U_f of the SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) on the system operation results including the energy efficiency, η_e, the total energy efficiency, η_t_e, the exergy efficiency, η_e_x, the total exergy efficiency, η_t_e_x and the carbon capture rate, η_c_c, are analyzed. The energy and exergy balances of the whole system are also calculated and the corresponding Sankey diagram and Grassmann diagram are drawn. Under the benchmark condition, exergy efficiencies of different units in the system are calculated. η_t_e, η_t_e_x and η_c_c of the system are also found to be 43.6%, 41.2% and 99.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • A coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is setup. • Sankey and Grassmann diagrams are presented based on the energy and exergy balance calculations. • Sensitivity analysis is done to understand the system operation characteristics. • Total energy and exergy efficiencies of this system can be 43.6% and 41.2%, respectively. • About 99.1% of the carbon contained in coal and biomass can be captured in this system.

  3. Sorbent control of trace metals in sewage sludge combustion and incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I.; Yao, H.; Mkilaha, I. S. N.

    2003-05-01

    Coal and wastes combustion have become an important issue not only in terms of energy generation but also environmental conservation. The need for alternative fuels and wastes management has made the two energy sources of importance. However, the utilization of the two is faced with problems of impurity trace metals in the fuel. These metals usually speciate during combustion or incineration leading to generation of fumes and subsequently particles. This paper reports on the study aimed at understanding the speciation of trace metals and their emission from combustion systems as particulates. Experiments carried out using a down-flow furnace and theoretical study carried out using lead, chromium and cadmium as basic metals had shown that their speciation and subsequent emission is controlled by both chemical composition and physical properties of the fuel. The physical and chemical and physical properties of the fuel and their respective compounds and the operating conditions of the incineration and combustion system control the enrichment of the particles with trace metals.

  4. Emission of nitrous oxide during combustion of organic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Gol' dberg, A.S.

    1990-11-01

    Analyzes formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion of coal, natural gas and mazout: chemical reactions that lead to formation of nitrous oxide during coal combustion, reaction kinetics and reaction yields, factors that influence emission of nitrogen oxides from a furnace, factors that influence formation of nitrous oxide (temperature effects, air excess ratio, coal burnout degree, etc.), effects of fuel type and its chemical composition, effects of flue gas desulfurization and denitrification methods on nitrous oxide yield. Analyses show that yield of nitrous oxide is low and does not exceed 5 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 3} flue gas (0.0005%). However chemical reactions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere are said to form additional quantities of nitrous oxide which negatively influence the ozone layer. 4 refs.

  5. Research into three-component biodiesel fuels combustion process using a single droplet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Raslavičius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the engine emission while at same time improving engine efficiency, it is very important to clarify the combustion mechanism. Even if, there are many researches into investigating the mechanism of engine combustion, so that to clarify the relationship between complicated phenomena, it is very difficult to investigate due to the complicated process of both physical and chemical reaction from the start of fuel injection to the end of combustion event. The numerical simulations are based on a detailed vaporization model and detailed chemical kinetics. The influence of different physical parameters like droplet temperature, gas phase temperature, ambient gas pressure and droplet burning velocity on the ignition delay process is investigated using fuel droplet combustion stand. Experimental results about their influence on ignition delay time were presented.

  6. Decoding the Mobility and Time Scales of Protein Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yina; Li, Da-Wei; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-03-10

    The flexible nature of protein loops and the time scales of their dynamics are critical for many biologically important events at the molecular level, such as protein interaction and recognition processes. In order to obtain a predictive understanding of the dynamic properties of loops, 500 ns molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of 38 different proteins were performed and validated using NMR chemical shifts. A total of 169 loops were analyzed and classified into three types, namely fast loops with correlation times Web server (http://spin.ccic.ohio-state.edu/index.php/loop). The results demonstrate that loop dynamics with their time scales can be predicted rapidly with reasonable accuracy, which will allow the screening of average protein structures to help better understand the various roles loops can play in the context of protein-protein interactions and binding.

  7. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  8. Numerical simulation code for combustion of sodium liquid droplet and its verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi

    1997-11-01

    The computer programs for sodium leak and burning phenomena had been developed based on mechanistic approach. Direct numerical simulation code for sodium liquid droplet burning had been developed for numerical analysis of droplet combustion in forced convection air flow. Distributions of heat generation and temperature and reaction rate of chemical productions, such as sodium oxide and hydroxide, are calculated and evaluated with using this numerical code. Extended MAC method coupled with a higher-order upwind scheme had been used for combustion simulation of methane-air mixture. In the numerical simulation code for combustion of sodium liquid droplet, chemical reaction model of sodium was connected with the extended MAC method. Combustion of single sodium liquid droplet was simulated in this report for the verification of developed numerical simulation code. The changes of burning rate and reaction product with droplet diameter and inlet wind velocity were investigated. These calculation results were qualitatively and quantitatively conformed to the experimental and calculation observations in combustion engineering. It was confirmed that the numerical simulation code was available for the calculation of sodium liquid droplet burning. (author)

  9. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion and meat cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.; Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Chow, J.; Watson, J.; Sagebiel, J.; Sheetz, L.; Batie, S.

    1998-01-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed to develop a chemical emissions profile. Samples were collected using a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler equipped with a 2.5 mm particle selective cyclone. Emissions were diluted 30-100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and were allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab in Riverside, California. Meat type, fat content, and the cooking appliance used were changed in different tests. Fine particle and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected on filter/PUF/XAD/PUF cartridges. Inorganic samples were collected on Teflon and quartz filters, which were analyzed for mass by gravimetry, elements by x-ray fluorescence, ammonium by automated colorimetry, organic and elemental carbon by thermal/optical reflectance, as well as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate by ion chromatography. Analysis of organic species was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These data have been utilized for constructing specific profiles for use in the Chemical Mass Balance model for apportionment of fine particle sources in the Denver, Colorado, region

  10. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  11. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  12. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  13. CFD modeling of combustion processes using KIVA3V Code with partially stirred reactor model for turbulence-combustion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarnicki, R.; Sobiesiak, A.

    2002-01-01

    In order to solve the averaged conservation equations for turbulent reacting flow one is faced with a task of specifying the averaged chemical reaction rate. This is due to turbulence influence on the mean reaction rates that appear in the species concentration Reynolds-averaged equation. In order to investigate the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) combustion model capabilities, a CFD modeling using KIVA3V Code with the PaSR model of two very different combustion processes, was performed. Experimental results were compared with modeling

  14. Indoor Emissions from the Household Combustion of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the lung cancer risk associated with burning coal inside your home. Indoor emissions from the household combustion of coal contain harmful chemicals such as benzene, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde.

  15. Predicting auto-ignition characteristics of RCCI combustion using a multi-zone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egüz, U.; Maes, N.C.J.; Leermakers, C.A.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of new combustion concepts is to meet emission standards by improving fuel air mixing prior to ignition. Since there is no overlap between injection and ignition, combustion is governed mainly by chemical kinetics and it is challenging to control the phasing of ignition. Reactivity

  16. Evaluation of reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms used for modeling mild combustion for natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and parametric study was performed to evaluate the potential of reduced chemistry mechanisms to model natural gas chemistry including NOx chemistry under mild combustion mode. Two reduced mechanisms, 5-step and 9-step, were tested against the GRI-Mech3.0 by comparing key species, such as NOx, CO2 and CO, and gas temperature predictions in idealized reactors codes under mild combustion conditions. It is thus concluded that the 9-step mechanism appears to be a promising reduced mechanism that can be used in multi-dimensional codes for modeling mild combustion of natural gas.

  17. Sandia Sodium Purification Loop (SNAPL) description and operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, R.U.; Weatherbee, R.L.; Smith, L.A.; Mastin, F.L.; Nowotny, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    Sandia's Sodium Purification Loop was constructed to purify sodium for fast reactor safety experiments. An oxide impurity of less than 10 parts per million is required by these in-pile experiments. Commercial, reactor grade sodium is purchased in 180 kg drums. The sodium is melted and transferred into the unit. The unit is of a loop design and purification is accomplished by ''cold trapping.'' Sodium purified in this loop has been chemically analysed at one part per million oxygen by weight. 5 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Miniaturization limitations of rotary internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Zuo, Zhengxing; Liu, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a phenomenological model for rotary internal combustion engines. • Presented scaling laws for the performance of micro rotary engines. • Adiabatic walls can improve the cycle efficiency but result in higher charge leakage. • A lower compression ratio can increase the efficiency due to lower mass losses. • Presented possible minimum engine size of rotary internal combustion engines. - Abstract: With the rapid development of micro electro-mechanical devices, the demands for micro power generation systems have significantly increased in recent years. Traditional chemical batteries have energy densities much lower than hydrocarbon fuels, which makes internal-combustion-engine an attractive technological alternative to batteries. Micro rotary internal combustion engine has drawn great attractions due to its planar design, which is well-suited for fabrication in MEMS. In this paper, a phenomenological model considering heat transfer and mass leakage has been developed to investigate effects of engine speed, compression ratio, blow-by and heat transfer on the performance of micro rotary engine, which provide the guidelines for preliminary design of rotary engine. The lower possible miniaturization limits of rotary combustion engines are proposed.

  19. Calcium looping technology using improved stability nanostructured sorbent for cyclic CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cong; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Chu-guang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    One of the post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies that have sufficiently been proved to be the best candidates for practical large scale post-combustion application is the calcium looping cycle. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of a calcium-based sorbent derived from natural limestone decays through long-term cyclic utilization; thus, the development of novel sorbents to achieve a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity is an critical challenge for the calcium looping cycle technology. In this paper, we report the preparation and character of a new calcium-based sorbent produced via the combustion of a dry gel. The results show that the novel calcium-based sorbent has a much higher residual carbonation conversion as well as a better performance of anti-sintering when compared with the calcium-based sorbent derived from commercial micrometer grade CaCO{sub 3} and nanometer grade CaCO{sub 3}. It is reasonable to propose that the different final carbonation performances are induced by their different pore structures and BET surface areas rather than by different particle sizes. Compared with the commercial nano CaO, the morphology of the new sorbent shows a more rough porous appearance with hollow nanostructure. During carbonation, CO{sub 2} diffused more easily through the hollow structure than through a solid structure to reach the unreacted CaO. Besides, there is less chance for the hollow nanostructured particles to be merged together during the high temperature reactions.

  20. Industry-identified combustion research needs: Special study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development and demonstration of innovative combustion technologies that improve energy conservation and environmental practices in the US industrial sector. The report includes recommendations by industry on R&D needed to resolve current combustion-related problems. Both fundamental and applied R&D needs are presented. The report assesses combustion needs and suggests research ideas for seven major industries, which consume about 78% of all energy used by industry. Included are the glass, pulp and paper, refinery, steel, metal casting, chemicals, and aluminum industries. Information has been collected from manufacturers, industrial operators, trade organizations, and various funding organizations and has been supplemented with expertise at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to develop a list of suggested research and development needed for each of the seven industries.

  1. On the influence of steam on combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.A.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, a numerical simulation study is presented of the influence of steam on premixed and partially premixed combustion. Both laminar (premixed) and turbulent (partially premixed) calculations are presented. The laminar calculations were performed using a detailed chemical mechanism and

  2. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ( 14 C from organically compounds, 36 Cl as chloride and free chlorine, 40 K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 ), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 ) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization

  3. Modeling of combustion products composition of hydrogen-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the usage of entropy maximum principal the algorithm and the program of chemical equilibrium calculation concerning hydrogen--containing fuels are devised. The program enables to estimate the composition of combustion products generated in the conditions similar to combustion conditions in heat engines. The program also enables to reveal the way hydrogen fraction in the conditional composition of the hydrocarbon-hydrogen-air mixture influences the harmful components content. It is proven that molecular hydrogen in the mixture is conductive to the decrease of CO, CO 2 and CH x concentration. NO outlet increases due to higher combustion temperature and N, O, OH concentrations in burnt gases. (authors)

  4. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  5. AKUT-II: an experimental plant for purifying the HTR loop of combustion waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, H.; Vygen, H.

    1976-02-15

    A plant for the separation of aerosols, krypton and tritium (AKUT) used for purifying the head end of the reprocessing of thorium-containing fuel elements from combustion waste gases is described. Data are to be collected to enable a process engineer to plan and construct a large-scale plant, and the correctness and practicability of the concept adopted is to be proved in conjunction with the JUPITER plant. It is true that the tests on the AKUT I plant confirmed that the flow scheme was basically correct, but the actual experimental operation was considerably limited by a fixed and rigid coupling to the combustion furnace. Some operational conditions were encountered which did not meet the design values. Part of the plant (krypton separation) is being tested in the USA. The German concept was taken over in the early stages of tests and adapted to existing apparatuses, the result inevitably being different experimental conditions. The AKUT II plant can now be used for consideration of the economic and safety conditions, and comparisons can be made.

  6. Chemical kinetic models for combustion of hydrocarbons and formation of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachimowski, C. J.; Wilson, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides NOx during combustion of methane, propane, and a jet fuel, JP-4, was investigated in a jet stirred combustor. The results of the experiments were interpreted using reaction models in which the nitric oxide (NO) forming reactions were coupled to the appropriate hydrocarbon combustion reaction mechanisms. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions reveals that the CH + N2 reaction process has a significant effect on NO formation especially in stoichiometric and fuel rich mixtures. Reaction models were assembled that predicted nitric oxide levels that were in reasonable agreement with the jet stirred combustor data and with data obtained from a high pressure (5.9 atm (0.6 MPa)), prevaporized, premixed, flame tube type combustor. The results also suggested that the behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures, like JP-4, may not be significantly different from that of pure hydrocarbons. Application of the propane combustion and nitric oxide formation model to the analysis of NOx emission data reported for various aircraft gas turbines showed the contribution of the various nitric oxide forming processes to the total NOx formed.

  7. Fundamental combustion characteristics of lean hydrogen mixtures; Suiso kihaku kongoki no kisoteki nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, D; Kido, H; Nakahara, M; Hashimoto, J [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    One of the excellent combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixture is that its emission is free of CO2, but the problem of NOx remains, mainly caused by the high combustion temperature. Using leaner mixture and carrying out EGR are supposed to be effective methods to reduce NOx. In this study, to examine the effectiveness of the two methods, fundamental combustion characteristics of nitrogen added lean hydrogen mixtures were investigated by chemical equilibrium calculations and measurements of turbulent combustion characteristics. It is suggested that nitrogen added mixtures can achieve lower NOx combustion than lean mixtures, taking the combustion efficiency into consideration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-01-01

    . These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate

  9. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis of three different engine combustion regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yaopeng; Jia, Ming; Chang, Yachao; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy distributions of three different combustion regimes are studied. • CDC demonstrates the highest utilization efficiency of heat transfer and exhaust. • HCCI achieves the highest energy and exergy efficiencies over CDC and RCCI. • HCCI and RCCI demonstrate lower exergy destruction than CDC. • Combustion temperature, rate, duration and regime affect exergy destruction. - Abstract: Multi-dimensional models were coupled with a detailed chemical mechanism to investigate the energy and exergy distributions of three different combustion regimes in internal combustion engines. The results indicate that the 50% heat release point (CA50) considerably affects fuel efficiency and ringing intensity (RI), in which RI is used to quantify the knock level. Moreover, the burn duration from the 10% heat release point (CA10) to CA50 dominates RI, and the position of 90% heat release point (CA90) affects fuel efficiency. The heat transfer losses of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) strongly depend on the local temperature gradient, while it is closely related to the heat transfer area for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). Among the three combustion regimes, CDC has the largest utilization efficiency for heat transfer and exhaust energy due to its higher temperature in the heat transfer layer and higher exhaust pressure and temperature. The utilization efficiency of heat transfer and exhaust in RCCI is less affected by the variation of CA50 compared to those in CDC and HCCI. Exergy destruction is closely related to the homogeneity of in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio during combustion process, the combustion temperature, the chemical reaction rate, and the combustion duration. Under the combined effect, HCCI and RCCI demonstrate lower exergy destruction than CDC at the same load. Overall, the variations of the exergy distribution for the three combustion regimes

  10. LoopIng: a template-based tool for predicting the structure of protein loops.

    KAUST Repository

    Messih, Mario Abdel

    2015-08-06

    Predicting the structure of protein loops is very challenging, mainly because they are not necessarily subject to strong evolutionary pressure. This implies that, unlike the rest of the protein, standard homology modeling techniques are not very effective in modeling their structure. However, loops are often involved in protein function, hence inferring their structure is important for predicting protein structure as well as function.We describe a method, LoopIng, based on the Random Forest automated learning technique, which, given a target loop, selects a structural template for it from a database of loop candidates. Compared to the most recently available methods, LoopIng is able to achieve similar accuracy for short loops (4-10 residues) and significant enhancements for long loops (11-20 residues). The quality of the predictions is robust to errors that unavoidably affect the stem regions when these are modeled. The method returns a confidence score for the predicted template loops and has the advantage of being very fast (on average: 1 min/loop).www.biocomputing.it/loopinganna.tramontano@uniroma1.itSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Chemical looping reforming of generator gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiara, T.; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, P.

    2010-02-15

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the carbon deposition during reforming of hydrocarbons in a Chemical Looping Reformer (CLR). This knowledge is needed to asses the viability of the CLR technology in reforming tar from biomass gasification preserving lighter hydrocarbons and minimizing the carbon formation during the process. Two different setups were used to test the reactivity of the different samples in the conditions of interest for the tar reforming process: 1) Fixed bed flow reactor (FR), and 2) Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the experiments, the gas atmosphere was switched from reducing to oxidizing atmosphere in every cycle. During the oxidizing cycle, the carrier was regenerated using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Four different oxygen carriers based on nickel (Ni40 and Ni60), manganese (Mn) and ilmenite (Fe) were tested. In the tests, toluene was used to simulate the tars. The Fe and the Mn carrier reacted to a small extent with methane at the highest temperature studied, 800 degrees C. The Ni-carriers did not react at 600 degrees C at first, but they showed some reactivity after having been activated at the higher temperature. Carbon formation occurred with the Ni-carriers, more so with the Ni60 than the Ni40. Ni40, Mn and Fe were activated at the higher temperature. However, Fe showed only low capacity. Ni60 showed no capability of tar reforming. Ni40 showed a high tendency to carbon formation at 800 degrees C, but the formation could be lowered by changing some parameters. Mn formed almost no carbon. Ni40 and Mn were chosen for further studies. Carbon deposition occurred for both Ni40 and Mn, but the amount deposited for Ni40 was about 10 times bigger. Ni40 reacted with the methane and toluene only at 800 degrees C. The conversion over Mn was not as big as for toluene alone. Carbon was formed from carbon monoxide on the Ni40 carrier and on the Mn, but to a much less extent on the latter one. The presence of hydrogen decreased

  12. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  13. Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.

  14. Identification of chemical components of combustion emissions that affect pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Campen, Matthew J; Lund, Amie K; McDonald, Jacob D; Mauderly, Joe L

    2012-04-01

    Combustion emissions cause pro-atherosclerotic responses in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE/⁻) mice, but the causal components of these complex mixtures are unresolved. In studies previously reported, ApoE⁻/⁻ mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 50 consecutive days to multiple dilutions of diesel or gasoline exhaust, wood smoke, or simulated "downwind" coal emissions. In this study, the analysis of the combined four-study database using the Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART) data mining approach to determine putative causal exposure components regardless of combustion source is reported. Over 700 physical-chemical components were grouped into 45 predictor variables. Response variables measured in aorta included endothelin-1, vascular endothelin growth factor, three matrix metalloproteinases (3, 7, 9), metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, heme-oxygenase-1, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Two or three predictors typically explained most of the variation in response among the experimental groups. Overall, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide were most highly predictive of responses, although their rankings differed among the responses. Consistent with the earlier finding that filtration of particles had little effect on responses, particulate components ranked third to seventh in predictive importance for the eight response variables. MART proved useful for identifying putative causal components, although the small number of pollution mixtures (4) can provide only suggestive evidence of causality. The potential independent causal contributions of these gases to the vascular responses, as well as possible interactions among them and other components of complex pollutant mixtures, warrant further evaluation.

  15. Numerical simulation of turbulent combustion: Scientific challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, ZhuYin; Lu, Zhen; Hou, LingYun; Lu, LiuYan

    2014-08-01

    Predictive simulation of engine combustion is key to understanding the underlying complicated physicochemical processes, improving engine performance, and reducing pollutant emissions. Critical issues as turbulence modeling, turbulence-chemistry interaction, and accommodation of detailed chemical kinetics in complex flows remain challenging and essential for high-fidelity combustion simulation. This paper reviews the current status of the state-of-the-art large eddy simulation (LES)/prob-ability density function (PDF)/detailed chemistry approach that can address the three challenging modelling issues. PDF as a subgrid model for LES is formulated and the hybrid mesh-particle method for LES/PDF simulations is described. Then the development need in micro-mixing models for the PDF simulations of turbulent premixed combustion is identified. Finally the different acceleration methods for detailed chemistry are reviewed and a combined strategy is proposed for further development.

  16. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  17. Methane combustion over lanthanum-based perovskite mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arandiyan, Hamidreza [New South Wales Univ., Sydney (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2015-11-01

    This book presents current research into the catalytic combustion of methane using perovskite-type oxides (ABO{sub 3}). Catalytic combustion has been developed as a method of promoting efficient combustion with minimum pollutant formation as compared to conventional catalytic combustion. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have recommended that noble metals supported on (ABO{sub 3}) with well-ordered porous networks show promising redox properties. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials with interpenetrated and regular mesoporous systems have recently triggered enormous research activity due to their high surface areas, large pore volumes, uniform pore sizes, low cost, environmental benignity, and good chemical stability. These are all highly relevant in terms of the utilization of natural gas in light of recent catalytic innovations and technological advances. The book is of interest to all researchers active in utilization of natural gas with novel catalysts. The research covered comes from the most important industries and research centers in the field. The book serves not only as a text for researcher into catalytic combustion of methane, 3DOM perovskite mixed oxide, but also explores the field of green technologies by experts in academia and industry. This book will appeal to those interested in research on the environmental impact of combustion, materials and catalysis.

  18. A Review on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition and Low Temperature Combustion by Optical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical diagnostics is an effective method to understand the physical and chemical reaction processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI and low temperature combustion (LTC modes. Based on optical diagnostics, the true process on mixing, combustion, and emissions can be seen directly. In this paper, the mixing process by port-injection and direct-injection are reviewed firstly. Then, the combustion chemical reaction mechanism is reviewed based on chemiluminescence, natural-luminosity, and laser diagnostics. After, the evolution of pollutant emissions measured by different laser diagnostic methods is reviewed and the measured species including NO, soot, UHC, and CO. Finally, a summary and the future directions on HCCI and LTC used optical diagnostics are presented.

  19. An insight on the spray-A combustion characteristics by means of RANS and LES simulations using flamelet-based combustion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkurt, B.; Akargün, H.Y.; Somers, L.M.T.; Deen, N.G.; Novella, R.; Perez-Sanchez, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of reacting sprays provides access to information not available even applying the most advanced experimental techniques. This is particularly evident if the combustion model handles detailed chemical kinetic models efficiently to describe the fuel

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, E.G.A.; Easson, D.L.; Lyons, G.A.; McRoberts, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  1. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  2. Numerical Simulation of In Situ Combustion of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the process of in situ combustion of oil shale, taking into account the transport and chemical reaction of various components in porous reservoirs. The physical model is presented, including the mass and energy conservation equations and Darcy’s law. The oxidation reactions of oil shale combustion are expressed by adding source terms in the conservation equations. The reaction rate of oxidation satisfies the Arrhenius law. A numerical method is established for calculating in situ combustion, which is simulated numerically, and the results are compared with the available experiment. The profiles of temperature and volume fraction of a few components are presented. The temperature contours show the temperature variation in the combustion tube. It is found that as combustion reaction occurs in the tube, the concentration of oxygen decreases rapidly, while the concentration of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide increases contrarily. Besides, the combustion front velocity is consistent with the experimental value. Effects of gas injection rate, permeability of the reservoir, initial oil content, and injected oxygen content on the ISC process were investigated in this study. Varying gas injection rate and oxygen content is important in the field test of ISC.

  3. Basic study on the generation of RF plasmas in premixed oxy-combustion with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Yugo; Razzak, M.A.; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi; Uesugi, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-combustion generates a high temperature field (above 3000 K), which is applied to next generation power plants and high temperature industrial technologies because of N 2 free processes. However, the combustion temperature is so high that the furnace wall may be fatally damaged. In addition, it is very difficult to control the heat flux and chemical species' concentrations because of rapid chemical reactions. We have developed a new method for controlling the flame by electromagnetic force on this field. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the power coupling between the premixed oxy-combustion with methane and radio frequency (RF) power through the induction coil. By optimizing the power coupling, we observed that the flame can absorb RF power up to 1.5 kW. Spectroscopic measurements also showed an increase in the emission intensity from OH radicals in the flame, indicating improved combustibility. (author)

  4. The Effects of Sooting and Radiation on Droplet Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ook; Manzello, Samuel L.; Choi, Mun Young

    1997-01-01

    The burning of liquid hydrocarbon fuels accounts for a significant portion of global energy production. With predicted future increases in demand and limited reserves of hydrocarbon fuel, it is important to maximize the efficiency of all processes that involve conversion of fuel. With the exception of unwanted fires, most applications involve introduction of liquid fuels into an oxidizing environment in the form of sprays which are comprised of groups of individual droplets. Therefore, tremendous benefits can result from a better understanding of spray combustion processes. Yet, theoretical developments and experimental measurements of spray combustion remains a daunting task due to the complex coupling of a turbulent, two-phase flow with phase change and chemical reactions. However, it is recognized that individual droplet behavior (including ignition, evaporation and combustion) is a necessary component for laying the foundation for a better understanding of spray processes. Droplet combustion is also an ideal problem for gaining a better understanding of non-premixed flames. Under the idealized situation producing spherically-symmetric flames (produced under conditions of reduced natural and forced convection), it represents the simplest geometry in which to formulate and solve the governing equations of mass, species and heat transfer for a chemically reacting two phase flow with phase change. The importance of this topic has promoted extensive theoretical investigations for more than 40 years.

  5. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  6. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  7. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  8. Enhancement of exergy efficiency in combustion systems using flameless mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy efficiency in flameless combustion mode is 13% more than conventional combustion. • The maximum exergy efficiency in flameless combustion mode is achieved when oxidizer contains 10% oxygen. • Exergy destruction of flameless combustion is maximized when CO 2 is used for dilution of oxidizer. - Abstract: An exergitic-based analysis of methane (CH 4 ) conventional and flameless combustion in a lab-scale furnace is performed to determine the rate of pollutant formation and the effective potential of a given amount of fuel in the various combustion modes. The effects of inlet air temperature on exergy efficiency and pollutant formation of conventional combustion in various equivalence ratios are analyzed. The rate of exergy destruction in different conditions of flameless combustion (various equivalence ratios, oxygen concentration in the oxidizer and the effects of diluent) are computed using three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD). Fuel consumption reduction and exergy efficiency augmentation are the main positive consequences of using preheated air temperature in conventional combustion, however pollutants especially NO x formation increases dramatically. Low and moderate temperature inside the chamber conducts the flameless combustion system to low level pollutant formation. Fuel consumption and exergy destruction reduce drastically in flameless mode in comparison with conventional combustion. Exergy efficiency of conventional and flameless mode is 75% and 88% respectively in stoichiometric combustion. When CO 2 is used for dilution of oxidizer, chemical exergy increases due to high CO 2 concentration in the combustion products and exergy efficiency reduces around 2% compared to dilution with nitrogen (N 2 ). Since the rate of irreversibilities in combustion systems is very high in combined heat and power (CHP) generation and other industries, application of flameless combustion could be effective in terms of pollutant

  9. Numerical studies of spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuels using reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2014-04-01

    Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H 16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. The Favre-Averaged Navier Stokes based simulation using the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model was implemented in the numerical calculations of the spray formation processes while the SAGE chemical kinetic solver is used for the detailed kinetic modeling. The SAGE chemical kinetic solver is directly coupled with the gas phase calculations by renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model using a well-stirred reactor model. Validations of the spray liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length data were performed against previous experimental results. The simulated liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length were validated at an ambient density of 15kg/m3, and injection pressure conditions of 100, 200 and 300 MPa were utilized. The predicted liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length agree with the trends obtained in the experimental data at all injection conditions. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  10. Advances in Turbulent Combustion Dynamics Simulations in Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames-Body Stabilized Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    during combustion for GRI -Mech 1.2 reaction mechanism using LEM and CHEMKIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.7 Comparison of temperature during...combustion for GRI -Mech 1.2 raction mechanism using LEM and CHEMKIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.8 The methane profile along the 5 mm long...combustion process was tested using GRI -Mech 1.2 [44]. GRI -Mech is an optimized detailed chemical reaction mechanism capable of the best representation of

  11. The breakthrough of common rail system. Closed-loop control strategy using injector with built-in pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaki, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Katsuhiko; Ishizuka, Koji; Sasaki, Satoru [DENSO Corporation, Aichi-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    DENSO has developed the world's first common rail system injector with built-in pressure sensor. This technology makes it possible to execute closed loop injection control in the cylinders, which has been one of the most challenging issues for diesel engine systems. Attaining both further fuel economy and emission reduction requires further technological innovation in the air system and fuel injection system. With the combustion technology that has been developed, stable combustion with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required in order to reduce nitrogen oxide's (NOx), however robustness is also required in order to handle bio-diesel and low-cetane value fuels and the range for attaining this is extremely narrow. Therefore, for the fuel injection system, in addition to conventional high pressure and high response, lifetime accuracy compensation is key. With this newly developed technology, the fuel injection rate, which determines the combustion within the engine cylinders, is directly detected and controlled in a closed loop to allow precise compensation of the injection system for its entire service life. Highly advanced injection control allows for extremely close multiple injections and variable injection rate control to be possible on the mass production level for the first time. Furthermore, the use of this technology can provide three major advantages for the overall engine system. Firstly succeeds in an expansion of the possible calibration range, which improves fuel economy and emissions, secondly it provides an improvement in the overall engine robustness and reliability. Thirdly, the use of closed loop control makes it possible to greatly reduce the man-hours required for calibration. Given this, the new DENSO common rail system using injectors with built-in pressure sensors is the first step to opening up a new era of diesel engine control. (orig.)

  12. Chemical reactor for converting a first material into a second material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C

    2012-10-16

    A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

  13. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  14. Impact of fuel selection on the environmental performance of post-combustion calcium looping applied to a cement plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Tokheim, Lars Andre; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Worrell, Ernst; Ramírez, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Calcium looping CO2 capture is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production. Coal has been seen as a logical choice of fuel to drive the calcium looping process as coal is already the primary fuel used to produce cement. This study assesses the impact of using different

  15. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice....... In this study, a fly ash sample from an operating Danish power plant based on wood biomass was collected, chemically characterized and investigated for its leaching release of nutrients and heavy metals. A column leaching test was employed. The strongly alkaline pH of all the collected eluates suggested...

  16. Availability analysis of a syngas fueled spark ignition engine using a multi-zone combustion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Michos, C.N.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    A previously developed and validated zero-dimensional, multi-zone, thermodynamic combustion model for the prediction of spark ignition (SI) engine performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions has been extended to include second-law analysis. The main characteristic of the model is the division of the burned gas into several distinct zones, in order to account for the temperature and chemical species stratification developed in the burned gas during combustion. Within the framework of the multi-zone model, the various availability components constituting the total availability of each of the multiple zones of the simulation are identified and calculated separately. The model is applied to a multi-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged and aftercooled, natural gas (NG) SI gas engine running on synthesis gas (syngas) fuel. The major part of the unburned mixture availability consists of the chemical contribution, ranging from 98% at the inlet valve closing (IVC) event to 83% at the ignition timing of the total availability for the 100% load case, which is due to the presence of the combustible fuel. On the contrary, the multiple burned zones possess mainly thermomechanical availability. Specifically, again for the 100% load case, the total availability of the first burned zone at the exhaust valve opening (EVO) event consists of thermomechanical availability approximately by 90%, with similar percentages for all other burned zones. Two definitions of the combustion exergetic efficiency are used to explore the degree of reversibility of the combustion process in each of the multiple burned zones. It is revealed that the crucial factor determining the thermodynamic perfection of combustion in each burned zone is the level of the temperatures at which combustion occurs in the zone, with minor influence of the whole temperature history of the zone during the complete combustion phase. The availability analysis is extended to various engine loads. The engine in question is

  17. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for the virtual application of control functions for a coordination of the interaction between a gasoline engine and the 14V-power electrical system; Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation fuer die virtuelle Applikation von Steuerungsfunktionen zur Motor-Energiebordnetz-Koordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    The development of advanced engine management systems increasingly is supported by model-based development tools. Thereby the hardware-in-the-loop simulation is one of these tools. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an extension of the capabilities of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation from the classic functional testing and safety tests up to the model-based application. Using the control functions for the coordination of the interaction between a gasoline engine and the 14V-power electrical system as an example, the practical application of hardware-in-the-loop systems is presented. Here, the author reviews on the state of technology for the real-time modeling of internal combustion engines and wiring systems.

  18. Acid digestion and pressurization control in combustible radwaste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Grelecki, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Acid digestion has been developed to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to process radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September, 1977, and is currently undergoing nonradioactive shakedown tests. Radioactive operation is expected in May, 1978. Because of uncertainties in waste composition and reactivity, the system was required to contain pressurizations. This led to the development of a simple and inexpensive system, which is capable of attenuating a shock wave from a full scale vapor detonation. The system has potential application in a wide spectrum of chemical reactors, since the fabrication materials are resistant to a very wide range of corrosive chemical attack

  19. Finite-rate chemistry modelling of non-conventional combustion regimes using a Partially-Stirred Reactor closure: combustion model formulation and implementation details

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhiyi; Ferrarotti, Marco; Cuoci, Alberto; Parente, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The present work focuses on the numerical simulation ofModerate or Intense Low oxygen Dilution combustion condition, using thePartially-Stirred Reactor model for turbulence-chemistry interactions.The Partially-Stirred Reactor model assumes that reactions are confinedin a specific region of the computational cell, whose mass fractiondepends both on the mixing and the chemical time scales. Therefore, theappropriate choice of mixing and chemical time scales becomes crucial toensure the accuracy ...

  20. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  1. Particulate emissions from the combustion of birch, beech, and spruce logs cause different cytotoxic responses in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Sippula, Olli; Uski, Oskari; Koponen, Hanna; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets. We determined the chemical composition (elements, ions, and carbonaceous compounds) of the particulate emissions with a diameter of less than 1 µm and tested their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammatory potential, and ability to induce oxidative stress in a human lung epithelial cell line. The chemical composition of the samples differed significantly, especially with regard to the carbonaceous and metal contents. Also the toxic effects in our tested endpoints varied considerably between each of the three log wood combustion samples, as well as between the log wood combustion samples and the pellet combustion sample. The difference in the toxicological potential of the samples in the various endpoints indicates the involvement of different pathways of toxicity depending on the chemical composition. All three emission samples from the log wood combustions were considerably more toxic in all endpoints than the emissions from the pellet combustion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1487-1499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Application of Detailed Chemical Kinetics to Combustion Instability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Clearance Number 15692 Clearance Date 12/3/2015 14. ABSTRACT A comparison of a single step global reaction and the detailed GRI -Mech 1.2 for combustion...comparison of a single step global reaction and the detailed GRI -Mech 1.2 for com- bustion instability modeling in a methane-fueled longitudinal-mode...methane as the fuel. We use the GRI -Mech 1.2 kinetics mechanism for methane oxidation.11 The GRI -Mech 1.2 was chosen over 2.11 because the only

  3. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin

    2011-01-15

    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  4. In-pile loop experiments in water chemistry and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kysela, J.; Jindrich, K.; Masarik, V.; Fric, Z.; Chotivka, V.; Hamerska, H.; Vsolak, R.; Erben, O.

    1986-08-01

    Methods and techniques used were as follows: (a) Method of polarizing resistance for remote monitoring of instantaneous rate of uniform corrosion. (b) Out-of-pile loop at the temperature 350 degC, pressure 19 MPa, circulation 20 kgs/h, testing time 1000 h. (c) High temperature electromagnetic filter with classical solenoid and ball matrix for high pressure filtration tests. (d) High pressure and high temperature in-pile water loop with coolant flow rate 10 000 kgs/h, neutron flux in active channel 7x10 13 n/cm 2 .s, 16 MPa, 330 degC. (e) Evaluation of experimental results by chemical and radiochemical analysis of coolant, corrosion products and corrosion layer on surface. The results of measurements carried out in loop facilities can be summarized into the following conclusions: (a) In-pile and out-of-pile loops are suitable means of investigating corrosion processes and mass transport in the nuclear power plant primary circuit. (b) In studying transport phenomena in the loop, it is necessary to consider the differences in geometry of the loop and the primary circuit, mainly the ratio of irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces and volumes. (c) In the experimental facility simulating the WWER-type nuclear power plant primary circuit, solid suspended particles of a chemical composition corresponding most frequently to magnetite or nickel ferrite, though with non-stoichiometric composition Me x 2+ Fe 3-x 3+ O 4 , were found. (d) Continuous filtration of water by means of an electromagnetic filter removing large particles of corrosion products leads to a decrease in radioactivity of the outer epitactic layer only. The effect of filtration on the inner topotactic layer is negligible

  5. Working group report: methane emissions from fuel combustion and industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowski, J.J.M.; Beck, L.; Piccot, S.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Veldt, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper lists the source categories which are currently recognised as minor sources of methane. These fall into five broad groups: stationary fuel combustion (residential combustion of fuels, solid waste incineration at home sites, on-site agricultural waste burning, industrial and utility combustion of coal, wood, oil and gas, commercial and industrial waste incineration); mobile fuel combustion; non-combustion industrial processes (primary metals production, chemical manufacturing processes, petroleum refining, commercial charcoal manufacturing waste treatments); minor energy production sources (storage and distribution of automotive fuels, geothermal energy production; peat mining operations, oil shale mining operations); and miscellaneous sources. The paper also presents a preliminary estimate of global methane emissions from these minor sources and the results of the working group's discussion on recommendations for the IPCC/OECD methodology and specific research needs. A list of control options for emissions from minor sources is provided. 2 tabs

  6. Pre-Combustion Capture of CO2 in IGCC Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    Pre-combustion capture involves reacting a fuel with oxygen or air and/or steam to give mainly a 'synthesis gas (syngas)' or 'fuel gas' composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The carbon monoxide is reacted with steam in a catalytic reactor, called a shift converter, to produce CO2 and more hydrogen. CO2 is then separated, usually by a physical or chemical absorption process, resulting in a hydrogen-rich fuel which can be used in many applications, such as boilers, furnaces, gas turbines, engines and fuel cells. Pre-combustion capture is suitable for use in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants especially since the CO2 partial pressures in the fuel gas are higher than in the flue gas. After the introduction there follows a short discussion of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. This is followed by chapters on the means of CO2 capture by physical and chemical solvents, solid sorbents, and membranes. The results and conclusions of techno-economic studies are introduced followed by a look at some of the pilot and demonstration plants relevant to pre-combustion capture in IGCC plants.

  7. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions.

  8. A comparative study of geopolymers synthesized from OXY-combustion and chemical looping combustion bottom ashes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, CN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available silicate (Na2SiO2) and sodium hydroxide solutions (5M, 10M and 15M) and the pastes were cured at 60°C for 10days. The properties of the geopolymers were characterized using: TGA, FTIR and SEM-EDX techniques. TGA analysis showed that FBC geopolymer with 5M...

  9. Modelling of Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion of Hydrogen using Conditional Moment Closure Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, M M; Hairuddin, A Aziz; Wandel, Andrew P; Yusaf, T F

    2012-01-01

    Most of the electricity generation and energy for transport is still generated by the conversion of chemical to mechanical energy by burning the fuels in the combustion chamber. Regulation for pollution and the demand for more fuel economy had driven worldwide researcher to focus on combustion efficiency. In order to reduce experimental cost, accurate modelling and simulation is very critical step. Taylor series expansion was utilised to reduce the error term for the discretization. FORTRAN code was used to execute the discretized partial differential equation. Hydrogen combustion was simulated using Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model. Combustion of hydrogen with oxygen was successfully simulated and reported in this paper.

  10. Two-loop disorder effects on the nematic quantum criticality in d-wave superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The gapless nodal fermions exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviors at the nematic quantum critical point that is supposed to exist in some d-wave cuprate superconductors. This non-Fermi liquid state may be turned into a disorder-dominated diffusive metal if the fermions also couple to a disordered potential that generates a relevant perturbation in the sense of renormalization group theory. It is therefore necessary to examine whether a specific disorder is relevant or not. We study the interplay between critical nematic fluctuation and random chemical potential by performing renormalization group analysis. The parameter that characterizes the strength of random chemical potential is marginal at the one-loop level, but becomes marginally relevant after including the two-loop corrections. Thus even weak random chemical potential leads to diffusive motion of nodal fermions and the significantly critical behaviors of physical implications, since the strength flows eventually to large values at low energies. - Highlights: • The gapless nodal fermions exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviors at the nematic QCP. • The strength of random chemical potential is marginal at the one-loop level. • The strength becomes marginally relevant after including the two-loop corrections. • The diffusive metallic state is induced by the marginally relevant disorder. • The behaviors of some physical observables are presented at the nematic QCP

  11. Effects of nano-TiO2 on combustion and desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yi; Wang, Shuqin; Shen, Yanmei; Lu, Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Nanosized titanium oxide powder was prepared via the sol–gel process and characterized by transmission electron microscope. The effects of nano-TiO 2 on combustion characteristics of lignite, desulfurization in combustion and the properties of ashes were investigated. The calorific value of coals and the fusion point of the coal ashes were measured by calorimeter and ash fusion point determination meter; the components of coal ashes and the contents of combustible matters in ash were determined by chemical methods; the pore-size distribution and specific surface area of the coal ash were analyzed by surface area analyzer. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to investigate the effect of nano-TiO 2 on combustion. The results showed that the calorific value of the coal and the fusion temperature of the coal ash were lowered by adding CaO, while on the other hand adding nano-TiO 2 to coal increased the calorific value and the melting temperature effectively. Meanwhile, the coal combustion efficiency and desulfurization in combustion could be effectively improved by the co-action of TiO 2 . - Highlights: • The burn-off rate of coals was raised and the combustible contents were reduced by adding nano-TiO 2 . • The desulfurization in combustion can be achieved by adding CaO, but the combustion efficiency was inhibited. • Nano-TiO 2 can promote the transfer rate of oxygen from gas phase to the surface of char

  12. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel via nitrate-citrate combustion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi, Ali; Golestani-Fard, Farhad; Sarpoolaky, Hosein; Willert-Porada, Monika; Gerdes, Thorsten; Simon, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) was synthesized using metal nitrates, citric acid and ammonium solutions. The precursor and the calcined powders at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combustion mechanism was also studied by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) which coupled to STA. The generated heat through the combustion of the mixture of ammonium nitrate and citrate based complexes decreased the synthesis temperature of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. The synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 spinel at 900 deg. C has faced shape with crystallite size in the range of 18-24 nm

  13. Comparison of thermal and radical effects of EGR gases on combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Sohrabi, A.; Niaei, A.

    2007-01-01

    Dual fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. This work is conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel (Diesel-gas) engine at part loads using a single zone combustion model with detailed chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel. In this home made software, the presence of the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source that is deriving form two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for its contribution to ignition of the gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. The chemical kinetics mechanism consists of 112 reactions with 34 species. This combustion model is able to establish the development of the combustion process with time and the associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. Therefore, this work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the above mentioned problems. Also, the results of this work show that each of the different cases of EGR (thermal, chemical and radical cases) has an important role on the combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads. It is found that all the different cases of EGR have positive effects on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel engines at part loads despite the negative effect of some diluent gases in the chemical case, which moderates too much the positive effects of the thermal and radical cases of EGR. Predicted values show good agreement with corresponding experimental values over the whole range of engine operating conditions. Implications will be discussed in detail

  14. Amino-acid composition after loop deletion drives domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandwani, Neha; Surana, Parag; Udgaonkar, Jayant B; Das, Ranabir; Gosavi, Shachi

    2017-10-01

    Rational engineering of a protein to enable domain swapping requires an understanding of the sequence, structural and energetic factors that favor the domain-swapped oligomer over the monomer. While it is known that the deletion of loops between β-strands can promote domain swapping, the spliced sequence at the position of the loop deletion is thought to have a minimal role to play in such domain swapping. Here, two loop-deletion mutants of the non-domain-swapping protein monellin, frame-shifted by a single residue, were designed. Although the spliced sequence in the two mutants differed by only one residue at the site of the deletion, only one of them (YEIKG) promoted domain swapping. The mutant containing the spliced sequence YENKG was entirely monomeric. This new understanding that the domain swapping propensity after loop deletion may depend critically on the chemical composition of the shortened loop will facilitate the rational design of domain swapping. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  15. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  16. Numerical comparison of hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms for unsteady shockinduced combustion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Kim, Kui Soon; Oh, Se Jong; Choi, Jeong Yeol [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    An unsteady shock-induced combustion (SIC) is characterized by the regularly oscillating combustion phenomenon behind the shock wave supported by the blunt projectile flying around the speed of Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave. The SIC is the coupling phenomenon between the hypersonic flow and the chemical kinetics, but the effects of chemical kinetics have been rarely reported. We compared hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms for the shock-induced combustion to demonstrate the importance of considering the reaction mechanisms for such complex flows. Seven hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms were considered, those available publically and used in other researches. As a first step in the comparison of the hydrogen combustion, ignition delay time of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures was compared at various initial conditions. Laminar premixed flame speed was also compared with available experimental data and at high pressure conditions. In addition, half-reaction length of ZND (Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering) detonation structure accounts for the length scale in SIC phenomena. Oscillation frequency of the SIC is compared by running the time-accurate 3rd-order Navier-Stokes CFD code fully coupled with the detailed chemistry by using four levels of grid resolutions.

  17. Numerical comparison of hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms for unsteady shockinduced combustion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Kim, Kui Soon; Oh, Se Jong; Choi, Jeong Yeol

    2015-01-01

    An unsteady shock-induced combustion (SIC) is characterized by the regularly oscillating combustion phenomenon behind the shock wave supported by the blunt projectile flying around the speed of Chapman-Jouguet detonation wave. The SIC is the coupling phenomenon between the hypersonic flow and the chemical kinetics, but the effects of chemical kinetics have been rarely reported. We compared hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms for the shock-induced combustion to demonstrate the importance of considering the reaction mechanisms for such complex flows. Seven hydrogen-air reaction mechanisms were considered, those available publically and used in other researches. As a first step in the comparison of the hydrogen combustion, ignition delay time of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures was compared at various initial conditions. Laminar premixed flame speed was also compared with available experimental data and at high pressure conditions. In addition, half-reaction length of ZND (Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering) detonation structure accounts for the length scale in SIC phenomena. Oscillation frequency of the SIC is compared by running the time-accurate 3rd-order Navier-Stokes CFD code fully coupled with the detailed chemistry by using four levels of grid resolutions.

  18. Gas-phase reactions at combustion and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P.; Chowdhury, K.; Brink, A.; Mueller, C.

    1995-01-01

    Formation and destruction of gaseous nitrogen pollutants at combustion (NO x , N 2 O) and gasification (NH 3 , HCN) are studied based on detailed chemical kinetic modelling and experiments in laboratory reactors. During 1994 the following topics have been studied: (a) nitrogen reactions in pressurized combustion processes (in co-operation with the LIEKKI projects 202 and 204), (b) NO x reduction by staging techniques in CO 2 , rich combustion processes, (c) HCN reactions at pyrolysis, (d) formation of soot precursors in a blast furnace (in co-operation with the SULA project 103) (e) incorporation of better NO x description into furnace models, (in co-operation with the LIEKKI project Y01). NH 3 conversion to N 2 in gasification product gases, (in co-operation with the LIEKKI project 203). In this report, some results of the items (a-c) will be presented. The results of items (d-f) are described in the reports by the co-operation projects. (author)

  19. Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Simulation of In-Situ Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margot Gerritsen; Tony Kovscek

    2008-04-30

    This final technical report describes work performed for the project 'Experimental Investigation and High Resolution Numerical Simulator of In-Situ Combustion Processes', DE-FC26-03NT15405. In summary, this work improved our understanding of in-situ combustion (ISC) process physics and oil recovery. This understanding was translated into improved conceptual models and a suite of software algorithms that extended predictive capabilities. We pursued experimental, theoretical, and numerical tasks during the performance period. The specific project objectives were (i) identification, experimentally, of chemical additives/injectants that improve combustion performance and delineation of the physics of improved performance, (ii) establishment of a benchmark one-dimensional, experimental data set for verification of in-situ combustion dynamics computed by simulators, (iii) develop improved numerical methods that can be used to describe in-situ combustion more accurately, and (iv) to lay the underpinnings of a highly efficient, 3D, in-situ combustion simulator using adaptive mesh refinement techniques and parallelization. We believe that project goals were met and exceeded as discussed.

  20. Evaluating possible industrial applications of combustible shales and shale ash wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. К. Кондрашева

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today energy consumption is constantly growing while explored reserves of easily accessible oil are depleting, which is a reason why most countries tend to diversify their energy mix, develop non-hydrocarbon energy sources and use domestic types of fuel, including the low grade ones. Thereby interest is raised to such a source of hydrocarbons as combustible shales. Combustible shales appear to be one of the highest-potential types of organic raw materials, which may offset and in future even substitute oil products and gas. The paper is investigating behavior and structure of combustible shales during heat treatment in order to identify their possible industrial applications. A synchronous thermal analysis has been held, chemical composition of combustible shales’ mineral fraction and optimal conditions for shale fines briquetting have been determined.

  1. GOTHIC-3D applicability to hydrogen combustion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Jin Yong; Park, Goon Cherl; Yoo, Ho Jong; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Lee, Byung Chul; Oh, Seung Jong

    2005-01-01

    Severe accidents in nuclear power plants can cause hydrogen-generating chemical reactions, which create the danger of hydrogen combustion and thus threaten containment integrity. For containment analyses, a three-dimensional mechanistic code, GOTHIC-3D has been applied near source compartments to predict whether or not highly reactive gas mixtures can form during an accident with the hydrogen mitigation system working. To assess the code applicability to hydrogen combustion analysis, this paper presents the numerical calculation results of GOTHIC-3D for various hydrogen combustion experiments, including FLAME, LSVCTF, and SNU-2D. In this study, a technical base for the modeling of large- and small-scale facilities was introduced through sensitivity studies on cell size and burn modeling parameters. Use of a turbulent burn option of the eddy dissipation concept enabled scale-free applications. Lowering the burn parameter values for the flame thickness and the burn temperature limit resulted in a larger flame velocity. When applied to hydrogen combustion analysis, this study revealed that the GOTHIC-3D code is generally able to predict the combustion phenomena with its default burn modeling parameters for large-scale facilities. However, the code needs further modifications of its burn modeling parameters to be applied to either small-scale facilities or extremely fast transients

  2. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  3. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  4. A quick, simplified approach to the evaluation of combustion rate from an internal combustion engine indicator diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Miroljub V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simplified procedure of an internal combustion engine in-cylinder pressure record analysis has been presented. The method is very easy for programming and provides quick evaluation of the gas temperature and the rate of combustion. It is based on the consideration proposed by Hohenberg and Killman, but enhances the approach by involving the rate of heat transferred to the walls that was omitted in the original approach. It enables the evaluation of the complete rate of heat released by combustion (often designated as “gross heat release rate” or “fuel chemical energy release rate”, not only the rate of heat transferred to the gas (which is often designated as “net heat release rate”. The accuracy of the method has been also analyzed and it is shown that the errors caused by the simplifications in the model are very small, particularly if the crank angle step is also small. A several practical applications on recorded pressure diagrams taken from both spark ignition and compression ignition engine are presented as well.

  5. Loop Transfer Matrix and Loop Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvidy, George K.

    2000-01-01

    The gonihedric model of random surfaces on a 3d Euclidean lattice has equivalent representation in terms of transfer matrix K(Q i ,Q f ), which describes the propagation of loops Q. We extend the previous construction of the loop transfer matrix to the case of nonzero self-intersection coupling constant κ. We introduce the loop generalization of Fourier transformation which allows to diagonalize transfer matrices, that depend on symmetric difference of loops only and express all eigenvalues of 3d loop transfer matrix through the correlation functions of the corresponding 2d statistical system. The loop Fourier transformation allows to carry out the analogy with quantum mechanics of point particles, to introduce conjugate loop momentum P and to define loop quantum mechanics. We also consider transfer matrix on 4d lattice which describes propagation of memebranes. This transfer matrix can also be diagonalized by using the generalized Fourier transformation, and all its eigenvalues are equal to the correlation functions of the corresponding 3d statistical system. In particular the free energy of the 4d membrane system is equal to the free energy of 3d gonihedric system of loops and is equal to the free energy of 2d Ising model. (author)

  6. [Forensic medical characteristic of the thermal injury caused by inflammation of combustible fluids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushkadamov, Z K; Iskhizova, L N; Gornostaev, D V

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostics of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids should be based on the comprehensive assessment of the results of examination of the scene of the accident, autopsy studies, forensic chemical expertise, and analysis of the circumstances of the case and/or medical documentation. Special attention should be given to the choice of adequate methods for taking samples to be used in forensic chemical studies. The assessment of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids must take into consideration the time and conditions under which they were inflicted (e.g. closed or open space, vertical or horizontal position, etc.).

  7. Modelling of EAF off-gas post combustion in dedusting systems using CFD methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.; Kirschen, M.; Pfeifer, H. [Inst. for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering in Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Abel, M. [VAI-Fuchs GmbH, Willstaett (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    To comply with the increasingly strict environmental regulations, the poisonous off-gas species, e.g. carbon monoxide (CO), produced in the electric arc furnace (EAF) must be treated in the dedusting system. In this work, gas flow patterns of the off-gas post combustion in three different dedusting system units were simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code: (1) post combustion in a horizontal off-gas duct, (2) post combustion in a water cooled post combustion chamber without additional energy supply (no gas or air/oxygen injectors) and (3) post combustion in a post combustion chamber with additional energy input (gas, air injectors and ignition burner, case study of VAI-Fuchs GmbH). All computational results are illustrated with gas velocity, temperature distribution and chemical species concentration fields for the above three cases. In case 1, the effect of different false air volume flow rates at the gap between EAF elbow and exhaust gas duct on the external post combustion of the off-gas was investigated. For case 2, the computed temperature and chemical composition (CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) of the off-gas at the post chamber exit are in good agreement with additional measurements. Various operating conditions for case 3 have been studied, including different EAF off-gas temperatures and compositions, i. e. CO content, in order to optimize oxygen and burner gas flow rates. Residence time distributions in the external post combustion chambers have been calculated for cases 2 and 3. Derived temperature fields of the water cooled walls yield valuable information on thermally stressed parts of post combustion units. The results obtained in this work may also gain insight to future investigation of combustion of volatile organic components (VOC) or formation of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and permit the optimization of the operation and design of the off-gas dedusting system units. (orig.)

  8. Numerical analysis of the air chemical non-equilibrium effect in combustion for a semi-sphere with opposing jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fa-Ming; Wang, Jiang-Feng; Li, Long-Fei

    2018-05-01

    The air chemical non-equilibrium effect (ACNEE) on hydrogen-air combustion flow fields at Mach number of 10 is numerically analyzed for a semi-sphere with a sonic opposing-hydrogen jet. The 2D axisymmetric multi-components N-S equations are solved by using the central scheme with artificial dissipation and the S-A turbulence model. Numerical results show that as compared to the result without ACNEE, the ACNEE has little influence on the structure of flow field, but has a considerable impact on fluid characteristics which reduces the maximum value of mass fraction of water in the flow field and increases the maximum value of mass fraction of water on solid surface, as well as the maximum surface temperature.

  9. Effect of Non-Stationary Combustion Phases on Emission Factors of Selected Pollutants and PCDD/F from Domestic Combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Horák, J.; Krpec, K.; Hopan, F.; Ocelka, T.; Stáňa, M.

    LVI, č. 2 (2010), s. 183-187 ISSN 1210-0471 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A2/116/07; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : combustion * emission factors * pollutants Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://transactions.fs.vsb.cz/2010-2/1798.pdf

  10. Impact of Fuel Selection on Techno-environmental Performance of Post-combustion Calcium Looping Process Applied to a Cement Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Orregioni, Gabriel; Strømman, Anders; Ramirez, Andrea

    Calcium looping CO2 capture is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production. Coal is generally considered the fuel used to drive the calcium looping process as coal is already used as feedstock for cement production. This study assesses the impact of different fuels (coal,

  11. Interaction between combustion and turbulence in modelling of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, A.; Maeki-Mantila, E.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study the combustion models which are taking into account the coupling between gas phase chemistry and turbulence in the modelling of emissions, especially of nitric oxide, when temperature and species concentrating are fluctuating by turbulence. The principal tools to model turbulent gas phase combustion are the probability density function (pdf) and the other models which are taking into consideration the effect of turbulence on the chemical reactions in flames. Such other models to use in the modelling are many e.g. Eddy Dissipation Model (EDM), Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC), Eddy Dissipation Kinetic model (EDK), Eddy Break Up model (EBU), kinetic models and the combinations of those ones, respectively. Besides these models the effect of the different turbulence models on the formation of emissions will be also studied. Same kind of modelling has been done also by the teams in the Special Interest Group of ERCOFTAC (European Research Community On Flow Turbulence And Combustion) under the name of Aerodynamics and Steady State Combustion Chambers and Furnaces (A.S.C.F.). Combustion measurements are also tried to do if only the practical conditions take it possible. (author)

  12. Optimization of a Gas Switching Combustion process through advanced heat management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, Schalk; Zaabout, Abdelghafour; Romano, Matteo C.; Chiesa, Paolo; Lozza, Giovanni; Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, Martin van; Amini, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GSC is a promising new reactor concept for power production with cost effective CO 2 capture. • The standalone fluidized bed reactors employed will allow for easy process scale-up. • The GSC simple configuration achieves higher efficiencies than conventional solutions. • Further increases in efficiency can be achieved via advanced heat management. • The 41.9% maximum efficiency is in line with other CLC–IGCC configurations. - Abstract: Gas Switching Combustion (GSC) is a promising new process concept for energy efficient power production with integrated CO 2 capture. In comparison to conventional Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) carried out in interconnected fluidized beds, the GSC concept will be substantially easier to design and scale up, especially for pressurized conditions. One potential drawback of the GSC concept is the gradual temperature variation over the transient process cycle, which leads to a drop in electric efficiency of the plant. This article investigates heat management strategies to mitigate this issue both through simulations and experiments. Simulation studies of the GSC concept integrated into an IGCC power plant show that heat management using a nitrogen recycle stream can increase plant efficiency by 3 percentage points to 41.6% while maintaining CO 2 capture ratios close to 90%. Reactive multiphase flow simulations of the GSC reactor also showed that heat management can eliminate fuel slip problems. In addition, the GSC concept offers the potential to remove the need for a nitrogen recycle stream by implementing a concentrated air injection that extracts heat while only a small percentage of oxygen reacts. Experiments have shown that, similar to nitrogen recycle, this strategy reduces transient temperature variations across the cycle and therefore merits further investigation.

  13. Radiation energy devaluation in diffusion combusting flows of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, Deodat; Munda, Josiah L.; Jiang, Peixue

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) is used to evaluate the thermodynamic second-law effects of thermal radiation in turbulent diffusion natural gas flames. Radiative heat transfer processes in gas and at solid walls are identified as important causes of energy devaluation in the combusting flows. The thermodynamic role of thermal radiation cannot be neglected when compared to that of heat conduction and convection, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and viscous dissipation. An energy devaluation number is also defined, with which the optimum fuel–air equivalence for combusting flows can be determined. The optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio for a natural gas flame is determined to be 0.7. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic effects of thermal radiation in combusting flows analyzed. • General equation for second-law analyses of combusting flows extended. • Optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio determined for natural gas flame

  14. Data for modern boilers used in co-combustion; Moderna panndata inom samfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorson, Ola [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    This project is a survey and a description of today's technical status and future development trends in the field of co-combustion. The survey is done from an energy production company's point of view and two technical questions have been studied; the possibilities for high steam data and the possibilities for a wide load range. These parameters are limited by the corrosive properties of the fuel and the environmental requirements in the EU directive for combustion of waste. In the report following issues are discussed: Examples of and experiences from co-combustion plants and plants that combust problematic fuels and have high steam data. A future prospect of high steam data in co-combustion plants by the usage of modern technical solutions and a description of these solutions. Important research and development results from combustion of problematic fuels in combination with high steam data. Choice of firing technology, boiler design and auxiliary systems and its affection on the load range in a boiler for co-combustion. A literature survey has been done to get the latest results from combustion of problematic fuels. Then a number of interesting plants have been identified and facts about them have been collected by contacts with plant owners, suppliers and professional researchers and also through publications. The report shows that Sweden, Finland and Denmark are in the front line of using high steam data for co-combustion of biomass and waste fuels. There are/have been problems with superheater corrosion in many of these plants but a number of ways how to handle high steam data have been identified: Adjust the fuel mix or add additives; Use high alloy materials; Consider the final super heater as a part that is worn out by time; Place the final super heater in the particle loop seal/sand locker; Use an external separate fired super heater; Gasification and then co-combustion of the pyrolysis gas in a conventional existing boiler; Place the

  15. Experimental kinetic parameters in the thermo-fluid-dynamic modelling of coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliavacca, G.; Perini, M.; Parodi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The designing and the optimisation of modern and efficient combustion systems are nowadays frequently based on calculation tools for mathematical modelling, which are able to predict the evolution of the process starting from the first principles of physics. Otherwise, in many cases, specific experimental parameters are needed to describe the specific nature of the materials considered in the calculations. It is especially true in the modelling of coal combustion, which is a complex process strongly dependent on the chemical and physical features of the fuel. This paper describes some experimental techniques used to estimate the fundamental kinetic parameters of coal combustion and shows how this data may be introduced in a model calculation to predict the pollutant emissions from a real scale combustion plant [it

  16. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2017-03-28

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14

  17. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1999-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  18. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW Th pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using chemical

  19. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  20. CFD analysis of municipal solid waste combustion using detailed chemical kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Alex; Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities are receiving renewed attention to reduce their output further. While NO x emissions are currently 60% below allowed limits, further reductions will decrease the air pollution control (APC) system burden and reduce consumption of NH3. This work combines the incorporation of the GRI 3.0 mechanism as a detailed chemical kinetic model (DCKM) into a custom three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model fully to understand the NO x chemistry in the above-bed burnout zones. Specifically, thermal, prompt and fuel NO formation mechanisms were evaluated for the system and a parametric study was utilized to determine the effect of varying fuel nitrogen conversion intermediates between HCN, NH3 and NO directly. Simulation results indicate that the fuel nitrogen mechanism accounts for 92% of the total NO produced in the system with thermal and prompt mechanisms accounting for the remaining 8%. Results also show a 5% variation in final NO concentration between HCN and NH3 inlet conditions, demonstrating that the fuel nitrogen intermediate assumed is not significant. Furthermore, the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO was 0.33, revealing that the majority of fuel nitrogen forms N2. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Hard-Thermal-Loop QCD thermodynamics and quark number susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogliacci Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The weak-coupling expansion of the QCD pressure is known up to the order g6 log g. However, at experimentally relevant temperatures, the corresponding series is poorly convergent. In this proceedings, we discuss at which extent the gauge-invariant resummation scheme, Hard-Thermal-Loop perturbation theory (HTLpt, improves the apparent convergence. We first present HTLpt results for QCD thermodynamic functions up to three-loop order at vanishing chemical potential. Then, we report a preliminary HTLpt result of one-loop quark number susceptibility, probing the finite density equation of state. Our results are consistent with lattice data down to 2 − 3Tc, reinforcing the weakly-coupled quasiparticle picture in the intermediate coupling regime.

  2. Combustion Characteristics of C5 Alcohols and a Skeletal Mechanism for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-10-27

    C5 alcohols are considered alternative fuels because they emit less greenhouse gases and fewer harmful pollutants. In this study, the combustion characteristics of 2-methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) and isopentanol (3-methyl-1-butanol) and their mixtures with primary reference fuels (PRFs) were studied using a detailed chemical kinetic model obtained from merging previously published mechanisms. Ignition delay times of the C5 alcohol/air mixtures were compared to PRFs at 20 and 40 atm. Reaction path analyses were conducted at intermediate and high temperatures to identify the most influential reactions controlling ignition of C5 alcohols. The direct relation graph with expert knowledge methodology was used to eliminate unimportant species and reactions in the detailed mechanism, and the resulting skeletal mechanism was tested at various homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion conditions. These simulations were used to investigate the heat release characteristics of the methyl-substituted C5 alcohols, and the results show relatively strong reactions at intermediate temperatures prior to hot ignition. C5 alcohol blending in PRF75 in HCCI combustion leads to a significant decrease of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) and a delay of the main combustion. The heat release features demonstrated by C5 alcohols can be used to improve the design and operation of advanced engine technologies.

  3. Toxicological and chemical characterization of the process stream materials and gas combustion products of an experimental low-btu coal gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J M; Hanson, R L; Royer, R E; Clark, C R; Henderson, R F

    1984-04-01

    The process gas stream of an experimental pressurized McDowell-Wellman stirred-bed low-Btu coal gasifier, and combustion products of the clean gas were characterized as to their mutagenic properties and chemical composition. Samples of aerosol droplets condensed from the gas were obtained at selected positions along the process stream using a condenser train. Mutagenicity was assessed using the Ames Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay (TA98, with and without rat liver S9). All materials required metabolic activation to be mutagenic. Droplets condensed from gas had a specific mutagenicity of 6.7 revertants/microgram (50,000 revertants/liter of raw gas). Methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and nitrogen-containing compounds were positively identified in a highly mutagenic fraction of raw gas condensate. While gas cleanup by the humidifier-tar trap system and Venturi scrubber led to only a small reduction in specific mutagenicity of the cooled process stream material (4.1 revertants/microgram), a significant overall reduction in mutagenicity was achieved (to 2200 revertants/liter) due to a substantial reduction in the concentration of material in the gas. By the end of gas cleanup, gas condensates had no detectable mutagenic activity. Condensates of combustion product gas, which contained several polycyclic aromatic compounds, had a specific mutagenicity of 1.1 revertants/microgram (4.0 revertants/liter). Results indicate that the process stream material is potentially toxic and that care should be taken to limit exposure of workers to the condensed tars during gasifier maintenance and repair and to the aerosolized tars emitted in fugitive emissions. Health risks to the general population resulting from exposure to gas combustion products are expected to be minimal.

  4. Chemical decontamination of Santa Maria de Garona NPP recirculation loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello, R. [Santa Maria de Garona NPP - NUCLENOR, S.A. (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Santa Maria de Garona is a boiling water reactor (BWR-3) with a Primary Containment type Mark 1. Its electrical power is 466 Mw and began its commercial operation in 1971. The plant currently operates in 24 month cycles. The reactor water recirculation system (RWRS) is composed of two independent loops. Each of them has a one stage vertical centrifugal recirculation pump, with a nominal flow of 2020 l/s, and ten jet pumps. It is worthy of mention that in 1986 it was started to inject hydrogen into the feedwater (concentration = 0,3 mg/l) in order to implement the chemical condition known as hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) in the primary circuit. The objective was to create an electrochemical potential below -230 mV in the RWRS which is assumed to be low enough to mitigate the intergranular stress corrosion cracking phenomena (IGSCC) in the sensitized austenitic stainless steels. Later, in 1994, the hydrogen concentration in the feedwater was increased to 0,9 mg/l in order to obtain the protection's ECP in the bottom of the reactor vessel. This feedwater hydrogen concentration has been maintained since then. The nature of the oxides that are formed in the RWRS is strongly affected by the electrochemical conditions (ECP) which have been maintained in this system. It is frequent to find oxides like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite), NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (trevorite), Cr{sub 2} FeO{sub 4} (chromite), Fe{sub 3-x-y} Cr{sub x} Ni{sub y} O{sub 4} (spinels), etc. However, it is normal to find a combination of all of them in various proportions, depending on the ECP established. Radioactive isotopes of the transition metals ({sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 59}Fe, etc.) also participate in these oxides and contribute greatly to increase the dose rate in the circuit. The chemical decontamination processes are designed for the effective dissolution of the metallic oxides present and therefore the type of process to be applied will depend

  5. Management of coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    It has been estimated that 780 Mt of coal combustion products (CCPs) were produced worldwide in 2010. Only about 53.5% were utilised, the rest went to storage or disposal sites. Disposal of coal combustion waste (CCW) on-site at a power plant may involve decades-long accumulation of waste, with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tonnes of dry ash or wet ash slurry being stored. In December 2008, a coal combustion waste pond in Kingston, Tennessee, USA burst. Over 4 million cubic metres of ash sludge poured out, burying houses and rivers in tonnes of toxic waste. Clean-up is expected to continue into 2014 and will cost $1.2 billion. The incident drew worldwide attention to the risk of CCW disposal. This caused a number of countries to review CCW management methods and regulations. The report begins by outlining the physical and chemical characteristics of the different type of ashes generated in a coal-fired power plant. The amounts of CCPs produced and regulations on CCW management in selected countries have been compiled. The CCW disposal methods are then discussed. Finally, the potential environmental impacts and human health risks of CCW disposal, together with the methods used to prevent them, are reviewed.

  6. Principles of agonist recognition in Cys-loop receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Pless, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , functional studies, and X-ray crystallography experiments identified the extracellular interface of adjacent subunits as the principal site of agonist binding. The question of how subtle differences at and around agonist-binding sites of different Cys-loop receptors can accommodate transmitters as chemically...

  7. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

  8. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Thiago Koichi; Fontes, Carlo Eduardo; Ropelato, Karolline [Engineering Simulation and Scientic Software Ltda. (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: anzai, carlos.fontes, ropelato@esss.com.br; Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Huapaya, Luis Enrique Alva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: luisfer.luisalva@esp.puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The accurate determination of pollutant emission from gas turbine combustors is a crucial problem in situations when such equipment is subject to long periods of operation away from the design point. In such operating conditions, the flow field structure may also drastically differ from the design point one, leading to the presence of undesirable hot spots or combustion instabilities, for instance. A priori experiments on all possible operation conditions is economically unfeasible, therefore, models that allow for the prediction of combustion behavior in the full operation range could be used to instruct power plant operators on the best strategies to be adopted. Since the direct numerical simulation of industrial combustors is beyond reach of the foreseeable computational resources, simplified models should be used for such purpose. This works presents the results of the application to an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber of the CFD technique to the prediction of the reactive flow field. This is the first step on the coupling of reactive CFD results with detailed chemical kinetics modeling using chemical reactor networks, toward the goal of accurately predicting pollutant emissions. The CFD model considers the detailed geometrical information of such a combustion chamber and uses actual operating conditions, calibrated via an overall gas turbine thermodynamical simulation, as boundary conditions. This model retains the basic information on combustion staging, which occurs both in diffusion and lean premixed modes. The turbulence has been modeled using the SST-CC model, which is characterized by a well established regime of accurate predictive capability. Combustion and turbulence interaction is accounted for by using the Zimont et al. model, which makes use of on empirical expression for the turbulent combustion velocity for the closure of the progress variable transport equation. A high resolution scheme is used to solve the advection terms of the

  10. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Yanzhao; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON

  11. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  12. Fuel and combustion stratification study of Partially Premixed Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Dam, N.; Somers, B.; Johansson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high levels of stratification is one of the main advantages of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) over the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) concept. Fuel stratification smoothens heat release and improves controllability of this kind of combustion. However, the lack of a clear definition of “fuel and combustion stratifications” is obvious in literature. Hence, it is difficult to compare stratification levels of different PPC strategies or other combustion concepts. T...

  13. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  14. CFD Modelling of Biomass Combustion in Small-Scale Boilers. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-Song Bai; Griselin, Niklas; Klason, Torbern; Nilsson, Johan [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This project deals with CFD modeling of combustion of wood in fixed bed boilers. A flamelet model for the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions is developed and applied to study small-scale boiler. The flamelet chemistry employs 43 reactive species and 174 elementary reactions. It gives detailed distributions of important species such as CO and NO{sub x} in the flow field and flue gas. Simulation of a small-scale wood fired boiler measured at SP Boraas (50 KW) shows that the current flamelet model yields results agreeable to the available experimental data. A detailed chemical kinetic model is developed to study the bed combustion process. This model gives boundary conditions for the CFD analysis of gas phase volatile oxidation in the combustion chambers. The model combines a Functional Group submodel with a Depolymerisation, Vaporisation and Crosslinking submodel. The FG submodel simulates how functional groups decompose and form light gas species. The DVC submodell predicts depolymerisation and vaporisation of the macromolecular network and this includes bridge breaking and crosslinking processes, where the wood structure breaks down to fragments. The light fragments form tar and the heavy ones form metaplast. Two boilers firing wood log/chips are studied using the FG-DVC model, one is the SP Boraas small-scale boiler (50 KW) and the other is the Sydkraft Malmoe Vaerme AB's Flintraennan large-scale boiler (55 MW). The fix bed is assumed to be two zones, a partial equilibrium drying/devolatilisation zone and an equilibrium zone. Three typical biomass conversion modes are simulated, a lean fuel combustion mode, a near-stoichiometric combustion and a fuel rich gasification mode. Detailed chemical species and temperatures at different modes are obtained. Physical interpretation is provided. Comparison of the computational results with experimental data shows that the model can reasonably simulate the fixed bed biomass conversion process. CFD

  15. A Mini-Prototype YBCO SMES Using Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoup, Shara

    2000-01-01

    ...))-type coated superconducting tape to allow high current flow across a joined section of tape thus allowing products such as closed-loop style coils to be used in Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage (SMES) devices to be made...

  16. Loop kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Basic operators acting in the loop space are introduced. The topology of this space and properties of the Stokes type loop functionals are discussed. The parametrically invariant loop calculus developed here is used in the loop dynamics

  17. Flows and chemical reactions in homogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics. The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion: - propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules; - ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and c

  18. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  19. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole; Nishida, Keiya; Sarathy, Mani; Zhu, Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano's thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  20. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y"+ up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  1. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated

  2. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  3. The Pegase reactor loops; Les boucles du reacteur Pegase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-07-01

    After 4 years operation, experimentation and maintenance of the gas loops built especially for the nuclear fuel testing reactor Pegase, it appears desirable not only to gather together in a single document the essential characteristics and particularities of these devices and of their associated equipment, but also to give the reasons for the technical modifications and the way in which they were carried out; this is done here by the persons themselves who were responsible, day after day, for operating these loops. This essentially practically experience thus complements the careful research and preliminary testing carried out on these loops or on their prototypes. It should be of interest to those who deal with problems concerned with the design or operation of irradiation loops in experimental reactors or of similar equipment. (authors) [French] Apres 4 annees de fonctionnement, d'experimentation et d'entretien sur les boucles a gaz, construites specialement pour le reacteur d'essai des combustibles nucleaires Pegase, il a paru souhaitable non seulement de rassembler dans un meme document les caracteristiques et les particularites essentielles de ces dispositifs et des appareillages qui leur sont associes, mais aussi d'y preciser les raisons et les modalites des mises au point techniques, apportees par ceux qui, jour apres jour pendant cette periode, ont eu la charge de mettre en oeuvre ces boucles. Cette experience essentiellement pratique complete donc les etudes minutieuses et les essais preliminaires de ces boucles ou de leurs prototypes. Elle doit etre de quelque interet pour ceux qui sont confrontes aux problemes de conception ou d'exploitation de boucles d'irradiation dans des reacteurs experimentaux ou des dispositifs analogues. (auteurs)

  4. Effects of air jet duration and timing on the combustion characteristics of high-pressure air jet controlled compression ignition combustion mode in a hybrid pneumatic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Wuqiang; Meng, Xiangyu; Tian, Jiangping; Tian, Hua; Cui, Jingchen; Feng, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D CFD model of the power cylinder in HPE was developed. • High-pressure air JCCI combustion mode includes two-stage high-temperature reaction. • The combustion phasing of the pre-mixture is controllable via the SOJ timing. • There exists an optimum SOJ timing for obtaining the highest combustion efficiency and shortest burning duration. - Abstract: The high-pressure air jet controlled compression ignition (JCCI) combustion mode was employed to control the premixed diesel compression ignition combustion phasing by using the compound thermodynamic cycle under all operating conditions, which is accomplished in a hybrid pneumatic engine (HPE). A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation coupled with reduced n-heptane chemical kinetics mechanism has been applied to investigate the effects of high-pressure air jet duration and the start of jet (SOJ) timing on the combustion characteristics in the power cylinder of HPE. By sweeping the high-pressure air jet durations from 6 to 14 °CA and SOJ timings from −12 °CA ATDC to the top dead center (TDC) under the air jet temperatures of 400 and 500 K, respectively, the low- and high-temperature reactions, combustion efficiency, as well as the combustion phasing and burning duration have been analyzed in detail. The results illustrated that a longer air jet duration results in a higher peak in the first-stage high-temperature reaction, and the short air jet duration of 6 °CA can lead to a higher combustion efficiency. The SOJ timing sweep results showed that there exists an optimum timing for obtaining the highest combustion efficiency and shortest burning duration.

  5. More About Hazard-Response Robot For Combustible Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Henry W.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about design and capabilities of mobile hazard-response robot called "Hazbot III." Designed to operate safely in combustible and/or toxic atmosphere. Includes cameras and chemical sensors helping human technicians determine location and nature of hazard so human emergency team can decide how to eliminate hazard without approaching themselves.

  6. Biogas utilization: Experimental investigation on biogas flameless combustion in lab-scale furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High costs of biogas purification and low calorific value of biogas are the main obstacles of biogas utilization. • The energy of biogas can be extracted by flameless combustion without any modification in burner or combustion system. • The efficiency of biogas flameless combustion and conventional combustion were 53% and 32% respectively. • The temperature inside the biogas flameless chamber is uniform. • In biogas flameless combustion, NO x and CO 2 formation decrease drastically in comparison with traditional combustion. - Abstract: Biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic wastes by micro-organisms can be applied for heating, transportation and power generation as a renewable energy source. However, low calorific value (LCV) of biogas is one the most important bottlenecks of biogas conversion into electrical or thermal energy. Indeed, the presence of corrosive gases such as H 2 S and water vapor in biogas components makes some dilemmas in biogas purification and utilization. In order to obtain the efficient biogas utilization method, different biogas resources, physical and chemical properties of biogas and biogas combustion characteristics should be considered. In this paper biogas was utilized in lab-scale flameless combustion furnace and the performance of flameless combustion chamber fueled by biogas has been presented. Results demonstrated that flameless combustion is one of the best feasible strategies for biogas utilization. Uniformity of temperature in the flameless furnace increases the durability of refractory and related equipment. Simplicity of the flameless burner, pollutant formation reduction and fuel consumption decreases are the main causes of biogas flameless combustion supremacy

  7. Experimental Investigations of Extracted Rapeseed Combustion Emissions in a Small Scale Stationary Fluidized Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Steinbrecht

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW (Kilowatt SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880° C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, Corg were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc., which have similar chemical compositions to ER.

  8. Experimental investigations of extracted rapeseed combustion emissions in a small scale stationary fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh Tung, N.; Steinbrecht, D. [Rostock University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Environmental Technology, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany); Tung, N. D. [Hanoi University of Agriculture- Hanoi/Vietnam, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Trau Quy - Gia Lam - Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vincent, T. [Rostock University, Chair of Energy Systems, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D - 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the combustion process of extracted rapeseed (ER) grist in a stationary fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) and evaluate the chemical compositions of the flue gas emissions. The experimental tests of ER combustion in the 90 to 200 kW SFB combustion test facility show that the optimal ER combustion temperature is within the range from 850 to 880 {sup o}C. Temperature and the concentration of exhausted emissions (e.g. O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, C{sub org}) were measured with dedicated sensors distributed within the combustor, along its height and in the flue gas duct. The experimental results showed that with respect to German emission limits the concentration of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas were high whereas that of CO was low. This study furthermore is applicable for the abundant biomass residue resources in Vietnam (rice husk, rice straw, bagasse, cassava residues, coconut shell etc.), which have similar chemical compositions to ER. (author)

  9. Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion

  10. Pilot incineration plant for solid, combustible, and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioni, W.M.

    Radioactively contaminated wastes are formed in the handling of radioactive materials at the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (FIRR) and in other facilities, hospitals, sanitoria, industry, and nuclear power plants. A large part of the wastes are combustible and only very slightly radioactive. Incineration of these wastes is obvious. A pilot incineration plant, henceforth called the PIP, for radioactive combustible wastes of the FIRR is surveyed. The plant and its individual components are described. The production costs of the plant and experience gained in operation available at present are reviewed. Solid combustible radioactive waste can be incinerated in the PIP. The maximum possible reduction in volume of these wastes is achieved by incineration. Subsequently the chemically sterile ashes can be consolidated in a stable block suitable for long-term storage mixing with cement

  11. Combustion stratification for naphtha from CI combustion to PPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Johansson, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrated the change in combustion homogeneity from conventional diesel combustion via partially premixed combustion towards HCCI. Experiments are performed in an optical diesel engine at a speed of 1200 rpm with diesel fuel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is

  12. Low NOx combustion technologies for high-temperature natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because of the high process temperature which is required for some processes like glass melting and the high temperature to which the combustion air is preheated, NOx emission are extremely high. Even at these high temperatures, NOx emissions could be reduced drastically by using advanced combustion techniques such as staged combustion or flame-less oxidation, as experimental work has shown. In the case of oxy-fuel combustion, the NOx emission are also very high if conventional burners are used. The new combustion techniques achieve similar NOx reductions. (author)

  13. Effects of fatty acid methyl esters proportion on combustion and emission characteristics of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E, Jiaqiang; Liu, Teng; Yang, W.M.; Li, Jing; Gong, Jinke; Deng, Yuanwang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of FAMEs proportion on combustion and emission were numerically studied. • The impact of the saturation level on combustion characteristic is not straightforward. • The NO_x emission is mainly related to the fuel kinetic viscosity. - Abstract: With the growing energy problems, scholars has focused on utilizing renewable biodiesel as a fossil fuel alternative. Four different typical biodiesels were employed to investigate the effects of fatty acid methyl esters proportion on combustion and emission characteristics of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine in terms of heat release rate, cylinder pressure, indicated power and formation of NO_x emission. The corresponding computational fluid dynamic modeling was performed by KIVA4 coupled CHEMKIN II code, and a special chemical kinetics mechanism consisting of 106 species and 263 reactions was developed to simulate the combustion process since it contained methyl linoleate, a majority component in most biodiesel, thereby improved the accuracy of simulation. The simulation results indicated that chemical ignition delay time and kinetic viscosity of biodiesel played very important roles in combustion process. Higher saturation level could shorten chemical ignition delay time, but the higher saturation contents like C16:0 and C18:0 together with C18:1 (a single double bond methyl ester) would increase the kinetic viscosity, resulting in poor fuel–air mixing and evaporation process. Lower kinetic viscosity methyl esters like C18:2 and C18:3 was favorable for better fuel–air mixing and subsequent combustion, however, a higher NO_x emission was discovered. Therefore, the relationship between saturation levels and combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesels is not simple and straightforward, the balance of five majority components is very important.

  14. Combustion instability control in the model of combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmadullin, A N; Ahmethanov, E N; Iovleva, O V; Mitrofanov, G A

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of external periodic perturbations on the instability of the combustion chamber in a pulsating combustion. As an external periodic disturbances were used sound waves emitted by the electrodynamics. The purpose of the study was to determine the possibility of using the method of external periodic perturbation to control the combustion instability. The study was conducted on a specially created model of the combustion chamber with a swirl burner in the frequency range from 100 to 1400 Hz. The study found that the method of external periodic perturbations may be used to control combustion instability. Depending on the frequency of the external periodic perturbation is observed as an increase and decrease in the amplitude of the oscillations in the combustion chamber. These effects are due to the mechanisms of synchronous and asynchronous action. External periodic disturbance generated in the path feeding the gaseous fuel, showing the high efficiency of the method of management in terms of energy costs. Power required to initiate periodic disturbances (50 W) is significantly smaller than the thermal capacity of the combustion chamber (100 kW)

  15. Energy efficiency impact of EGR on organizing clean combustion in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divekar, Prasad S.; Chen, Xiang; Tjong, Jimi; Zheng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studied EGR impact on efficiency and emissions of diesel and dual-fuel combustion. • Quantified effectiveness of intake dilution for NOx reduction using EGR. • Identified suitable EGR ranges for mitigating emissions–efficiency trade-off. • Developed careful control of intake dilution and in-cylinder excess ratio. • Enabled ultra-low NOx in both diesel and dual-fuel combustion via EGR control. - Abstract: Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a commonly recognized primary technique for reducing NOx emissions in IC engines. However, depending on the extent of its use, the application of EGR in diesel engines is associated with an increase in smoke emissions and a reduction in thermal efficiency. In this work, empirical investigations and parametric analyses are carried out to assess the impact of EGR in attaining ultra-low NOx emissions while minimizing the smoke and efficiency penalties. Two fuelling strategies are studied, namely diesel-only injection and dual-fuel injection. In the dual-fuel strategy, a high volatility liquid fuel is injected into the intake ports, and a diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. The results suggest that the reduction in NOx can be directly correlated with the intake dilution caused by EGR and the correlation is largely independent of the fuelling strategy, the intake boost, and the engine load level. Simultaneously ultra-low NOx and smoke emissions can be achieved at high intake boost and intake dilution levels in the diesel-only combustion strategy and at high ethanol fractions in the dual-fuel strategy. The efficiency penalty associated with EGR is attributed to two primary factors; the combustion off-phasing and the reduction in combustion efficiency. The combustion off-phasing can be minimized by the closed loop control of the diesel injection timing in both the fuelling strategies, whereas the combustion efficiency can be improved by limiting the intake dilution to moderate levels. The

  16. Control issues in oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snarheim, Dagfinn

    2009-08-15

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the major energy source in todays society. While the use of fossil fuels is a necessity for our society to function, there has been an increasing concern on the emissions of CO{sub 2} resulting from human activities. Emissions of CO{sub 2} are considered to be the main cause for the global warming and climate changes we have experienced in recent years. To fight the climate changes, the emissions of CO{sub 2} must be reduced in a timely fashion. Strategies to achieve this include switching to less carbon intensive fuels, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and combustion with CO{sub 2} capture. The use of oxy-fuel combustion is among the alternative post- and pre combustion capture concepts, a strategy to achieve power production from fossil fuels with CO{sub 2} capture. In an oxy-fuel process, the fuel is burned in a mixture of oxygen and CO{sub 2} (or steam), leaving the exhaust consisting mainly of CO{sub 2} and steam. The steam can be removed by use of a condenser, leaving (almost) pure CO{sub 2} ready to be captured. The downside to CO{sub 2} capture is that it is expensive, both in capital cost of extra equipment, and in operation as it costs energy to capture the CO{sub 2}. Thus it is important to maximize the efficiency in such plants. One attractive concept to achieve CO{sub 2} capture by use of oxy-fuel, is a semi-closed oxy-fuel gas turbine cycle. The dynamics of such a plant are highly integrated, involving energy and mass recycle, and optimizing efficiency might lead to operational (control) challenges. In these thesis we investigate how such a power cycle should be controlled. By looking at control at such an early stage in the design phase, it is possible to find control solutions otherwise not feasible, that leads to better overall performance. Optimization is used on a nonlinear model based on first principles, to compare different control structures. Then, closed loop simulations using MPC, are used to validate

  17. Exergy analysis of the biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process integrated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemanand, Sarunyou; Im-orb, Karittha; Tippawan, Phanicha; Wiyaratn, Wisitsree; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A biogas reforming and fuel cell integrated process is considered. • Energy and exergy analyses of the integrated process are performed. • Increasing the nickel oxide-to-biogas ratio decreases the exergy efficiency. • The exergy destruction of the fuel cell increases with increasing cell temperature. • The exergy efficiency of the process is improved when heat integration is applied. - Abstract: A biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process integrated with a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell is analyzed. Modeling of such an integrated process is performed by using a flowsheet simulator (Aspen plus). The exergy analysis is performed to evaluate the energy utilization efficiency of each unit and that of the integrated process. The effect of steam and nickel oxide to biogas ratios on the exergetic performance of the stand-alone biogas sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming process is investigated. The total exergy destruction increases as the steam or nickel oxide to biogas ratio increases. The main exergy destruction is found at the air reactor. For the high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, the main exergy destruction is found at the cathode. The total exergy destruction increases when cell temperature increases, whereas the inverse effect is found when the current density is considered as a key parameter. Regarding the exergy efficiency, the results show opposite trend to the exergy destruction. The heat integration analysis is performed to improve the exergetic performance. It is found that the integrated process including the heat integration system can improve the exergy destruction and exergy efficiency of 48% and 60%, respectively.

  18. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  19. Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - Experimental part. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2003-08-01

    This final report covers the work that has been performed within the project P 10547-2, 'Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - system analysis ORWARE'. This project is part of the research programme 'Energy from Waste' financed by the Swedish National Energy Administration. The project has been carried out at the division of Industrial Ecology and at the division of Chemical Technology at Royal Inst. of Technology. The aim of the project has been to study the potentials for catalytic combustion of gasified waste. The supposed end user of the technique is a smaller community in Sweden with 15,000-20,000 inhabitants. The project contains of two sub projects: an experimental part carried out at Chemical Technology and a system analysis carried out at Industrial Ecology. This report covers the experimental part of the project carried out at Chemical Technology. The aim for the experimental part has been to develop and test catalysts with long life-time and a high performance, to reduce the thermal-NO{sub x} below 5 ppm and to significantly reduce NO{sub x} formed from fuel-bound nitrogen. Different experimental studies have been carried out within the project: a set-up of catalytic materials have been tested over a synthetic mixture of the gasified waste, the influence of sulfur present in the gas stream, NO{sub x} formation from fuel bound nitrogen, kinetic studies of CO and H{sub 2} with and without the presence of water and the effects of adding a co-metal to palladium catalysts Furthermore a novel annular reactor design has been used to carry out experiments for kinetic measurements. Real gasification tests of waste pellets directly coupled to catalytic combustion have successfully been performed. The results obtained from the experiments, both the catalytic combustion and from the gasification, have been possible to use in the system analysis. The aim of the system analysis of catalytic combustion of gasified waste takes into consideration

  20. Lattice artifacts in the non-Abelian Debye screening mass in one-loop order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, P.; Rothe, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    We compute the electric screening mass in lattice QCD with Wilson fermions at finite temperature and chemical potential to one-loop order, and show that lattice artifacts arising from a finite lattice spacing result in an enhancement of the screening mass as compared to the continuum. We discuss the magnitude of this enhancement as a function of the temperature and chemical potential for lattices with a different number of lattice sites in the temporal direction that can be implemented in lattice simulations. Most of the enhancement is found to be due to the fermion loop contribution. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Formulation and analyses of vaporization and diffusion-controlled combustion of fuel sprays

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta Sanagustín, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the modelling of vaporization and combustion of sprays. A general two-continua formulation is given for the numerical computation of spray flows, including the treatment of the droplets as homogenized sources. Group combustion is considered, with the reaction between the fuel coming from the vaporizing droplets and the oxygen of the air modeled in the Burke-Schumann limit of infinitely fast chemical reaction, with nonunity Lewis numbers allowed for the different r...

  2. N2O formation in combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize N 2 O emissions from combustion sources emphasizing N 2 O emissions from post-combustion selective gas phase NO x reduction processes and reburning. The processes to be evaluated include ammonia, urea and cyanuric acid injection and reburning. The project includes pilot-scale testing at two facilities supported by chemical kinetic modeling. Testing will be performed on both a gas-fired plug flow combustor and a pulverized-coal fired combustor. Work performed to date has included the performance of the initial detailed chemical kinetics calculations. These calculations showed that both urea and cyanuric acid produce significant quantities of N 2 O, while NH 3 injection produced negligible amounts. These kinetics data support limited test results reported for cyanuric acid and ammonia injection. Laboratory work to evaluate the selective gas phase NO x reduction processes listed above will begin in the gas-fired facility early in CY 1990. Testing to evaluate reburning at the coal-fired facility is currently planned to be performed in parallel with the testing at the gas-fired facility. Following completion of that work, additional kinetics calculations will be performed

  3. Rotary combustion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Rotary combustion device (1) with rotary combustion chamber (4). Specific measures are taken to provide ignition of a combustible mixture. It is proposed that a hollow tube be provided coaxially with the axis of rotation (6), so that a small part of the mixture is guided into the combustion chamber.

  4. 2011 Laser Diagnostics in Combustion Gordon Research Conference, (August 14-19, 2011, Waterville Valley Resort, Waterville Valley, NH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Settersten

    2011-08-19

    The vast majority of the world's energy needs are met by combustion of fossil fuels. Optimum utilization of limited resources and control of emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases demand sustained improvement of combustion technology. This task can be satisfied only by detailed knowledge of the underlying physical and chemical processes. Non-intrusive laser diagnostics continuously contribute to our growing understanding of these complex and coupled multi-scale processes. The GRC on Laser Diagnostics in Combustion focuses on the most recent scientific advances and brings together scientists and engineers working at the leading edge of combustion research. Major tasks of the community are developing and applying methods for precise and accurate measurements of fluid motion and temperatures; chemical compositions; multi-phase phenomena appearing near walls, in spray and sooting combustion; improving sensitivities, precision, spatial resolution and tracking transients in their spatio-temporal development. The properties and behaviour of novel laser sources, detectors, optical systems that lead to new diagnostic capabilities are also part of the conference program.

  5. Microemulsions in the Preparation of Highly Active Combustion Catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rymeš, Jan; Ehret, G.; Hilaire, L.; Boutonnet, M.; Jirátová, Květa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 75, 1-4 (2002), s. 297-303 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : microemulsion s * catalytic combustion * VOC Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.146, year: 2002

  6. Energy Generation from Horse Husbandry Residues by Anaerobic Digestion, Combustion, and an Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Nitsche

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse-related activities often occur close to urban areas, where acreage for horse manure disposal is scarce, and subsequently alternative recovery options are necessary. Anaerobic digestion, direct combustion, and the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass (IFBB process are potential techniques focusing on energy provision. In this study, samples of horse faeces were analysed for chemical composition as pure feedstock and in mixture with straw or wood shavings, as well as for energy yield by biogas production or from combustion of solid fuel. It was observed that chemical properties of faeces, in a mixture with wood shavings, were promising for direct combustion, but achieved low methane yields. The methane yield of pure faeces and the straw mixture was 222.33 ± 13.60 and 233.01 ± 31.32 lN·kg-1 volatile solids (VSadded, respectively. The IFBB process divided the biomass into a press cake with reduced mineral concentration and a press fluid. Methane yields of press fluids were low (108.2 lN·kg-1 VSadded, on average. The chemical composition of the press cake allowed for combustion and led to a higher gross energy potential than anaerobic digestion (two-fold higher for pure manure and the mixture with straw, and five-fold higher for the mixture with shavings. Consequently, the gross energy potential of IFBB is higher compared to anaerobic digestion, however it should be noted that local conditions might favour the implementation of anaerobic digestion.

  7. A computational environment for creating and testing reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, C.J.; Swensen, D.A.; Harding, T.V.; Cremer, M.A.; Bockelie, M.J. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes software called computer assisted reduced mechanism problem solving environment (CARM-PSE) that gives the engineer the ability to rapidly set up, run and examine large numbers of problems comparing detailed and reduced (approximate) chemistry. CARM-PSE integrates the automatic chemical mechanism reduction code CARM and the codes that simulate perfectly stirred reactors and plug flow reactors into a user-friendly computational environment. CARM-PSE gives the combustion engineer the ability to easily test chemical approximations over many hundreds of combinations of inputs in a multidimensional parameter space. The demonstration problems compare detailed and reduced chemical kinetic calculations for methane-air combustion, including nitrogen oxide formation, in a stirred reactor and selective non-catalytic reduction of NOx, in coal combustion flue gas.

  8. Two-loop polygon Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, C.; Brandhuber, A.; Heslop, P.; Spence, B.; Travaglini, G.; Khoze, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    We compute for the first time the two-loop corrections to arbitrary n-gon lightlike Wilson loops in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, using efficient numerical methods. The calculation is motivated by the remarkable agreement between the finite part of planar six-point MHV amplitudes and hexagon Wilson loops which has been observed at two loops. At n = 6 we confirm that the ABDK/BDS ansatz must be corrected by adding a remainder function, which depends only on conformally invariant ratios of kinematic variables. We numerically compute remainder functions for n = 7,8 and verify dual conformal invariance. Furthermore, we study simple and multiple collinear limits of the Wilson loop remainder functions and demonstrate that they have precisely the form required by the collinear factorisation of the corresponding two-loop n-point amplitudes. The number of distinct diagram topologies contributing to the n-gon Wilson loops does not increase with n, and there is a fixed number of 'master integrals', which we have computed. Thus we have essentially computed general polygon Wilson loops, and if the correspondence with amplitudes continues to hold, all planar n-point two-loop MHV amplitudes in the N = 4 theory.

  9. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R; Siistonen, H; Malkavaara, P [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  10. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wu, Weihua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taatjes, Craig A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scheer, Adam Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Kevin M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yu, Eizadora T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Powell, Amy Jo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gao, Connie W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  11. Pt Combustion Catalysts Prepared from W/O Microemulsions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rymeš, Jan; Ehret, G.; Hilaire, L.; Jirátová, Květa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 143, - (2002), s. 121-129 ISSN 0167-2991. [International Symposium Scientific Bases for the Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts /8./. Louvain-la-Neuve, 09.09.2002-12.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072904 Keywords : combustion catalysts * microemulsion s Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.468, year: 2002

  12. Risk analysis of highly combustible gas storage, supply, and distribution systems in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.P.; VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen distribution configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen distribution system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement

  13. Experimental Study of Liquid Fuel Spray Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree

    the specific physical quantities needed in CFD validation of these types of flames. This work is a testament to that fact. The first part of this thesis is an extensive study of optical combustion diagnostics applied to complex transient sprayflames in a high temperature and pressure environment...... by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. Other supporters of the project have been MAN Diesel & Turbo A/S, DTU Mechanical Engineering, DTU Chemical Engineering, Sandia National Laboratories USA, Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus.......The physiochemical properties and electromagnetic interactions in flames, of which various optical combustion diagnostics are based, have been reviewed. Key diagnostics have been presented with practical examples of their application which, together with a comprehensive review of fuel spray flames, form...

  14. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  15. Hybrid energy converter based on swirling combustion chambers: the hydrocarbon feeding analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Minotti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports the latest investigations about a miniaturized hybrid energy power source, compatible with thermal/electrical conversion, by a thermo-photovoltaic cell, and potentially useful for civil and space applications. The converter is a thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped element and the basic idea is to heat up its emitting surfaces by means of combustion, occurred in swirling chambers, integrated inside the device, and/or by the sun, which may work simultaneously or alternatively to the combustion. The current upgrades consist in examining whether the device might fulfill specific design constraints, adopting hydrocarbons-feeding. Previous papers, published by the author, demonstrate the hydrogen-feeding effectiveness. The project’s constraints are: 1 emitting surface dimensions fixed to 30 × 30 mm, 2 surface peak temperature T > 1000 K and the relative ∆T < 100 K (during the combustion mode, 3 the highest possible delivered power to the ambient, and 4 thermal efficiency greater than 20% when works with solar energy. To this end, a 5 connected swirling chambers configuration (3 mm of diameter, with 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichiometric conditions and detailed chemistry, has been adopted. Reactive numerical simulations show that the stiff methane chemical structure obliges to increase the operating pressure, up to 10 atm, and to add hydrogen, to the methane fuel injection, in order to obtain stable combustion and efficient energy conversion.

  16. On the mechanism controlling the redox kinetics of Cu-based oxygen carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Pio Bordeje, M.A.; Gallucci, F.; Roghair, I.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide on alumina is often used as oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion owing to its very high reduction rates at lower temperatures and its very good mechanical and chemical stability at temperatures below 1000 °C. In this work, the redox behaviour of CuO/Al2O3 has been studied in

  17. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  18. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  19. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Zishanshan; Bai, Jing; Memon, Shazim Ali; Dong, Biqin; Fang, Yuan; Xu, Weiting; Xing, Feng

    2015-02-13

    Calcium carbide residue (CCR) is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH)₂, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP). The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength) with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope). Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  20. A Mixing Based Model for DME Combustion in Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Bjarne H.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    A series of studies has been conducted investigating the behavior of di-methyl ether (DME) fuel jets injected into quiescent combus-tion chambers. These studies have shown that it is possible to make a good estimate of the penetration of the jet based on existing correlations for diesel fuel......, by using appropriate fuel properties. The results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a first generation model for DME combustion. The model is entirely based on physical mixing, where chemical processes have been assumed to be very fast in relation to mixing. The assumption was made...

  1. A mixing based model for DME combustion in diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Bjarne Hjort; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A series of studies has been conducted investigating the behavior of di-methyl ether (DME) fuel jets injected into quiescent combustion chambers. These studies have shown that it is possible to make a good estimate of the penetration of the jet based on existing correlations for diesel fuel......, by using appropriate fuel properties. The results of the spray studies have been incorporated into a first generation model for DME combustion. The model is entirely based on physical mixing, where chemical processes have been assumed to be very fast in relation to mixing. The assumption was made...

  2. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Brand

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (13C and 18O abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the δ18O signature of CO2 from combustion processes, which are widely present both naturally (wild fires, and human induced (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning in the carbon cycle. All these combustion processes use atmospheric oxygen, of which the isotopic signature is assumed to be constant with time throughout the whole atmosphere. The combustion is generally presumed to take place at high temperatures, thus minimizing isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is generally supposed that the 18O signature of the produced CO2 is equal to that of the atmospheric oxygen. This study, however, reveals that the situation is much more complicated and that important fractionation effects do occur. From laboratory studies fractionation effects on the order of up to 26%permil; became obvious in the derived CO2 from combustion of different kinds of material, a clear differentiation of about 7‰ was also found in car exhausts which were sampled directly under ambient atmospheric conditions. We investigated a wide range of materials (both different raw materials and similar materials with different inherent 18O signature, sample geometries (e.g. texture and surface-volume ratios and combustion circumstances. We found that the main factor influencing the specific isotopic signatures of the combustion-derived CO2 and of the concomitantly released oxygen-containing side products, is the case-specific rate of combustion. This points firmly into the direction of (diffusive transport of oxygen to the reaction zone as the cause of the isotope fractionation. The original total 18O signature of the material appeared to have little influence, however, a contribution of specific bio-chemical

  3. Principles of agonist recognition in Cys-loop receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eLynagh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cys-loop receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a structurally diverse array of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine and GABA. After the term chemoreceptor emerged over 100 years ago, there was some wait until affinity labeling, molecular cloning, functional studies and X-ray crystallography experiments identified the extracellular interface of adjacent subunits as the principal site of agonist binding. The question of how subtle differences at and around agonist-binding sites of different Cys-loop receptors can accommodate transmitters as chemically diverse as glycine and serotonin has been subject to intense research over the last three decades. This review outlines the functional diversity and current structural understanding of agonist-binding sites, including those of invertebrate Cys-loop receptors. Together, this provides a framework to understand the atomic determinants involved in how these valuable therapeutic targets recognize and bind their ligands.

  4. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  5. Oxygen Transport Membrane Reactors for Oxy-Fuel Combustion and Carbon Capture Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenstein-Smith, Ryan L.

    This thesis investigates oxygen transport membrane reactors (OTMs) for the application of oxy-fuel combustion. This is done by evaluating the material properties and oxygen permeability of different OTM compositions subjected to a variety of operating conditions. The scope of this work consists of three components: (1) evaluate the oxygen permeation capabilities of perovskite-type materials for the application of oxy-fuel combustion; (2) determine the effects of dual-phase membrane compositions on the oxygen permeation performance and membrane characteristics; and (3) develop a new method for estimating the oxygen permeation performance of OTMs utilized for the application of oxy-fuel combustion. SrSc0.1Co0.9O3-delta (SSC) is selected as the primary perovskite-type material used in this research due to its reported high ionic and electronic conductive properties and chemical stability. SSC's oxygen ion diffusivity is investigated using a conductivity relaxation technique and thermogravimetric analysis. Material properties such as chemical structure, morphology, and ionic and electronic conductivity are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and conductivity testing using a four-probe method, respectively. Oxygen permeation tests study the oxygen permeability OTMs under modified membrane temperatures, sweeping gas flow rates, sweeping gas compositions, membrane configurations, and membrane compositions. When utilizing a pure CO2 sweeping gas, the membrane composition was modified with the addition of Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9-delta (SDC) at varying wt.% to improve the membranes mechanical stability. A newly developed method to evaluate the oxygen permeation performance of OTMs is also presented by fitting OTM's oxygen permeability to the methane fraction in the sweeping gas composition. The fitted data is used to estimate the overall performance and size of OTMs utilized for the application of oxy-fuel combustion. The findings from this

  6. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  7. Spectral modeling of radiation in combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopalendu

    Radiation calculations are important in combustion due to the high temperatures encountered but has not been studied in sufficient detail in the case of turbulent flames. Radiation calculations for such problems require accurate, robust, and computationally efficient models for the solution of radiative transfer equation (RTE), and spectral properties of radiation. One more layer of complexity is added in predicting the overall heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems due to nonlinear interactions between turbulent fluctuations and radiation. The present work is aimed at the development of finite volume-based high-accuracy thermal radiation modeling, including spectral radiation properties in order to accurately capture turbulence-radiation interactions (TRI) and predict heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems correctly and efficiently. The turbulent fluctuations of temperature and chemical species concentrations have strong effects on spectral radiative intensities, and TRI create a closure problem when the governing partial differential equations are averaged. Recently, several approaches have been proposed to take TRI into account. Among these attempts the most promising approaches are the probability density function (PDF) methods, which can treat nonlinear coupling between turbulence and radiative emission exactly, i.e., "emission TRI". The basic idea of the PDF method is to treat physical variables as random variables and to solve the PDF transport equation stochastically. The actual reacting flow field is represented by a large number of discrete stochastic particles each carrying their own random variable values and evolving with time. The mean value of any function of those random variables, such as the chemical source term, can be evaluated exactly by taking the ensemble average of particles. The local emission term belongs to this class and thus, can be evaluated directly and exactly from particle ensembles. However, the local absorption term

  8. Chemical sciences, annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of eleven research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a DOE National Laboratory. In FY 1993, the Division made considerable progress on developing two end-stations and a beamline to advance combustion dynamics at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). In support of DOE's national role in combustion research and chemical science, the beamline effort will enable researchers from around the world to make fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients, and in understanding the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions. The Division has continued to place a strong emphasis on full compliance with environmental health and safety guidelines and regulations and has made progress in technology transfer to industry. Finally, the Division has begun a new program in advanced battery research and development that should help strengthen industrial competitiveness both at home and abroad

  9. Chemical sciences, annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of eleven research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a DOE National Laboratory. In FY 1993, the Division made considerable progress on developing two end-stations and a beamline to advance combustion dynamics at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). In support of DOE`s national role in combustion research and chemical science, the beamline effort will enable researchers from around the world to make fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients, and in understanding the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions. The Division has continued to place a strong emphasis on full compliance with environmental health and safety guidelines and regulations and has made progress in technology transfer to industry. Finally, the Division has begun a new program in advanced battery research and development that should help strengthen industrial competitiveness both at home and abroad.

  10. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  11. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  12. Chemical decontamination method in nuclear facility system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryota; Sakai, Hitoshi; Oka, Shigehiro.

    1996-01-01

    Pumps and valves in a closed recycling loop system incorporating materials to be chemically decontaminated are decomposed, a guide plate having the decomposed parts as an exit/inlet of a decontaminating liquid is formed, and a decontaminating liquid recycling loop comprising a recycling pump and a heater is connected to the guide plate. Decontaminating liquid from a decontaminating liquid storage tank is supplied to the decontaminating liquid recycling loop. With such constitutions, the decontaminating liquid is filled in the recycling closed loop system incorporating materials to be decontaminated, and the materials to be decontaminated are chemically decontaminated. The decontaminating liquid after the decontamination is discharged and flows, if necessary, in a recycling system channel for repeating supply and discharge. After the decontamination, the guide plate is removed and returned to the original recycling loop. When pipelines of a reactor recycling system are decontaminated, the amount of decontaminations can be decreased, and reforming construction for assembling the recycling loop again, which requires cutting for pipelines in the system is no more necessary. Accordingly, the amount of wastes can be decreased, and therefore, the decontamination operation is facilitated and radiation dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  13. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  14. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  15. Formation and Control of Sulfur Oxides in Sour Gas Oxy-Combustion: Prediction Using a Reactor Network Model

    KAUST Repository

    Bongartz, Dominik

    2015-11-19

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Sour natural gas currently requires expensive gas cleanup before it can be used in power generation because it contains large amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that entail a low heating value and highly corrosive combustion products. A potential alternative is to use the gas directly in a gas turbine process employing oxy-fuel combustion, which could eliminate the need for gas cleanup while also enabling the application of carbon capture and sequestration, possibly combined with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, the exact influence of an oxy-fuel environment on the combustion products of sour gas has not been quantified yet. In this work, we used a reactor network model for the combustor and the gas turbine together with our recently assembled and validated detailed chemical reaction mechanism for sour gas combustion to investigate the influence of some basic design parameters on the combustion products of natural gas and sour gas in CO2 or H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion as well as in conventional air combustion. Our calculations show that oxy-fuel combustion produces up to 2 orders of magnitude less of the highly corrosive product sulfur trioxide (SO3) than air combustion, which clearly demonstrates its potential in handling sulfur containing fuels. Unlike in air combustion, in oxy-fuel combustion, SO3 is mainly formed in the flame zone of the combustor and is then consumed as the combustion products are cooled in the dilution zone of the combustor and the turbine. In oxy-fuel combustion, H2O dilution leads to a higher combustion efficiency than CO2 dilution. However, if the process is to be combined with EOR, CO2 dilution makes it easier to comply with the very low levels of oxygen (O2) required in the EOR stream. Our calculations also show that it might even be beneficial to operate slightly fuel-rich because this simultaneously decreases the O2 and SO3 concentration further. The flame zone

  16. The influence of charge stratification on the spectral signature of partially premixed combustion in a light-duty optical engine

    KAUST Repository

    Najafabadi, M. Izadi; Egelmeers, Luc; Somers, Bart; Deen, Niels; Johansson, Bengt; Dam, Nico

    2017-01-01

    * chemiluminescence, we see two different chemical mechanisms for formation of C2* in the PPC regime: first during the early stage of combustion by the breakup of bigger molecules and the second during the late stage of combustion when soot particles are forming.

  17. Quantitative Thermochemical Measurements in High-Pressure Gaseous Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun J.; Fischer, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We present our strategic experiment and thermochemical analyses on combustion flow using a subframe burst gating (SBG) Raman spectroscopy. This unconventional laser diagnostic technique has promising ability to enhance accuracy of the quantitative scalar measurements in a point-wise single-shot fashion. In the presentation, we briefly describe an experimental methodology that generates transferable calibration standard for the routine implementation of the diagnostics in hydrocarbon flames. The diagnostic technology was applied to simultaneous measurements of temperature and chemical species in a swirl-stabilized turbulent flame with gaseous methane fuel at elevated pressure (17 atm). Statistical analyses of the space-/time-resolved thermochemical data provide insights into the nature of the mixing process and it impact on the subsequent combustion process in the model combustor.

  18. Energetic Combustion Devices for Aerospace Propulsion and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical reactions have long been the mainstay thermal energy source for aerospace propulsion and power. Although it is widely recognized that the intrinsic energy density limitations of chemical bonds place severe constraints on maximum realizable performance, it will likely be several years before systems based on high energy density nuclear fuels can be placed into routine service. In the mean time, efforts to develop high energy density chemicals and advanced combustion devices which can utilize such energetic fuels may yield worthwhile returns in overall system performance and cost. Current efforts in this vein are being carried out at NASA MSFC under the direction of the author in the areas of pulse detonation engine technology development and light metals combustion devices. Pulse detonation engines are touted as a low cost alternative to gas turbine engines and to conventional rocket engines, but actual performance and cost benefits have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Light metal fueled engines also offer potential benefits in certain niche applications such as aluminum/CO2 fueled engines for endo-atmospheric Martian propulsion. Light metal fueled MHD generators also present promising opportunities with respect to electric power generation for electromagnetic launch assist. This presentation will discuss the applications potential of these concepts with respect to aero ace propulsion and power and will review the current status of the development efforts.

  19. Combustion of Liquid Bio-Fuels in an Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Kalisz, S.; Baxter, D.; Svoboda, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2008), s. 172-179 ISSN 1385-8947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : internal circulating fluidized bed * liquid fuel * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  20. Random walk loop soups and conformal loop ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brug, T.; Camia, F.; Lis, M.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk loop soup is a Poissonian ensemble of lattice loops; it has been extensively studied because of its connections to the discrete Gaussian free field, but was originally introduced by Lawler and Trujillo Ferreras as a discrete version of the Brownian loop soup of Lawler and Werner, a

  1. Application of Pareto-efficient combustion modeling framework to large eddy simulations of turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ihme, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of turbulent combustion requires the consideration of different physico-chemical processes, involving a vast range of time and length scales as well as a large number of scalar quantities. To reduce the computational complexity, various combustion models are developed. Many of them can be abstracted using a lower-dimensional manifold representation. A key issue in using such lower-dimensional combustion models is the assessment as to whether a particular combustion model is adequate in representing a certain flame configuration. The Pareto-efficient combustion (PEC) modeling framework was developed to perform dynamic combustion model adaptation based on various existing manifold models. In this work, the PEC model is applied to a turbulent flame simulation, in which a computationally efficient flamelet-based combustion model is used in together with a high-fidelity finite-rate chemistry model. The combination of these two models achieves high accuracy in predicting pollutant species at a relatively low computational cost. The relevant numerical methods and parallelization techniques are also discussed in this work.

  2. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  3. Nitrogen chemistry in combustion and gasification - mechanisms and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to increase the understanding of the complex details of gaseous emission formation in energy production techniques based on combustion and/or gasification. The aim has also been to improve the accuracy of mathematical furnace models when they are used for predicting emissions. The main emphasis has been on nitrogen oxides (NO x , N 2 O). The work supports development of cleaner and more efficient combustion technology. The main emphasis has been on combustion systems that are based on fluidized bed technology including both atmospheric and pressurized conditions (BFBC, CFBC, PFBC/G). The work has consisted of advanced theoretical modeling and of experiments in laboratory devices that have partly been made in collaboration with other LIEKKI projects. Two principal modeling tools have been used: detailed homogeneous chemical kinetic modeling and computational fluid dynamic simulation. In this report, the most important results of the following selected items will be presented: (1) Extension of a detailed kinetic nitrogen and hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism into elevated pressure, and parametric studies on: effect of pressure on fuel-nitrogen oxidation under PFBC conditions, effect of pressure on selective non-catalytic NO x reduction under PFBC conditions, effect of different oxidizers on hot-gas cleaning of ammonia by means of selective oxidation in gasification gas. (2) Extension of the above mechanism to include chlorine reactions at atmospheric pressure, and parametric studies on: effect of HCl on CO burn-out in FBC combustion of waste. (3) Development of more accurate emission prediction models: incorporation of more accurate submodels on hydrocarbon oxidation into CFD furnace models, and evaluation of different concepts describing the interaction between turbulence and chemical reaction, development of a mechanistic detailed 1.5-dimensional emission model for circulating fluidized bed combustors. (orig.) 14 refs

  4. Renormalization of loop functions for all loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.; Sato, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the vacuum expectation values W(C 1 ,xxx, C/sub n/) of products of the traces of the path-ordered phase factors P exp[igcontour-integral/sub C/iA/sub μ/(x)dx/sup μ/] are multiplicatively renormalizable in all orders of perturbation theory. Here A/sub μ/(x) are the vector gauge field matrices in the non-Abelian gauge theory with gauge group U(N) or SU(N), and C/sub i/ are loops (closed paths). When the loops are smooth (i.e., differentiable) and simple (i.e., non-self-intersecting), it has been shown that the generally divergent loop functions W become finite functions W when expressed in terms of the renormalized coupling constant and multiplied by the factors e/sup -K/L(C/sub i/), where K is linearly divergent and L(C/sub i/) is the length of C/sub i/. It is proved here that the loop functions remain multiplicatively renormalizable even if the curves have any finite number of cusps (points of nondifferentiability) or cross points (points of self-intersection). If C/sub γ/ is a loop which is smooth and simple except for a single cusp of angle γ, then W/sub R/(C/sub γ/) = Z(γ)W(C/sub γ/) is finite for a suitable renormalization factor Z(γ) which depends on γ but on no other characteristic of C/sub γ/. This statement is made precise by introducing a regularization, or via a loop-integrand subtraction scheme specified by a normalization condition W/sub R/(C-bar/sub γ/) = 1 for an arbitrary but fixed loop C-bar/sub γ/. Next, if C/sub β/ is a loop which is smooth and simple except for a cross point of angles β, then W(C/sub β/) must be renormalized together with the loop functions of associated sets S/sup i//sub β/ = ]C/sup i/ 1 ,xxx, C/sup i//sub p/i] (i = 2,xxx,I) of loops C/sup i//sub q/ which coincide with certain parts of C/sub β/equivalentC 1 1 . Then W/sub R/(S/sup i//sub β/) = Z/sup i/j(β)W(S/sup j//sub β/) is finite for a suitable matrix Z/sup i/j

  5. Role of an Absolutely Conserved Tryptophan Pair in the Extracellular Domain of Cys-Loop Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Nina; Lynagh, Timothy; Yu, Rilei

    2016-01-01

    Cys-loop receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission in the nervous system, and their dysfunction is associated with a number of diseases. While some sequence variability is essential to ensure specific recognition of a chemically diverse set of ligands, other parts of the underlying amino acid...... sequences show a high degree of conservation, possibly to preserve the overall structural fold across the protein family. In this study, we focus on the only two absolutely conserved residues across the Cys-loop receptor family, two Trp side chains in the WXD motif of Loop D and in the WXPD motif of Loop A...

  6. Chemical process control using Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Chun; Kim, Raeh Yeon; Kim, Yang Su; Oh, Min; Yeo, Yeong Gu; Jung, Yeon Su

    2001-07-01

    This book is about chemical process control, which includes the basis of process control with conception, function, composition of system and summary, change of laplace and linearization, modeling of chemical process, transfer function and block diagram, the first dynamic property of process, the second dynamic property of process, the dynamic property of combined process, control structure of feedback on component of control system, the dynamic property of feedback control loop, stability of closed loop control structure, expression of process, modification and composition of controller, analysis of vibration response and adjustment controller using vibration response.

  7. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  8. Assessment of oxy-fuel, pre- and post-combustion-based carbon capture for future IGCC plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, Christian; Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hot gas cleanup is a highly favorable technology for all selected IGCC concepts. ► Proposed high pressure IGCC with membrane reactor enables direct CO 2 condensation. ► IGCC with OTM and carbonate looping enable significant synergy effects. ► Combining IGCC and oxy-fuel is technically challenging but energetically favorable. ► All selected IGCC concepts are able to realize CO 2 capture rates up to 99%. -- Abstract: Environmental damage due to the emission of greenhouse gases from conventional coal-based power plants is a growing concern. Various carbon capture strategies to minimize CO 2 emissions are currently being investigated. Unfortunately, the efficiency drop due to de-carbonization is still significant and the capture rate is limited. Therefore three future hard coal IGCC concepts are assessed here, applying emerging technologies and various carbon capture approaches. The advanced pre-combustion capture concept is based on hot gas clean-up, membrane-enhanced CO conversion and direct CO 2 condensation. The concept reached a net efficiency of 45.1% (LHV), representing an improvement of 6.46% compared to the conventional IGCC base case. The second IGCC concept, based on post-combustion capture via calcination–carbonation loops, hot gas clean-up and oxygen membranes, showed a net efficiency of 45.87% (LHV). The third IGCC concept applies hot gas clean-up and combustion of the unconverted fuel gas using pure oxygen. The oxygen is supplied by an integrated oxygen membrane. The combination of IGCC and oxy-fuel process reached a net efficiency of 45.74% (LHV). In addition to their increased efficiency, all of the concepts showed significantly improved carbon capture rates up to 99%, resulting in virtually carbon-free fossil power plants.

  9. Experimental validation for combustion analysis of GOTHIC code in 2-dimensional combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Yang, S. Y.; Park, K. C.; Jung, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the prediction capability of GOTHIC code for hydrogen combustion phenomena was validated with the results of two-dimensional premixed hydrogen combustion experiment executed by Seoul National University. The experimental chamber has about 24 liter free volume (1x0.024x1 m 3 ) and 2-dimensional rectangular shape. The test were preformed with 10% hydrogen/air gas mixture and conducted with combination of two igniter positions (top center, top corner) and two boundary conditions (bottom full open, bottom right half open). Using the lumped parameter and mechanistic combustion model in GOTHIC code, the SNU experiments were simulated under the same conditions. The GOTHIC code prediction of the hydrogen combustion phenomena did not compare well with the experimental results. In case of lumped parameter simulation, the combustion time was predicted appropriately. But any other local information related combustion phenomena could not be obtained. In case of mechanistic combustion analysis, the physical combustion phenomena of gas mixture were not matched experimental ones. In boundary open cases, the GOTHIC predicted very long combustion time and the flame front propagation could not simulate appropriately. Though GOTHIC showed flame propagation phenomenon in adiabatic calculation, the induction time of combustion was still very long compare with experimental results. Also, it was found that the combustion model of GOTHIC code had some weak points in low concentration of hydrogen combustion simulation

  10. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  11. Waste gas combustion in a Hanford radioactive waste tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, J.R.; Fujita, R.K.; Spore, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    It has been observed that a high-level radioactive waste tank generates quantities of hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen that are potentially well within flammability limits. These gases are produced from chemical and nuclear decay reactions in a slurry of radioactive waste materials. Significant amounts of combustible and reactant gases accumulate in the waste over a 110- to 120-d period. The slurry becomes Taylor unstable owing to the buoyancy of the gases trapped in a matrix of sodium nitrate and nitrite salts. As the contents of the tank roll over, the generated waste gases rupture through the waste material surface, allowing the gases to be transported and mixed with air in the cover-gas space in the dome of the tank. An ignition source is postulated in the dome space where the waste gases combust in the presence of air resulting in pressure and temperature loadings on the double-walled waste tank. This analysis is conducted with hydrogen mixing studies HMS, a three-dimensional, time-dependent fluid dynamics code coupled with finite-rate chemical kinetics. The waste tank has a ventilation system designed to maintain a slight negative gage pressure during normal operation. We modeled the ventilation system with the transient reactor analysis code (TRAC), and we coupled these two best-estimate accident analysis computer codes to model the ventilation system response to pressures and temperatures generated by the hydrogen and ammonia combustion

  12. Ab initio quantum chemistry for combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, M.; Lengsfield, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in theoretical and computational methods, coupled with the rapid development of powerful and inexpensive computers, fuel the current rapid development in computational quantum chemistry (QC). Nowhere is this more evident than in the areas of QC most relevant to combustion: the description of bond breaking and rate phenomena. although the development of faster computers with larger memories has had a major impact on the scope of problems that can be addressed with QC, the development of new theoretical techniques and capabilities is responsible for adding new dimensions in QC and has paved the way for the unification of QC electronic structure calculations with statistical and dynamical models of chemical reactions. These advances will be stressed in this chapter. This paper describes past accomplishments selectively to set the stage for discussion of ideas or techniques that we believe will have significant impact on combustion research. Thus, the focus of the chapter is as much on the future as it is on the past

  13. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aluminum metal combustion in water revealed by high-speed microphotography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, William C.; Frank, Alan M.; Clements, Rochelle E.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    In high explosives designed for air blast cratering fragmentation and underwater applications metallic additives chemically react with the oxidizer and are used to tailor the rate of energy delivery by the expansion medium. Although the specific mechanism for sustained metal combustion in the dense detonation medium remains in question it is generally accepted that the fragmentation of the molten particle and disruption of its oxide layer are a necessity. In this study we use high speed microphotography to examine the ignition and combustion of small 25-76 jim diameter and 23 mm long aluminum wires rapidly heated by a capacitor discharge system in water. Streak and framing photographs detailing the combustion phenomenon and the fragmentation of the molten aluminum were obtained over periods of 100 nsec - 100 j. tsec with a spatial resolution of 2 . im. The wire temperature was determined as a function of time by integrating the circuit equation together with the energy equation for an adiabatic wire and incorporating known aluminum electrical resistivity and temperature functions of energy density in the integration. In order for the aluminum to sustain a rapid chemical reaction with the water we found that the wire temperature has to be raised above the melting temperature of aluminum oxide. The triggering mechanism for this rapid reaction appears to be the fragmentation of the molten aluminum from the collapse of a vapor blanket about

  15. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  16. Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.

  17. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  18. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  19. A predictive model of natural gas mixture combustion in internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Espinoza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of a predictive natural gas mixture combustion model for conventional com-bustion (ignition engines. The model was based on resolving two areas; one having unburned combustion mixture and another having combustion products. Energy and matter conservation equations were solved for each crankshaft turn angle for each area. Nonlinear differential equations for each phase’s energy (considering compression, combustion and expansion were solved by applying the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The model also enabled studying different natural gas components’ composition and evaluating combustion in the presence of dry and humid air. Validation results are shown with experimental data, demonstrating the software’s precision and accuracy in the results so produced. The results showed cylinder pressure, unburned and burned mixture temperature, burned mass fraction and combustion reaction heat for the engine being modelled using a natural gas mixture.

  20. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  1. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  2. Formation of dioxins and furans during combustion of treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tame, Nigel W.; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Kennedy, Eric M. [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F, dioxin) are produced in combustion of wood treated with copper-based preservatives. This review summarises and analyses the pertinent literature on the role of preservatives in the formation of dioxin in the low-temperature, vitiated environment that exists in the domestic combustion of wood, and in large-scale fires. Until recently, the role of preservatives was not thoroughly examined in the literature with respect to fires, as incineration attracted most of the research focus. However, latest studies have demonstrated that some current and emerging wood preservatives significantly increase dioxin formation during combustion in domestic stoves and in fires. The following pathways are identified: (i) copper, a common biocide that is chemically bound to the wood, is an important dioxin catalyst, (ii) preservative metals promote smouldering of wood char following cessation of flaming, providing the required temperature environment for dioxin formation, and (iii) chlorinated organics added as secondary preservative components yield dioxin precursors upon thermal decomposition. These conclusions indicate that it remains hazardous to dispose of preservative impregnated timber via domestic combustion even if arsenic is not present. (author)

  3. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of 2-methylbutanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo

    2015-05-01

    2-Methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) is one of several next-generation biofuels that can be used as an alternative fuel or blending component for combustion engines. This paper presents new experimental data for 2-methylbutanol, including ignition delay times in a high-pressure shock tube and premixed laminar flame speeds in a constant volume combustion vessel. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured for 2-methylbutanol/air mixtures at three equivalence ratios, temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250. K, and at nominal pressures near 20 and 40. bar. Laminar flame speed data were obtained using the spherically propagating premixed flame configuration at pressures of 1, 2, and 5. bar. A detailed chemical kinetic model for 2-methylbutanol oxidation was developed including high- and low-temperature chemistry based on previous modeling studies on butanol and pentanol isomers. The proposed model was tested against new and existing experimental data at pressures of 1-40. atm, temperatures of 740-1636. K, equivalence ratios of 0.25-2.0. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were conducted for identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions, and to obtain better understanding of the combustion characteristics of larger alcohols.

  4. Phenomenological modeling of combustion and NOx emissions using detailed tabulated chemistry methods in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, R.; Dinkelacker, F.; Tilch, B.; Delebinski, T.; Brauer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the predictive quality of engine models, while maintaining an affordable computational cost, is of great importance. In this study, a phenomenological combustion and a tabulated NOx model, focusing on efficient modeling and improvement of computational effort, is presented. The proposed approach employs physical and chemical sub-models for local processes such as injection, spray formation, ignition, combustion, and NOx formation, being based on detailed tabulated chemistry methods....

  5. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The current project focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of refuse derived fuel with coal, peat, wood or bark, which could lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced at fluidised bed (FB) combustion conditions in the 15 kW reactor at VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analysed by XRF at Outokumpu Geotechnical Laboratory, Outokumpu. The sintering behaviour of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at the Combustion Chemistry Research Group at Aabo Akademi University. The current extended programme includes a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark/coal (5 tests) and wood/coal (2 tests), a RF from Jyvaskyla (2 tests with peat/coal) and de-inking sludges co- combusted at full-scale with wood waste or paper mill sludge (4 ashes provided by IVO Power). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 deg C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1000 deg C. Ash from 100 % RDF combustion does not sinter, 25 % RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis a 25 % coal addition seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows, that (again), in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulphates gives increased sintering. Finally, some results on sintering tendency measurements on ashes from full-scale CFB co-combustion of deinking sludge with wood waste and paper mill sludge are given. This shows that these ashes show very little, if any, sintering tendency, which can be explained from ash chemistry

  6. Kinetics and mechanisms of elementary chemical processes of importance in combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munk, J.; Pagsberg, P.; Ratajczak, E.; Sztuba, B.; Sillesen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of pulse radiolysis combined with transient ultraviolet absorption spectrophotometry has been employed in spectrokinetic studies of shortlived free radical intermediates of importance in combustion. Various source reactions for vinyl, propargyl and carboxyl radicals have been investigated and the UV-spectra of these radicals have been recorded. The spectral features have been utilized in kinetic studies of the self-reactions of the radicals and the reactions with oxygen. Kinetic results on the reaction NO + NH 2 are also reported. 10 refs. (author)

  7. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  8. Dimensionless model to determine spontaneous combustion danger zone in the longwall gob

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-hai; DENG Jun; WEN Hu

    2011-01-01

    According to spontaneous combustion propensity,the longwall gob is divided into three zones,including heat dissipation zone,self-heating zone and the choking zone.Only in the self-heating zone can temperature of coal rise due to oxidation.Studying the distribution of the “Three Zones” in gob is important for predicting and preventing spontaneous combustion in coalmine.In normal mining operations,temperature of coal is roughly constant.The process of mass transfer in the gob is considered to be steady.Based on mass conservation,gas species conservation,darcy' s law,Ficks law of diffusion and coal oxidation 1-grade reaction rule,governing equation for air leakage intensity and species concentration are deduced.With critical value of coal spontaneous combustion and the size of longwall workface as basic dimension,a dimensionless steady coupled model of air flow diffusion and chemical reaction in loose coal of Fully Mechanized Top-Coal Caving Mining Workface (FMTCCMW) is setup.By solving the model numerically,regulation of three zones' distribution and spontaneous combustion in the gob can be obtained.The results can be easily popularized to prediction of spontaneous combustion in other coalmines' longwall gob.

  9. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Cold flow model study of an oxyfuel combustion pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guio-Perez, D.C.; Tondl, G.; Hoeltl, W.; Proell, T.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-12-15

    The fluid-dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed pilot plant for oxyfuel combustion was studied in a cold flow model, down-scaled using Glicksman's criteria. Pressures along the unit and the global circulation rate were used for characterization. The analysis of five operating parameters and their influence on the system was carried out; namely, total solids inventory and the air velocity of primary, secondary, loop seal and support fluidizations. The cold flow model study shows that the reactor design allows stable operation at a wide range of fluidization rates, with results that agree well with previous observations described in the literature. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Spray-combustion process characterization in a common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends by conventional methods and optical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The target of a sustainable mobility has led to investigate advanced combustion modes and fuels technologies. On the other side, the increasing global energy demand and the decreasing fossil-energy resources are enhancing the interest in the use of renewable alternative fuels for compression ignition engines with the target of near-zero emission levels. Although performance and emissions of alternative-fuel within light-duty diesel engines have been extensively investigated, results of fuel chemical composition impact on combustion by integrated optical methodologies are lacking. In order to meet this challenge, one of the main objectives of the research efforts is to characterize the combustion and species evolution. In this investigation, conventional tests and optical diagnostics were employed to enhance the comprehension of the combustion process and chemical markers in a common rail compression ignition engine powered by butanol-diesel blends. The investigation was focused on the effect of the injection strategy and blend composition on in-cylinder spray combustion and soot formation, through UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible single cylinder high swirl compression ignition engine, equipped with a common rail multi-jets injection system. UV-visible emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the combustion process chemical markers. Spectral features of OH were identified and followed during the spray combustion process examining different pilot-main dwell timings. Soot spectral evidence in the visible wavelength range was correlated to soot engine out emissions. In this work, conventional and optical data related to diesel fuel blended with 40 % of n-butanol will be presented.

  12. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Plaček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding the parameters of the PID control loops. Alongside these methods, which need a lambda probe signal for proper functionality, we inroduce another method, which is able to intercept the optimal combustion working point without the need to use a lambda sensor.

  13. Chemical Biodynamics Division. Annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Chemical Biodynamics Division of LBL continues to conduct basic research on the dynamics of living cells and on the interaction of radiant energy with organic matter. Many aspects of this basic research are related to problems of environmental and health effects of fossil fuel combustion, solar energy conversion and chemical/ viral carcinogenesis.

  14. HERCULES Advanced Combustion Concepts Test Facility: Spray/Combustion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, presents a review of work being done within the framework of HERCULES (High Efficiency R and D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) - the international R and D project concerning new technologies for ships' diesels. The work involves the use and augmentation of simulation models. These are to be validated using experimental data. The report deals with the development of an experimental set-up that will simulate combustion in large two-stroke diesel engines and allow the generation of reference data. The main element of the test apparatus is a spray / combustion chamber with extensive possibilities for optical observation under variable flow conditions. The results of first simulations confirm concepts and shall help in further work on the project. The potential offered by high-speed camera systems was tested using the institute's existing HTDZ combustion chamber. Further work to be done is reviewed.

  15. Innovative Waste Management in the Mercury Loop of the EURISOL Multi-MW Converter Target

    CERN Document Server

    PSI: Jörg Neuhausen, Dorothea Schumann, Rugard Dressler, Susanne Horn, Sabrina Lüthi, Stephan Heinitz, Suresh ChirikiCERN: Thierry Stora, Martin Eller

    The choice of mercury as target material imposes various questions concerning the safe operation of such a system that are related to the physical and chemical properties of the target material itself and the nuclear reaction products produced within the target during its life time of several decades. Therefore, a subtask was created within the EURISOL-DS project that is concerned with studying an innovative waste management for the generated radioactivity by chemical means. Such a study strongly depends on the radioactive inventory and its distribution throughout the target and loop system. Radioactive inventory calculations were performed within task 5 [6]. The distribution of nuclear reaction products and their chemical state that can be expected within the target and loop system is one of the topics covered in this report. Based on the results obtained by theoretical studies as well as laboratory scale experiments, the feasibility of waste reduction using chemical methods, both conventional (e.g. leaching...

  16. Femtosecond laser control of chemical reactions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser control of chemical reactions is made possible through the use of pulse-shaping techniques coupled to a learning algorithm feedback loop – teaching the laser pulse to control the chemical reaction. This can result in controllable...

  17. Surrogate fuel formulation for light naphtha combustion in advanced combustion engines

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-30

    Crude oil once recovered is further separated in to several distinct fractions to produce a range of energy and chemical products. One of the less processed fractions is light naphtha (LN), hence they are more economical to produce than their gasoline and diesel counterparts. Recent efforts have demonstrated usage of LN as transportation fuel for internal combustion engines with slight modifications. In this study, a multicomponent surrogate fuel has been developed for light naphtha fuel using a multi-variable nonlinear constrained optimization scheme. The surrogate, consisting of palette species n-pentane, 2-methylhexane, 2-methylbutane, n-heptane and toluene, was validated against the LN using ignition quality tester following ASTM D6890 methodology. Comparison of LN and the surrogate fuel demonstrated satisfactory agreement.

  18. A 3D numerical study of LO2/GH2 supercritical combustion in the ONERA-Mascotte Test-rig configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Abdelkrim; Liazid, Abdelkrim; Logerais, Pierre-Olivier; Durastanti, Jean-Félix

    2016-02-01

    Cryogenic propellants LOx/H2 are used at very high pressure in rocket engine combustion. The description of the combustion process in such application is very complex due essentially to the supercritical regime. Ideal gas law becomes invalid. In order to try to capture the average characteristics of this combustion process, numerical computations are performed using a model based on a one-phase multi-component approach. Such work requires fluid properties and a correct definition of the mixture behavior generally described by cubic equations of state with appropriated thermodynamic relations validated against the NIST data. In this study we consider an alternative way to get the effect of real gas by testing the volume-weighted-mixing-law with association of the component transport properties using directly the NIST library data fitting including the supercritical regime range. The numerical simulations are carried out using 3D RANS approach associated with two tested turbulence models, the standard k-Epsilon model and the realizable k-Epsilon one. The combustion model is also associated with two chemical reaction mechanisms. The first one is a one-step generic chemical reaction and the second one is a two-step chemical reaction. The obtained results like temperature profiles, recirculation zones, visible flame lengths and distributions of OH species are discussed.

  19. Formation and emission of PM10 in combustion of biofuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Linda; Tullin, Claes; Leckner, Bo

    2004-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown correlations between negative health effects and increased particle concentrations in the ambient air. Because of this correlation and the increasing biofuel combustion, there is a need to more carefully investigate formation and emissions from biofuel combustion to secure good air quality in the future. This project is limited to primary combustion particles emitted from small-scale biofuel combustion. Small-scale is here defined as combustion devices with an output less than 10 MW. The project is divided into two parts. In the first part, particles from small-scale biofuel combustion have been characterised. In the second part, the formation of particles during biofuel combustion is studied. Characterisation of particle emissions has been performed for a range of different combustion units, i.e. pellet stove with a thermal output of a few kW, domestic wood and pellet boilers and district-heating boilers with thermal outputs around 2 MW. Mass concentration of particles was measured according to Swedish Standard method. Particle mass size distribution was measured using Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI, size range 30 nm - 10 μm). The number of particles and corresponding size distribution were measured with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, 30 nm - 10 μm). To some extent, the particle emissions were investigated regarding chemical content and morphology. In all measurement cases, gas concentrations were measured in the flue gas as a control of combustion conditions. The highest mass concentration of particles (2,200 mg/MJ fuel ) was recorded in the flue gas from an old domestic wood log boiler with poor combustion conditions resulting in very high emissions of unburnt (soot). On the other hand, the lowest mass concentration of particles (20 mg/MJ fueI ) was recorded during optimally adjusted pellet combustion, where 83 % of the particles were found to be inorganic. The remaining part consists of unburnt material (e

  20. Two-loop hard-thermal-loop thermodynamics with quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Petitgirard, Emmanuel; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the quark contribution to the free energy of a hot quark-gluon plasma to two-loop order using hard-thermal-loop (HTL) perturbation theory. All ultraviolet divergences can be absorbed into renormalizations of the vacuum energy and the HTL quark and gluon mass parameters. The quark and gluon HTL mass parameters are determined self-consistently by a variational prescription. Combining the quark contribution with the two-loop HTL perturbation theory free energy for pure glue we obtain the total two-loop QCD free energy. Comparisons are made with lattice estimates of the free energy for N f =2 and with exact numerical results obtained in the large-N f limit

  1. Failure probability of PWR reactor coolant loop piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, T.; Woo, H.H.; Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes the results of assessments performed on the PWR coolant loop piping of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering plants. For direct double-ended guillotine break (DEGB), consideration was given to crack existence probability, initial crack size distribution, hydrostatic proof test, preservice inspection, leak detection probability, crack growth characteristics, and failure criteria based on the net section stress failure and tearing modulus stability concept. For indirect DEGB, fragilities of major component supports were estimated. The system level fragility was then calculated based on the Boolean expression involving these fragilities. Indirect DEGB due to seismic effects was calculated by convolving the system level fragility and the seismic hazard curve. The results indicate that the probability of occurrence of both direct and indirect DEGB is extremely small, thus, postulation of DEGB in design should be eliminated and replaced by more realistic criteria

  2. An experimental and numerical investigation of the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Karim, G.A.; Xiao, F.; Sohrabi, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Dept.

    2007-07-01

    The results of an experimental investigation of the performance of a small bore engine with a swirl chamber when operating as a dual fuel engine with commercial methane as the gaseous fuel were presented in this paper. The experiment involved using a 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to predict the performance of the engine. A detailed chemical kinetics for the gaseous fuel component, consisting primarily of methane and a reduced detailed chemical kinetics for the diesel fuel while considering the turbulent combustion processes an associated performance of a dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber were incorporated in the simulation. The study experimentally and numerically investigated the effects of changes in the quantities of the liquid fuel pilot and gaseous fuels on the combustion processes, engine performance, cyclic variations, and emissions. The paper discussed the experimental approach and results. It also discussed the simulation of the dual fuel engine combustion process. It was concluded that dual fuel combustion was an effective method to burn a gaseous fuel-air mixture with a low energy density. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Ozone applied to the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to control alcohol fuels combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masurier, J.-B.; Foucher, F.; Dayma, G.; Dagaut, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ozone was useful to control combustion phasing of alcohol fuels in HCCI engine. • Ozone helps to improve the combustion and advance its phasing. • Butanol is more impacted by ozone than methanol and ethanol. • HCCI combustion parameters may be controlled by managing ozone concentration. • Kinetics demonstrates that alcohol fuels are initially oxidized by O-atoms. - Abstract: The present investigation examines the impact of seeding the intake of an HCCI engine with ozone, one of the most oxidizing chemical species, on the combustion of three alcohol fuels: methanol, ethanol and n-butanol. The research was performed through engine experiments and constant volume computations. The results showed that increasing the ozone concentration led to an improvement in combustion coupled with a combustion advance. It was also observed, by comparing the results for each fuel selected, that n-butanol is the most impacted by ozone seeding and methanol the least. Further analyses of the experimental results showed that the alcohol fuel combustion can be controlled with ozone, which presents an interesting potential. Finally, computation results confirmed the experimental results observed. They also showed that in presence of ozone, alcohol fuels are not initially oxidized by molecular oxygen but by O-atoms coming from the ozone decomposition.

  4. Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

    2014-03-31

    The team of Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineeri