WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical libraries enriched

  1. Augmented Shelf : Digital Enrichment of Library Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Eike; Schäfer, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Libraries are well known as work places and thus have a common way of everyday use. Unfortunately, there is a gap between the physical and digital contents of a library and its media. By expanding the physical, tangible media with digital information, many new possibilities for interaction would open up for users. With the help of a prototype, we want to show how it is possible to shrink this gap with the use of blends and augmented reality. The Augmented Shelf allows for an overlay of digita...

  2. Engineering studies on chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In multi-stage separation processes such as the Chemical Enrichment Process, back mixing phenomena are a matter of vital importance for understanding separation efficiency. Back mixing is composed of two parts, microscopic and macroscopic. The microscopic back mixing is known through molecular theory. The macroscopic back mixing effects are quantitatively determined using flow patterns obtained through computational calculations of the fluid dynamics, as well as experimental data. Judging from physical theory and experimental results, the sum of microscopic and the macroscopic back mixing terms is approximately 300μm in the Chemical Enrichment Process. This technology will also contribute to nuclear science in that it can be applied not only to the isotope separation of other elements and to other multi-stage separation processes, but also to the reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  3. An emergent theory of digital library metadata enrich then filter

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Brett

    2015-01-01

    An Emergent Theory of Digital Library Metadata is a reaction to the current digital library landscape that is being challenged with growing online collections and changing user expectations. The theory provides the conceptual underpinnings for a new approach which moves away from expert defined standardised metadata to a user driven approach with users as metadata co-creators. Moving away from definitive, authoritative, metadata to a system that reflects the diversity of users’ terminologies, it changes the current focus on metadata simplicity and efficiency to one of metadata enriching, which is a continuous and evolving process of data linking. From predefined description to information conceptualised, contextualised and filtered at the point of delivery. By presenting this shift, this book provides a coherent structure in which future technological developments can be considered.

  4. CHEERS: The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Plaa, J.; Mernier, F.; Kaastra, J.; Pinto, C.; Werner, N.; Cheers Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Enrichment RGS Sample (CHEERS) is aimed to be a sample of the most optimal clusters of galaxies for observation with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton. It consists of 1.6 Ms of deep cluster observations of 11 objects obtained through a very large program and archival observations of 33 clusters and groups. The main goal is to measure chemical abundances in the hot Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) of clusters to provide constraints on chemical evolution models. Especially the origin and evolution of type Ia supernovae is still poorly known and X-ray observations could contribute to constrain models regarding the SNIa explosion mechanism. With this sample of deep XMM-Newton observations, also other topics can be addressed. Within the CHEERS collaboration, we also study the turbulence and thermal properties of the hot ICM in the clusters. In this talk, we discuss the aims and the first results of the CHEERS project.

  5. Toward Chemical Implementation of Encoded Combinatorial Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Janda, Kim D.

    1994-01-01

    The recent application of "combinatorial libraries" to supplement existing drug screening processes might simplify and accelerate the search for new lead compounds or drugs. Recently, a scheme for encoded combinatorial chemistry was put forward to surmount a number of the limitations possessed by...... existing methodologies. Here we detail the synthesis of several matrices and the necessary chemistry to implement the conceptual scheme. In addition, we disclose how this novel technology permits a controlled ′dendritic" display of the chemical libraries. © 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved....

  6. Basic uranium-235 enrichment by the Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process (ACEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Asahi Chemical Enrichment Process (ACEP) led to the establishment of basic process technology permitting attainment of 3% enrichment within several months of operation by the mid-1980s, through advances which brought increased electron-exchange and adsorption-desorption reaction rates, effective uranium adsorption band formation and maintenance, and equilibrium plate height reductions based on the elucidation of mobile-phase dispersion. The theoretical and experimental development of redox agent self-regeneration led to a new 'Super Process' characterized by greater simplicity and efficiency than previously thought possible. A semi-commercial plant with enrichment columns of 1 m in diameter and 3 m in height, constructed at Hyuga City in Miyazaki Prefecture, demonstrated 3% uranium enrichment in April 1988. Through the improvement of enrichment efficiency, overall enrichment costs have been greatly lowered. The advantage of the chemical enrichment process, and its low cost of enrichment, have now been clearly demonstrated. (author)

  7. Mimicking nature: Phosphopeptide enrichment using combinatorial libraries of affinity ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Iris L; Zhou, Houjiang; Lilley, Kathryn; Lowe, Christopher R; Roque, Ana C A

    2016-07-29

    Phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification of proteins that controls a plethora of cellular processes and triggers specific physiological responses, for which there is a need to develop tools to characterize phosphorylated targets efficiently. Here, a combinatorial library of triazine-based synthetic ligands comprising 64 small molecules has been rationally designed, synthesized and screened for the enrichment of phosphorylated peptides. The lead candidate (coined A8A3), composed of histidine and phenylalanine mimetic components, showed high binding capacity and selectivity for binding mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides at pH 3. Ligand A8A3 was coupled onto both cross-linked agarose and magnetic nanoparticles, presenting higher binding capacities (100-fold higher) when immobilized on the magnetic support. The magnetic adsorbent was further screened against a tryptic digest of two phosphorylated proteins (α- and β-caseins) and one non-phosphorylated protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the eluted peptides allowed the identification of nine phosphopeptides, comprising both mono- and multi-phosphorylated peptides. PMID:27345211

  8. Enriching User-Oriented Class Associations for Library Classification Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hsiao-Tieh; Yang, Chyan

    2003-01-01

    Explores the possibility of adding user-oriented class associations to hierarchical library classification schemes. Analyses a log of book circulation records from a university library in Taiwan and shows that classification schemes can be made more adaptable by analyzing circulation patterns of similar users. (Author/LRW)

  9. Enriching Critical Thinking and Language Learning with Educational Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsin-lin

    2012-01-01

    As the amount of information available in online digital libraries increases exponentially, questions arise concerning the most productive way to use that information to advance learning. Applying the earlier information seeking theories advocated by Kelly (1963), Taylor (1968), and Belkin (1980) to the digital libraries experience, Carol Kuhlthau…

  10. Could social tags enrich the library subject index?

    OpenAIRE

    Κακάλη, Κωνσταντία; Παπαθεοδώρου, Χρήστος

    2010-01-01

    Social tagging aims to generate folksonomies through the users’ collaboration and activation. This paper is motivated by the trend of several libraries to adopt social tagging functionalities and presents a tag analysis study aiming to exploit a social tag collection for the benefit of the subject description of an academic library material. In this context, cataloguers are interviewed to assess the semantic value of the concepts expressed by the set of social tags and discuss the possibility...

  11. Enriching Chinese Cultural Heritage at the Queens Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Strong

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:13-18

    The Queens Borough Public Library through its New Americans Program has been providing opportunities for the Chinese Community to experience quality library service for many years. By building collections, providing opportunities to learn English, providing job information, coping skills classes, cultural programs and electronic access to Chinese vernacular script, the Library provides a unique public library experience to its many immigrants. Through demographic analysis, the Library places its collections in the communities where immigrants live and provides programs of relevance to celebrate the cultures and traditions of the Chinese community.

  12. Use of RecA protein to enrich for homologous genes in a genomic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taidi-Laskowski, B.; Grumet, F.C. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA)); Tyan, D. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Honigberg, S.M.; Radding, C.R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1988-08-25

    RecA protein-coated probe has been utilized to enrich genomic digests for desired genes in order to facilitate cloning from genomic libraries. Using a previously cloned HLA-B27 gene as the recA-coated enrichment probe, the authors obtained a mean 108x increase in the ratio of specific to nonspecific plaques in lambda libraries screened for B27 variant alleles of estimated 99% homology to the probe. Class I genes of lesser homology were less enriched. Loss of genomic DNA during the enrichment procedure can, however, restrict application of this technique whenever starting genomic DNA is very limited. Nevertheless, the impressive reduction in cloning effort and material makes recA enrichment a useful new tool for cloning homologous genes from genomic DNA.

  13. Identification of novel glycosyl hydrolases with cellulolytic activity against crystalline cellulose from metagenomic libraries constructed from bacterial enrichment cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    To obtain cellulases that are capable of degrading crystalline cellulose and cedar wood, metagenomic libraries were constructed from raw soil sample which was covered to pile of cedar wood sawdust or from its enrichment cultures. The efficiency of screening of metagenomic library was improved more than 3 times by repeating enrichment cultivation using crystalline cellulose as a carbon source, compared with the library constructed from raw soil. Four cellulase genes were obtained from the meta...

  14. Chemical Enrichment from Massive Stars in Starbursts; 2, NGC 1569

    CERN Document Server

    Kobulnicky, H A; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Skillman, Evan D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a longslit optical spectrophotometric survey in the irregular "post-starburst" galaxy NGC 1569 to search for chemical gradients and inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium. Despite the presence of two massive evolved starclusters and numerous HII regions, we find no evidence for chemical gradients or inhomogeneities that may be attributed to enrichment from the recent star formation activity. The chemical properties are consistent with 12+log(O/H)=8.19+/-0.04 and log(N/O)=-1.40+/-0.05 at all locations. No localized chemical self-enrichment ("pollution") from massive star evolution is found, even though the data are sensitive to the chemical yields from as few as two or three massive stars. Flat chemical abundance profiles appear to be the rule rather than the exception in low-mass galaxies. Strong chemical signatures in the surrounding interstellar material should be detected unless one or more of the following are true: 1) Different star forming regions throughout the studied galaxies ``conspir...

  15. Chemical enrichment of galaxy clusters from hydrodynamical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Tornatore, L.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K; Matteucci, F

    2007-01-01

    We present cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters aimed at studying the process of metal enrichment of the intra--cluster medium (ICM). These simulations have been performed by implementing a detailed model of chemical evolution in the Tree-SPH \\gd code. This model allows us to follow the metal release from SNII, SNIa and AGB stars, by properly accounting for the lifetimes of stars of different mass, as well as to change the stellar initial mass function (IMF), the lifetim...

  16. Technical evaluation on some chemical exchange process for uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CEA in France, Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., in Japan and others, the industrialization of the uranium enrichment by chemical processes has been studied independently for ten years, using large amount of research expenses. In this study, technological examination was carried out on such processes and their separation characteristics, based on the published literatures. As the results, it was recognized that they have sufficient separation capability to aim at the industrialization, and the power required can be limited relatively low. However, very precise plant design and operation control system are required for them, and it is necessary to watch the future course to carry out the objective evaluation of the economic efficiency. The electric power has become a dominant factor in the production cost of enriched uranium. The separation of uranium isotopes with anion exchange resin being developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., and the isotope separation by electron exchange using solvent extraction method being developed by CEA in France are introduced. Though the equilibrium separation factor is very small, they utilize reversible processes, and have the possibility of large power reduction and the cost reduction due to scaling-up. (Kako, I.)

  17. Star Formation and Chemical Enrichment for Globular Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清; 束成钢; 常瑞香; 赵君亮

    2001-01-01

    A model considering gas outflows due to supernova explosions is developed for the star formation and chemical enrichment for the globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way galaxy. Through Monte Carlo simulations, the observed global properties of GCs can be well reproduced, including the metallicity distribution, no-correlation between cluster masses and galactocentric distances, etc. The predicted mass function of the parent clouds for the observed GCs at present day can be well described as a power law with the index of-1.8, which is consistent with the current observations for the molecular clouds.

  18. Novel selection methods for DNA-encoded chemical libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alix I.; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the need for new compounds to serve as biological probes and leads for therapeutic development and the growing accessibility of DNA technologies including high-throughput sequencing, many academic and industrial groups have begun to use DNA-encoded chemical libraries as a source of bioactive small molecules. In this review, we describe the technologies that have enabled the selection of compounds with desired activities from these libraries. These methods exploit the sensitivity of in vitro selection coupled with DNA amplification to overcome some of the limitations and costs associated with conventional screening methods. In addition, we highlight newer techniques with the potential to be applied to the high-throughput evaluation of DNA-encoded chemical libraries. PMID:25723146

  19. The chemical enrichment of the ICM from hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Borgani, S; Tornatore, L; Schindler, S; Dolag, K; Diaferio, A

    2008-01-01

    The study of the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster and inter-galactic media (ICM and IGM) represents a direct means to reconstruct the past history of star formation, the role of feedback processes and the gas-dynamical processes which determine the evolution of the cosmic baryons. In this paper we review the approaches that have been followed so far to model the enrichment of the ICM in a cosmological context. While our presentation will be focused on the role played by hydrodynamical simulations, we will also discuss other approaches based on semi-analytical models of galaxy formation, also critically discussing pros and cons of the different methods. We will first review the concept of the model of chemical evolution to be implemented in any chemo-dynamical description. We will emphasise how the predictions of this model critically depend on the choice of the stellar initial mass function, on the stellar life-times and on the stellar yields. We will then overview the comparisons presented so far betwee...

  20. The timescales of chemical enrichment in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pipino, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The time-scales of chemical enrichment are fundamental to understand the evolution of abundances and abundance ratios in galaxies. In particular, the time-scales for the enrichment by SNe II and SNe Ia are crucial in interpreting the evolution of abundance ratios such as [alpha/Fe]. In fact, the alpha-elements are produced mainly by SNe II on time-scales of the order of 3 to 30 Myr, whereas the Fe is mainly produced by SNe Ia on a larger range of time-scales, going from 30 Myr to a Hubble time. This produces differences in the [alpha/Fe] ratios at high and low redshift and it is known as "time-delay" model. In this talk we review the most common progenitor models for SNe Ia and the derived rates together with the effect of the star formation history on the [alpha/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram in the Galaxy. From these diagrams we can derive the timescale for the formation of the inner halo (roughly 2 Gyr), the timescale for the formation of the local disk (roughly 7-8 Gyr) as well the time-scales for the formatio...

  1. Whole-Exome Enrichment with the Roche NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome Library SR Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Multiple platforms are available for whole-exome enrichment and sequencing (WES). This protocol is based on the Roche NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Exome Library SR platform, which enriches for ~44 Mb of the human exonic regions. The SeqCap system uses 55- to 105-base DNA probes to capture known coding DNA sequences (CDS) from the NCBI Consensus CDS Database, RefSeq, and Sanger miRBase. The protocol can be performed at the benchside without the need for automation, and the resulting library can be used...

  2. Monte Carlo calculation for various enrichment lithium coolant using different data libraries in a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to compare the effect of the natural lithium and lithium with different enrichments between 10% and 90% on neutronic parameters; such as tritium breeding ratio (TBR), displacement per atom (DPA) and gas production using the different data libraries (ENDF/B.V, ENDF/B.VI and CLAW IV). Therefore, the natural lithium and different enrichment lithium were used as a moderator in an experimental hybrid reactor for the calculation of the nuclear parameters. Neutronic calculations were performed by recent Monte Carlo Neutron-Particle Transport code MCNP5 version 1.40 for a 14.1 MeV (D, T) fusion driver under a neutron wall load of 2.25 MW/m2 (1014 n/s). TBR values in the blanket for all investigated cases were obtained greater than the minimum requirement (TBR > 1.05). Considering radiation damage limits (100 DPA and 500 appm/FPY) for structural materials, the FW replacement will be needed every 2.1 and 3.5 years for DPA and He-production, respectively

  3. Monte Carlo calculation for various enrichment lithium coolant using different data libraries in a hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Haci Mehmet [Gazi Universitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Makina Egitimi Boeluemue, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)], E-mail: mesahin@gazi.edu.tr; Acir, Adem [Gazi Universitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Makina Egitimi Boeluemue, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey); Altinok, Taner [Kara Harp Okulu, Savunma Bilimleri Enstituesue, Ankara 06654 (Turkey); Yalcin, Senay [Bahcesehir Universitesi, Muehendislik Fakueltesi, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    The main objective of this study is to compare the effect of the natural lithium and lithium with different enrichments between 10% and 90% on neutronic parameters; such as tritium breeding ratio (TBR), displacement per atom (DPA) and gas production using the different data libraries (ENDF/B.V, ENDF/B.VI and CLAW IV). Therefore, the natural lithium and different enrichment lithium were used as a moderator in an experimental hybrid reactor for the calculation of the nuclear parameters. Neutronic calculations were performed by recent Monte Carlo Neutron-Particle Transport code MCNP5 version 1.40 for a 14.1 MeV (D, T) fusion driver under a neutron wall load of 2.25 MW/m{sup 2} (10{sup 14} n/s). TBR values in the blanket for all investigated cases were obtained greater than the minimum requirement (TBR > 1.05). Considering radiation damage limits (100 DPA and 500 appm/FPY) for structural materials, the FW replacement will be needed every 2.1 and 3.5 years for DPA and He-production, respectively.

  4. Chemical Enrichment and Physical Conditions in IZw18*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H I region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H I region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims. Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H I region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary obje ctive is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the HI and H II regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H I region. Methods. We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H I, CIII, CIIi*, N I, OI,...) and are compared to the abundances in the H II region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the HIi region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results. We find that H I region abundances are lower by a factor of approx 2 as compared to the H II region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H I and H II region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z(solar) (vs. 1/31 Z(solar) in the H II region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H I envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a

  5. Encoded Library Synthesis Using Chemical Ligation and the Discovery of sEH Inhibitors from a 334-Million Member Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovchick, Alexander; Dumelin, Christoph E.; Habeshian, Sevan; Gikunju, Diana; Guié, Marie-Aude; Centrella, Paolo; Zhang, Ying; Sigel, Eric A.; Cuozzo, John W.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Clark, Matthew A.

    2015-06-01

    A chemical ligation method for construction of DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries has been developed. Taking advantage of the ability of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase to accept templates with triazole linkages in place of phosphodiesters, we have designed a strategy for chemically ligating oligonucleotide tags using cycloaddition chemistry. We have utilized this strategy in the construction and selection of a small molecule library, and successfully identified inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase.

  6. The Chemical Enrichment History of Damped Lyman-alpha Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Limin; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Barlow, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of damped Lyman-alpha absorption systems in quasar spectra are yielding very interesting results regarding the chemical evolution of these galaxies. We present some preliminary results from such a program.

  7. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker

  8. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) using an SSR-enriched library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia Wang; Kyung Do Kim; Dongying Gao; Honglin Chen; Suhua Wang; SukHa Lee; Scott A. Jackson; Xuzhen Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb.), a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%). Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7%of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%), and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2%were involved in cellular components, 24.2%were involved molecular functions, and 64.6%were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker-assisted selection in

  9. Discovery of User-Oriented Class Associations for Enriching Library Classification Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hsiao-Tieh

    2002-01-01

    Presents a user-based approach to exploring the possibility of adding user-oriented class associations to hierarchical library classification schemes. Classes not grouped in the same subject hierarchies yet relevant to users' knowledge are obtained by analyzing a log book of a university library's circulation records, using collaborative filtering…

  10. Development of microsatellite markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on screening of non-enriched, small-insert genomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Torres, Monica Muñoz; Pedraza, Fabio; Giraldo, Martha C; Buendía, Hector F; Hurtado, Natalia

    2009-09-01

    Microsatellite markers are useful genetic tools for a wide array of genomic analyses although their development is time-consuming and requires the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from genomic sequences. Screening of non-enriched, small-insert libraries is an effective method of SSR isolation that can give an unbiased picture of motif frequency. Here we adapt high-throughput protocols for the screening of plasmid-based libraries using robotic colony picking and filter preparation. Seven non-enriched genomic libraries from common bean genomic DNA were made by digestion with four frequently cutting restriction enzymes, double digestion with a frequently cutting restriction enzyme and a less frequently cutting restriction enzyme, or sonication. Library quality was compared and three of the small-insert libraries were selected for further analysis. Each library was plated and picked into 384-well plates that were used to create high-density filter arrays of over 18 000 clones each, which were screened with oligonucleotide probes for various SSR motifs. Positive clones were found to have low redundancy. One hundred SSR markers were developed and 80 were tested for polymorphism in a standard parental survey. These microsatellite markers derived from non-SSR-enriched libraries should be useful additions to previous markers developed from enriched libraries. PMID:19935925

  11. Chemical enrichment in very low-metallicity environments: Bootes I

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Donatella; Starkenburg, Else; Leaman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We present different chemical evolution models for the ultrafaint dwarf galaxy Bootes I. We either assume that the galaxy accretes its mass through smooth infall of gas of primordial chemical composition (classical models) or adopt mass accretion histories derived from the combination of merger trees with semi-analytical modelling (cosmologically-motivated models). Furthermore, we consider models with and without taking into account inhomogeneous mixing in the ISM within the galaxy. The theoretical predictions are then compared to each other and to the body of the available data. From this analysis, we confirm previous findings that Bootes I has formed stars with very low efficiency but, at variance with previous studies, we do not find a clear-cut indication that supernova explosions have sustained long-lasting galactic-scale outflows in this galaxy. Therefore, we suggest that external mechanisms such as ram pressure stripping and tidal stripping are needed to explain the absence of neutral gas in Bootes I t...

  12. Modeling and analysis of uranium isotope enrichment by chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of uranium isotopes separation by chemical exchange, starting with an accurate mathematical model, is presented. The experimental data used in this study were obtained by reverse break-through operation and the numerical algorithm, developed for simulation in a previous study, was adapted to be suitable for this kind of processes. The model parameters were identified from experimental data and simulations were carried out for different experimental conditions. (author)

  13. A discourse on creating and rendering educational and cultural enrichment services to rural migrant workers by public libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zizhou; Charles; C.Yan

    2009-01-01

    As far as China’s enormous success in her economic reforms and development is concerned,Chinese rural migrant workers indeed have had their biggest share of contributions.Yet ironically in return,they have only received a disproportionate meager share of benefit rewards.These people represent a huge economically deprived group at the bottom of the social totem pole in China’s metropolises.On the whole as a social group,their educational attainment is relatively low as compared to their average urban coworkers.As such being the case,their rights to access some of the cost-free cultural and educational enrichment programs in the society are limited and not always assured.Nevertheless and in general speaking,they manifest a strong and consistent desire to acquire all sorts of new and practical knowledge by means of accessing the resources and facilities of their local public libraries.It is suggested in this paper that public libraries are in a good position to give strong support to the central government’s strategic planning for the development of a public culture service systema).In implementing such a government initiative with an unswerving purpose of advancing social justice and equality,public libraries should strife to provide as many as possible their library services at no cost to the public,especially to those socially deprived rural migrant workers.

  14. ENRICHING RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN INDIA BY COLLABORATING UNITED NATIONS DEPOSITORIES AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raghunandana

    2016-01-01

    United Nations depositories get publications from over 50 international intergovernmental organizations. These are arranged for the distribution of United Nations documents and publications to users around the world through its depository library system. The scope and users of both UN depository and Indian public libraries include entire society. The depositories receive certain designated classes of publications or what these organizations send; they do not get all items published by an orga...

  15. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-01-01

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform. PMID:26240383

  16. A novel method for the multiplexed target enrichment of MinION next generation sequencing libraries using PCR-generated baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2015-12-15

    The enrichment of targeted regions within complex next generation sequencing libraries commonly uses biotinylated baits to capture the desired sequences. This method results in high read coverage over the targets and their flanking regions. Oxford Nanopore Technologies recently released an USB3.0-interfaced sequencer, the MinION. To date no particular method for enriching MinION libraries has been standardized. Here, using biotinylated PCR-generated baits in a novel approach, we describe a simple and efficient way for multiplexed enrichment of MinION libraries, overcoming technical limitations related with the chemistry of the sequencing-adapters and the length of the DNA fragments. Using Phage Lambda and Escherichia coli as models we selectively enrich for specific targets, significantly increasing the corresponding read-coverage, eliminating unwanted regions. We show that by capturing genomic fragments, which contain the target sequences, we recover reads extending targeted regions and thus can be used for the determination of potentially unknown flanking sequences. By pooling enriched libraries derived from two distinct E. coli strains and analyzing them in parallel, we demonstrate the efficiency of this method in multiplexed format. Crucially we evaluated the optimal bait size for large fragment libraries and we describe for the first time a standardized method for target enrichment in MinION platform. PMID:26240383

  17. Early history of chemical exchange isotope enrichment and lessons we learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical exchange isotope enrichment process has an advantage over other isotope separation methods in that it involves two chemicals rather than one and, consequently, relatively large separation factors can be obtained. However, the chemical exchange method requires a chemical conversion of the substance enriched in the target isotope into the second substance. The idiosyncrasies of the isotope separation process by this method are pointed out using McCabe-Thiele diagram and, from them, the difficulties involved in the chemical exchange methods are itemized. Examples of the points being made are taken from the pioneering works of this field carried out by Harold C. Urey, his contemporaries, the students and the students' students. Lessons we learn from these works are discussed. (author)

  18. Chemical enrichment in the cluster of galaxies Hydra A

    CERN Document Server

    Simionescu, A; Böhringer, H; Kaastra, J S; Finoguenov, A; Brüggen, M; Nulsen, P E J

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed global properties, radial profiles and 2D maps of the metal abundances and temperature in the cool core cluster of galaxies Hydra A using a deep XMM-Newton exposure. The best fit among the available spectral models is provided by a Gaussian distribution of the emission measure (gdem). We can accurately determine abundances for 7 elements in the cluster core with EPIC and 3 elements with RGS. The gdem model gives lower Fe abundances than a single temperature model. The abundance profiles for Fe, Si, S, but also O are centrally peaked. Combining the Hydra A results with 5 other clusters for which detailed chemical abundance studies are available, we find a significant decrease of O with radius, while the increase in the O/Fe ratio with radius is small within 0.1 r_200. We compare the observed abundance ratios with the mixing of various supernova type Ia and core-collapse yield models in different relative amounts. Producing the estimated O, Si and S peaks in Hydra A requires either an amount of meta...

  19. Stable Isotope Enrichment by Thermal Diffusion, Chemical Exchange, and Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwind, Dr. Roger A.; Rutherford, Dr. William M.

    1973-03-01

    Applications of stable isotopes in medicine are becoming more widespread. This has resulted from the increased availability and reduced cost of these isotopes and the improved reliability and sensitivity of detection techniques such as carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. Isotopes are used in compounds labeled with either the stable isotope itself, such as carbon-13 and oxygen-18, or with the radioactive isotope that can be produced by irradiating the stable isotope, such as the irradiation of xenon-124 to produce iodine-125. As the demand for stable isotopes increases, larger scale production facilities will be justifiable. The increased size of production facilities should result in yet lower unit selling prices. A large number of methods has been suggested for the separation of stable isotopes. This paper concerns itself with four methods which have proven extremely useful for the separation of the isotopes of low and medium atomic weight elements. The four processes discussed are gas phase thermal diffusion, liquid phase thermal diffusion, chemical exchange, and distillation.

  20. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  1. Methylation-sensitive linking libraries enhance gene-enriched sequencing of complex genomes and map DNA methylation domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Arvind K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plant genomes are resistant to whole-genome assembly due to an abundance of repetitive sequence, leading to the development of gene-rich sequencing techniques. Two such techniques are hypomethylated partial restriction (HMPR and methylation spanning linker libraries (MSLL. These libraries differ from other gene-rich datasets in having larger insert sizes, and the MSLL clones are designed to provide reads localized to "epigenetic boundaries" where methylation begins or ends. Results A large-scale study in maize generated 40,299 HMPR sequences and 80,723 MSLL sequences, including MSLL clones exceeding 100 kb. The paired end reads of MSLL and HMPR clones were shown to be effective in linking existing gene-rich sequences into scaffolds. In addition, it was shown that the MSLL clones can be used for anchoring these scaffolds to a BAC-based physical map. The MSLL end reads effectively identified epigenetic boundaries, as indicated by their preferential alignment to regions upstream and downstream from annotated genes. The ability to precisely map long stretches of fully methylated DNA sequence is a unique outcome of MSLL analysis, and was also shown to provide evidence for errors in gene identification. MSLL clones were observed to be significantly more repeat-rich in their interiors than in their end reads, confirming the correlation between methylation and retroelement content. Both MSLL and HMPR reads were found to be substantially gene-enriched, with the SalI MSLL libraries being the most highly enriched (31% align to an EST contig, while the HMPR clones exhibited exceptional depletion of repetitive DNA (to ~11%. These two techniques were compared with other gene-enrichment methods, and shown to be complementary. Conclusion MSLL technology provides an unparalleled approach for mapping the epigenetic status of repetitive blocks and for identifying sequences mis-identified as genes. Although the types and natures of

  2. Library+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses possible future directions for academic libraries in the post Web/Library 2.0 world. These possible directions include areas such as data literacy, linked data sets, and opportunities for libraries in support of digital humanities. The author provides a brief sketch of the background information regarding the topics and…

  3. A theoretical consideration on uranium isotope effects observed in chemical uranium-235 enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical consideration on the uranium isotope effects in chemical chromatographic uranium isotope enrichment processes are presented, making use of up-to-date spectroscopic, solution chemical and separation factor data. It is shown that hydration of the uranyl (UO22+) and uranous (U4+) ions has a profound effect on the reduced partition function ratios (RPFR's) of these ions and that, in accordance with experiment, the RPFR of the uranous ion is larger than that of the uranyl ion. Future prospects concerning the separation factors in chemical processes are mentioned. (orig.)

  4. Library Automation: Survey of Chemical (Sci-Tech) Libraries within For-Profit Corporations in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivka, Krystal K.

    Automating a library can be an expensive, time-consuming endeavor that includes many risks. These risks can be reduced through a variety of methods: learning all one can about the systems available that perform the functions in which one is interested, clearly defining one's needs and expressing them succinctly to vendors, and learning how other…

  5. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjaree Watcharawongpaiboon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of microsatellite markers in Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata L. was performed using the biotin-streptavidin enrichment procedure. One hundred and thirty three clones were randomly selected. After sequence analysis of 31 randomly picked positive colonies, 100% of the colonies were found to contain microsatellite sequences, and 9 primer pairs were designed. Five of the primers tested could amplify pumpkins DNA and can be used for genetic purity testing of the commercial hybrids. This paper reports the first isolation and utilization of microsatellite markers in pumpkin.

  6. Inhomogeneous chemical evolution of the galactic disk: evidence for sequential stellar enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, van den, L.B.; Jong, de, Franciska

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the abundance variations observed among similarly aged F and G dwarfs in the local Galactic disk. We present arguments in support of combined infall of metal-deficient gas and sequential enrichment by successive stellar generations in the local Galactic disk ISM. We show that galactic chemical evolution models which take into account these processes simultaneously are consistent with both the observed abundance variations among similarly aged dwarfs in the solar n...

  7. Automated screening for small organic ligands using DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decurtins, Willy; Wichert, Moreno; Franzini, Raphael M; Buller, Fabian; Stravs, Michael A; Zhang, Yixin; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are collections of organic compounds that are individually linked to different oligonucleotides, serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. As all compounds in the library can be identified by their DNA tags, they can be mixed and used in affinity-capture experiments on target proteins of interest. In this protocol, we describe the screening process that allows the identification of the few binding molecules within the multiplicity of library members. First, the automated affinity selection process physically isolates binding library members. Second, the DNA codes of the isolated binders are PCR-amplified and subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing. Third, the obtained sequencing data are evaluated using a C++ program and the results are displayed using MATLAB software. The resulting selection fingerprints facilitate the discrimination of binding from nonbinding library members. The described procedures allow the identification of small organic ligands to biological targets from a DECL within 10 d. PMID:26985574

  8. Validation of SCALE 4. 0 -- CSAS25 module and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library for low-enriched uranium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    A version of KENO V.a and the 27-group library in SCALE-4.0 were validated for use in evaluating the nuclear criticality safety of low-enriched uranium systems. A total of 59 critical systems were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the results was performed, and subcritical acceptanced criteria are established.

  9. Validation of SCALE 4.0 -- CSAS25 module and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library for low-enriched uranium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    A version of KENO V.a and the 27-group library in SCALE-4.0 were validated for use in evaluating the nuclear criticality safety of low-enriched uranium systems. A total of 59 critical systems were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the results was performed, and subcritical acceptanced criteria are established.

  10. ChemT, a software for building template-based 3D chemical libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Rui M. V.; Froufe, Hugo J. C.; Daniel, Pedro O.M.; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    ln the modem drug discovery process vast quantities of compounds are generated and there is a need for bioinformatic tools to efficiently create, manage and examine huge chemical compound libraries. Severa! software tools for drawing and generating chemical compounds structures are available, but they usually lack options for automatic generation of custom-made focused chemicallibraries. We have implemented ChemT (Chemical Templates), a free software too! that automates the pro...

  11. Universal strategies for the DNA-encoding of libraries of small molecules using the chemical ligation of oligonucleotide tags

    OpenAIRE

    LITOVCHICK, ALEXANDER; Clark, Matthew A.; Keefe, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    The affinity-mediated selection of large libraries of DNA-encoded small molecules is increasingly being used to initiate drug discovery programs. We present universal methods for the encoding of such libraries using the chemical ligation of oligonucleotides. These methods may be used to record the chemical history of individual library members during combinatorial synthesis processes. We demonstrate three different chemical ligation methods as examples of information recording processes (writ...

  12. GCD+ A New Chemodynamical Approach to Modeling SNe and Chemical Enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, D; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new galactic chemo-dynamical evolution code, called GCD+, for studies of galaxy formation and evolution. This code is based on our original three-dimensional tree N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code which includes self-gravity, hydrodynamics, radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and metal enrichment. GCD+ includes a new Type II (SNe II) and Ia (SNe Ia) supernovae model taking into account the lifetime of progenitor stars, and chemical enrichment from intermediate mass stars. We apply GCD+ to simulations of elliptical galaxy formation, and examine the colour-magnitude relation (CMR), the Kormendy relation, and the [Mg/Fe]--magnitude relation of simulation end-products. GCD+ is a useful and unique tool which enables us to compare simulation results with the observational data directly and quantitatively. Our simulation confirm the results of Kawata (2001) who uses a simpler chemo-dynamical evolution code. We newly find that radiative cooling becomes more efficient a...

  13. Chemical Enrichment in the Carbon-enhanced Damped Lyman $\\alpha$ System

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Nomoto, Ken'ich

    2011-01-01

    We show that the recently observed elemental abundance pattern of the carbon-rich metal-poor Damped Lyman $\\alpha$ (DLA) system is in excellent agreement with the nucleosynthesis yields of faint core-collapse supernovae of primordial stars. The observed abundance pattern is not consistent with the nucleosynthesis yields of pair-instability supernovae. The DLA abundance pattern is very similar to that of carbon-rich extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, and the contributions from low-mass stars and/or binary effects should be very small in DLAs. This suggests that chemical enrichment by the first stars in the first galaxies is driven by core-collapse supernovae from $\\sim 20-50 M_\\odot$ stars, and also supports the supernova scenario as the enrichment source of EMP stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.

  14. Materials Control System for Enriched Uranium Chemical Processing Facility for Irradiated Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems for management and control of nuclear material in an enriched uranium chemical processing facility are not too different from those historically used in the chemical industry. The difference is one of degree rather than substance. The monetary and strategic value of the material being processed as well as the potential health and safety hazards inherent in handling nuclear material often dictate a level of effort and system detail above that which might seem reasonable to the casual observer. Among those areas of consideration which are of particular importance in the development of an effective nuclear materials management (NMM) system as based on experience gained at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are the following: organizational structure, accounting system, measurement system, implementation and integration of system, records and reports, internal audit, and inventory management. (author)

  15. Organization of GC/MS and LC/MS metabolomics data into chemical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeHaven Corey D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics experiments involve generating and comparing small molecule (metabolite profiles from complex mixture samples to identify those metabolites that are modulated in altered states (e.g., disease, drug treatment, toxin exposure. One non-targeted metabolomics approach attempts to identify and interrogate all small molecules in a sample using GC or LC separation followed by MS or MSn detection. Analysis of the resulting large, multifaceted data sets to rapidly and accurately identify the metabolites is a challenging task that relies on the availability of chemical libraries of metabolite spectral signatures. A method for analyzing spectrometry data to identify and Quantify Individual Components in a Sample, (QUICS, enables generation of chemical library entries from known standards and, importantly, from unknown metabolites present in experimental samples but without a corresponding library entry. This method accounts for all ions in a sample spectrum, performs library matches, and allows review of the data to quality check library entries. The QUICS method identifies ions related to any given metabolite by correlating ion data across the complete set of experimental samples, thus revealing subtle spectral trends that may not be evident when viewing individual samples and are likely to be indicative of the presence of one or more otherwise obscured metabolites. Results LC-MS/MS or GC-MS data from 33 liver samples were analyzed simultaneously which exploited the inherent biological diversity of the samples and the largely non-covariant chemical nature of the metabolites when viewed over multiple samples. Ions were partitioned by both retention time (RT and covariance which grouped ions from a single common underlying metabolite. This approach benefitted from using mass, time and intensity data in aggregate over the entire sample set to reject outliers and noise thereby producing higher quality chemical identities. The

  16. The combinatorial synthesis and chemical and biological evaluation of a 1,4-benzodiazepine library.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunin, B A; Plunkett, M J; Ellman, J A

    1994-01-01

    A library of 192 structurally diverse 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives containing a variety of chemical functionalities including amides, carboxylic acids, amines, phenols, and indoles was constructed from three components, 2-aminobenzophenones, amino acids, and alkylating agents, by employing Geysen's pin apparatus [Geysen, H. M., Rodda, S. J., Mason, T. J., Tribbick, G. & Schoofs, P. G. (1987) J. Immunol. Methods 102, 259-274]. Rigorous analytical verification of the chemical integrity and yi...

  17. Exploiting Chemical Libraries, Structure, and Genomics in the Search for Kinase Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Wodicka, Lisa; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W.H.; Norman, Thea C.; Kwon, Soojin; Espinoza, F. Hernan; Morgan, David O.; Barnes, Georjana; LeClerc, Sophie; Meijer, Laurent; Kim, Sung-Hou; Lockhart, David J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    1998-01-01

    Selective protein kinase inhibitors were developed on the basis of the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of the human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). By iterating chemical library synthesis and biological screening, potent inhibitors

  18. Characterizing the Chemically-Enriched Circumgalactic Medium of ~38000 Luminous Red Galaxies in SDSS DR12

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Johnson, Sean D; Weiner, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    We report a definitive detection of chemically-enriched cool gas around massive, quiescent galaxies at z~0.4-0.7. The result is based on a survey of 37621 luminous red galaxy (LRG)-QSO pairs in SDSS DR12 with projected distance d~1Gyr) stellar population with 13% displaying [OII] emission features and LINER-like spectra. Both passive and [OII]-emitting LRGs share the same stellar mass distribution with a mean of ~11.4 and a dispersion of 0.2 dex. Both LRG populations exhibit associated strong MgII absorbers out to d_MgII > 15% and declines quickly to _MgII ~ 5% at d_MgII around passive LRGs at all radii, a modest enhancement in _MgII is detected along the major axis of [OII]-emitting LRGs at d_MgII along the major axis of [OII]-emitting LRGs at d<50 kpc, provides important insights into the origin of the observed chemically-enriched cool gas in LRG halos. We consider different scenarios and conclude that the observed MgII absorbers around LRGs are best-explained by a combination of cool clouds formed in th...

  19. Novel Anti-Campylobacter Compounds Identified Using High Throughput Screening of a Pre-selected Enriched Small Molecules Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Drozd, Mary; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Xu, Xiulan; Helmy, Yosra A.; Antwi, Janet; Fuchs, James R.; Nislow, Corey; Templeton, Jillian; Blackall, Patrick J.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and infections can be fatal. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp. necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. We identified novel anti-Campylobacter small molecule inhibitors using a high throughput growth inhibition assay. To expedite screening, we made use of a “bioactive” library of 4182 compounds that we have previously shown to be active against diverse microbes. Screening for growth inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni, identified 781 compounds that were either bactericidal or bacteriostatic at a concentration of 200 μM. Seventy nine of the bactericidal compounds were prioritized for secondary screening based on their physico-chemical properties. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration against a diverse range of C. jejuni and a lack of effect on gut microbes, we selected 12 compounds. No resistance was observed to any of these 12 lead compounds when C. jejuni was cultured with lethal or sub-lethal concentrations suggesting that C. jejuni is less likely to develop resistance to these compounds. Top 12 compounds also possessed low cytotoxicity to human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and no hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Next, these 12 compounds were evaluated for ability to clear C. jejuni in vitro. A total of 10 compounds had an anti-C. jejuni effect in Caco-2 cells with some effective even at 25 μM concentrations. These novel 12 compounds belong to five established antimicrobial chemical classes; piperazines, aryl amines, piperidines, sulfonamide, and pyridazinone. Exploitation of analogs of these chemical classes may provide Campylobacter specific drugs that can be applied in both human and animal medicine. PMID:27092106

  20. Premixed CH4/O2-enriched air combustion: Identification of thermal, chemical and aerodynamic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, J.-M.; Dahikar, S.; Pal, S.; Claverie, A.; Denis, D.; Pillier, L.; de Persis, S.

    2012-11-01

    This work contributes to the evaluation of a new innovative process focused on the reduction of the cost of a post-combustion capture of CO2 in a Carbon Capture and Storage system (CCS). The process based on the separation of dried fumes composed mainly by CO2 and N2 by using membranes, which should lead to a lower energetic separation cost than amines. But the membranes become efficient if the upstream CO2 concentration is higher than 30% at their entrance that requires enriching the oxidizer flow by O2. To maintain the exhaust temperature compatible with materials thermal resistance, the reactants are diluted by a recirculation of a part of the flue gases (like N2/O2/CO2). But, the chemical kinetic, the energetic efficiencies, the radiation transfer, the transport and thermal properties of the flow can be affected by CO2. The objective of this work will be to identify the behaviour of the combustion of premixed CH4/O2-enriched air, both diluted in N2 and CO2 and to determine the combustion parameters. This allows to recover the CH4/air conditions in terms of CO2 concentration in reactants, O2 excess, dilution rate, temperature of the reactants, etc. Experiments are performed on the laminar premixed flame using counterflow burner. To characterize the combustion behaviour, the flammability limits are determined and flame thickness and position are measured from PLIF-OH diagnostic. Further, CHEMKIN simulations are performed to check the validity of the GRI3.0 chemical kinetic mechanism for premixed CH4/air synthetic combustion and identify the leading phenomena.

  1. Premixed CH4/O2-enriched air combustion: Identification of thermal, chemical and aerodynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work contributes to the evaluation of a new innovative process focused on the reduction of the cost of a post-combustion capture of CO2 in a Carbon Capture and Storage system (CCS). The process based on the separation of dried fumes composed mainly by CO2 and N2 by using membranes, which should lead to a lower energetic separation cost than amines. But the membranes become efficient if the upstream CO2 concentration is higher than 30% at their entrance that requires enriching the oxidizer flow by O2. To maintain the exhaust temperature compatible with materials thermal resistance, the reactants are diluted by a recirculation of a part of the flue gases (like N2/O2/CO2). But, the chemical kinetic, the energetic efficiencies, the radiation transfer, the transport and thermal properties of the flow can be affected by CO2. The objective of this work will be to identify the behaviour of the combustion of premixed CH4/O2-enriched air, both diluted in N2 and CO2 and to determine the combustion parameters. This allows to recover the CH4/air conditions in terms of CO2 concentration in reactants, O2 excess, dilution rate, temperature of the reactants, etc. Experiments are performed on the laminar premixed flame using counterflow burner. To characterize the combustion behaviour, the flammability limits are determined and flame thickness and position are measured from PLIF-OH diagnostic. Further, CHEMKIN simulations are performed to check the validity of the GRI3.0 chemical kinetic mechanism for premixed CH4/air synthetic combustion and identify the leading phenomena.

  2. The Graph Grammar Library - a generic framework for chemical graph rewrite systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Martin; Ekker, Heinz; Flamm, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Graph rewrite systems are powerful tools to model and study complex problems in various fields of research. Their successful application to chemical reaction modelling on a molecular level was shown but no appropriate and simple system is available at the moment. The presented Graph Grammar Library (GGL) implements a generic Double Push Out approach for general graph rewrite systems. The framework focuses on a high level of modularity as well as high performance, using state-of-the-art algori...

  3. Construction of a full-length enriched cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqing; Liu, Dan; Guo, Yu; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Zhang, Minghai; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Bengal tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28 × 106 pfu/mL and 1.56 × 109 pfu/mL respectively. The percentage of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.2% and average length of exogenous inserts was 0.98 kb. A total of 212 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 356 to 1108 bps were then analyzed. The BLASTX score revealed that 48.1% of the sequences were classified as a strong match, 45.3% as nominal and 6.6% as a weak match. Among the ESTs with known putative function, 26.4% ESTs were found to be related to all kinds of metabolisms, 19.3% ESTs to information storage and processing, 11.3% ESTs to posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, 11.3% ESTs to transport, 9.9% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.0% ESTs to structure protein, 3.8% ESTs to cell cycle, and only 6.6% ESTs classified as novel genes. By EST sequencing, a full-length gene coding ferritin was identified and characterized. The recombinant plasmid pET32a-TAT-Ferritin was constructed, coded for the TAT-Ferritin fusion protein with two 6× His-tags in N and C-terminal. After BCA assay, the concentration of soluble Trx-TAT-Ferritin recombinant protein was 2.32 ± 0.12 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genome and transcriptome research of Bengal tigers. PMID:23708105

  4. Construction of a Full-Length Enriched cDNA Library and Preliminary Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Bengal tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28 × 106 pfu/mL and 1.56 × 109 pfu/mL respectively. The percentage of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.2% and average length of exogenous inserts was 0.98 kb. A total of 212 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 356 to 1108 bps were then analyzed. The BLASTX score revealed that 48.1% of the sequences were classified as a strong match, 45.3% as nominal and 6.6% as a weak match. Among the ESTs with known putative function, 26.4% ESTs were found to be related to all kinds of metabolisms, 19.3% ESTs to information storage and processing, 11.3% ESTs to posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, 11.3% ESTs to transport, 9.9% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.0% ESTs to structure protein, 3.8% ESTs to cell cycle, and only 6.6% ESTs classified as novel genes. By EST sequencing, a full-length gene coding ferritin was identified and characterized. The recombinant plasmid pET32a-TAT-Ferritin was constructed, coded for the TAT-Ferritin fusion protein with two 6× His-tags in N and C-terminal. After BCA assay, the concentration of soluble Trx-TAT-Ferritin recombinant protein was 2.32 ± 0.12 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genome and transcriptome research of Bengal tigers.

  5. Impact of NLTE on research of early chemical enrichment of the dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila

    2015-08-01

    The individual stars observed in the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are presumably red giants. Their chemical abundances are commonly determined under the classical LTE assumption, despite its validity is questionable for atmospheres of giant, in particular, metal-poor stars. Exactly metal-poor objects are important for understanding the early chemical enrichment processes of the host galaxy and the onset of star formation. We selected a sample of the -4 Sex, and Fnx stars, with effective temperatures and surface gravities derived from the photometry and known distance (Jablonka et al. 2015; Tafelmeyer et al. 2010), the Fe I/Fe II ionisation equilibrium was found to be fulfilled, when applying a scaling factor of SH = 0.5 to the Drawinian rates of Fe+H collisions. Pronounced NLTE effects were calculated for lines of Na I and Al I resulting in up to 0.5 dex lower [Na/Fe] ratios and up to 0.65 dex higher [Al/Fe] ratios compared with the corresponding LTE values. For the six Scl stars, the scatter of data on Mg/Na is much smaller in NLTE, with the mean [Mg/Na] = 0.61 +- 0.11, than LTE, where [Mg/Na] = 0.42 +- 0.21. We computed a grid of the NLTE abundance corrections for an extensive list of the Ca I, Ti I-Ti II, and Fe I lines in the MARCS models of cool giants, 4000 K <= Teff <= 4750 K, 0.5 <= log g <= 2.5, -4 <= [M/H] <= 0.

  6. Prediction of Effective Drug Combinations by Chemical Interaction, Protein Interaction and Target Enrichment of KEGG Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug combinatorial therapy could be more effective in treating some complex diseases than single agents due to better efficacy and reduced side effects. Although some drug combinations are being used, their underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, it is of great interest to deduce a novel drug combination by their molecular mechanisms in a robust and rigorous way. This paper attempts to predict effective drug combinations by a combined consideration of: (1 chemical interaction between drugs, (2 protein interactions between drugs’ targets, and (3 target enrichment of KEGG pathways. A benchmark dataset was constructed, consisting of 121 confirmed effective combinations and 605 random combinations. Each drug combination was represented by 465 features derived from the aforementioned three properties. Some feature selection techniques, including Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance and Incremental Feature Selection, were adopted to extract the key features. Random forest model was built with its performance evaluated by 5-fold cross-validation. As a result, 55 key features providing the best prediction result were selected. These important features may help to gain insights into the mechanisms of drug combinations, and the proposed prediction model could become a useful tool for screening possible drug combinations.

  7. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry.

  8. THE SUPERNOVA THAT DESTROYED A PROTOGALAXY: PROMPT CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first primitive galaxies formed from accretion and mergers by z ∼ 15, and were primarily responsible for cosmological reionization and the chemical enrichment of the early cosmos. But a few of these galaxies may have formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner UV fluxes that sterilized them of H2, preventing them from forming stars or expelling heavy elements into the intergalactic medium prior to assembly. At masses of 108 M☉ and virial temperatures of 104 K, these halos began to rapidly cool by atomic lines, perhaps forming 104-106 M☉ Pop III stars and, later, the seeds of supermassive black holes. We have modeled the explosion of a supermassive Pop III star in the dense core of a line-cooled protogalaxy with the ZEUS-MP code. We find that the supernova (SN) expands to a radius of ∼1 kpc, briefly engulfing the entire galaxy, but then collapses back into the potential well of the dark matter. Fallback fully mixes the interior of the protogalaxy with metals, igniting a violent starburst and fueling the rapid growth of a massive black hole at its center. The starburst would populate the protogalaxy with stars in greater numbers and at higher metallicities than in more slowly evolving, nearby halos. The SN remnant becomes a strong synchrotron source that can be observed with eVLA and eMERLIN and has a unique signature that easily distinguishes it from less energetic SN remnants. Such explosions, and their attendant starbursts, may well have marked the birthplaces of supermassive black holes on the sky

  9. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  10. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Paula; Paniego, Norma; Lew, Sergio; Hopp, H Esteban; Heinz, Ruth A

    2003-01-01

    Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4). The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60%) did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences putatively related to responses

  11. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  12. Generation and analysis of a large-scale expressed sequence tags from a full-length enriched cDNA library of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Liu, Changqing; Lu, Taofeng; Liu, Dan; Bai, Chunyu; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-05-15

    In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Siberian tiger, the world's most endangered species. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28×10(6)pfu/mL and 1.59×10(10)pfu/mL respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 91.3% and the average length of exogenous inserts was 1.06kb. A total of 279 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 316 to 1258bps were then analyzed. Furthermore, 204 unigenes were successfully annotated and involved in 49 functions of the GO classification, cell (175, 85.5%), cellular process (165, 80.9%), and binding (152, 74.5%) are the dominant terms. 198 unigenes were assigned to 156 KEGG pathways, and the pathways with the most representation are metabolic pathways (18, 9.1%). The proportion pattern of each COG subcategory was similar among Panthera tigris altaica, P. tigris tigris and Homo sapiens, and general function prediction only cluster (44, 15.8%) represents the largest group, followed by translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis (33, 11.8%), replication, recombination and repair (24, 8.6%), and only 7.2% ESTs classified as novel genes. Moreover, the recombinant plasmid pET32a-TAT-COL6A2 was constructed, coded for the Trx-TAT-COL6A2 fusion protein with two 6× His-tags in N and C-terminal. After BCA assay, the concentration of soluble Trx-TAT-COL6A2 recombinant protein was 2.64±0.18mg/mL. This library will provide a useful platform for the functional genome and transcriptome research of for the P. tigris and other felid animals in the future. PMID:24630959

  13. Efficient substructure searching of large chemical libraries: the ABCD chemical cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; Lobanov, Victor S; Shemanarev, Maxim; Rassokhin, Dmitrii N; Izrailev, Sergei; Jaeger, Edward P; Alex, Simson; Farnum, Michael

    2011-12-27

    Efficient substructure searching is a key requirement for any chemical information management system. In this paper, we describe the substructure search capabilities of ABCD, an integrated drug discovery informatics platform developed at Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C. The solution consists of several algorithmic components: 1) a pattern mapping algorithm for solving the subgraph isomorphism problem, 2) an indexing scheme that enables very fast substructure searches on large structure files, 3) the incorporation of that indexing scheme into an Oracle cartridge to enable querying large relational databases through SQL, and 4) a cost estimation scheme that allows the Oracle cost-based optimizer to generate a good execution plan when a substructure search is combined with additional constraints in a single SQL query. The algorithm was tested on a public database comprising nearly 1 million molecules using 4,629 substructure queries, the vast majority of which were submitted by discovery scientists over the last 2.5 years of user acceptance testing of ABCD. 80.7% of these queries were completed in less than a second and 96.8% in less than ten seconds on a single CPU, while on eight processing cores these numbers increased to 93.2% and 99.7%, respectively. The slower queries involved extremely generic patterns that returned the entire database as screening hits and required extensive atom-by-atom verification. PMID:22035187

  14. Use of natural products as chemical library for drug discovery and network pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyong Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural products have been an important source of lead compounds for drug discovery. How to find and evaluate bioactive natural products is critical to the achievement of drug/lead discovery from natural products. METHODOLOGY: We collected 19,7201 natural products structures, reported biological activities and virtual screening results. Principal component analysis was employed to explore the chemical space, and we found that there was a large portion of overlap between natural products and FDA-approved drugs in the chemical space, which indicated that natural products had large quantity of potential lead compounds. We also explored the network properties of natural product-target networks and found that polypharmacology was greatly enriched to those compounds with large degree and high betweenness centrality. In order to make up for a lack of experimental data, high throughput virtual screening was employed. All natural products were docked to 332 target proteins of FDA-approved drugs. The most potential natural products for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of molecular descriptors, distribution in chemical space and biological activities of natural products was conducted in this article. Natural products have vast chemical diversity, good drug-like properties and can interact with multiple cellular target proteins.

  15. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during...... cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified by...... gas chromatography-olfactometry were 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, but despite their potency, none of the separated volatiles imparted a fishy or metallic odor. Two isomers, (E,Z,Z) and (E,E,Z) of 2...

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel human zinc finger gene, hKid3, from a C2H2-ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the zinc finger genes involved in human embryonic development, we constructed a C2H2-ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library, from which a novel human gene named hKid3 was identified. The hKid3 cDNA encodes a 554 amino acid protein with an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 11 carboxyl-terminal C2H2 zinc finger motifs. Northern blot analysis indicates that two hKid3 transcripts of 6 and 8.5 kb express in human fetal brain and kidney. The 6 kb transcript can also be detected in human adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle while the 8.5 kb transcript appears to be embryo-specific. GFP-fused hKid3 protein is localized to nuclei and the ZF domain is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization. To explore the DNA-binding specificity of hKid3, an oligonucleotide library was selected by GST fusion protein of hKid3 ZF domain, and the consensus core sequence 5'-CCAC-3' was evaluated by competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, The KRAB domain of hKid3 exhibits transcription repressor activity when tested in GAL4 fusion protein assay. These results indicate that hKid3 may function as a transcription repressor with regulated expression pattern during human development of brain and kidney

  17. Analysis of 235U enrichment by chemical exchange in U(IV) - U(VI) system on anionite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A theoretical study about the 235U enrichment by chemical exchange method in U(IV)-U(VI) system on anion-exchange resins is presented. The 235U isotope concentration profiles along the band were numerically calculated using an accurate mathematical model and simulations were carried out for the situation of product and waste withdrawal and feed supply. By means of numerical simulation, an estimation of the migration time, necessary for a desired enrichment degree, was obtained. The required migration distance, the production of uranium 3 at.% 235U per year and the plant configuration are calculated for different operating conditions. An analysis of the process scale for various experimental conditions is also presented. (authors)

  18. The early chemical enrichment histories of two Sculptor group dwarf galaxies as revealed by RR lyrae variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of ([Fe/H])ESO294 = –1.77 ± 0.03 and ([Fe/H])ESO410 = –1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through 'prompt initial enrichment' or an 'initial nucleosynthetic spike' from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D ☉ < 2 Mpc) dwarf galaxy samples in terms of the luminosity-metallicity relation and the H I gas content. The presence of these RRL stars strongly supports the idea that although the Sculptor Group galaxies have a considerably

  19. The Early Chemical Enrichment Histories of Two Sculptor Group Dwarf Galaxies as Revealed by RR Lyrae Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soung-Chul; Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel; Sarajedini, Ata; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of lang[Fe/H]rangESO294 = -1.77 ± 0.03 and lang[Fe/H]rangESO410 = -1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through "prompt initial enrichment" or an "initial nucleosynthetic spike" from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D ⊙ giant host galaxies, loosely bound and very low local density), they share a common epoch of early star formation with the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Group.

  20. Effects of the EVCAM chemical validation library on differentiation using marker gene expression in lmouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay was used to profile the effects of the ECVAM EST validation chemical library (19 compounds) on J1 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) provided a high-content assessment of al...

  1. Influence of vitamin c and e enriched feeding on growth and chemical composition of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianyela NORIEGA- SALAZAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was determining the influence of enriched feeding with vitamin C and E on growth and chemical composition of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.. A completely randomized design was used in this experiment. No statistically significant differences were observed for humidity, while all other parameters evaluated in this study showed differences. The results obtained showed enhanced growth in terms of size, weight and growth rate, and a 100% survival in the fish using the combination of vitamin C and E. The chemical characterization indicated that protein ranged from 20.36% to 21.56%, humidity from 73.04% to 76.52%, ash from 1.29% to 3.27% and ether extract from1.83% to 3.23% for treatments 1 and 4. The obtained results suggest that the fish growth increased and red tilapia steaks have high nutritional value using the fodder in combination with vitamin C and E.

  2. Chemical toxicity and radiological health detriment associated with the inhalation of various enrichments of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational risks associated with the chemical toxicity of uranium can be overlooked during the processing, handling and storage of the material, as the radioactivity of the material is often used alone to assess the health consequences of exposure to uranium compounds. This note provides a summary of the current United Kingdom occupational standards for uranium based on radiation dose and/or chemical toxicity with a particular focus on intake via inhalation. A simple model is subsequently presented to allow a comparison to be drawn between the occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity and radiological dose limit. Using these data a set of suggested limits on occupational exposure to airborne uranium is proposed that indicate where the legal annual radiological dose limit for workers or the Health and Safety Executive occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity are at risk of being breached. (note)

  3. FAF-Drugs3: a web server for compound property calculation and chemical library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce, David; Sperandio, Olivier; Baell, Jonathan B; Miteva, Maria A; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2015-07-01

    Drug attrition late in preclinical or clinical development is a serious economic problem in the field of drug discovery. These problems can be linked, in part, to the quality of the compound collections used during the hit generation stage and to the selection of compounds undergoing optimization. Here, we present FAF-Drugs3, a web server that can be used for drug discovery and chemical biology projects to help in preparing compound libraries and to assist decision-making during the hit selection/lead optimization phase. Since it was first described in 2006, FAF-Drugs has been significantly modified. The tool now applies an enhanced structure curation procedure, can filter or analyze molecules with user-defined or eight predefined physicochemical filters as well as with several simple ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) rules. In addition, compounds can be filtered using an updated list of 154 hand-curated structural alerts while Pan Assay Interference compounds (PAINS) and other, generally unwanted groups are also investigated. FAF-Drugs3 offers access to user-friendly html result pages and the possibility to download all computed data. The server requires as input an SDF file of the compounds; it is open to all users and can be accessed without registration at http://fafdrugs3.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr. PMID:25883137

  4. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  5. Evidence for a chemical enrichment coupling of globular clusters and field stars in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Boeche, Corrado; Johnson, Christian I.; Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R ~ 28 000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe] = -0.35 ± 0.34, [Ca/Fe] = + 0.05 ± 0.08, and [Ti/Fe] = -0.27 ± 0.23, resulting in an average [α/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [α/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequence, seen as an early depletion in [α/Fe] at low metallicities, in good agreement with previous measurements. H4 falls on top of the observed field star [α/Fe] sequence and clearly disagrees with the properties of Milky Way halo stars. We therefore conclude that within a galaxy, the chemical enrichment of globular clusters may be closely linked to the enrichment pattern of the field star population. The low [α/Fe] ratios of H4 and similar metallicity field stars in Fornax give evidence that slow chemical enrichment environments, such as dwarf galaxies, may be the original hosts of alpha-depleted clusters in the halos of the Milky Way and M31. This article includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  6. Natural products as lead structures: chemical transformations to create lead-like libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we analyze and illustrate the variation of the two main lead-like descriptors [molecular weight (MW) and the partition coefficient (logP)] in the generation of libraries in which a natural product (NP) is used as the guiding structure. Despite the different approaches used to create NP-like libraries, controlling these descriptors during the synthetic process is important to generate lead-like libraries. From this analysis, we present a schematic approach to the generation of lead-like libraries that can be applied to any starting NP. PMID:24171951

  7. Concrete reflected cylinders of highly enriched solutions of uranyl nitrate ICSBEP Benchmark: A re-evaluation by means of MCNPX using ENDF/B-VI cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a theoretical re-evaluation of a set of original experiments included in the 2009 issue of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, as “Concrete Reflected Cylinders of Highly Enriched Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate” (identification number: HEU-SOL-THERM- 002) [4]. The present evaluation has been made according to benchmark specifications [4], and added data taken out of the original published report [3], but applying a different approach, resulting in a more realistic calculation model. In addition, calculations have been made using the latest version of MCNPX Monte Carlo code, combined with an updated set of cross section data, the continuous-energy ENDF/B-VI library. This has resulted in a comprehensive model for the given experimental situation. Uncertainties analysis has been made based on the evaluation of experimental data presented in the HEU-SOLTHERM-002 report. Resulting calculations with the present improved physical model have been able to reproduce the criticality of configurations within 0.5%, in good agreement with experimental data. Results obtained in the analysis of uncertainties are in general agreement with those at HEU-SOL-THERM-002 benchmark document. Qualitative results from analyses made in the present work can be extended to similar fissile systems: well moderated units of 235U solutions, reflected with concrete from all directions. Results have confirmed that neutron absorbers, even as impurities, must be taken into account in calculations if at least approximate proportions were known. (authors)

  8. Novel HIV-1 knockdown targets identified by an enriched kinases/phosphatases shRNA library using a long-term iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rato

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a complex retrovirus that uses host machinery to promote its replication. Understanding cellular proteins involved in the multistep process of HIV-1 infection may result in the discovery of more adapted and effective therapeutic targets. Kinases and phosphatases are a druggable class of proteins critically involved in regulation of signal pathways of eukaryotic cells. Here, we focused on the discovery of kinases and phosphatases that are essential for HIV-1 replication but dispensable for cell viability. We performed an iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells with a short-hairpin-RNA (shRNA library highly enriched for human kinases and phosphatases. We identified 14 new proteins essential for HIV-1 replication that do not affect cell viability. These proteins are described to be involved in MAPK, JNK and ERK pathways, vesicular traffic and DNA repair. Moreover, we show that the proteins under study are important in an early step of HIV-1 infection before viral integration, whereas some of them affect viral transcription/translation. This study brings new insights for the complex interplay of HIV-1/host cell and opens new possibilities for antiviral strategies.

  9. Chemical enrichment of the intracluster medium by FR II radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, D; Alexander, P; Heath, David; Krause, Martin; Alexander, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We present 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations investigating the long term effect of FR II radio galaxies on the metal distribution of the surrounding intra-cluster medium (ICM). A light jet is injected into a cooling flow atmosphere for 10-30 Myr. We then follow the subsequent evolution for 3 Gyr on a spherical grid spanning 3 Mpc in radius. A series of passive tracer particles were placed in an annulus about the cluster core to simulate metal carrying clouds in order to calculate the metallicity (Z) as a function of time and radial distance from the cluster centre. The jet has a significant effect on the ICM over the entire 3 Gyr period. By the end of the simulations, the jets produced metallicities of ~10% of the initial metallicity of the cluster core throughout much of the cluster. The jets transport the metals not only in mixing regions, but also through upwelling ICM behind the jet, enriching the cluster over both long and short distances.

  10. Photon production in an expanding and chemically equilibrating gluon-enriched plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon production in a longitudinally and transversely expanding gluon plasma with initially little quark admixture is considered. Chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons is followed by rate equations. The yields of hard photons with E ≥ 2 GeV are insensitive to chemical equilibration and depend mainly on the initial thermalized state. Medium-energy photons with E ∼ 1 GeV are more frequently produced in case of faster equilibration, despite of faster cooling. For an assumed fast equilibration we follow the evolution of matter through mixed and hadron phases. The transverse momentum kick, due to transverse expansion, of photons from hadron matter is shown to be reduced for an equation of state with reduced latent heat. The photon yield in the region E > 1 GeV from deconfined matter dominates for conditions, estimated to be achieved at RHIC, in case of a weakly first-order confinement transition. (orig.)

  11. Isotopic enrichment of diamond using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition with high carbon conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopically-controlled diamond crystals were grown using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. First, the highest carbon isotopic enrichment and their controllability were examined. Although the highest 12C isotopic ratio of 99.998% was achieved using methane with an isotopic ratio of 99.999%, the memory effect of an unintended carbon isotope was found to be considerable when the carbon isotopic ratio of feeding methane was tuned for isotopic multilayer formation. Secondly, a unique gas feeding sequence was proposed for increasing the carbon conversion efficiency from methane to diamond. Increasing the conversion efficiency is done by finding a suitable balance between the methane feeding rate and the carbon consumption rate for diamond growth. A high conversion efficiency of 70% was obtained for a polycrystalline diamond with a high 12C isotopic ratio of 99.997%. - Highlights: • Isotopic control of diamond films was investigated. • A high microwave power density condition was applied for diamond growth. • The controllable range of the carbon isotopic ratio was demonstrated. • Diamond films having the highest 12C carbon isotopic enrichment were grown. • High carbon conversion efficiency of 70% was achieved

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    OpenAIRE

    Linder Michel; Belhaj Nabila; Arab-Tehrany Elmira; Kabri Tin-hinan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions...

  13. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-01-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. ...

  14. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOOeTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail: gil@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: lmonaco@eso.org, E-mail: wyse@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-20

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  16. History of Star Formation and Chemical Enrichment in the Milky Way Disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on a physical treatment of the star formation law similar to thatgiven by Efstathiou, we have improved our two-component chemical evolution modelfor the Milky Way disk. Two gas infall rates are compared, one exponential, oneGaussian. It is shown that the star formation law adopted in this paper dependsmore strongly on the gas surface density than that in Chang et al. It has large effectson the history of star formation and gas evolution of the whole disk. In the solarneighborhood, the history of chemical evolution and star formation is not sensitiveto whether the infall rate is Gaussian or exponential. For the same infall time scale,both forms predict the same behavior for the current properties of the Galactic disk.The model predictions do depend on whether or not the infall time scale varies withthe radius, but current available observations cannot decide which case is the morerealistic. Our results also show that it would be inadequate to describe the gradientevolution along the Galactic disk by only one word "flatter" or "steeper", as wassuggested by Hou et al. and Chiapinni et al. We point out that both the absolutevalue and the evolution of the abundance gradient may be different in the inner andouter regions.

  17. MINERAL CONTENTS AND PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ICE CREAM ENRICHED WITH DATE FIBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Date samples of Amber cultivar straining from Medina region (Saudi Arabia were analysed for their chemical compositions and physicochemical properties of date fibre in the present study. Fibre rich date pieces were found to contain 80.2 g/100 g total dietary fibre, 16.32 g water/g sample water-holding capacity while 9.50 g oil/g sample oil-holding capacity. It can be stated from these results that fibre content of date is a valuable dietary fibre source and used in food production as an ingredient. Effects of the addition of date fibres at different concentrations (1, 2, 3 and 4% were investigated on the physical, chemical, sensory properties and mineral content of ice cream in the present study. It was found that elemental composition of ice cream samples was affected significantly by the addition of date fibre concentrations (p<0.05 and the rates of K, Mg and Zn especially increased in the samples depending on the content of date fibre while the content of Ca and P decreased. It was determined from the sensory results that ice cream sample containing date fibre in the rate of 1 and 2% received the highest score from panellists.

  18. The Origin of a Chemically Enriched lya Absorption System at z=0.167

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H W; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2000-01-01

    We present the first detailed analysis of the chemical abundances, ionization state, and origin of a partial Lyman limit system (N(\\hI) ~ 10^{16} \\cmjj) at low redshift (z=0.167 towards PKS0405-1219). Two galaxies at ~ 70 h^{-1} kpc projected distance to the QSO have been identified at the absorber redshift. We analyze an echelle spectrum of the QSO obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and find that this absorption system exhibits associated lines produced by C^+, N^+, O^0, Si^+, Si^{++}, Si^{+3}, Fe^+, and Fe^{++}, and most interestingly, O^{+5} and N^{+4}. The results of our analysis show that the partial Lyman limit system traced by various ions is likely to be embedded in a collisionally ionized \\ovi gas of larger spatial extent. Furthermore, the partial Lyman limit system appears to have a metallicity of {\\em at least} 1/10 solar and most likely solar or super solar despite the fact that no luminous galaxies are seen within a projected distance \\rho = 60 h^{-1} kpc to the QSO. Finally, ...

  19. Chemical enrichment by SNIa in hydrodynamical simulations -I. The Single Degenerate Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Noelia; Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) progenitors remains still uncertain. This is a major issue for galaxy evolution models since both chemical and energetic feedbacks play a major role in the gas dynamics, the star formation and hence, in the overall stellar evolution. The progenitor models for the SNIa available in the literature propose different distributions for regulating the explosion times of these events. These functions are known as the Delay Time Distributions (DTDs). This work is the first one of a series of papers aiming at studying five different DTDs for SNIa. Here, we implement and analyse the Single Degenerate scenario (SD) and the behaviour of the parameter A which determines the fraction of binary systems in one stellar generation that give rise to SNIa events. It worth nothing that in SPH simulations, the parameter A acts at a particle basis which has no a priori knowledge of the type of galaxy it inhabits. We determine a value of A which reproduces the [{\\alpha}/Fe] ratios and the ...

  20. CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF THE FIRST GALAXIES: CRITERIA FOR ONE-SHOT ENRICHMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We utilize metal-poor stars in the local, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs; L tot ≤ 105 L ☉) to empirically constrain the formation process of the first galaxies. Since UFDs have much simpler star formation histories than the halo of the Milky Way, their stellar populations should preserve the fossil record of the first supernova (SN) explosions in their long-lived, low-mass stars. Guided by recent hydrodynamical simulations of first galaxy formation, we develop a set of stellar abundance signatures that characterize the nucleosynthetic history of such an early system if it was observed in the present-day universe. Specifically, we argue that the first galaxies are the product of chemical 'one-shot' events, where only one (long-lived) stellar generation forms after the first, Population III, SN explosions. Our abundance criteria thus constrain the strength of negative feedback effects inside the first galaxies. We compare the stellar content of UFDs with these one-shot criteria. Several systems (Ursa Major II, and also Coma Berenices, Bootes I, Leo IV, Segue 1) largely fulfill the requirements, indicating that their high-redshift predecessors did experience strong feedback effects that shut off star formation. We term the study of the entire stellar population of a dwarf galaxy for the purpose of inferring details about the nature and origin of the first galaxies 'dwarf galaxy archaeology'. This will provide clues to the connection of the first galaxies, the surviving, metal-poor dwarf galaxies, and the building blocks of the Milky Way.

  1. Isotope dilution studies: determination of carbon-13, nitrogen-15 and deuterium-enriched compounds using capillary gas chromatography-chemical reaction interface/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the ability of a capillary gas chromatographic-chemical reaction interface/mass spectrometric technique (CRIMS) to detect the presence of 13C, 15N and 2H (D) it can also quantify the level of the enriched substance. To evaluate linearity and detection limits the authors used phenytoin as an example of an unlabeled substance and added various labeled phenytoin analogs. Atom enrichments of 0.3% were detectable for (2,4,5-13C3) phenytoin and 0.06% for (1,3-15N2)labeled phenytoin, each in the presence of 500 ng of unlabeled phenytoin, respectively. For deuterium, enrichment could not be directly determined. However, 1 ng of (ring D10) phenytoin was determined in the presence of 500 ng of unlabeled diethylated phenytoin. CRIMS was found capable of quantifying 13C-, 15N-and D-enriched substances. (author)

  2. A Prospective Virtual Screening Study: Enriching Hit Rates and Designing Focus Libraries To Find Inhibitors of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L; Bembenek, Scott D; Venable, Jennifer W; Castro, Glenda G; Mangelschots, Lieve; Peeters, Daniëlle C G; Mcallister, Heather M; Edwards, James P; Disepio, Daniel; Mirzadegan, Taraneh

    2016-05-12

    Here, we report a high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) study using phosphoinositide 3-kinase (both PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ). Our initial HTVS results of the Janssen corporate database identified small focused libraries with hit rates at 50% inhibition showing a 50-fold increase over those from a HTS (high-throughput screen). Further, applying constraints based on "chemically intuitive" hydrogen bonds and/or positional requirements resulted in a substantial improvement in the hit rates (versus no constraints) and reduced docking time. While we find that docking scoring functions are not capable of providing a reliable relative ranking of a set of compounds, a prioritization of groups of compounds (e.g., low, medium, and high) does emerge, which allows for the chemistry efforts to be quickly focused on the most viable candidates. Thus, this illustrates that it is not always necessary to have a high correlation between a computational score and the experimental data to impact the drug discovery process. PMID:27043133

  3. Synthesis of High-Purity Chemical Library Reveals a Potent Inducer of Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jiayue; Matsumoto, Kenji; Wang, Cindy Y.; Peter, Marcus E.; Kozmin, Sergey A.

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of high-purity biogenic heterocyclic library enabled identification of a small molecule, which potently inhibited proliferation of several cancer cell lines and induces rapid oxidative stress. This agent elicited unusual mechanism of cell death induction, which entailed activation of both caspase-dependent and independent pathways.

  4. Assessment of a 42 metal salts chemical library in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The developmental effects of xenobiotics on differentiation can be profiled using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) technique was used to evaluate a library of 42 metal and metaloid salts. Jl mESCs were allowed to prolif...

  5. Generation and analysis of large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a full-length enriched cDNA library of porcine backfat tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hae-Young

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome research in farm animals will expand our basic knowledge of the genetic control of complex traits, and the results will be applied in the livestock industry to improve meat quality and productivity, as well as to reduce the incidence of disease. A combination of quantitative trait locus mapping and microarray analysis is a useful approach to reduce the overall effort needed to identify genes associated with quantitative traits of interest. Results We constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library from porcine backfat tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1.7 kb, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 70%. In total, we deposited 16,110 high-quality sequences in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: DT319652-DT335761. For all the expressed sequence tags (ESTs, approximately 10.9 Mb of porcine sequence were generated with an average length of 674 bp per EST (range: 200–952 bp. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 5,008 unique sequences with 1,776 contigs (35.46% and 3,232 singleton (65.54% ESTs. From a total of 5,008 unique sequences, 3,154 (62.98% were similar to other sequences, and 1,854 (37.02% were identified as having no hit or low identity (Sus scrofa. Gene ontology (GO annotation of unique sequences showed that approximately 31.7, 32.3, and 30.8% were assigned molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. A total of 1,854 putative novel transcripts resulted after comparison and filtering with the TIGR SsGI; these included a large percentage of singletons (80.64% and a small proportion of contigs (13.36%. Conclusion The sequence data generated in this study will provide valuable information for studying expression profiles using EST-based microarrays and assist in the condensation of current pig TCs into clusters representing longer stretches of cDNA sequences. The isolation of genes expressed in backfat tissue is the

  6. Chemical Library Screens Targeting an HIV-1 Accessory Factor/Host Cell Kinase Complex Identify Novel Anti-retroviral Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Emert-Sedlak, Lori; Kodama, Toshiaki; Lerner, Edwina C.; Dai, Weixiang; Foster, Caleb; Day, Billy W.; Lazo, John S.; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Nef is an HIV-1 accessory protein essential for AIDS progression and an attractive target for drug discovery. Lack of a catalytic function makes Nef difficult to assay in chemical library screens. We developed a high-throughput screening assay for inhibitors of Nef function by coupling it to one of its host cell binding partners, the Src-family kinase Hck. Hck activation is dependent upon Nef in this assay, providing a direct readout of Nef activity in vitro. Using this screen, a unique diphe...

  7. In silico Screening of Chemical Libraries to Develop Inhibitors That Hamper the Interaction of PCSK9 with the LDL Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Dong-Kook; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Narae; Lee, Chan Joo; Song, Hyun Joo; Yang, Ga Eul; Yoon, Dojun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and promotes degradation of the LDLR. Inhibition of PCSK9 either by reducing its expression or by blocking its activity results in the upregulation of the LDLR and subsequently lowers the plasma concentration of LDL-cholesterol. As a modality to inhibit PCSK9 action, we searched the chemical library for small molecules that block the binding of PCSK9 to the LDLR. Materials and Methods We selected 100 chemicals that bind to PCSK9 where the EGF-AB fragment of the LDLR binds via in silico screening of the ChemBridge chemical library, using the computational GOLD algorithm analysis. Effects of chemicals were evaluated using the PCSK9-LDLR binding assay, immunoblot analysis, and the LDL-cholesterol uptake assay in vitro, as well as the fast performance liquid chromatography assay for plasma lipoproteins in vivo. Results A set of chemicals were found that decreased the binding of PCSK9 to the EGF-AB fragment of the LDLR in a dose-dependent manner. They also increased the amount of the LDLR significantly and subsequently increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled LDL in HepG2 cells. Additionally, one particular molecule lowered the plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol significantly in wild-type mice, while such an effect was not observed in Pcsk9 knockout mice. Conclusion Our findings strongly suggest that in silico screening of small molecules that inhibit the protein-protein interaction between PCSK9 and the LDLR is a potential modality for developing hypercholesterolemia therapeutics. PMID:26256967

  8. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium - II. Chemical enrichment and supernova yield models

    CERN Document Server

    Mernier, François; Pinto, Ciro; Kaastra, Jelle S; Kosec, Peter; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Mao, Junjie; Werner, Norbert; Pols, Onno R; Vink, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z~2-3). In this study, we compare the most accurate average X/Fe abundance ratios (compiled in a previous work from XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS observations of 44 galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals), representative of the chemical enrichment in the nearby ICM, to various SNIa and SNcc nucleosynthesis models found in the literature. The use of a SNcc model combined to any favoured standard SNIa model (deflagration or delayed-detonation) fails to reproduce our abundance pattern. In particular, the Ca/Fe and Ni/Fe ratios are significantly underestimated by the model...

  9. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Sean; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Peroux, Celine

    2016-01-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyman-alpha (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than the damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers at redshifts 0$$4.7. However, only 3 DLAs at $z$$>$4.5 and no sub-DLAs at $z$$>$3.5 have "dust-free" metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first measurement of element abundances in a sub-DLA at $z$=5.0, using Keck HIRES and ESI data. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyman-alpha forest. We find this absorber to be metal-poor, with [O/H]=$-2.02$$\\pm$0.12, which is $>$5$\\sigma$ below the level expected from an extrapolation of the trend for $z$$<$3.5 sub-DLAs. The C/O ratio is $1.7^{+0.4}_{-0.3}$ times lower than in the Sun. More strikingly, Si/O is $3.0^{+0.6}_{-0.5}$ times lower than in the Sun, wh...

  10. Lessons from Library Power: Enriching Teaching and Learning. Final Report of the Evaluation of the National Library Power Initiative, an Initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweizig, Douglas L.; Hopkins, Dianne McAfee

    This book presents the results of an evaluation of Library Power, an initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund that provided support for school library development in 19 communities. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters are organized around key questions of the evaluation. Chapters 2 through 4 address the implementation of…

  11. Compound Activity Mapping: Integrating Chemical and Biological Profiling for the Functional Annotation of Natural Product Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kurita, Kenji Long

    2015-01-01

    Natural products research has had a significant impact on human-health and our understanding of the natural world as a pillar of pharmacognosy, organic chemistry, ecology, and chemical biology. But while this science has yielded countless discoveries such as penicillin, taxol, and artimesinin and will continue to improve quality of life around the world, the idea that natural products is a panacea of chemical diversity has been challenged by problems including the endless rediscovery of known...

  12. Contemporary technology of enrichment of kaolins of Angren deposit. II. Removal of impurities and whitening of kaolins: using electrophysical and chemical methods of cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contemporary methods of enrichment of Angren kaolins have been described. The electrophoresis and chemical whitening are demonstrated to be the most effective methods of scavenging. Application of ultrasonic dispersion, electrophoresis and chemical whitening methods allows one to obtain kaolin with whiteness ≅ 88% and content of iron oxides ≅ 0.4%. Using such kaolin as a sorbent at de coloration of plant oil have been shown good adsorption properties, meeting the level of world-wide standards for such class of materials. (authors)

  13. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the development of uranium enrichment processes. In the introduction there is a brief history of uranium enrichment, followed by a summary of the criteria used for the assessment of an isotope separation process, e.g. the separation factor, separative power, and the power consumption of a separating element. This is followed by a discussion of the two main processes used, i.e. gaseous diffusion and centrifugation. The reason for the change from diffusion to centrifugation in the UK, mainly on power costs, is discussed. The development potential of centrifuges is also assessed. Other processes which have been developed up to pilot stage are described, e.g. the Becker jet nozzle and the South African process. This is followed by a description of some plasma-based methods. The next topic is concerned with chemical exchange methods and an attempt is made to assess their potential in the enrichment scene from published information. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the advanced laser isotope-separation methods. The two approaches, i.e. the atomic and the molecular routes are discussed again using published information. This information is insufficient to give a complete assessment of the methods, especially the molecular route, but is enough to give indications of their potential

  14. A Combinatorial Library of Micro-Topographies and Chemical Compositions for Tailored Surface Wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Kristian; Bennetsen, Dines Tilsted; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Duch, Mogens R.; Lovmand, Jette; Besenbacher, Flemming; Kingshott, Peter; Foss, Morten

    2011-01-01

    chemical modifications with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroethyltriethoxy-silane (PFS) and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODS) on standard silicon wafers it was possible to include both superhydrophobic and very hydrophilic pad arrays in the same screening platform. Surfaces modified with PFS were more hydrophobic...

  15. Identification of siRNA delivery enhancers by a chemical library screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleron, Jerome; Paramasivam, Prasath; Zeigerer, Anja; Querbes, William; Marsico, Giovanni; Andree, Cordula; Seifert, Sarah; Amaya, Pablo; Stöter, Martin; Koteliansky, Victor; Waldmann, Herbert; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Akinc, Akin; Maier, Martin A; Manoharan, Muthiah; Bickle, Marc; Zerial, Marino

    2015-09-18

    Most delivery systems for small interfering RNA therapeutics depend on endocytosis and release from endo-lysosomal compartments. One approach to improve delivery is to identify small molecules enhancing these steps. It is unclear to what extent such enhancers can be universally applied to different delivery systems and cell types. Here, we performed a compound library screen on two well-established siRNA delivery systems, lipid nanoparticles and cholesterol conjugated-siRNAs. We identified fifty-one enhancers improving gene silencing 2-5 fold. Strikingly, most enhancers displayed specificity for one delivery system only. By a combination of quantitative fluorescence and electron microscopy we found that the enhancers substantially differed in their mechanism of action, increasing either endocytic uptake or release of siRNAs from endosomes. Furthermore, they acted either on the delivery system itself or the cell, by modulating the endocytic system via distinct mechanisms. Interestingly, several compounds displayed activity on different cell types. As proof of principle, we showed that one compound enhanced siRNA delivery in primary endothelial cells in vitro and in the endocardium in the mouse heart. This study suggests that a pharmacological approach can improve the delivery of siRNAs in a system-specific fashion, by exploiting distinct mechanisms and acting upon multiple cell types. PMID:26220182

  16. Identification of siRNA delivery enhancers by a chemical library screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleron, Jerome; Paramasivam, Prasath; Zeigerer, Anja; Querbes, William; Marsico, Giovanni; Andree, Cordula; Seifert, Sarah; Amaya, Pablo; Stöter, Martin; Koteliansky, Victor; Waldmann, Herbert; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Akinc, Akin; Maier, Martin A.; Manoharan, Muthiah; Bickle, Marc; Zerial, Marino

    2015-01-01

    Most delivery systems for small interfering RNA therapeutics depend on endocytosis and release from endo-lysosomal compartments. One approach to improve delivery is to identify small molecules enhancing these steps. It is unclear to what extent such enhancers can be universally applied to different delivery systems and cell types. Here, we performed a compound library screen on two well-established siRNA delivery systems, lipid nanoparticles and cholesterol conjugated-siRNAs. We identified fifty-one enhancers improving gene silencing 2–5 fold. Strikingly, most enhancers displayed specificity for one delivery system only. By a combination of quantitative fluorescence and electron microscopy we found that the enhancers substantially differed in their mechanism of action, increasing either endocytic uptake or release of siRNAs from endosomes. Furthermore, they acted either on the delivery system itself or the cell, by modulating the endocytic system via distinct mechanisms. Interestingly, several compounds displayed activity on different cell types. As proof of principle, we showed that one compound enhanced siRNA delivery in primary endothelial cells in vitro and in the endocardium in the mouse heart. This study suggests that a pharmacological approach can improve the delivery of siRNAs in a system-specific fashion, by exploiting distinct mechanisms and acting upon multiple cell types. PMID:26220182

  17. Using the gini coefficient to measure the chemical diversity of small-molecule libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Iwona E; Filippov, Igor V

    2016-08-15

    Modern databases of small organic molecules contain tens of millions of structures. The size of theoretically available chemistry is even larger. However, despite the large amount of chemical information, the "big data" moment for chemistry has not yet provided the corresponding payoff of cheaper computer-predicted medicine or robust machine-learning models for the determination of efficacy and toxicity. Here, we present a study of the diversity of chemical datasets using a measure that is commonly used in socioeconomic studies. We demonstrate the use of this diversity measure on several datasets that were constructed to contain various congeneric subsets of molecules as well as randomly selected molecules. We also apply our method to a number of well-known databases that are frequently used for structure-activity relationship modeling. Our results show the poor diversity of the common sources of potential lead compounds compared to actual known drugs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27353971

  18. Use of Natural Products as Chemical Library for Drug Discovery and Network Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangyong Gu; Yuanshen Gui; Lirong Chen; Gu Yuan; Hui-Zhe Lu; Xiaojie Xu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Natural products have been an important source of lead compounds for drug discovery. How to find and evaluate bioactive natural products is critical to the achievement of drug/lead discovery from natural products. METHODOLOGY: We collected 19,7201 natural products structures, reported biological activities and virtual screening results. Principal component analysis was employed to explore the chemical space, and we found that there was a large portion of overlap between natural pr...

  19. A Uniform Contribution of Core-collapse and Type Ia Supernovae to the Chemical Enrichment Pattern in the Outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Urban, O.; Allen, S. W.; Ichinohe, Y.; Zhuravleva, I.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first measurements of the abundances of α-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intracluster medium is consistent with being constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r200). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core-collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measured metal abundance ratios are generally consistent with the solar value. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and SNe Ia contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2-3. We estimate the ratio between the number of SNe Ia and the total number of supernovae enriching the intergalactic medium to be between 12% and 37%, broadly consistent with the metal abundance patterns in our own Galaxy or with the SN Ia contribution estimated for the cluster cores.

  20. Study on chemical and volume control system design improvement of pressurized water reactor to use the enriched boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes and determines the technical and economic feasibility of conversion from natural boric acid to enriched boric acid based on YGN 1,2 for existing plants and UCN 5,6 for new plants. The use of enriched boric acid may result in lower plant radiation exposure, lower stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600, and the improvement of the water chemistry operation for PWR plants, since it is viewed as possibly a safer way of proceeding with an increase in RCS pH with less LiOH. The conversion of enriched boric acid would not affect core design, safety analysis licensing, etc.. The economic analysis shows that for the higher B-10 concentration, the existing power plants are more economical than new plants. It is expected that information and technology gained from this study would be utilized for the optimized CVCS design of the future nuclear power plants. It is also expected that the utilization of the enriched boric acid would become favourable for extended fuel cycle and especially MOX (Mixed Oxide) nuclear fuel because high boric acid concentration should be maintained for the beginning of the fuel cycle. 19 tabs., 20 figs., 20 refs. (Author)

  1. The C+N+O abundance of Omega Centauri giant stars: implications on the chemical enrichment scenario and the relative ages of different stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F; Piotto, G; Cassisi, S; D'Antona, F; Anderson, J; Aparicio, A; Bedin, L R; Renzini, A; Villanova, S

    2011-01-01

    We present a chemical-composition analysis of 77 red-giant stars in Omega Centauri. We have measured abundances for carbon and nitrogen, and combined our results with abundances of O, Na, La, and Fe that we determined in our previous work. Our aim is to better understand the peculiar chemical-enrichment history of this cluster, by studying how the total C+N+O content varies among the different-metallicity stellar groups, and among stars at different places along the Na-O anticorrelation. We find the (anti)correlations among the light elements that would be expected on theoretical ground for matter that has been nuclearly processed via high-temperature proton captures. The overall [(C+N+O)/Fe] increases by 0.5 dex from [Fe/H] -2.0 to [Fe/H] -0.9. Our results provide insight into the chemical-enrichment history of the cluster, and the measured CNO variations provide important corrections for estimating the relative ages of the different stellar populations.

  2. Effects of Inorganic and Organic Fractions of Enriched Cow Manure and Sewage Sludge on Distribution of Lead Chemical Fractionation in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Baghaie; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni

    2012-01-01

    Cow manure and sewage sludge add heavy metals to soil. Organic and inorganic fractions in these compounds can immobilize heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and affect their bio-availability. This investigation was conducted to compare the effects of organic and inorganic fractions of sewage sludge and cow manure on distribution of lead chemical forms in soil as a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of application of 10% (w/w) enriched sewage sludge and cow manure (6 g Pb kg-1 organ...

  3. A Robust and Versatile Method of Combinatorial Chemical Synthesis of Gene Libraries via Hierarchical Assembly of Partially Randomized Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Blagovesta; Schubert, Steffen; Bulla, Ingo; Buchwald, Daniela; Kramer, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in gene library generation is to guarantee a large functional size and diversity that significantly increases the chances of selecting different functional protein variants. The use of trinucleotides mixtures for controlled randomization results in superior library diversity and offers the ability to specify the type and distribution of the amino acids at each position. Here we describe the generation of a high diversity gene library using tHisF of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima as a scaffold. Combining various rational criteria with contingency, we targeted 26 selected codons of the thisF gene sequence for randomization at a controlled level. We have developed a novel method of creating full-length gene libraries by combinatorial assembly of smaller sub-libraries. Full-length libraries of high diversity can easily be assembled on demand from smaller and much less diverse sub-libraries, which circumvent the notoriously troublesome long-term archivation and repeated proliferation of high diversity ensembles of phages or plasmids. We developed a generally applicable software tool for sequence analysis of mutated gene sequences that provides efficient assistance for analysis of library diversity. Finally, practical utility of the library was demonstrated in principle by assessment of the conformational stability of library members and isolating protein variants with HisF activity from it. Our approach integrates a number of features of nucleic acids synthetic chemistry, biochemistry and molecular genetics to a coherent, flexible and robust method of combinatorial gene synthesis. PMID:26355961

  4. Chemical and biochemical strategies for the randomization of protein encoding DNA sequences: library construction methods for directed evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Neylon, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    Directed molecular evolution and combinatorial methodologies are playing an increasingly important role in the field of protein engineering. The general approach of generating a library of partially randomized genes, expressing the gene library to generate the proteins the library encodes and then screening the proteins for improved or modified characteristics has successfully been applied in the areas of protein–ligand binding, improving protein stability and modifying enzyme selectivity. A ...

  5. A Uniform Contribution of Core-Collapse and Type Ia Supernovae to the Chemical Enrichment Pattern in the Outskirts of the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Simionescu, A; Urban, O; Allen, S W; Ichinohe, Y; Zhuravleva, I

    2015-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the abundances of alpha-elements (Mg, Si, and S) extending out to beyond the virial radius of a cluster of galaxies. Our results, based on Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, show that the chemical composition of the intra-cluster medium is constant on large scales, with a flat distribution of the Si/Fe, S/Fe, and Mg/Fe ratios as a function of radius and azimuth out to 1.4 Mpc (1.3 r200). Chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium due solely to core collapse supernovae (SNcc) is excluded with very high significance; instead, the measured S/Fe and Mg/Fe ratios are consistent with the Solar value, with a sub-solar Si/Fe ratio. The uniform metal abundance ratios observed today are likely the result of an early phase of enrichment and mixing, with both SNcc and type Ia supernovae (SNIa) contributing to the metal budget during the period of peak star formation activity at redshifts of 2-3. We estimate the ratio between the number of SNIa and the total num...

  6. The generation of purinome-targeted libraries as a means to diversify ATP-mimetic chemical classes for lead finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Eduard R; Badari, Alessandra; Disingrini, Teresa; Mantegani, Sergio; Orrenius, Christian; Avanzi, Nilla; Isacchi, Antonella; Salom, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    The generation of novel chemotypes in support of our oncology research projects expanded in recent years from a canonical design of kinase-targeted compound libraries to a broader interpretation of purinome-targeted libraries (PTL) addressing the specificity of cancer relevant targets such as kinases and ATPases. Successful screening of structurally diverse ATP-binding targets requires compound libraries covering multiple design elements, which may include phosphate surrogate moieties in ATPase inhibitors or far reaching lipophilic residues stabilizing inactive kinase conformations. Here, we exemplify the design and preparation of drug-like combinatorial libraries and report significantly enhanced screening performance on purinomic targets. We compared overall hit rates of PTL with a simultaneously tested unbiased collection of 200,000 compounds and found consistent superiority of the targeted libraries in all cases. We also analyzed the performance of the largest targeted libraries in comparison with each other and often found striking differences in how a specific target responds to various chemotypes and to whole collections. PMID:22350112

  7. Chemical enrichment and separation of uranyl ions in aqueous media using novel polyurethane foam chemically grafted with different basic dyestuff sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Moawed, E A; Farag, A B

    2007-01-15

    The new type of the grafted polyurethane foam sorbents were prepared by coupling polyether polyol, toluene diisocyanate and basic dyestuff (Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Brilliant green). The Me.B-PUF, Rh.B-PUF and Br.G-PUF were characterized using UV/vis, IR and TGA. The adsorption properties and chromatographic behaviour of these new adsorbents for preconcentration and separation of uranium(VI) ions at low concentrations from aqueous thiocyanate media were investigated by a batch process. The maximum sorption of U(VI) was in the pH ranges 1-4. The kinetics of sorption of the U(VI) by the Grafted-PUF were found to be fast with half life of sorption (t(1/2)) in 2.43min. The average sorption capacity of different sorbents 0.124meqg(-1) for uranyl ions, enrichment factors approximately 40 and the recovery 98-100% were achieved (R.S.D. approximately 0.73%). The basic dyestuff Grafted-PUF could be used many times without decreasing their capacities significantly. The value of the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG) for the sorbents is -7.3kJmol(-1), which reflects the spontaneous nature of sorption process. The sorption mechanism of the metal ion onto Grafted-PUF was also discussed. PMID:19071294

  8. Evidence for a chemical enrichment coupling of globular clusters and field stars in the Fornax dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Johnson, Christian I; Frank, Matthias J; Koch, Andreas; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R~28000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe]=-0.35+-0.34, [Ca/Fe]=+0.05+-0.08, and [Ti/Fe]=-0.27+-0.23, resulting in an average [alpha/Fe]=-0.19+-0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [alpha/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequ...

  9. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance. PMID:25240849

  10. 柑橘全爪螨微卫星位点鉴定与信息分析%Analysis of Microsatellite Loci fromPanonychus citri Based on Enriched Microsatellite Library and Transcriptome Dataset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丹丹; 刘燕; 杜洋; 李刚; 李婷; 袁明龙; 王进军

    2016-01-01

    重复类型,占总数的53.86%;其次为两碱基核心重复类型,占总数的43.36%;而四、五、六碱基重复类型以及复合型的SSR数量均较少,且数量差异不大,共占EST-SSR总数的2.78%。柑橘全爪螨EST-SSR核心重复次数主要集中在5—10次。【结论】采用磁珠富集法,并将酶切、接头连接一步化,可提高个体微小的螨类及微小昆虫SSR的富集效率。柑橘全爪螨gSSR核心重复次数要远多于从转录组数据库获得的EST-SSR。总体而言,gSSR和EST-SSR中的三碱基重复SSR具有更好的优化率。此外,柑橘全爪螨gSSR具有微卫星家族现象。%Objective] The objective of this study is to construct the microsatellite-enriched libraries, and identify genomic- microsatellite (gSSR) from the genome of the citrus red mite,Panonychus citri. Meanwhile, a large number of gene-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers were also indentified from the transcriptome database ofP. citri. Based on these SSR sequences, the selected SSR primer pairs were validated.[Method]On the basis of isolating high quality genomic DNA ofP. citri, enriched microsatellite libraries were constructed by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads utilizing methodologies that exploit the strong affinity between biotin and the protein streptavidin. A fast and easy protocol was proposed through a combination of two different published methods. Briefly, genomic DNA was digested by the restriction enzyme and then ligated to designed adaptors. Microsatellite-containing DNA fragments were captured by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. The beads affinity capture of microsatellite repeats using biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. Subsequently, PCR was used to amplify the captured molecules for transferring single strand DNA to double strand DNA. The PCR products were then ligated to pGEM-T Easy vector and transformed into Trans5α competent cells. Then, clones from these libraries were screened for microsatellite content. Meanwhile

  11. Is Job Enrichment Really Enriching?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Mohr; Cindy Zoghi

    2006-01-01

    This study uses a survey of Canadian workers with rich, matched data on job characteristics to examine whether “enriched” job design, with features like quality circles, feedback, suggestion programs, and task teams, affects job satisfaction. We identify two competing hypotheses on the relationship between enriched jobs and job satisfaction. The “motivation hypothesis,” implies that enrichment will generally increase satisfaction and the “intensification hypothesis,” implies that enrichment m...

  12. Cypriot libraries

    OpenAIRE

    John F. Harvey

    1982-01-01

    Describes the current state of librarianship and bibliography in Cyprus, with separate sections for the Greek and Turkish sectors. Although there is no national library in the Greek sector there are 5 types of public library: Nicosia public library; Limassol, Larnaca and Paphos public libraries; community libraries; mobile libraries; and foreign cultural centre libraries. Schools and colleges in the Greek centre are well provided with libraries and most government departments sponsor special ...

  13. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  14. Nitrogen and Oxygen Abundance Variations in the Outer Ejecta of Eta Carinae: Evidence for Recent Chemical Enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Smith, Nathan; Morse, Jon A.

    2004-01-01

    We present optical spectra of the ionized `Outer Ejecta' of Eta Carinae that reveal differences in chemical composition at various positions. In particular, young condensations just outside the dusty Homunculus Nebula show strong nitrogen lines and little or no oxygen -- but farther away, nitrogen lines weaken and oxygen lines become stronger. The observed variations in the apparent N/O ratio may signify either that the various blobs were ejected with different abundances, or more likely, that the more distant condensations are interacting with normal-composition material. The second hypothesis is supported by various other clues involving kinematics and X-ray emission, and would suggest that Eta Car is enveloped in a ``cocoon'' deposited by previous stellar-wind mass loss. In particular, all emission features where we detect strong oxygen lines are coincident with or outside the soft X-ray shell. In either case, the observed abundance variations suggest that Eta Car's ejection of nitrogen-rich material is a ...

  15. Solid state NMR chemical shift assignment and conformational analysis of a cellulose binding protein facilitated by optimized glycerol enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanir, Hadar; Goldbourt, Amir

    2014-07-01

    Magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR has been applied to study CBM3b-Cbh9A (CBM3b), a cellulose binding module protein belonging to family 3b. It is a 146-residue protein having a unique nine-stranded β-sandwich fold, in which 35% of the structure is in a β-sheet conformation and the remainder of the protein is composed of loops and unstructured regions. Yet, the protein can be crystalized and it forms elongated needles. Close to complete chemical shift assignment of the protein was obtained by combining two- and three-dimensional experiments using a fully labeled sample and a glycerol-labeled sample. The use of an optimized protocol for glycerol-based sparse labeling reduces sample preparation costs and facilitates the assignment of the large number of aromatic signals in this protein. Conformational analysis shows good correlation between the NMR-predicted secondary structure and the reported X-ray crystal structure, in particular in the structured regions. Residues which show high B-factor values are situated mainly in unstructured regions, and are missing in our spectra indicating conformational flexibility rather than heterogeneity. Interestingly, long-range contacts, which could be clearly detected for tyrosine residues, could not be observed for aromatic phenylalanine residues pointing into the hydrophobic core, suggesting possible high ring mobility. These studies will allow us to further investigate the cellulose-bound form of CBM proteins. PMID:24824437

  16. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  17. CLASH-VLT: Strangulation of cluster galaxies in MACS J0416.1-2403 as seen from their chemical enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, C.; Kuchner, U.; Ziegler, B. L.; Verdugo, M.; Balestra, I.; Girardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Rosati, P.; Fritz, A.; Grillo, C.; Nonino, M.; Sartoris, B.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Environmental effects gain importance as large scale structures in the Universe develop with time and have become the dominant mechanism for quenching galaxies of intermediate and low stellar masses at lower redshifts. Therefore, clusters of galaxies at zenvironmental effects are expected to be more pronounced and more easily observed with present-day large telescopes. Methods: We explore the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 at z = 0.3972 with VIMOS/VLT spectroscopy from the CLASH-VLT survey covering a region that corresponds to almost three virial radii. We measure fluxes of Hβ, [O III]λ 5007, Hα, and [N II]λ 6584 emission lines of cluster members enabling us to unambiguously derive O/H gas metallicities, and also star formation rates from extinction-corrected Hα fluxes. We compare our cluster galaxy sample with a field sample at z ~ 0.4 drawn from zCOSMOS. Results: The 76 galaxies of our cluster sample follow the star-forming metallicity sequence in a diagnostic diagram disentangling ionizing sources. For intermediate masses we find a similar distribution of cluster and field galaxies in the mass vs. metallicity and mass vs. sSFR diagrams. An in-depth investigation furthermore reveals that bulge-dominated cluster galaxies have on average lower sSFRs and higher O/Hs than their disk-dominated counterparts. We use the location of galaxies in the projected velocity vs. position phase-space to separate our cluster sample into a region of objects accreted longer ago and a region of recently accreted and infalling galaxies. We find a higher fraction of accreted metal-rich galaxies (63%) compared to the fraction of 28% of metal-rich galaxies in the infalling regions. Intermediate-mass galaxies (9.2 Environmental effects therefore strongly influence gas regulations and control gas metallicities of log (M/M⊙) < 10.2 cluster galaxies. We also investigate chemical evolutionary paths of model galaxies with and without inflow of gas showing that

  18. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  19. Variations of the initial mass function in semi-analytical models: implications for the chemical enrichment of galaxies in the GAEA model

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanot, Fabio; Hirschmann, Michaela; Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stephane; Zibetti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the implications of the Integrated Galaxy-wide stellar Initial Mass Function (IGIMF) approach in the framework of the semi-analytic model GAEA (GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly), which features a detailed treatment of chemical enrichment and stellar feedback. The IGIMF provides an analytic description of the dependence of the stellar IMF shape on the rate of star formation in galaxies. We find that our model with a universal IMF predicts a rather flat [$\\alpha$/Fe]-stellar mass relation. The model assuming the IGIMF, instead, is able to reproduce the observed increase of $\\alpha$-enhancement with stellar mass. This is mainly due to the fact that massive galaxies are characterized by larger SFRs at high-redshift, leading to stronger $\\alpha$-enhancement with respect to low-mass galaxies. At the same time, the IGIMF hypothesis does not affect significantly the trend for shorter star formation timescales for more massive galaxies. We argue that in the IGIMF scenario the [$\\alpha$/Fe] ra...

  20. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z~1.6. IV: Excitation state and chemical enrichment of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kashino, D; Sanders, D; Kartaltepe, J S; Daddi, E; Renzini, A; Valentino, F; Rodighiero, G; Juneau, S; Kewley, L J; Zahid, H J; Arimoto, N; Nagao, T; Chu, J; Sugiyama, N; Civano, F; Ilbert, O; Kajisawa, M; Fevre, O Le; Maier, C; Onodera, M; Puglisi, A; Taniguchi, Y; COSMOS,

    2016-01-01

    We present results on the physical conditions of the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies at 1.410^11Msun being well sampled. The excitation state and chemical enrichment of the ionized gas are investigated using diagnostic diagrams based on the ratios of emission line strengths, including Alpha, [NII]6584, [SII]6717,6731, Hbeta, and [OIII]5007. Our data confirm an offset of the star-forming sequence on the BPT diagram ([OIII]/Hbeta vs. [NII]/Halpha), primarily towards higher [OIII]/Hbeta, compared with local star-forming galaxies. Based on the [SII] ratio, we measure an electron density (n_e=222^{+172}_{-128} cm^-3), higher than that of local galaxies. Overall, these changes in emission-line properties are due to a higher ionization parameter in high redshift galaxies as demonstrated by a lower than expected [SII]/Halpha ratio and a comparison to theoretical models. These results likely rule out an offset in the BPT diagram caused by a harder radiation field or AGN as assessed with Chandra. Finally, ...

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qilu; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Li, Ying; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1) is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2 (-), H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding. PMID:26379693

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilu eSong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1 is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2-, H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding.

  3. Job Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  4. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  5. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  6. The UK chemical nuclear data library: a summary of the data available in ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee files have been considerably revised and extended. The files now embrace: fission yields (C31), fission product decay data (UKFPDD-2), activation product decay data (UKPADD-1), and heavy element decay data (UKHEDD-1). The fission yield data is based on Crouch's third round of adjustment and includes yields to isometric states. The decay data files include data on half-life, decay modes, branching ratios and alpha, beta and gamma radiation energies and intensities. The data have all been recommended by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee for use in the UK reactor programme; they are stored on magnetic tape at AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith and CEGB Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. (author)

  7. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Papy, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Of vital interest to all librarians and information specialists, this book presents all aspects of the effects of digitization of today's and tomorrow's libraries. From social to technical issues, Digital Libraries includes chapters on the growth of the role of librarian, the reader experience, cataloging, search engines, OPAC, law, ergonomic studies, and the future of libraries.

  9. Characterization of acetohydroxyacid synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the identification of its new inhibitor from the screening of a chemical library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Hahn, Hoh Gyu; Choi, Jung-Do; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2005-08-29

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is a thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) and FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthetic pathway of the branched-amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The genes of AHAS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis were cloned, and overexpressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified AHAS from M. tuberculosis is effectively inhibited by pyrazosulfuron ethyl (PSE), an inhibitor of plant AHAS enzyme, with the IC(50) (inhibitory concentration 50%) of 0.87 microM. The kinetic parameters of M. tuberculosis AHAS were determined, and an enzyme activity assay system using 96-well microplate was designed. After screening of a chemical library composed of 5600 compounds using the assay system, a new class of AHAS inhibitor was identified with the IC(50) in the range of 1.8-2.6 microM. One of the identified compounds (KHG20612) further showed growth inhibition activity against various strains of M. tuberculosis. The correlation of the inhibitory activity of the identified compound against AHAS to the cell growth inhibition activity suggested that AHAS might be served as a target protein for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis therapeutics. PMID:16111681

  10. The exploitation of social tagging in libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Κακάλη, Κωνσταντία; Παπαθεοδώρου, Χρήστος

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, many libraries have developed social tagging services, after the considerable use of social tagging and deployment as key components of Web 2.0. Another set of libraries have enriched the search and indexing services of their OPACs with the folksonomy of Library Thing. The evaluation of these metadata (folksonomies) and further their exploitation is one of our challenges. At the same time, we explore ways to define a methodology for the exploitation of user’s vocabulary by the tradi...

  11. JCE Digital Library Grand Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematical Education Digital Library (NSDL), inaugurated in December 2002, is developed to promote science education on a comprehensive scale. The Journal of Chemical, Education (JCE) Digital Library, incorporated into NSDL, contains its own collections of digital resources for chemistry…

  12. Uranium enrichment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technically mature and commercially proven methods of separation are currently available on the enrichment market, such as the diffusion and centrifuge methods. According to the information available, the diffusion technologies, which have dominated the scene so far, will lose much of their influence in favor of the centrifuge technologies which, because of their special process characteristics, such as lower energy consumption and smaller economic plant sizes, can adapt themselves to the conditions of the market in a flexible and economic way. Other methods, such as the gas dynamics Helikon and separation nozzle techniques, and chemical enrichment are on the verge of commercial maturity. However, their economic performance and chances in the enrichment market cannot yet be assessed with any degree of precision. The prospects and possibilities of the laser method, which has received much backing recently, especially in the USA, are difficult to weigh in the light of the knowledge available to date. However, it is hardly to be expected that technically mature and commercially viable plants operating by this technology are going to be available before the turn of the century. (orig.)

  13. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  14. Library Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about the issue of advocacy. Standing at the vanguard of literacy, library media specialists have a unique role. However, it is time for media specialists to advocate their services in a proactive way. If library media specialists cannot, both individually and collectively, put advocacy at the forefront, then students will suffer the…

  15. Library Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model.......A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model....

  16. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  17. Enrichment study gets go-ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full feasibility study into the establishment of a uranium enrichment industry in Australia is to be carried out by the Uranium Enrichment Group (UEGA). This follows a pre-feasibility study by the group, made up of BHP, CSR, Peko Wallsend and Western Mining Corporation, which found that Australia could sustain an enrichment industry in the 1990s. The pre-feasibility study identified centrifuge and chemical exchange technology as suitable for Australian conditions

  18. Benchmarking Methods and Data Sets for Ligand Enrichment Assessment in Virtual Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective small-scale virtual screening (VS) based on benchmarking data sets has been widely used to estimate ligand enrichments of VS approaches in the prospective (i.e. real-world) efforts. However, the intrinsic differences of benchmarking sets to the real screening chemical libraries can cause biased assessment. Herein, we summarize the history of benchmarking methods as well as data sets and highlight three main types of biases found in benchmarking sets, i.e. “analogue bias”, “artif...

  19. Whole-Exome Enrichment with the Illumina TruSeq Exome Enrichment Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Rui; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Multiple platforms are available for whole-exome enrichment and sequencing (WES). This protocol is based on the Illumina TruSeq Exome Enrichment platform, which captures ~62 Mb of the human exonic regions using 95-base DNA probes. In addition to covering the RefSeq and Ensembl coding sequences, the enriched sequences also include ~28 Mb of RefSeq untranslated regions (UTR). The protocol can be performed at the benchside without the need for automation, and the resulting library can be used fo...

  20. Properties of a Chemically Enriched Lya Absorption System at z=0.167 and Implications for the Total Baryons in Extended Gaseous Envelopes Around Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Prochaska, Jason X.; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the chemical abundances, ionization state, and origin of a partial Lyman limit system (N(HI) ~ 10^{16} cm^{-2}) at low redshift (z=0.167 towards PKS0405-1219). We also present the first estimate of the total baryons in extended gaseous envelopes around galaxies based on a simple photoionization model for the Lya absorbers. We find that extended gaseous envelopes can explain between 5--20% of the total baryons predicted by the big bang nucleosynthesis model.

  1. Revisiting the carbonyl n → π* electronic excitation through topological eyes: expanding, enriching and enhancing the chemical language using electron number distribution functions and domain averaged Fermi holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Costas, David; Francisco, Evelio; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Mosquera, Ricardo A

    2015-10-21

    The theory of chemical bonding is underdeveloped in electronic excited states, even in small molecules. Fortunately, real space tools may be used to offer rich images of simple excitation processes, as is shown in this work. The statistics of electron populations, through a fruitful combination of electron distribution functions (EDFs) and domain averaged Fermi holes (DAFHs), was used to enlighten our chemical knowledge of a paradigmatic process: the n → π* excitation in formaldehyde. Interestingly, our results are perfectly compatible with an alternative perception of the electronic transition: the rotation of one averaged-electron in the oxygen lone pair. This topological model does not require inter-orbital jumps to explain the final electron distribution and, in our humble opinion, this fact makes it, to some extent, more realistic. Finally, other far-reaching conclusions emerge smoothly from our analysis: (i) the σ link may contribute less to the total bond order (as measured by the delocalization index) of a polar double bond than the π one; (ii) populating an antibonding orbital does not necessarily imply decreasing the bond order of its corresponding bond. PMID:26168082

  2. Fractional enrichment of proteins using [2-{sup 13}C]-glycerol as the carbon source facilitates measurement of excited state {sup 13}Cα chemical shifts with improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlner, Alexandra; Andresen, Cecilia; Khan, Shahid N. [Linköping University, Division of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Sweden); Kay, Lewis E. [The University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry, One King’s College Circle (Canada); Lundström, Patrik, E-mail: patlu@ifm.liu.se [Linköping University, Division of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    A selective isotope labeling scheme based on the utilization of [2-{sup 13}C]-glycerol as the carbon source during protein overexpression has been evaluated for the measurement of excited state {sup 13}Cα chemical shifts using Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion (RD) experiments. As expected, the fractional incorporation of label at the Cα positions is increased two-fold relative to labeling schemes based on [2-{sup 13}C]-glucose, effectively doubling the sensitivity of NMR experiments. Applications to a binding reaction involving an SH3 domain from the protein Abp1p and a peptide from the protein Ark1p establish that accurate excited state {sup 13}Cα chemical shifts can be obtained from RD experiments, with errors on the order of 0.06 ppm for exchange rates ranging from 100 to 1000 s{sup −1}, despite the small fraction of {sup 13}Cα–{sup 13}Cβ spin-pairs that are present for many residue types. The labeling approach described here should thus be attractive for studies of exchanging systems using {sup 13}Cα spin probes.

  3. Beyond Job Enrichment to Employment Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, William B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Employment enrichment views the total work environment confronting employees as a system consisting of two overlapping areas: worker-job and worker-organization subsystems. Job enrichment has improved the worker-job subsystem. The focus of this article is on methods of improving the worker-organization relationship. (Author/JB)

  4. COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the production of a combinatorial library of compound of general formula (I) using solid phase methodologies. The cleavage of the array of immobilised compounds of the phthalimido type from the solid support matrix is accomplished by using an array of dinucleop......The invention provides a method for the production of a combinatorial library of compound of general formula (I) using solid phase methodologies. The cleavage of the array of immobilised compounds of the phthalimido type from the solid support matrix is accomplished by using an array of...... dinucleophiles, e.g. hydrazines (hydrazinolysis) or N-hydroxylamines, whereby a combinatorial dimension is introduced in the cleavage step. The invention also provides a compound library....

  5. Correlation among Library Facilities: An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Y, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    Libraries are central part of academic system. They are imperatively empowered and enriched by their facilities. These facilities help the users (faculty, students and researcher) not only to loan physically available resources but also help them to browse and search catalogues, access databases and avail services simultaneously. Provision of multiple library facilities and their correlation can have a strong impact on institutional outcomes. Therefore, this study has been conduct...

  6. Gas Metallicities in the Extended Disks of NGC 1512 and NGC 3621. Chemical Signatures of Metal Mixing or Enriched Gas Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Ryan-Weber, Emma

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We have obtained spectra of 135 HII regions located in the inner and extended disks of the spiral galaxies NGC 1512 and NGC 3621, spanning the range of galactocentric distances 0.2-2 x R25 (from 2-3 kpc to 18-25 kpc). We find that the excitation properties of nebulae in the outer (R>R25) disks are similar to those of the inner disks, but on average younger HII regions tend to be selected in the bright inner disks. Reddening by dust is not negligible in the outer disks, and subject to significant large-scale spatial variations. For both galaxies the radial abundance gradient flattens to a constant value outside of the isophotal radius. The outer disk O/H abundance ratio is highly homogeneous, with a scatter of only ~0.06 dex. Based on the excitation and chemical (N/O ratio) analysis we find no compelling evidence for variations in the upper initial mass function of the ionizing clusters of extended disks. The O/H abundance in the outer disks of the target galaxies corresponds to 35% of the solar val...

  7. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN THE FAINTEST GALAXIES: THE CARBON AND IRON ABUNDANCE SPREADS IN THE BOOeTES I DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY AND THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an AAOmega spectroscopic study of red giants in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Booetes I (MV ∼ -6) and the Segue 1 system (MV ∼ -1.5), either an extremely low luminosity dwarf galaxy or an unusually extended globular cluster. Both Booetes I and Segue 1 have significant abundance dispersions in iron and carbon. Booetes I has a mean abundance of [Fe/H] = -2.55 ± 0.11 with an [Fe/H] dispersion of σ = 0.37 ± 0.08, and abundance spreads of Δ[Fe/H] = 1.7 and Δ[C/H] = 1.5. Segue 1 has a mean of [Fe/H] = -2.7 ± 0.4 with [Fe/H] dispersion of σ = 0.7 ± 0.3, and abundances spreads of Δ[Fe/H] = 1.6 and Δ[C/H] = 1.2. Moreover, Segue 1 has a radial-velocity member at four half-light radii that is extremely metal-poor and carbon-rich, with [Fe/H] = -3.5, and [C/Fe] = +2.3. Modulo an unlikely non-member contamination, the [Fe/H] abundance dispersion confirms Segue 1 as the least-luminous ultra-faint dwarf galaxy known. For [Fe/H] V = -5. The very low mean iron abundances and the high carbon and iron abundance dispersions in Segue 1 and Booetes I are consistent with highly inhomogeneous chemical evolution starting in near zero-abundance gas. These ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are apparently surviving examples of the very first bound systems.

  8. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements in multi-size airborne particulate matters of Beijing, China: Mass concentration, enrichment characteristics, source apportionment, chemical speciation and bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiajia; Tian, Hezhong; Cheng, Ke; Lu, Long; Wang, Yuxuan; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Zhou, Junrui; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Jing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal and spatial variation characteristics of 19 elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Zn) in TSP/PM10/PM2.5 samples were investigated, which were collected from April 2011 to January 2012 simultaneously at an urban downtown site, a traffic roadside site, a suburban site, and a rural site in Beijing. The elevated concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, etc.) in particles revealed that the contamination of toxic elements in Beijing could not be neglected. Positive matrix factorization method (PMF) was applied for source apportionment of trace elements in PM, and three factors (crust related sources, combustion sources, and traffic and steel industrial related sources) were identified. Furthermore, the chemical speciation and bioavailability of various elements were identified by applying European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. Our results showed that eight toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) exhibited higher mobility in PM2.5 than in PM10. Notably, elements of As, Cd, Pb and Zn were presented with higher mobility than the other elements, and these elements were lightly to release into the environment and easily available to human body. Additionally, As, Cd, Pb and Zn also accounted for higher percentages in the bound to mobile fractions at the central urban areas of Beijing. Therefore, special concerns should be paid to these toxic trace elements which had relatively high mobility in fine particles, when planning and implementing the comprehensive air pollution mitigation policies in Beijing.

  9. Building Digital Libraries: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Arora

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tools, techniques and protocols necessary for building up digital libraries have now fully evolved with computing power that allows parallel processing, multitasking, parallel consultation and parallel knowledge navigation and sohare tools that facilitate artificial intelligence and interadivity. Coincided with availability of sofhvare, hardware and networking technology, the advent of world wide web 0its, ever incr easing usage and highly evolved browsers have paved the way for creation of digital libraries. With rapid developments in technologies necessary for developing digital libraries, the world of digital information resources has expanded rapidly and exponentially. Increasing number of publishers are using the internet as a global way to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. With the technology available at an effordable cost, the libraries are initiating small digitisation projects as an individual library or as a group of libraries. Building-up digital collection and the infrastructure required to access them is a challenge that every library has to deal with. The article delves into technological evolution, cultural revolution and contents enrichment that led to revolution in growth and development of digital libraries. The artide has two distinct parts, while the first part deals with various aspects of building, accessing and organising digital resources and collection, the second part elaborates on the process, technology, formats, compression techniques and tools used in digital imaging. The article describes optical character recognition (OCR and advocates for hybrid solution for preservation of digital information. http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dbit.21.6.3547

  10. History of Digital Libraries and Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerantz, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    This module covers the origin of the digital library research agenda, DLI, DLI-2, NSDL, and the origin of other long-term digital library projects. Students will be able to name areas of research and development that fed into early digital library work, describe early digital library initiatives, and describe ways in which areas of research and development that fed into early digital library work affect current digital library work.

  11. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  12. Library news

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has been providing electronic access to the "Techniques de l'Ingénieur" database for the past 8 months. As a reminder, this is a multidisciplinary database of over 4000 technical and scientific articles in French, covering a broad range of topics such as mechanical engineering, safety, electronics and the environment. In a few simple steps, you can create your own account, select the types of documents you are interested in and configure your settings so as to receive alerts when articles in your field of activity are published. You can now access this resource from outside CERN using the "remote access to electronic resources" service. Further information is available here. Direct access to the database. Remote access to electronic resources. If you have any questions or comments, don't hesitate to contact us at: library.desk@cern.ch.

  13. InfoGallery: Informative Arts Services for Physical Library Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Rohde, Anne; Sundararajah, Balasuthas;

    2006-01-01

    Much focus in digital libraries research has been devoted to new online services rather than services for the visitors in the physical library. This paper describes InfoGallery, which is a web-based infrastructure for enriching the physical library space with informative art "exhibitions......" of digital library material and other relevant information, such as RSS news streams, event announcements etc. InfoGallery presents information in an aesthetically attractive manner on a variety of surfaces in the library, including cylindrical displays and floors. The infrastructure consists of a server...

  14. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  15. Enhanced Catalogue Records Positively Impact Circulation but Are Not Used to Their Potential in Patron Searching. A Review of: Tosaka, Y., & Weng, C. (2011. Reexamining content-enriched access: Its effect on usage and discovery. College & Research Libraries, 72(5, 412-427.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine how contentenrichedcatalogue records impact thecirculation rates of print resources in foursubject areas, and to investigate how thisadditional metadata influences OPACsearching and item retrieval.Design – Analysis of circulation data,bibliographic records, and OPAC search logs.Setting – A library at a four-yearundergraduate residential college in theNorth-eastern United States.Subjects – Bibliographic records for 88,538titles; data from 7,782 circulation transactions;and 130 OPAC search strings and relatedcirculation data.Methods – In the first part of the study,bibliographic records for print items publishedsince 1990 were extracted from the library’sintegrated library system (ILS in the followingLibrary of Congress (LC classes: D, E, F, H, J,L, P, Q, R, S, and T. It is assumed thatelectronic books were excluded from thisstudy because their usage is not tracked in theILS. These LC classes were chosen tocorrespond to the subject areas targeted by theresearchers for comparison – “history, socialsciences, language and literature, and scienceand technology” (p. 416. The data fileincluded the publication date of the title, aswell as values for the MARC fields identified by the researchers as containing content-enriched data. These fields were MARC 505 (an item’s table of contents or list of works included, MARC 520 (summaries or annotations, and MARC 856 (URL to electronic location of related material or electronic copy (p. 416; Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office, 2003, 2008a, 2008b. The authors analyzed records for 88,538 titles and determined the total number of records containing each of the MARC fields either singly or in combination.Data relating to circulation transactions for items located in these LC classes from January to May 2009 was also identified. Like the bibliographic records, circulation data was pulled for print items only. The researchers identified 7

  16. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  17. Uranium enrichment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Libraries for users services in academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Alvite, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews the quality and evolution of academic library services. It revises service trends offered by academic libraries and the challenge of enhancing traditional ones such as: catalogues, repositories and digital collections, learning resources centres, virtual reference services, information literacy and 2.0 tools.studies the role of the university library in the new educational environment of higher educationrethinks libraries in academic contextredefines roles for academic libraries

  19. Enriched coalgebraic modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    We formalise the notion of enriched coalgebraic modal logic, and determine conditions on the category V (over which we enrich), that allow an enriched logical connection to be extended to a framework for enriched coalgebraic modal logic. Our framework uses V-functors L: A ? A and T: X ? X, where L determines the modalities of the resulting modal logics, and T determines the coalgebras that provide the semantics. We introduce the V-category Mod(A, ?) of models for an L-algebra (A, ?), and ...

  20. Cell Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  1. Enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihu; Zeng, Raymond J; Burow, Luke C; Lant, Paul; Keller, Jurg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2009-10-01

    The microorganisms responsible for anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to denitrification have not been clearly elucidated. Three recent publications suggested it can be achieved by a denitrifying bacterium with or without the involvement of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. A key factor limiting the progress in this research field is the shortage of enrichment cultures performing denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO). In this study, DAMO cultures were enriched from mixed inoculum including sediment from a freshwater lake, anaerobic digester sludge and return activated sludge from a sewage treatment plant. Two reactors, operated at 35°C and at 22°C, respectively, showed simultaneous methane oxidation and nitrate reduction after several months of operation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from the 35°C enrichment showed the presence of an archaeon closely related to other DAMO archaea and a dominated bacterium belonging to the yet uncultivated NC10 phylum. This culture preferred nitrite to nitrate as the electron acceptor. The present study suggests that the archaea are rather methanotrophs than methanogens. The highest denitrification rate achieved was 2.35 mmol NO3 (-) -N gVSS(-1)  day(-1) . The culture enriched at 22°C contained the same NC10 bacterium observed in the culture enriched at 35°C but no archaea. PMID:23765890

  2. Library Services. Miscellaneous Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library journal cooperation, interlibrary lending, library services to minorities, and school library media centers, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The Co-operation between Editors of Library Journals in Socialist Countries," in which Wolfgang Korluss…

  3. Library Research and Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Brier, David J.; Lebbin, Vickery K.; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Kremen, Maya L.; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides nine articles: research on libraries and librarianship, 1997; changing faces of library education (ALA-accredited graduate program title changes); number of libraries in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico; highlights of NCES surveys; library acquisition expenditures; price indexes for public and academic libraries; state rankings of selected…

  4. Marketing the Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  5. Uranium enrichment. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment industry is a more than 60 years old history and has developed without practically no cost, efficiency or profit constraints. However, remarkable improvements have been accomplished since the Second World War and have led to the development of various competing processes which reflect the diversity of uranium compositions and of uranium needs. Content: 1 - general considerations: uranium isotopes, problem of uranium enrichment, first realizations (USA, Russia, Europe, Asia, other countries), present day situation, future needs and market evolution; 2 - principles of isotopic separation: processes classification (high or low enrichment), low elementary enrichment processes, equilibrium time, cascade star-up and monitoring, multi-isotopes case, uranium reprocessing; 3 - enrichment and proliferation. (J.S.)

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  7. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experiments...

  8. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  9. Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent Towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zeniou

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells reside in hypoxic and slightly acidic tumor niches. Such microenvironments favor more aggressive undifferentiated phenotypes and a slow growing "quiescent state" which preserves them from chemotherapeutic agents that essentially target proliferating cells. Our objective was to identify compounds active on glioblastoma stem-like cells, including under conditions that mimick those found in vivo within this most severe and incurable form of brain malignancy. We screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing "quiescent" phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. Compound effects were assessed by ATP-level determination using a cell-based assay. Twenty active molecules belonging to different pharmacological classes have thus been identified. Among those, the stimulant laxative drug bisacodyl was the sole to inhibit in a potent and specific manner the survival of quiescent glioblastoma stem-like cells. Subsequent structure-function relationship studies led to identification of 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl-2-pyridyl-methane (DDPM, the deacetylated form of bisacodyl, as the pharmacophore. To our knowledge, bisacodyl is currently the only known compound targeting glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells in their quiescent, more resistant state. Due to its known non-toxicity in humans, bisacodyl appears as a new potential anti-tumor agent that may, in association with classical chemotherapeutic compounds, participate in tumor eradication.

  10. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  11. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  12. Multigroup cross section library; WIMS library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WIMS library has been extensively used in thermal reactor calculations. This multigroup constants library was originally developed from the UKNDL in the late 60's and has been updated in 1986. This library has been distributed with the WIMS-D code by NEA data bank. The references to WIMS library in literature are the 'old' which is the original as developed by the AEA Winfrith and the 'new' which is the current 1986 WIMS library. IAEA has organised a CRP where a new and fully updated WIMS library will soon be available. This paper gives an overview of the definitions of the group constants that go into any basic nuclear data library used for reactor calculations. This paper also outlines the contents of the WIMS library and some of its shortcomings

  13. Enriching e-learning metadata through digital library usage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran Ferrer, Núria; Casadesús Brugués, Jaume; Krakowska, Monika; Minguillón Alfonso, Julià

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we propose an evaluation framework for analyzing learning objects usage, with the aim of extracting useful information for improving the quality of the metadata used to describe the learning objects, but also for personalization purposes, including user models and adaptive itineraries. Methodology: We present experimental results from the log usage analysis during one academic semester of two different subjects, 350 students. The experiment looks into raw server l...

  14. The Library of Virginia's Digital Library Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Elizabeth; Taylor, Jean Marie; Byrd, Sam; Courson, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    Describes The Library of Virginia's Digital Library Project that has made many of its state library collections available via the Internet and World Wide Web. Highlights include digitization decisions; the HTML Web gateway; the online catalog; microfilm digitization; users and use statistics; and future projects. (LRW)

  15. Uranium conversion and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the Atomic Energy Corporation's uranium conversion and enrichment plants at Valinda ba, including a brief discussion of problems encountered and plans for future developments. (author)

  16. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available data on low-enriched (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance and fuel particle chemical performande. (orig.)

  17. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available data on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance, and fuel particle chemical performance

  18. Revisions of the Category of "TP Automation Technology and Computer Technology" and the Category of "TQ Chemical Industry" in Chinese Library Classification (Minors' Library Edition)%《中国图书馆分类法(未成年人图书馆版)》“TP自动化技术、计算机技术”和“TQ化学工业”类目的修订

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨

    2012-01-01

    In order to adapt to the requirement for time development and the meet the demand of literature classification in minors' libraries,the revision of Chinese Library Classification(minors' library edition) is imminent.Through analyzing the revision background,principle,method and content of Chinese Library Classification(minors' library edition),Shenyang City Children's Library has summarized the revision work of the category of ''TP automation technology and computer technology'' and the category of ''TQ chemical industry'' as following aspects,such as modifying categories and class notes,extracting the seeing and classification indication notes,modifying indexing methods and rules,in order to better serve minors' readers.%为了适应时代发展的要求、满足未成年人图书馆文献分类的需要,《中国图书馆分类法(未成年人图书馆版)》的修订工作迫在眉睫。沈阳市少年儿童图书馆通过分析《中国图书馆分类法(未成年人图书馆版)》修订的背景、原则、方法和内容,将"TP自动化技术、计算机技术"和"TQ化学工业"类目修订工作归纳为修改类目及类目注释、提取参见与分类指示注释、修改标引方法与规则3个方面,以更好地服务于广大未成年人读者。

  19. Development and application of characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy in the library of Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (BRICEM) is a multi disciplinary comprehensive research institute engaged in uranium mining, engineering design and related material researches. After 53 years of researches and development, BRICEM has accumulated a plenty of valuable data and resources. By analyzing the actual conditions of BRICEM's technological database, this thesis aims to propose the idea of building a characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy. It gives an in-depth analysis on content design, development status and problems of database development, in order to come up with solutions to these problems, as well as suggestions on the future development plans of the characteristic database. (author)

  20. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brisson, Marcia [DOE-IN; Curry, Michael [DEPT. OF STATE

    2011-02-17

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  1. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  2. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Rasmussen, Simon; Michaux, Johan; Ishida, Yasuko; Morand, Serge; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2014-01-01

    Solution hybridization capture methods utilize biotinylated oligonucleotides as baits to enrich homologous sequences from next generation sequencing (NGS) libraries. Coupled with NGS, the method generates kilo to gigabases of high confidence consensus targeted sequence. However, in many experiments, a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library ...

  3. Label-Free Proteomics Assisted by Affinity Enrichment for Elucidating the Chemical Reactivity of the Liver Mitochondrial Proteome toward Adduction by the Lipid Electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Maier, Claudia S.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of oxidative stress-induced post-translational modifications remains challenging due to the chemical diversity of these modifications, the possibility of the presence of positional isomers and the low stoichiometry of the modified proteins present in a cell or tissue proteome. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a multifactorial disease in which mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been identified as being critically involved in the progression of the disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Ethanol metabolism leads to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation. Posttranslational modification of proteins by electrophilic products of lipid peroxidation has been associated with governing redox-associated signaling mechanisms, but also as contributing to protein dysfunction leading to organelle and liver injury. In particular the prototypical α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), has been extensively studied as marker of increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. In this study, we combined a LC-MS label-free quantification method and affinity enrichment to assess the dose-dependent insult by HNE on the proteome of rat liver mitochondria. We used a carbonyl-selective probe, the ARP probe, to label HNE-protein adducts and to perform affinity capture at the protein level. Using LC-MS to obtain protein abundance estimates, a list of protein targets was obtained with increasing concentration of HNE used in the exposure studies. In parallel, we performed affinity capture at the peptide level to acquire site-specific information. Examining the concentration-dependence of the protein modifications, we observed distinct reactivity profiles for HNE-protein adduction. Pathway analysis indicated that proteins associated with metabolic processes, including amino acid, fatty acid, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, bile acid synthesis and TCA cycle, showed enhanced reactivity to HNE

  4. Label-free proteomics assisted by affinity enrichment for elucidating the chemical reactivity of the liver mitochondrial proteome toward adduction by the lipid electrophile 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of oxidative stress-induced post-translational modifications remains challenging due to the chemical diversity of these modifications, the possibility of the presence of positional isomers and the low stoichiometry of the modified proteins present in a cell or tissue proteome. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a multifactorial disease in which mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been identified as being critically involved in the progression of the disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Ethanol metabolism leads to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation. Posttranslational modification of proteins by electrophilic products of lipid peroxidation has been associated with governing redox-associated signaling mechanisms, but also as contributing to protein dysfunction leading to organelle and liver injury. In particular the prototypical α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), has been extensively studied as marker of increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. In this study, we combined a LC-MS label-free quantification method and affinity enrichment to assess the dose-dependent insult by HNE on the proteome of rat liver mitochondria. We used a carbonyl-selective probe, the ARP probe, to label HNE-protein adducts and to perform affinity capture at the protein level. Using LC-MS to obtain protein abundance estimates, a list of protein targets was obtained with increasing concentration of HNE used in the exposure studies. In parallel, we performed affinity capture at the peptide level to acquire site-specific information. Examining the concentration-dependence of the protein modifications, we observed distinct reactivity profiles for HNE-protein adduction. Pathway analysis indicated that proteins associated with metabolic processes, including amino acid, fatty acid and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, bile acid synthesis and TCA cycle, showed enhanced reactivity to HNE

  5. The Library Building Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of the library of tomorrow speculates about the impact of changes in the functions of government, technology, demographics, lifestyle, and values on the role of the library. A facility for the contemporary public library is described that can both accommodate traditional services and respond to changes in the library's role. (17…

  6. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  7. The library marketing toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    A guide that offers coverage of various elements of library marketing and branding for different sectors including archives and academic, public and special libraries. It is suitable for those who are involved in promoting their library or information service, whether at an academic, public or special library or in archives or records management.

  8. The New Library Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses what the growing generation gap among library employees mean for academic research libraries and for the profession. Viewed collectively, the members of the under-35 cohort are a harbinger of a new kind of academic library professional, one whose traits bear directly on the ability of libraries to thrive amid the continuing…

  9. Economics of Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumol, William J.; Marcus, Matityahu

    An analysis is conducted of economic issues pertinent to library planning in higher education in the face of rising costs and diminishing financial support. The individual chapters deal with: 1) growth rates in large university libraries; 2) library costs in colleges and universities; 3) cost trends and long-range plans; 4) library data; and 5) a…

  10. Extended Library Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Devarai, Rajashekhar S.; Devarai, Kanyakumari S.

    1997-01-01

    Extension of library hours is useful both for public & LIS professional. Five laws, need for extended hours, problems of extended library hours, implication of extended library hours. ROCLOLIB are the related topics covered in the paper to highlight the importance of extended library hours.

  11. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  12. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.;

    . The main objective of this study was to explore the possibilities of using marine PL for food enrichment. In order to achieve the objective, the study was divided into 4 stages: i) evaluation of physico-chemical properties of marine PL emulsions, ii) evaluation of hydrolytic and oxidative stability of...... the interaction between lipid oxidation products with amine group either from phosphatidylethanolamine or residues of amino acids/proteins in marine PL. The study on enrichment of yoghurt with marine PL showed that the oxidative stability and sensory acceptability was highly dependent on the quality...

  13. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  14. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  15. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  16. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  17. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  18. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  19. Transforming the academic library for the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.STRONG

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:To meet the changing needs of academic and specialized users,university and research libraries are transforming their collections,staff,and services.At the UCLA Library,four principles underlie changes that have been made to support teaching,learning,and research by UCLA students,faculty,researchers,and staff.Efforts have focused on building and enhancing research collections,enriching the student experience through expanded teaching and learning services,transforming the Library’s role to support the entire research process,and re-conceptualizing the physical and virtual spaces of the Library to create an expansive and flexible scholarly environment.To support and inform these efforts,the Library is building a robust research agenda and deepening opportunities for faculty engagement.These changes challenge the traditional model of library staffing,and the Library has responded by identifying new areas in which leadership is needed and new recruitment tracks for academic appointments.Implementing such a transformative process has many stakeholders and requires broad input,discussion,and committed engagement to ensure its success.Design/methodology/approach:The UCLA Library has developed its strategic planning process over several years building on broad constituent input,unit and individual work plans,and constituent feedback.The process is high level as well as operational in nature and draws on basic metrics to motivate change.Findings:The four principles of the transition have been sustained over a period of years.Implications and limitations:This article is the personal observation of the author drawing on his own leadership experience and informed by the senior management and staff of the UCLA Library.Originality/value:The process and direction of this transition are focused on the UCLA Library and its role in the UCLA academy.

  20. Uranium enrichment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three gaseous diffusion plants comprise one of the largest industrial complexes in the free world. Since all of the enrichment is done inside a very large plumbing maze, the control of radioactivity does not present a serious problem. Conventional, nonexotic engineering and administrative measures adequately control the minor levels of radioactivity associated with support activities such as equipment decontamination and maintenance. The treatment and control of chemical waste streams to comply with Federal and state regulations has required the commitment of 47 million dollars since 1974. Through 1982, an additional 84 million dollars may be required. The high cost is not a reflection of initially poor conditions but is rather the result of providing large treatment systems to meet very low discharge limits. Examples that will be discussed include airborne particulate removal, recirculating cooling water treatment, and hazardous waste disposal concepts

  1. Enriching Number Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  2. Everyone Vegetarian, World Enriching

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    This essay advocates global vegetarian diet. Firstly, seven personal health benefits and four global benefits of vegetarian dinners are specified to enrich the entire globe, and then, secondly, I explore concretely how to overcome internal hurdle and external hurdle, so as to effectively propagate vegetarian dinners throughout the world. Everyone wins, including animals!

  3. Methodology for content enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederbragt, H.; Heerlien, M.

    2010-01-01

    The STERNA project mainly focuses on enrichment of existing content of content holding organisations in the natural history domain. Therefore, developing a methodology on how to best integrate one’s content into the STERNA information space is an essential part of the project. This document is the o

  4. Designing job enrichment projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clakeley, G L

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for a job satisfaction program utilized in a large occupational therapy department. The goal of the program is to retain satisfied, productive employees and reduce attrition of therapists and assistants. The use of job enrichment projects for occupational therapy assistants will be presented with brief descriptions of two projects. PMID:23944880

  5. Job Enrichment in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Louis S.; Jones, Jo

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 participants in Ohio State University's job enrichment program for midcareer extension agents found that 5 returned to their same jobs after the experience but only 2 felt challenged/renewed. Part-time participation while working made it difficult to balance responsibilities. More information and a structured orientation were…

  6. Digital libraries and multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Bhargava, Bharat

    2007-01-01

    Guest Editorial: Digital Libraries and Multimedia; B. Bhargava. Tune Retrieval in the Multimedia Library; R.J. McNab, et al. QoS Management in Educational Digital Library Environments; A. Zhang, S. Gollapudi. An Efficient Periodic Broadcast Technique for Digital Video Libraries; K.A. Hua, S. Sheu. Two Emerging Serial Storage Interfaces for Supporting Digital Libraries: Serial Storage Architecture (SSA) and Fiber Channel-Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL); D.H.C. Du, et al. A Communication Framework for Digital Libraries; B. Bhargava, M. Annamalai.

  7. Caracterização físico-química de creme vegetal enriquecido com ésteres de fitosteróis Physico-chemical characterization of a phytosterol ester enriched margarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    added to special margarines, which are commercially available as functional foods with the ability to reduce both total and LDL cholesterol levels. As part of a healthy diet, this type of product has been scientifically proven to lower blood LDL cholesterol by around 10-15%, which implies a dramatic lowering in coronary heart disease risk by 25%. Current literature on this field provides a great amount of information on the effects of phytosterols/phytostanols in cholesterol lowering and attempts to explain their metabolism in human body, but researches on their physical and chemical properties and their application in food products are limited in the food technology area. The objective of this study is to characterize a phytosterol ester enriched margarine and to compare their physical behavior to common margarines commercially available. Fatty acid and sterol compositions were determined by gas-liquid cromatography and a constant speed texture analyser was used to evaluate the texture profiles of the samples. The phytosterol ester-enriched margarine contains 49.3% of moisture, 49.6% of lipids and 1.1% of solids. ß-Sitosterol is the most abundant sterol, totalizing 36.1%. Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6 is the fatty acid that is present in the greatest amount and corresponds to 45.3% of total fatty acid composition. In general, texture properties of the fat base and its respective spread presented a significant linear correlation. Although harder than common margarines commercially available, margarine with phytosterol esters presents good spread ability in the range of temperature between room and refrigeration and is more resistant to higher temperatures than common margarines. In general, the phytosterol esters presented melting and crystallization behavior quite different from other edible fats and oils.

  8. Promotion of uranium enrichment business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Committee on Nuclear Power has studied on the basic nuclear power policy, establishing its five subcommittees, entrusted by the Ministry of Nternational Trade and Industry. The results of examination by the subcommittee on uranium enrichment business are given along with a report in this connection by the Committee. In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle, the aspect of uranium enrichment is essential. The uranium enrichment by centrifugal process has proceeded steadily in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The following matters are described: the need for domestic uranium enrichment, the outlook for overseas enrichment services and the schedule for establishing domestic enrichment business, the current state of technology development, the position of the prototype enrichment plant, the course to be taken to establish enrichment business the main organization operating the prototype and commercial plants, the system of supplying centrifuges, the domestic conversion of natural uranium the subsidies for uranium enrichment business. (J.P.N.)

  9. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  10. Integrated library systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-01-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

  11. Medical Library Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11th, 2016 Patricia Flatley Brennan, registered nurse, informatician, industrial engineer, and renowned researcher is appointed as Director of the National Library of Medicine Tweets Copyright © 2016 Medical Library Association. ...

  12. Libraries - LIBRARIES_ISL_IN: Libraries in Indiana (Indiana State Library, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LIBRARIES_ISL_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 528 libraries included in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that are downloadable from the Web page named...

  13. Facility Focus: Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the designs of the Ferris State University Library for Information, Technology and Education (FLITE), and the Meyer Library and Information Technology Center at Southwest Missouri State University. Includes photographs. (EV)

  14. NIAID Biodefense Image Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Image Library These high-resolution (300 dpi) images may be ... for Disease Control and Prevention public health image library . Smallpox Vaccination Study-1 Smallpox vaccination dilution study: ...

  15. 'Digital Library: A New Concept of Library

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh A. Hadi A. Bari

    2012-01-01

    This article throws light on introduction of Digital Library, Definition of Digital Library, Need, Objective, Function, Concept; Advantages & Disadvantages of Digital Library and it also describe components of Digital Library.

  16. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  17. Library staff development course.

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, E K

    1981-01-01

    The Moody Medical Library at the University of Texas Medical Branch plans, presents, and evaluates regularly a staff development program for its employees, including librarians and clerical and technical staff. The program's purpose is to provide continuing education for the library staff while concurrently: (1) providing information concerning specific library services and programs; (2) illustrating the interrelationship of the departments and divisions within the library; (3) developing a s...

  18. FENDL multigroup libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected neutron reaction nuclear data libraries and photon-atomic interaction cross section libraries for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into MATXSR format using the NJOY system on the VAX4000 computer of the IAEA. This document lists the resulting multigroup data libraries. All the multigroup data generated are available cost-free upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 9 refs

  19. Library planning in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Geisselmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The position and the efficiency of German libraries are rather ambivalent. On the one hand the infrastructure is quite well developed: 2000 public library systems with full time personnel, 275 million books issued, 75 million Euro for acquisitions; 280 scientific general libraries, 60 million books issued, 1300 million Euro for acquisitions. Nevertheless there are a lot of problems, which arise from the administrative structure and the political position of libraries.

  20. Enrichment Strategies in Phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the phosphoproteome is heavily dependent on appropriate enrichment strategies that are most often, but not exclusively, carried out on the peptide level. In this chapter, I give an overview of the most widely used techniques. In addition to dedicated antibodies, phosphopeptides are enriched by their selective interaction with metals in the form of chelated metal ions or metal oxides. The negative charge of the phosphate group is also exploited in a variety of chromatographic fractionation methods that include different types of ion exchange chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), and electrostatic repulsion HILIC (ERLIC) chromatography. Selected examples from the literature will demonstrate how a combination of these techniques with current high-performance mass spectrometry enables the identification of thousands of phosphorylation sites from various sample types. PMID:26584921

  1. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  2. PAL: Positional Astronomy Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The PAL library is a partial re-implementation of Pat Wallace's popular SLALIB library written in C using a Gnu GPL license and layered on top of the IAU's SOFA library (or the BSD-licensed ERFA) where appropriate. PAL attempts to stick to the SLA C API where possible.

  3. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  4. Public Libraries Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  5. Supervision in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.

    Although the literature of library administration draws extensively on that of business management, it is difficult to compare library supervision to business or industrial supervision. Library supervisors often do not have managerial training and may consider their management role as secondary. The educational level of the staff they supervise…

  6. Learning Boost C++ libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    If you are a C++ programmer who has never used Boost libraries before, this book will get you up-to-speed with using them. Whether you are developing new C++ software or maintaining existing code written using Boost libraries, this hands-on introduction will help you decide on the right library and techniques to solve your practical programming problems.

  7. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in society that have resulted from information and communication technologies focuses on changes in libraries and a new market for library services with new styles of clients. Highlights client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. (Author/LRW)

  8. Digital library conformance checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Seamus; CASTELLI, Donatella; Ioannidis, Yannis; Vullo, Giuseppina; Innocenti, Perla; Candela, Leonardo; Nika, Ana; El Raheb, Katerina; Katifori, Akrivi

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is abstracted and abridged from "The Digital Library Reference Model"- D3.2 DL.org Project Deliverable. The check list is designed to verify whether or not a digital library conforms to the Digital Library Reference Model.

  9. Staffing the College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bruce

    1973-01-01

    College libraries use a variety of methods to identify and select professional library personnel. 70 libraries responded to a questionnaire about their methods and the results are presented. The effectiveness of advertisements, employment services, testing and reference checks are among the topics discussed. (DH)

  10. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  11. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  12. Spanish Museum Libraries Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Prado, Rosario

    This paper describes the creation of an automated network of museum libraries in Spain. The only way in which the specialized libraries in the world today can continue to be active and to offer valid information is to automate the service they offer, and create network libraries with cooperative plans. The network can be configured with different…

  13. What is Enrichment For (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Matsangos, P.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been held that schooling, the curriculum (hidden or otherwise), and the pedagogical practices pertaining to them are the perpetrators of social and economic inequalities in Western society. My interest surrounds the role of ‘enrichment’, as an auxiliary of education, in perpetuating or restricting social justice. As the enrichment coordinator within an inner city Sixth Form college, it became part of my remit to research the dispositions held by our largely underprivileged student...

  14. Enrichment marketplace - today (and tomorrow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies and capacities of the four primary sources of enrichment services, the United States Department of Energy, Eurodif, Techsnabexport of the Soviet Union, and Urenco, were given. Forecasts of future capacities and prices of enriched uranium were also included

  15. Development of library documents in BRICEM on network-based environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of the internet, the transformation from a traditional library to a modem one is essential to the development of BRICEM (Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy) Technology Library and the situations of other libraries, this thesis integrates the reality of BRICEM and its library in an effort to work out a tentative plan, as well as concrete measures and procedures of digitalising and online-sharing the resources of BRICEM Technology Library. (author)

  16. Validating MCNP5 libraries and tracking the reason for differences between libraries in criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to validate MCNP5 libraries by simulating 4 detailed benchmark experiments and comparing MCNP5 results (each library) with the experimental results and also the previously validated codes for the same experiments MORET 4.A coupled with APOLLO2 (France), and MONK8 (UK). The reasons for difference between libraries are also investigated in this work. Investigating the reason for the differences between libraries will be done by specifying a different library for specific part (clad, fuel, light water) and checking the result deviation than the previously calculated result (with all parts of the same library). The investigated benchmark experiments are of single fuel rods arrays that are water-moderated and water-reflected. Rods contained low-enriched (4.738 wt.% 92235U)uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel were clad with aluminum alloy AGS. These experiments were subcritical approaches extrapolated to critical, with the multiplication factor reached being very close to 1.000 (within 0.1%); the subcritical approach parameter was the water level. The studied four cases differ from each other in pitch, number of fuel rods and of course critical height of water. The results show that although library ENDF/B-IV lacks light water treatment card, however its results can be reliable as light water treatment library does not have significant differences from library to another, so it will not be necessary to specify light water treatment card. The main reason for differences between ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI is light water material, especially the Hydrogen element. Specifying the library of Uranium is necessary in case of using library ENDF/B-IV. On the other hand it is not necessary to specify library of cladding material whatever the used library. Validated libraries are ENDF/BIV, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI with codes in MCNP 42C, 50C and 60C respectively. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  17. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  18. Teleporting the library?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, six Danish public libraries established a virtual library, Info Island DK, in Second Life. This article discusses the library project in terms of design. The design processes include the planning and implementation of the virtual library structure and its equipment, as well as the...... organizing and carrying out of activities in the virtual setting. It will be argued that, to a large extent, conventions have determined design and use of the virtual library, and also that design has had an impact on the attitudes and understanding of the participants....

  19. Future Libraries: Dreams, Madness, & Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Walt; Gorman, Michael

    Policymakers and library administrators are being drawn to the idea of the "virtual library" and the "library without walls," the webs of electronic resources that supposedly will displace books, physical libraries, and most library staff, and are believing the virtual library to be imminent, adequate, and cost-effective. This book describes the…

  20. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  1. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    For millennia the famous library in Hellenistic Alexandria has been praised as an epicenter of enlightenment and wisdom. And yet, a question still seems unanswered: how was its literature classified and retrieved? It is a subject that has been given surprisingly little attention by Library- and...... Information Science – indeed, by scholarship in general. Furthermore, a certain way of thinking has influenced the few answers that have so far been attempted. It is as if the scholars of our era have tried to identify the modern, physical library in the Hellenistic library in Alexandria. But such an approach...... is biased in a basic way: It simply does not consider the impact of the cultural and intellectual context of the library. This article differs fundamentally, and rejects that the library was like modern ones. Accordingly, an entirely new way of understanding how the library actually worked, in terms...

  2. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  3. A Century of Change: The Evolution of School Library Resources, 1915-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Annette

    2015-01-01

    School libraries have been in existence since at least the eighth century. However, it wasn't until the twentieth century that the school library was seen primarily as "a source of enrichment for the curriculum, and a means of developing reading and study habits in the pupils" (Clyde 1981, 263). While the formats available and tools for…

  4. Uranium enrichment in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurodif's uranium enrichment plant in France will undoubtedly remain reliable, flexible and competitive for at least the next twenty years. Its replacement is nevertheless already under study and evaluation by Cogema, the main shareholder, since the investment decisions about the technology chosen for the substitution of the gaseous process diffusion will have to be made in near future. Supporting the efforts of the nuclear utilities to keep the nuclear power option viable and competitive, Cogema presently focuses on the development of laser processes, designed to attractively offer fully loaded costs, i.e. including the returns on investment, not much higher than the variable production costs of today. (orig.)

  5. Enriching recycled uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the progress of the use of recycled uranium during the period 1985-8. This article was originally presented as a paper at the 1988 Uranium Institute symposium (which was held in London). A description is given of the differences between natural and recycled uranium, and the presence of U236 in recycled uranium. The concept of equivalent reactivity is described, as well as the cost benefit of using recycled uranium. A summary of Urenco tests and trials with reprocessed uranium is given. Enrichment, UF6 conversion and fuel fabrication are also discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Clogging the enrichment bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue that has come to be known as the bypass is the latest dispute in the continuing saga of uranium trade between the United States and the Commonwealth of Indepenent States. Bypass deals now being conducted by US utilities have drawn heavy criticism from the US Department of Commerce but are perfectly legal under the terms of the Suspension Agreements. Urged on by the United States Enrichment Corporation, the US DOC intends to stop, or at least severely restrict, bypass deals. Using a recent agreement with Kazakhstan as a case study, this article reviews the implications of such bypass deals

  7. Assessing Library Automation and Virtual Library Development in Four Academic Libraries in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the level of library automation and virtual library development in four academic libraries. A validated questionnaire was used to capture the responses from academic librarians of the libraries under study. The paper discovers that none of the four academic libraries is fully automated. The libraries make use of librarians with…

  8. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. LIBRARY SURVEY 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The primary role of the library is to make sure that you can do YOUR work in the most efficient way possible. To ensure that we continue to match our services to your information needs, the library regularly gathers the views and opinions of its readers in a variety of ways, [link for e-version: http://library/library_general/statistics/library_statistics_ surveys.html], including user surveys. The last survey was carried out in 1996. One of the most visible results of that survey was the extension of the library desk service until seven o'clock in the evening, to meet the demand for greater access to library materials. Now the 'electronic library' is becoming more important than the physical one, we feel it is once again time to ensure that we are providing the services and information you need, in the most effective way possible. We also want to make sure you are aware of the full range of services that the library provides. Please spare just a few minutes to fill out our survey at http://library.cern.ch/su...

  10. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Library to be merged with the Central Library. Not everyone knows that CERN Scientific Information Service currently counts three physical libraries on site. The Central Library is located in Building 52 and there are two satellite libraries located respectively in building 30 (the LHC Library) and in building 864 on Prévessin site (the SPS Library). Moreover, the Legal Service Library is located in Building 60. In the past, there have been at CERN up to 6 satellite libraries; they were essential at a time when information was only in paper form and having multiple copies of documents located in several places at CERN was useful to facilitate scientific research. Today, this need is less critical as most of our resources are online. That is why, following a SIPB (Scientific Information Policy Board) decision, the collections of the LHC Library will be merged this summer with the Central collection. This reorganization and centralization of resources will improve loan services. The SP...

  11. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  12. The Library International Partnerweek 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presentation at the Library International Partnerweek, held at Copenhagen Technical Library at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering. Participant: Ms. Carmen Priesto Estravid from Madrid Technical University, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Library. Spain Ms.Tuulikki Hattunen from TUAS Library....... Finland Ms. Anitta Ôrm from Kemi-Tornio UAS Library. Finland Mr. Manfred Walter from HTW-Berlin. Germany Mr. Peter Hald from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark Mr. Ole Micahelsen from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark...

  13. Digital Libraries: Contents & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim, Mohammad; Saraf, Sanjiv

    2005-01-01

    Explains what a digital library is and how it is designed to support access to digital contents and services. In a broad sense a digital library is simply an on-line system providing access to a wide variety of contents and services. Contents include virtually any kind of electronic material such as various kinds of electronic media (text, images, video, etc.), licensed databases of journals, articles and abstracts and description of physical collections. Digital Libraries offer different typ...

  14. The CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Hester, Alec G

    1968-01-01

    Any advanced research centre needs a good Library. It can be regarded as a piece of equipment as vital as any machine. At the present time, the CERN Library is undergoing a number of modifications to adjust it to the changing scale of CERN's activities and to the ever increasing flood of information. This article, by A.G. Hester, former Editor of CERN COURIER who now works in the Scientific Information Service, describes the purposes, methods and future of the CERN Library.

  15. RBI Library New Web

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, RBI Library launched a new web pages. In 1994, the Library was the first library in Croatia to have web pages. They have changed many times over the years. The last version was in use for over 10 years. Work on the new web pages, from first ideas to launching in December 2011, lasted several years. New web uses Joomla! CMS, has a completely different structure and a lot of new features.

  16. KAERI photonuclear library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Young Ouk; Han, Yin Iu

    2000-03-01

    This report contains summary information and figures depicting the KAERI photonuclear data library that extends up to 140 MeV of incident photon. The library consists of 143 isotopes from C-12 to Bi-209, providing the photoabsorption cross section and the emission spectra for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, alpha particles, and all residual nuclides in ENDF6 format. The contents of this report and ENDF-6 format data library are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/.

  17. Gaming in the library

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This workshop will cover the uses of play, games and gamification in a library setting. Using examples such as Lemontree at the University of Huddersfield, non-digital games, particularly card games such as SEEK!, and play materials such as Lego and Playdough, we will show how these ideas can work in a practical library setting. Attendees will work hands on to consider how they can create and use play and games within their own library settings.

  18. Polymer-Enriched 3D Graphene Foams for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Xiong, Gordon Minru; Zhu, Minmin; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Castro Neto, Antonio Helio; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo

    2015-04-22

    Graphene foams (GFs) are versatile nanoplatforms for biomedical applications because of their excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, the brittleness and inflexibility of pristine GF (pGF) are some of the important factors restricting their widespread application. Here, a chemical-vapor-deposition-assisted method was used to synthesize 3D GFs, which were subsequently spin-coated with polymer to produce polymer-enriched 3D GFs with high conductivity and flexibility. Compared to pGF, both poly(vinylidene fluoride)-enriched GF (PVDF/GF) and polycaprolactone-enriched GF (PCL/GF) scaffolds showed improved flexibility and handleability. Despite the presence of the polymers, the polymer-enriched 3D GF scaffolds retained high levels of electrical conductivity because of the presence of microcracks that allowed for the flow of electrons through the material. In addition, polymer enrichment of GF led to an enhancement in the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) compounds when the scaffolds were exposed to simulated body fluid. Between the two polymers tested, PCL enrichment of GF resulted in a higher in vitro mineralization nucleation rate because the oxygen-containing functional group of PCL had a higher affinity for Ca-P deposition and formation compared to the polar carbon-fluorine (C-F) bond in PVDF. Taken together, our current findings are a stepping stone toward future applications of polymer-enriched 3D GFs in the treatment of bone defects as well as other biomedical applications. PMID:25822669

  19. Library and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Buluţă

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The psycho-social phenomena generated by mass-media and the new information and communication technologies at the level of the young generations have led to new communication practices that bypass libraries and revolutionized the intellectual labor practices, with texts being rather used than read. In this context, our article examines the need to increase the library's role in developing the quality of education and research and brings to attention a few possible solutions which include a partnership between various types of libraries and between librarians' associations and NGOs to facilitate education through library and safeguard reading.

  20. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  1. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  2. Mortality among uranium enrichment workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on workers at the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment facility in Pike County, Ohio, in response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Local 3-689 for information on long-term health effects. Primary hazards included inhalation exposure to uranyl fluoride containing uranium-235 and uranium-234, technetium-99 compounds, and hydrogen-fluoride. Uranium-238 presented a nephrotoxic hazard. Statistically significant mortality deficits based on U.S. death rates were found for all causes, accidents, violence, and diseases of nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. Standardized mortality rates were 85 and 54 for all malignant neoplasms and for other genitourinary diseases, respectively. Deaths from stomach cancer and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers were insignificantly increased. A subcohort selected for greatest potential uranium exposure has reduced deaths from these malignancies. Insignificantly increased stomach cancer mortality was found after 15 years employment and after 15 years latency. Routine urinalysis data suggested low internal uranium exposures

  3. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  4. Malta: The Library Scene and its Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    The cultural background of Malta is briefly analyzed as it relates to library service on the island. The library system includes public libraries, university libraries, religious libraries and special libraries. (39 references) (DH)

  5. New Library Buildings and Library Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Bille Larsen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Visits to libraries have always been an important part of the LIBER Architecture Group Seminars, as they add practice, concrete examples of success and mistakes to the theory of the seminar presentations. The programme of the Leipzig seminar thus offered quite a few library visits: Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, Thüringer Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, Jena, Universitäts- und Forschungsbibliothek Erfurt, Herzogin-Anna-Amalia-Bibliothek, Weimar, Universitätsbibliothek der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Deutsche Bücherei, Leipzig and Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staatsund Universitätsbibliothek, Dresden. The following is a short report about the libraries visited during the week. The reports are combined with quotations from the libraries’ presentation of their building projects and in some cases also with facts and figures.

  6. FCLib: The Feature Characterization Library.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Ann C.; Doyle, Wendy S. K.; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Ulmer, Craig D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

    2008-11-01

    The Feature Characterization Library (FCLib) is a software library that simplifies the process of interrogating, analyzing, and understanding complex data sets generated by finite element applications. This document provides an overview of the library, a description of both the design philosophy and implementation of the library, and examples of how the library can be utilized to extract understanding from raw datasets.

  7. An Leabharlann : The Irish Library

    OpenAIRE

    Sliney, Marjory

    2010-01-01

    Academic libraries in Challenging Times / John Cox; Public Libraries and the Recession / Liam Ronayne; Social Networks / Jane Burns; Poetry Promotion in Public libraries / Brian Hegarty & Clare Thornley; Conference Reports: Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Sciencw / Eva Hornung; LILAC 2010 / Aoife Geraghty; Books: Acquisitions; Information Policy; Academic Libraries; Marketing; Student Research Support; News from the Stacks; Obituary – Bob McKee

  8. Low enriched fuels for NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuels are under development for use in Canadian test reactors. These 20% enriched dispersion fuels are to replace the current 93% enriched uranium-aluminum alloy driver fuels. The reduced enrichment is intended to reduce the risk of illegal diversion for weapons proliferation. Developments in uranium silicide dispersion manufacturing technology have proven the production viability of the fuel. Success in the irradiation testing of the dispersion fuels in mini-element form has led to the irradiation of seven full-size fuel assemblies

  9. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  10. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  11. Digital library for patents

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Harish

    2002-01-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of digital library and it’s significance, various motivating factors for digital library application are also highlighted briefly. The uses of patents as a tool for protecting intellectual property rights (IPRs), major patents websites, literature on patents are discussed.

  12. Dumping the "Library."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an alternative to abandoning the word "library" for "information" in graduate education. Recommends patient, consistent effort by library- and information-science educators to convince academic librarians that if they accept the standards of the teaching/research faculty, including the need to earn a Ph.D., it will raise the prestige of…

  13. Small Public Library Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  14. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  15. Financing Public Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  16. The Undergraduate Library Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Rolland C.

    The development of undergraduate library collections is shown under two aspects: (1) the formation of the basic collection of the Undergraduate Library of the University of Michigan, and (2) the problems, practical and theoretial, encountered in the day-to-day effort to maintain the collection. The budget is the sire of all selection criteria.…

  17. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  18. Maintaining Precious Library Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Using the examples of libraries at Southeast Missouri State University and the University of North Texas, discusses the big-picture approach and extensive communication among all users necessary for library maintenance efforts. Addresses establishing a master plan, prioritizing projects, having the right staff, and communicating. (EV)

  19. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  20. Attribution of Library Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1977-01-01

    Universities conduct a variety of cost-allocation studies that require the collection and analysis of the library cost-data. Cost accounting methods are used in most studies; however, costs are attributed to library user groups in a variety of ways. Cost accounting studies are reviewed and allocation methods are discussed. (Author)

  1. University Libraries in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, James A.

    1986-01-01

    College and university libraries are experiencing change in the ways they provide services and in their responses to rising costs and reduced financial support. These conditions result from three major phenomena: the information explosion, the technology revolution, and escalating library costs. (MLW)

  2. Facility Focus: Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes four operating libraries located at Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, Emory University in Georgia, Kean College in New Jersey, and Community College of Philadelphia. Their size, cost, date completed, architect, and various features are provided. Despite technological advances, the college library is a feasible part of higher…

  3. Running the Library Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Jesonis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article draws a parallel between fatigued runners and overworked librarians, proposing that libraries need to pace work more effectively to avoid burnout. Through an exploration of cognitive science, organizational psychology, and practical examples, guest author Erica Jesonis offers considerations for improving productivity and reducing stress within our fast-paced library culture. I recently [...

  4. Libraries on the Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An NGO campaigns to help rural students find the joy of reading Tan Li joined the Gan Quan Library,a Trural library in Chengde,north China’s Hebei Province,after graduating from the Shanxi University of Finance and Economics in July.

  5. Libraries for Small Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda M.

    Presented are the very basic requirements for establishing a small special library operating under a limited budget. Physical plant organization, cataloging, book processing, circulation procedures, book selection and ordering and instructions for typists are covered. Although the practices discussed were established for a museum library, what is…

  6. Free Library Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Bérard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As library materials are catalogued by public organisations and librarians are active promoters of the principles of open access, one would expect library data to be freely available to all. Yet this is not the case. Why then do so few libraries make their data available free of charge? This article reviews the diverging, often restrictive policies and the interests (commercial and strategic at stake. It presents a panorama of the current situation, the actors and interests involved. It addresses the legal aspects and the obstacles and it shows how data produced by libraries can be made freely available to other knowledge organisations while retaining and developing the collective organisations and services built by library networks over the years. The aim of the ‘free the data movement’ is to share and reuse bibliographic data in a new ecosystem where all the actors are involved, both users and providers, not just librarians.

  7. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83library the largest homogeneous collection of stellar spectra covering the entire NIR domain. We also re-calibrated in flux and wavelength the two existing optical stellar libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  8. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  9. The moderization of the Leopard library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEOPARD library is updated and tested for typical PWR unit cells with enrichment ranging from 1.0 to 4.%(W/o) and H2O:U ratio varying from 1.0 to 10.0. A reasonably good agreement with experimental values for some spectral indices is obtained if the fission cross section of U-235 is reduced by .6% in the thermal range and by 20% in the epithermal range; the epithermal capture cross section for U-238 is increased by about 20% and the number of neutrons per fission in the thermal range of U-235 is increased by .8%. (Author)

  10. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account. PMID:27230477

  11. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  12. A Structure-Based Design Protocol for Optimizing Combinatorial Protein Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Mark W; Snow, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Protein variant libraries created via site-directed mutagenesis are a powerful approach to engineer improved proteins for numerous applications such as altering enzyme substrate specificity. Conventional libraries commonly use a brute force approach: saturation mutagenesis via degenerate codons that encode all 20 natural amino acids. In contrast, this chapter describes a protocol for designing "smarter" degenerate codon libraries via direct combinatorial optimization in "library space." Several case studies illustrate how it is possible to design degenerate codon libraries that are highly enriched for favorable, low-energy sequences as assessed using a standard all-atom scoring function. There is much to gain for experimental protein engineering laboratories willing to think beyond site saturation mutagenesis. In the common case that the exact experimental screening budget is not fixed, it is particularly helpful to perform a Pareto analysis to inspect favorable libraries at a range of possible library sizes. PMID:27094288

  13. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach

  14. Libraries Today, Libraries Tomorrow: Contemporary Library Practices and the Role of Library Space in the L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vogrinčič Čepič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The article uses sociological concepts in order to rethink the changes in library practices. Contemporary trends are discussed with regard to the changing nature of working habits, referring mostly to the new technology, and the (emergence of the third space phenomenon. The author does not regard libraries only as concrete public service institutions, but rather as complex cultural forms, taking in consideration wider social context with a stress on users’ practices in relation to space.Methodology/approach: The article is based on the (self- observation of the public library use, and on the (discourse analysis of internal library documents (i.e. annual reports and plans and secondary sociological literature. As such, the cultural form approach represents a classic method of sociology of culture.Results: The study of relevant material in combination with direct personal experiences reveals socio-structural causes for the change of users’ needs and habits, and points at the difficulty of spatial redefinition of libraries as well as at the power of the discourse.Research limitations: The article is limited to an observation of users’ practices in some of the public libraries in Ljubljana and examines only a small number of annual reports – the discoveries are then further debated from the sociological perspective.Originality/practical implications: The article offers sociological insight in the current issues of the library science and tries to suggest a wider explanation that could answer some of the challenges of the contemporary librarianship.

  15. Enhanced Catalogue Records Positively Impact Circulation but Are Not Used to Their Potential in Patron Searching. A Review of: Tosaka, Y., & Weng, C. (2011). Reexamining content-enriched access: Its effect on usage and discovery. College & Research Libraries, 72(5), 412-427.

    OpenAIRE

    Cari Merkley

    2012-01-01

    Objective – To determine how contentenrichedcatalogue records impact thecirculation rates of print resources in foursubject areas, and to investigate how thisadditional metadata influences OPACsearching and item retrieval.Design – Analysis of circulation data,bibliographic records, and OPAC search logs.Setting – A library at a four-yearundergraduate residential college in theNorth-eastern United States.Subjects – Bibliographic records for 88,538titles; data from 7,782 circulation transactions...

  16. Modelling the chemical evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hensler, Gerhard; Recchi, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Advanced observational facilities allow to trace back the chemical evolution of the Universe, on the one hand, from local objects of different ages and, secondly, by direct observations of redshifted objects. The chemical enrichment serves as one of the cornerstones of cosmological evolution. In order to understand this chemical evolution in morphologically different astrophysical objects models are constructed based on analytical descriptions or numerical methods. For the comparison of their...

  17. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  18. Gender, Technology, and Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is vitally important to many organizations, including libraries. Yet a review of employment statistics and a citation analysis show that men make up the majority of the IT workforce, in libraries and in the broader workforce. Research from sociology, psychology, and women’s studies highlights the organizational and social issues that inhibit women. Understanding why women are less evident in library IT positions will help inform measures to remedy the gender dispar...

  19. School library user studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Verlič

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of a questionnaire answered by Slovene primary and secondary school librarians is presented in the article. The purpose of the study was to determine if library user studies were being performed in our school libraries. It was confirmed that more studies had been conducted by school librarians with a completed higher level of education, by librarians with adequate (library and information sciences education and also by the librarians participating in life-long learning in their professional field than by other librarians. An important factor influencing increased user studies was also librarians’ membership in the Slovene librarian professional organization.

  20. Marketing the hospital library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations. PMID:15982957

  1. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  2. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  3. Technical status study of heavy water enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical status study of heavy water enrichment in Indonesia and also in the world has been done. Heavy water enrichment processes have been investigated were water distillation, hydrogen distillation, laser enrichment, electrolysis and isotop exchange. For the isotop exchange, the chemical pair can be used were water-hydrogen sulphite, ammonium-hydrogen, aminomethane-hydrogen, and water-hydrogen. For the isotope exchange, there was carried out by mono thermal or bi thermal. The highest producer of heavy water is Canada, and the other producer is USA, Norwegian and India. The processes be used in the world are isotope exchange Girdler Sulphide (GS), distillation and electrolysis. Research of heavy water carried out in Batan Yogyakarta, has a purpose to know the characteristic of heavy water purification. Several apparatus which has erected were 3 distillation column: Pyrex glass of 2 m tall, stainless steel column of 3 m tall and steel of 6 m tall. Electrolysis apparatus is 50 cell electrolysis and an isotope exchange unit which has catalyst: Ni- Cr2O3 and Pt-Carbon. These apparatus were not ready to operate. (author)

  4. Selected indicators of the range and use of printed resources in Polish academic libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Górny, Mirosław; Jazdon, Artur; Nowak, Piotr

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey rating the amount and degree of the utilisation of printed materials in Polish academic libraries. The results which are presented by type (for example chemical, biological, technical libraries etc.) as well as by function (research libraries and libraries of educational institutions), concern the number of materials, including both books and periodicals. The authors include the amount of material in English as well as in other foreign l...

  5. Automated Library Systems in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshon, Arnold

    Based on telephone interviews with 12 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries, this report presents the underlying reasons for the libraries' decisions relating to the design and implementation of automated library systems. The survey results are summarized, a list of respondents is provided, and profiles of present and planned…

  6. Croatian library leaders’ views on (their library quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Petr Balog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and describe the library culture in Croatian public libraries. Semi-structured interviews with 14 library directors (ten public and four academic were conducted. The tentative discussion topics were: definition of quality, responsibility for quality, satisfaction with library services, familiarization with user perspective of library and librarians, monitoring of user expectations and opinions. These interviews incorporate some of the findings of the project Evaluation of library and information services: public and academic libraries. The project investigates library culture in Croatian public and academic libraries and their preparedness for activities of performance measurement. The interviews reveal that library culture has changed positively in the past few years and that library leaders have positive attitude towards quality and evaluation activities. Library culture in Croatian libraries is a relatively new concept and as such was not actively developed and/or created. This article looks into the library culture of Croatian libraries, but at the same time investigates whether there is any trace of culture of assessment in them. Also, this article brings the latest update on views, opinions and atmosphere in Croatian public and academic libraries.

  7. Libraries in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura

    by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...... brought about by the boom of the internet and the advent of the post-modern globalised knowledge-based and network-organised society. Finally, the paper outlines how theoretical and strategic library development can benefit from academic considerations on the dialectics between openness and restrictedness...... and on the transformed meaning and significance of openness in the knowledge society. The paper concludes that openness is still of decisive importance to library development and policy and that it should be included in strategic considerations on library development....

  8. Marketing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  9. Working in the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Head Librarian Jens Vigen seeking information on the first discussions concerning the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the LEP Tunnel (1984), here assisted by two of the library apprentices, Barbara Veyre and Dina-Elisabeth Bimbu (seated).

  10. European Digital Mathematics Library

    OpenAIRE

    Rakosnik, Jiri; Pavlov, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to survey the European Digital Mathematics Library project goals and achievements as well as an outlook for sustainable development. “Making mathematics literature published in Europe available online” www.eudml.org

  11. Web design for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Rubenstein, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Having a clear, attractive, and easy-to-navigate website that allows users to quickly find what they want is essential for any organization-including a library. This workbook makes website creation easy-no HTML required.

  12. EVALUATION OF UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadire ÇAVUŞ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Education Technology is rapidly increasing as time passes. Studies also madewithin this field show parallel increase too. It has been put forward that, the importance which has been aroused effects theamount of service quality offered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the services which are offered that creates an effectivelearning environment. The libraries were evaluated according to catalogue search, website, hardware, staff, materials, needs oflibrary, achieve to materials, directions and opening hours of libraries. “The quality of the offered service at the libraries” wasthe collective data tool. The data set includes users from university libraries and Atatürk Culture Center Library. Collected datawas analyzed with SPSS 14 and the necessary statistical calculations were made and data’s were presented.

  13. Library Architecture: Some Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Fabian

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of libraries (among them many university and research libraries which do not provide adequate work-places. Chairs may have been selected for their stylish look rather than for their physical comfort. Desk lamps may have been deemed unnecessary (they might have distorted the overall impression which the reading room was expected to make And so on. I keep wondering how many librarians have spent some time in their libraries as readers, and have assessed their reading rooms from the user’s point of view. Have they been in a cubicle? Or have they read a book under glaring neon lights? Do they know how well their air-conditioning works? I know a library in which the only window that can be opened is in the librarian’s office.

  14. Iowa DNR - NRGIS Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Natural Resources Geographic Information System (NRGIS) Library is a Geographic Information System (GIS) repository developed and maintained by the GIS Section...

  15. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  16. Archives Library Information Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — ALIC is an online library catalog of books, periodicals, and other materials contained in Archives I and II and book collections located in other facilities.

  17. USGS Photographic Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Denver Library maintains a collection of over 400,000 photographs taken during geologic studies of the United States and its territories...

  18. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author)

  19. The Global Library

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The Agenda 21 is the United Nations' action plan for the 21st century in favour of sustainable development. Launched at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, its 40 chapters include social, economic and ecological actions to be implemented by local authorities, governments, but also by corporate companies and services. Twenty years after the Earth Summit, our proposal is to apply the Agenda 21 to library management and development and to move on to the global or sustainable library. Based on the conc...

  20. Library Widget for Moodle

    OpenAIRE

    Mariela Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Any course within a course management system is generally considered the intellectual space of the professor teaching it. Research tools and guides, such as search boxes for discovery services or links to course-specific and subject-specific guides, are created and maintained by librarians. In trying to get our tools and services closer to where students spend their time devoted to coursework, Oakland University libraries have developed a library widget – a self-serve code generator that allo...

  1. Sudanese library anxiety construct

    OpenAIRE

    Abusin, K.A.; Zainab, A.N.; Abdul Karim, Noor Harun

    2011-01-01

    Library anxiety is manifested in the form of negative feelings, fear, stress, distress, confusion and has debilitating effects on students’ academic performance, which makes it a serious phenomenon for investigation. This study explores library anxiety amongst Sudanese university students and identifies factors that contribute to this phenomenon. The factors were identified using the diary approach collected from 51 third year undergraduate students who were taking the research method course ...

  2. Quality Assessment of Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    N.K. Dash; P. Padhi

    2010-01-01

    The concept of quality is not a new phenomenon for library and information science professionals as it is entrenched in library philosophy and practice. Service quality is viewed as a comparison of what the customer expected prior to the use of services and the perceived level of services received. Quality of service and user satisfaction is two significant facets of effective service management. Although the concept of quality is not new, measuring service quality as a management technique h...

  3. Digital libraries : an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jange, Suresh; Angadi, Mallikarjun

    2001-01-01

    During the past recent years, there has been tremendous development reaming the concept of digital libraries-a knowledge base that can be stored and retrieved through on-line networks. Digital libraries are the most complex form of information systems that support digital document preservation, distributed database management, hypertext, filtering, information retrieval and selective dissemination of information. This has really overcome geographical barrier offering wide range of academic,...

  4. Python library reference

    OpenAIRE

    Rossum, van, M.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Python is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not describe the standard library that is distributed with the language, and which greatly enhances its immediate usability. This library contains built-in modules (written in C) that provide access to system funct...

  5. Marketingstrategies for academic libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This assignment is about the development of a general strategic marketing plan for academic libraries in Germany and can be used as a guideline for libraries that want to develop concrete marketing strategies for several products and services. Two examples of marketing projects are at its end presented for linking theoretical approaches to practice. Finally the development of an own marketing strategy for “information literacy” builds the last part of the assignment.

  6. Library Consortia in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the increasing number of information sources and their costs as well as more demanding users on the one side, and limited financial resources on the other, has not avoided Croatia. One of the attempts to deal with this state of affairs is associating libraries into consortia. A consortium could, through cooperative cataloguing, help optimise the processing of library material, it could help in solving the problem of rational ways of continuous education of staff and users and c...

  7. Digital library usability studies

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2005-01-01

    Each summer, circulation staff in my library inventories a section of the stacks andbrings collection issues to the attention of appropriate bibliographers. Since I amresponsible for the economics collection, I see an array of government documents thathave managed to elude the cataloging process. Many of these titles are decades old,having squatted in the library undisturbed and uncirculated since our online catalogwas implemented in 1990.

  8. Library-Generated Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Brattli, Tore

    1999-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the World Wide Web has given libraries many new opportunities to disseminate organized information about internal and external collections to users. One of these possibilities is to make separate databases for information or services not sufficiently covered by the online public access catalog (OPAC) or other available databases. What’s new is that librarians can now create and maintain these databases and make them user-friendly. Library-generated database...

  9. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  10. 78 FR 30342 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... existing CoC (No. GDP-1) authorizes operation of a uranium enrichment facility in Paducah, Kentucky. The... documents online in the NRC Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To begin the search... the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR). The existing CoC (No. GDP-1) authorizes operation of...

  11. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Graf, Joerg; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    Two cell recovery methods for IOB enrichments were evaluated for DNA extraction and further PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library creation. One was a published method consisting of heating plus oxalic acid treatment and the other one was a new method based on enzymatic agarose digestion (using β...

  12. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  13. Sports Education Library Information Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓峰

    2014-01-01

    Library website, is the first window for readers to understand library information services. Sports Education academy library fully take advantage of homepage, combine open access resource searched with the library collections, after targeted collection, selection, sorting, processing, clustering or reorganization, establish a navigation system of open access resource of physical Sports Education.

  14. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  15. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:27250950

  16. The enrichment industry reaches maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the nuclear power industry enters the 1980s, uranium enrichment supply can no longer be considered one of the critical problem areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. It has become an industrial and commercial activity which has reached a high degree of maturity. Three main aspects of this maturity are discussed: 1. the availability of enrichment services from several facilities with very diverse ownership; 2. the involvement of private industry, especially in Europe, and the application of normal commercial rules to enrichment contracts; 3. the ability of the enrichment industry to cope with recent setbacks in the advancement of nuclear power programmes whilst carrying out an active research and development programme that will help to ensure its future technical and economic viability. (U.K.)

  17. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review. [UO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, F.; Nabielek, H.; Yang, L.

    1978-08-01

    The available data on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance, and fuel particle chemical performance.

  18. Semantically enriching folksonomies with FLOR

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletou, Sofia; Sabou, Marta; Motta, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    While the increasing popularity of folksonomies has lead to a vast quantity of tagged data, resource retrieval in these systems is limited by them being agnostic to the meaning (i.e., semantics) of tags. Our goal is to automatically enrich folksonomy tags (and implicitly the related resources) with formal semantics by associating them to relevant concepts defined in online ontologies. We introduce FLOR, a mechanism for automatic folksonomy enrichment by combining knowledge from WordNet and on...

  19. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Bergstra; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization of the notion of an ACP process algebra to processes in which data are involved. In meadow enriched ACP process algebras, the mathematical structure for data is a meadow.

  20. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data. PMID:26616598

  1. THE TERMINOLOGY OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Матић

    2014-01-01

    The master’s thesis entitled The Terminology of Library Science presents the general state of the terminology of library science in the Serbian language and analyses the terminological system which was formed in the last couple of decades in relation to library and information science. The terminology of library science is seen as a characteristic of professional language. The research is conducted on a corpus which excludes sources relating extremely to either library science or information ...

  2. Library service to dental practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Ashin, E R

    1983-01-01

    Dental school libraries offer resources of value to dental practitioners, but do not always consider practitioners to be primary clientele. A survey was conducted among the sixty U.S. dental school libraries to examine policies and attitudes toward service to practitioners. Although library use by dentists is estimated to be low, most libraries are willing to serve them as long as it does not reduce the libraries' ability to assist students and faculty. Of the respondents, 57% replied that th...

  3. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal

  4. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF6 and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF6 with diluent UF6 to produce LWR grade LEU-UF6. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry

  5. Library 3.0 intelligent libraries and apomediation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwanya, Tom; Underwood, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emerging generation of research and academic library users expect the delivery of user-centered information services. 'Apomediation' refers to the supporting role librarians can give users by stepping in when users need help. Library 3.0 explores the ongoing debates on the "point oh” phenomenon and its impact on service delivery in libraries. This title analyses Library 3.0 and its potential in creating intelligent libraries capable of meeting contemporary needs, and the growing role of librarians as apomediators. Library 3.0 is divided into four chapters. The first chapter introduces and places the topic in context. The second chapter considers "point oh” libraries. The third chapter covers library 3.0 librarianship, while the final chapter explores ways libraries can move towards '3.0'.

  6. How to reach library users who cannot reach libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ljuić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ways of getting library activities closer to the individuals or groups of users who have difficulties to or cannot visit the library themselves. The author presents the services offered by the Maribor Public Library and discusses how one of the basic human rights – the right to the access of cultural goods, knowledge and information - is exercised also through library activities. By enabling access to library material and information, public libraries help to fulfill basic human rights and thus raise the quality of living in a social environment. The following forms of library activities are presented in the article: »distance library« – borrowing books at home, in hospital, station for the bibliobus for disabled users, »mobile collections« in the institutions where users, due to their age or illness, have difficulties in accessing or even cannot reach library materials and information by themselves.

  7. Library Widget for Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any course within a course management system is generally considered the intellectual space of the professor teaching it. Research tools and guides, such as search boxes for discovery services or links to course-specific and subject-specific guides, are created and maintained by librarians. In trying to get our tools and services closer to where students spend their time devoted to coursework, Oakland University libraries have developed a library widget – a self-serve code generator that allows professors to select what tools and services they want to bring into their course space. This approach has proven to be flexible, because it does not depend on a library presence within the course management system. It also offers persistent presence within courses since professors can archive courses, including the library widget, at the end of a semester and restore them in the system in future semesters. We are using the library widget as a pilot to inform decisions on future full integration of such functionality into Moodle.

  8. Fission product data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A library is described of data for 584 isotopes of fission products, including decay constants, branching ratios (both burn-up and decay), the type of emitted radiation, relative and absolute yields, capture cross sections for thermal neutrons, and resonance integrals. When a detailed decay scheme is not known, the mean energies of beta particles and neutrino and gamma radiations are given. In the ZVJE SKODA system the library is named BIBFP and is stored on film No 49 of the NE 803 B computer. It is used in calculating the inventory of fission products in fuel elements (and also determining absorption cross sections for burn-up calculations, gamma ray sources, heat generation) and in solving radioactivity transport problems in the primary circuit. It may also be used in the spectrometric method for burn-up determination of fuel elements. The library comprises the latest literary data available. It serves as the basis for library BIBGRFP storing group constants of fission products with independent yields of isotopes from fission. This, in turn, forms the basis for the BIBDN library collecting data on the precursors of delayed neutron emitters. (author)

  9. A borderless Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has a large collection of documents in online or printed format in all disciplines needed by physicists, engineers and technicians. However,  users sometimes need to read documents not available at CERN. But don’t worry! Thanks to its Interlibrary loan and document delivery service, the CERN Library can still help you. Just fill in the online form or email us. We will then locate the document in other institutions and order it for you free of charge. The CERN Library cooperates with the largest libraries in Europe, such as ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich, TIB (Technische Informationsbibliothek) in Hanover and the British Library in London. Thanks to our network and our expertise in document search, most requests are satisfied in record time: articles are usually served in .pdf version a few hours after the order, and books or other printed materials are delivered within a few days. It is possible to ask for all types of documents suc...

  10. Computationally designed libraries for rapid enzyme stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Baker, David; Marrink, Siewert J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to engineer enzymes and other proteins to any desired stability would have wide-ranging applications. Here, we demonstrate that computational design of a library with chemically diverse stabilizing mutations allows the engineering of drastically stabilized and fully functional variants of the mesostable enzyme limonene epoxide hydrolase. First, point mutations were selected if they significantly improved the predicted free energy of protein folding. Disulfide bonds were designed u...

  11. Cheminformatics approaches to analyze diversity in compound screening libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Lakshmi B; DeCaprio, David

    2010-06-01

    As high-throughput screening matures as a discipline, cheminformatics is playing an increasingly important role in selecting new compounds for diverse screening libraries. New visualization techniques such as multi-fusion similarity maps, scaffold trees, and principal moments of inertia plots provide complementary information on compound libraries and enable identification of unexplored regions of chemical space with potential biological relevance. Quantitative metrics have been developed to analyze libraries for properties such as natural product-likeness and shape complexity. Analysis of high-throughput screening results and drug discovery programs identify compounds problematic for screening. Taken together these approaches allow us to increase the diversity of biological outcomes available in compound screening libraries and improve the success rates of high-throughput screening against new targets without making significant increases in the size of compound libraries. PMID:20457001

  12. Report of Sectional Committee on Industrialization of Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accelerate the development and utilization of atomic energy which is the core of the substitute energies for petroleum, it is indispensable requirement to establish independent fuel cycle as the base. In particular, the domestic production of enriched uranium is necessary to eliminate the obstacles to secure the energy supply in Japan. The construction and operation of the pilot plant for uranium enrichment by centrifugal separation method have progressed smoothly, and the technical base for the domestic production of enriched uranium is being consolidated. For the time being, the service of uranium enrichment is given by USA and France, but it is expected that the short supply will arise around 1990. The start of operation of the uranium enrichment plant in Japan is scheduled around 1990, and the scale of the plant will be expanded stepwise thereafter. The scale of production is assumed as 3000 t SWU/year in 2000. Prior to this commercial plant, the prototype plant of up to 250 t SWU/year capacity will be operated in 1986, starting the production of centrifugal separators in 1983. The production line for centrifugal separators will have the capacity of up to 125 t SWU/year. The organization for operating these plants, the home production of natural uranium conversion, the uranium enrichment by chemical method and others are described. (Kako, I.)

  13. Stellar libraries for Gaia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaia will observe up to a billion stellar sources. Automated algorithms are under development to derive the atmospheric parameters of all observed spectra, from low resolution optical spectra alone or in synergy with high resolution spectra in the near-IR Ca II triplet region. To do so, a large database of state-of-the-art stellar libraries has been produced for the Gaia community, computed using different codes optimized for specific purposes. The choice to use different spectral codes in different regions of the H-R diagram raises the problem of the coherence of the different spectra, specifically in the transition zones. We present a comparison between the libraries from the point of view of spectra simulations for training the Gaia algorithms. We also present the implementation of these libraries into a Simple Stellar Population code.

  14. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  15. Gaseous diffusion -- the enrichment workhorse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the first large-scale gaseous diffusion facility was started as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943. This facility, code named ''K-25,'' began operation in January 1945 and was fully on stream by September 1945. Four additional process buildings were later added in Oak Ridge as the demand for enriched uranium escalated. New gaseous diffusion plants were constructed at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, during this period. The three gaseous diffusion plants were the ''workhorses'' which provided the entire enriched uranium demand for the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. As the demand for enriched uranium for military purposes decreased during the early 1960s, power to the diffusion plants was curtailed to reduce production. During the 1960s, as plans for the nuclear power industry were formulated, the role of the diffusion plants gradually changed from providing highly-enriched uranium for the military to providing low-enriched uranium for power reactors

  16. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  17. Academic Library Administrators Perceive Value in Their Librarians’ Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Perkins, G.H. & Slowik, A.J.W. (2013. The value of research in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 74(2, 143-158. Retrieved from http://crl.acrl.org/content/74/2/143.full.pdf+html Abstract Objective – To explore academic library administrators’ perceived value of their librarians’ research, specifically the importance to the profession and the library community. Design – Qualitative, exploratory study using a survey questionnaire. Setting – Academic libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – 23 library administrators. Methods – During the summer of 2010, one of the authors conducted 20-30 minute telephone interviews with 23 academic library administrators. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for coding. Interview questions 1-3 and 8-19 were content-analyzed; the authors described common themes for each of these questions. Items 4-7 had Likert scale response formats, and a mean and standard deviation were computed for each of these items. Main Results – The benefits of librarians’ research included fulfilling tenure-track requirements, enriching relationships with teaching faculty, library faculty recognition, improved services and programs, collaboration with others, research result application to daily issues, development as librarians, and improved knowledge of the research field. The perceived current changes and future issues for university libraries included increased digitization of collections, scholarly communication, and expanded instructional engagement of faculty and students, as well as future economic downturn and budget cuts. Administrators noted several methods that influenced their thinking: professional meetings, reading professional journals, informal discussions with colleagues, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Academic library administrators used a variety of methods to support their librarians’ research. These included tenure-track requirements

  18. WIMS Library updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1990 the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) has been initiated at the International Atomic Energy Agency. The project was organized as an international research project, coordinated at the J. Stefan Institute. Up to now, 22 laboratories from 19 countries joined the project. Phase 1 of the project, which included WIMS input optimization for five experimental benchmark lattices, has been completed. The work presented in this paper describes also the results of Phase 2 of the Project, in which the cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV evaluated nuclear data library have been processed. (author)

  19. Controlling hospital library theft

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddy, Theresa M.; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other li...

  20. Wordpress for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Haefele, Chad

    2015-01-01

    WordPress is not only the most popular blogging software in the world, but it is also a powerful content management system that runs more than 23 percent of all websites. The current version alone has been downloaded almost 20 million times, and the WordPress community has built more than 38,000 plugins to extend and enhance the system. Libraries are using this technology to create community-oriented websites, blogs, subject guides, digital archives, and more. This hands-on, practical book walks readers through the entire process of setting up a WordPress website for their library,

  1. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,3He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10-5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  2. Knowledge management for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Forrestal, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Libraries are creating dynamic knowledge bases to capture both tacit and explicit knowledge and subject expertise for use within and beyond their organizations. In this book, readers will learn to move policies and procedures manuals online using a wiki, get the most out of Microsoft SharePoint with custom portals and Web Parts, and build an FAQ knowledge base from reference management applications such as LibAnswers. Knowledge Management for Libraries guides readers through the process of planning, developing, and launching th

  3. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  4. future of research libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Naryandas, Narakesari; Kindström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research libraries have been an integral part of the scholarly communication system since that system emerged in its present form. They now face a period of unprecedentedly drastic and rapid change. This is caused, first and foremost, by the migration of much scholarly material to digital formats, raising the question of the future purpose of the 'library space'. Together with this come transfigurational changes to the communication change of recorded information, with the roles of authors , publishers, database producers and librarians and archivists all in a state of flux. Finally, new forms

  5. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  6. Peculiarities of preparation of cadmium isotopes of high enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascade equipped by gas centrifuges with regard for requirements to structural materials operating with chemically active compounds (dimethylcadmium) was devised for preparation of high-enriched cadmium isotopes. Solutions of such problems as overcoming of isotope memory, compensation of the effect of isotope overlapping, operative analytical accompanying permitted to optimize separation process and to obtain cadmium isotopes of high enrichment degree: cadmium-116 ∼98.9 %, cadmium-114 ∼98.7 %, cadmium-113 ∼93.3 %, cadmium-112 ∼99.1 %, cadmium-110 ∼95.8 %

  7. More library mashups exploring new ways to deliver library data

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Nicole Engard follows up her ground-breaking 2009 book Library Mashups with a fresh collection of mashup projects that virtually any library can emulate, customize, and build upon. In More Library Mashups, Engard and 24 creative library professionals describe how they are mashing up free and inexpensive digital tools and techniques to improve library services and meet everyday (and unexpected) challenges. Examples from libraries of all types are designed to help even non-programmers share and add value to digital content, update and enhance library websites and collections, mashup catalog data, connect to the library's automation system, and use emerging tools like Serendip-o-matic, Umlaut, and Libki to engage users, staff, and the community.

  8. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  9. Gaseous cleaning in enrichment installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), either pure or mixed to other gases, is widely used as a process gas in the great majority of the known uranium isotopic enrichment processes. Due to a long term operation of the enrichment facilities there is a decomposition of the UF6, which solid products like UO2F2 and UF5, deposit on the walls of the reservoirs. This work describe a cleaning process used to remove the solid products of the UF6 decomposition from one of the reservoirs (V = 620 l) of the Jet Nozzle enrichment project facilities of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/Belo Horizonte. It was used a gaseous mixture which presented the advantage of cleaning up the reservoir without dismounting the equipment. The yielded products are all gaseous and can be easily pumped out. (author)

  10. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  11. The library in 2000 : from the perspective of the library

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacci, Maria

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays, the enormous extension of geographic networks makes the vision of a global library - the set of all libraries linked in a network, to which the user can access from his office or home to search and receive the documents that interest him - increasingly feasible. However, this demand for a completely "electronic library" appears often to come from people who have little true awareness of the role of the library in knowledge transfer. At the moment, the preservation, transmission, and...

  12. The Library and the Bazaar: Open Content and Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptman, Greer L.

    2008-01-01

    This essay will consider new copyright models in libraries, and how libraries can and should modify their own systems to promote and provide access to open content. It focuses on the reasoning behind supporting new models and methods of distribution, especially with regards to open licenses like Creative Commons, and the resources and systems libraries have developed to provide access to open licensed work. The paper examines the current roles libraries take in promoting Creative Commons and ...

  13. Library and information education at Islamic universities in Indonesia: Obstacles and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Farida, Ida; Purnomo, Pungki

    2006-01-01

    The Library and Information Studies programs at Islamic universities in Indonesia were born from the idealism thought that the advent of globalization era is a reality fact that we have no choice but to face and anticipate it. This is, not only as a challenge toward social culture and social religious for each society group or country, but also as an opportunity for all people to enrich their vision and empower their identity. The establishment of these library studies programs at state Islam...

  14. Uranium enrichment. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains data and related information on the production of enriched uranium at the gaseous diffusion plants and an update on the construction and project control center for the gas centrifuge plant. Power usage at the gaseous diffusion plants is illustrated. The report contains several glossy color pictures of the plants and processes described. In addition to gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process, three advanced isotope separation process are now being developed. The business operation of the enrichment plants is described; charts on revenue, balance sheets, and income statements are included

  15. Uranium enriched granites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

  16. European Digital Mathematics Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rákosník, Jiří; Pavlov, R.

    Sofia: Institute of Mathematics and Informatics - BAS, 2013 - (Pavlov, R.; Stanchev, P.), s. 25-34. (Vol. 3). ISSN 1314-4006. [ Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage 2013. Veliko Tarnovo (BG), 19.09.2013-20.09.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Digital Mathematics Library * European * EuDML Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Alleviating Library Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Erica Carlson

    2009-01-01

    As librarians work to make their services more user-centered, to put forward their best and most approachable faces in order to meet user needs, they are still met with students who approach them hesitantly and apologize for asking them questions, and by students who are obviously intimidated by the libraries in which they work. A good part of…

  18. Library Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippleck, Suzanne

    The Inglewood, California, public library provides a manual on reference service. The theory, purpose, and objectives of reference are noted, and goals and activities are described in terms of budget, personnel, resources, and services. A chapter on organization covers service structure, information services, relationships with other library…

  19. Greek, computers and libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel, Evelyn

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the provision of classical and biblical texts on CD-ROM data bases and their use in King's College, London Library. Describes a project to catalogue by the Libertas system a collection of Modern Greek literature in collaboration with the University of Crete. Discusses cataloguing and transliteration problems.

  20. Homeschoolers in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheps, Susan G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the recent growth in homeschooling and offers suggestions for public libraries to support homeschoolers. Highlights include creating your own curricula; publishers who offer resources for homeschoolers; use of the Internet; and examples of books and series, grouped by subject, of materials particularly suited for homeschoolers. (LRW)

  1. Not Your Grandmother's Library!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    School libraries are an essential part of a complete school program. They provide an equitable, fiscally responsible strategy for sharing resources across grade levels and the curriculum while addressing core reading, information, and technology literacies. Students are still voracious readers of books in print, and now they consume a variety of…

  2. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  3. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    A third of the world’s current literature in electrical engineering is available on your CERN desktop Looking for a technical standard on software reviews and audits? Is it referred to as "IEEE color books"? Want to download and read NOW the latest version of IEEE 802? Whenever a need for a technical standard or specification arises in your activity, the Library is here to serve you. For IEEE standards it is particularly easy; the whole collection is available for immediate download. Indeed, since 2007, the CERN Library offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET journals and proceedings, starting from the first issue. But not everyone knows that this resource gives also access to all current IEEE standards as well as a selection of archival ones. The Library is now working on the integration of a selection of these standards in our onlin...

  4. Library science talks

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Vigen, Jens; CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The new interface to the CERN library data base by Jean-Yves Le Meur / CERN-AS I will give a short (hands on) demonstration of the new interface to the whole library database. Emphasis will be given to the new feature allowing any user to build his personal virtual library. A user oriented interface to physics preprint servers by Carlos Loureno / CERN-PPE I will give a (hands-on) presentation of a first version of a tailor made WEB based interface to the preprints kept in the CERN or Los Alamos servers. This interface has already been successfully implemented for the field of high energy heavy ion physics, and can easily be expanded or adapted to other research fields of interest to the HEP community. For the already published papers, a direct link to the published e-journal version is provided (if available). Status of the digital library at CERN by Jens Vigen / CERN-AS I will review the present situation concerning the availability of the electronic versions of scientific publications at CERN and the el...

  5. In the CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    1963-01-01

    Seen in this picture is Noria Christophoridou, librarian of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, who has been sent by her government to CERN for a year to widen her experience of library and documentation services. In the photograph she is providing information to Kurt Gottfried, a CERN visiting scientist from Harvard University, who is spending a year with CERN's Theory Division

  6. Intranet for library services

    OpenAIRE

    Gunjal, Bhojaraju

    2003-01-01

    The article gives brief introduction about the Intranet, its history, need in an organization, merits and demerits, characteristics and current trends in internet technology. The use of intranet in providing library services like SDI, CAS and other information management explained with a schematic diagram.

  7. Library of INCA

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Aeron

    2013-01-01

    LIBRARY OF INCA. Åpning: 25. august 2012. (18.00 til 21.00) Utstillingsperiode: 25. august - 22. september. Utstillere: Aurora Harris, Frido Evers, Lina Persson, Per-Oskar Leu, Cary Loren, Inger Wold Lund, Hamilton Poe. Kuratorer: Aeron Bergman and Alejandra Salinas. Visningssted: INCA - Institute for Neo Connotative Action, Detroit, USA.

  8. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    Even more books available electronically!   For several years now, the Library has been offering a large collection of electronic books in a wide range of disciplines. The books can be accessed by all CERN users with a Nice account and, like printed books, can be borrowed for a given period. In a few clicks of the mouse, you can leaf through and read books and even print parts of them from your computer. The Library catalogue now comprises a total of more than 10,000 different e-books. The long-awaited electronic versions of O'Reilly book titles are now available: 70 titles have recently been added to the Library's collection and many others will follow in the coming weeks. This collection of books, mainly on IT subjects, is widely used in the development field. Their availability on line is thus a clear bonus. But there's no need for fans of paper versions to worry: the Library will continue to expand its collection of printed books. The two collections exist side by side and even complement ea...

  9. The Bionic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the information crisis focuses on possible new forms of library collections. Topics discussed include the rising quantity and costs of publications; improvements in access through new technologies; vendors' plans using electronic text; information flow; economics factors, including user fees; and the role of the commercial sector.…

  10. Fission product data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprints of values from BIBFP for 39 isotopes for which either a mistake in the BIBFP Library or updated values in the literature have been found, are given. Most corrections concern the branching ratios for isotopes which are the precursors of delayed neutron emitters

  11. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  12. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  13. The GF Mathematics Library

    CERN Document Server

    Saludes, Jordi; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.6

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to present the Mathematics Grammar Library, a system for multilingual mathematical text processing. We explain the context in which it originated, its current design and functionality and the current development goals. We also present two prototype services and comment on possible future applications in the area of artificial mathematics assistants.

  14. Evaluated nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collection of evaluated data for neutron-, photon-, and charged-particle-induced reactions is maintained in a computer-oriented system. In this report we recount the history of Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, describe the methods of evaluation, and give examples of input and output representation of the data

  15. This I Believe...All Libraries Should Be Teaching Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I imagine a library that prioritizes teaching users how to find, evaluate, and use information over the traditional library public service activities of collection development, access to materials, and reference services. If I ran the library, all services would support end-user education. (Contains 1 graph and 1 note.)

  16. Evaluating Public Libraries Using Standard Scores: The Library Quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the performance of public libraries using a standardized scoring system and provides an analysis of public library data from New Jersey as an example. Library standards and the derivation of measurement ratios are also discussed. A 33-item bibliography and three data tables are included. (JL)

  17. Library of the Future: Croydon's New Central Library Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A new library and cultural center in Croyden (England) is described. Function-based areas include library, administration, technical services, museum and galleries, museum offices and store, cinema, tourist information center, and local government offices. Information technology systems include the library management system, office automation, and…

  18. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  19. Database Technology in Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Carole; Lin, Binshan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews issues relating to database technology and digital libraries. Highlights include resource sharing; ongoing digital library projects; metadata; user interfaces; query processing; interoperability; data quality; copyright infringement; and managerial implications, including electronic versus printed materials, accessibility,…

  20. Persistent Identifiers: the ‘URN Granular’ Project of the German National Library and the University and State Library Halle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Sommer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a project carried out by the German National Library, the University and State Library Sachsen-Anhalt in Halle and Semantics GmbH Aachen to establish routines of persistent identification for individual pages of web publications in order to enable and facilitate reliable and long-term valid citation practices for the academic community. The project originated in a pilot project to digitise approximately 10,000 German imprints from the seventeenth century comprising altogether about 600,000 pages, which had to be completed within two years. The material of the ‘Ponickau Collection’ had been catalogued in the German national bibliography of seventeenth-century imprints (VD 17, which was enriched and turned into a virtual library by adding the digitised texts. This article investigates the means of presentation and indexing of digitised imprints in order to ensure their usability. It also sketches the workflow among the various partners involved in the process. The article highlights the application of Visual Library, which contains various tools for automated creation of metadata, the implementation of persistent identifiers (URN and the automated enrichment of catalogue entries by the regional cataloguing cooperative Gemeinsamer Bibliotheksverbund (GBV. Special emphasis is given to questions of quality management; the quality is guaranteed by a combination of automated tools and intellectual control at various stages of the digitisation process.

  1. Standards for hospital libraries 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Gluck, Jeannine Cyr; Hassig, Robin Ackley; Balogh, Leeni; Bandy, Margaret; Doyle, Jacqueline Donaldson; Kronenfeld, Michael R.; Lindner, Katherine Lois; Murray, Kathleen; Petersen, JoAn; Rand, Debra C.

    2002-01-01

    The Medical Library Association's “Standards for Hospital Libraries 2002” have been developed as a guide for hospital administrators, librarians, and accrediting bodies to ensure that hospitals have the resources and services to effectively meet their needs for knowledge-based information. Specific requirements for knowledge-based information include that the library be a separate department with its own budget. Knowledge-based information in the library should be directed by a qualified libr...

  2. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries: From Libraries to Social Semantic Digital Libraries (SSDL), Over Semantic Digital Libraries (SDL)

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Digital libraries have been an important source of information throughout the history of mankind. It has been present in our societies in different forms. Notably, traditional libraries have found their on the desktops of internet users. They have taken the shape of semantic digital libraries, which are accessible at any time, and accordingly provide a more meaningful search. This paper further discusses social semantic digital libraries that also incorporate the social and collaborative aspect.

  3. Strategic marketing planning in library

    OpenAIRE

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2000-01-01

    The article is based on the idea that every library can design instruments for creating events and managing the important resources of today's world, especially to manage the changes. This process can only be successful if libraries use adequate marketing methods. Strategic marketing planning starts with the analysis of library's mission, its objectives, goals and corporate culture. By analysing the public environment, the competitive environment and the macro environment, libraries recognise...

  4. Mobile technologies for every library

    CERN Document Server

    Gleason, Ann Whitney

    2015-01-01

    If you are wondering what mobile technology adoption means for your library or how to get started, Mobile Technologies for Every Library will answer your questions! This book will detail the opportunities and pitfalls in using mobile technology in libraries. It will also address platforms, options, security, and best practices for starting new mobile services programs or improving existing services. Gleason previews many useful apps for libraries. Web links and resources are also included.

  5. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  6. Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

  7. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization o

  8. Enrichment reduction for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide activities on enrichment reduction for research reactors are reviewed and the national and international programs are described. Especially the following points are discussed: Benchmark calculations, reactor safety, fuel element development, irradiation tests, post irradiation examinations, full core demonstrations, activities of the GKSS and economical questions. (orig.)

  9. The history and library statistics of JAEA library activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and library statistics of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency library activity were summarized. Former Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the former Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute merged in October, 2005, and Japan Atomic Energy Agency is established. Properly speaking, the library statistics of old two corporations should have been summarized, but statistics of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute is not yet obtained. Then, although it is stated as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency library, it limits to the description about the old Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute library before 2004. (author)

  10. Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Masayuki

    The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

  11. A library fellow in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Frantz, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Shares the trials and tribulations in addressing the problems with the online catalog in the Library of the Greek Parliament in Athens, Greece. Library as a showplace; Reaction of the administration of the Library of Parliament and the lawmakers to the introduction of electronic reference service.

  12. Microcomputers in the Anesthesia Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. J.

    The combination of computer technology and library operation is helping to alleviate such library problems as escalating costs, increasing collection size, deteriorating materials, unwieldy arrangement schemes, poor subject control, and the acquisition and processing of large numbers of rarely used documents. Small special libraries such as…

  13. Digital Libraries on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Taly; Frank, Ariel J.

    This paper discusses digital libraries on the Internet. The resource repository hierarchy, consisting of two major paradigms, search engines (SEs) and digital libraries, is presented. SEs are classified into three categories: basic-SE, directory, and meta-SE. The following six major characteristics of a library are summarized: collection of data…

  14. Library Management Tips that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There's no shortage of library management books out there--but how many of them actually tackle the little details of day-to-day management, the hard-to-categorize things that slip through the cracks of a larger handbook? "Library Management Tips that Work" does exactly that, addressing dozens of such issues facing library managers, including: (1)…

  15. Chat Widgets for Science Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, John J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes chat widgets, chunks of code that can be embedded on a web site to appear as an instant messaging system, and how they can be used on a science library web site to better serve library users. Interviews were conducted concerning experiences at science and humanities libraries and more similarities than differences were…

  16. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  17. Aliens Invade High School Library!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Fran

    2004-01-01

    The idea of reading a classic out loud during lunch each day of National Library Week was to make high school students participate in the library campaign. A library media specialist at Cleburne (Texas) High School discusses the planning, promotion and implementation of the programme.

  18. Mobile library services best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Harmon, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Library Services provides 11 proven ways to reach out to mobile users and increase your library's relevance to their day-to-day lives. Librarians detail how they created mobile apps to how they went mobile on a shoestring budget. Written by public, academic, and special librarians, these 11 best practices offer models for libraries of every type and size.

  19. Library Literacy: Who? When? Where?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    Warns that library user education in the school system is inadequate, as evidenced by the inability of incoming college students to use the library. Such instruction must expand at lower educational levels if academic libraries are to focus on instruction in specialized areas of research. Nine references are listed. (RAA)

  20. QUIC: a chemical kinetics code for use with the chemical equilibrium code QUIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical rate kinetics code QUIC is described, along with a support code RATE. QUIC is designed to allow chemical kinetics calculations on a wide variety of chemical environments while operating in the overlay environment of the chemical equilibrium code QUIL. QUIC depends upon a rate-data library called LIBR. This library is maintained by RATE. RATE enters into the library all reactions in a standardized format. The code QUIC, operating in conjunction with QUIL, is interactive and written to be used from a remote terminal, with paging control provided. Plotted output is also available

  1. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  2. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  3. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  4. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  5. Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed and animal body fluid and tissues using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry combined with spectra library search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xian; He, Pingli

    2016-02-01

    Broad screening and identification of β-agonists in feed, serum, urine, muscle and liver samples was achieved in a quick and highly sensitive manner using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) combined with a spectra library search. Solid-phase extraction technology was employed for sample purification and enrichment. After extraction and purification, the samples were analyzed using a Q-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer under full-scan and data-dependent MS/MS mode. The acquired mass spectra were compared with an in-house library (compound library and MS/MS mass spectral library) built with TraceFinder Software which contained the M/Z of the precursor ion, chemical formula, retention time, character fragment ions and the entire MS/MS spectra of 32 β-agonist standards. Screening was achieved by comparing 5 key mass spectral results and positive matches were marked. Using the developed method, the identification results from 10 spiked samples and 238 actual samples indicated that only 2% of acquired mass spectra produced false identities. The method validation results showed that the limit of detection ranged from 0.021-3.854 μg kg(-1)and 0.015-1.198 ng mL(-1) for solid and liquid samples, respectively. PMID:26304337

  6. Principal Component Analysis as a Tool for Library Design: A Case Study Investigating Natural Products, Brand-Name Drugs, Natural Product-Like Libraries, and Drug-Like Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderski, Todd A.; Stratton, Christopher F.; Bauer, Renato A.; Kopp, Felix; Tan, Derek S.

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool in the design and planning of chemical libraries. PCA can be used to reveal differences in structural and physicochemical parameters between various classes of compounds by displaying them in a convenient graphical format. Herein, we demonstrate the use of PCA to gain insight into structural features that differentiate natural products, synthetic drugs, natural product-like libraries, and drug-like libraries, and show how the results can be used to guide library design. PMID:25618349

  7. Noteworthy: News Briefs from PA Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Neyer; Larissa Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishments, experiences, events, and news about Pennsylvania librarians and libraries. In this issue: Chatham University Appointments and Professional Development Clarion University Libraries Appoint Two New Library Faculty Duquesne University Library News Lehigh Libraries Go Live with OLE The Library Company of Philadelphia’s African Americana Graphics Collection Now Online PADIGITAL E-mail List Penn State University Libraries News Seton Hill Library Marks 125th Anniversary with Makeov...

  8. Dynamic p-enrichment schemes for multicomponent reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C; Dawson, C; Kubatko, E J; Wirasaet, D; Westerink, J J

    2011-01-01

    We present a family of p-enrichment schemes. These schemes may be separated into two basic classes: the first, called \\emph{fixed tolerance schemes}, rely on setting global scalar tolerances on the local regularity of the solution, and the second, called \\emph{dioristic schemes}, rely on time-evolving bounds on the local variation in the solution. Each class of $p$-enrichment scheme is further divided into two basic types. The first type (the Type I schemes) enrich along lines of maximal variation, striving to enhance stable solutions in "areas of highest interest." The second type (the Type II schemes) enrich along lines of maximal regularity in order to maximize the stability of the enrichment process. Each of these schemes are tested over a pair of model problems arising in coastal hydrology. The first is a contaminant transport model, which addresses a declinature problem for a contaminant plume with respect to a bay inlet setting. The second is a multicomponent chemically reactive flow model of estuary e...

  9. News from the Library

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    Discover more literature and be aware of the most popular articles! For years particle physicists have  enjoyed monitoring the most cited articles thanks to the Spires system. This is obviously an important feature that is also carried forward by Inspire, a system currently available in its beta version. For colleagues based at CERN working in closely related disciplines or in technological areas, no system has been available to monitor the most cited articles within the various specific topics. As a result of the rapid changes in the information landscape, the Library is currently streamlining the set of databases CERN subscribes to. In this context the Library is now making  different services available for site-wide evaluation. Thomson Web of Knowledge is a platform that integrates over 100 years of scientific literature and citations, covering more than 256 disciplines. This tool offers various interesting features, including the citation report, which can be a good sourc...

  10. Portable Instrumented Communication Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: PICL is a subroutine library that can be used to develop parallel programs that are portable across several distributed-memory multi-processors. PICL provides a portable syntax for key communication primitives and related system calls. It also provides portable routines to perform certain widely- used, high-level communication operations, such as global broadcast and global summation. PICL provides execution tracing that can be used to monitor performance or to aid in debugging. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PICL is a compatibility library built on top of the native multiprocessor operating system and message passing primitives. Thus, the portability of PICL programs is not guaranteed, being a function of idiosyncrasies of the different platforms. Predictable differences are captured with standard error trapping routines. PICL is a research tool, not a production software system

  11. Updating of the LEOPARD data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LEOPARD library is being updated and tested for typical PWR unit cells with enrichments ranging from 1.0 to 4.1%(W/o) and H2O:U ratios varying from 1.0 to 10.0. A reasonably good agreement with experimental values for some spectral indices is obtained if the fission cross-section of 235U is reduced by 0.6% in the thermal range and by 20% in the epithermal range, the epithermal capture cross-section for 235U is increased by about 20% and the number of neutrons per fission in the thermal range of 235U is increased by 0.8%. (author)

  12. What are Libraries For?

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh McGuire

    2011-01-01

    In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes guest author Hugh McGuire, the founder of LibriVox.org, the world’s most prolific publisher of audiobooks (all read by volunteers); Iambik Audio, a commercial audiobook publisher built on a model similar to LibriVox; and PressBooks, a simple digital book-production tool. Hugh served on the Board (2002-2010) of the [...

  13. Science & Technology Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    Solodovnik, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    This document contains information on the activities carried out within the project Science & Technology Digital Library and in particular, it describes the Metadata Core Reference Model. Metadata are strategic for semantic interoperability to and, from the repository. Metadata are essential for available and safe management of digital objects, and for their sustainability and preservation. For these reasons, the project needs to define a specific metadata model. The purpose of this document ...

  14. Library & Information Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gaasbeck, Kalvin

    2013-01-01

    A brief introduction to the quarterly periodical, Library & Information Science Research (LISR) providing an overview of the scope of the publication. The current paper details the types of articles published in the journal and gives a general overview of the review process for articles published in the journal, concluding with a brief statement of the value of the publication to the LIS field for students.

  15. LibrarySTORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breüner, Niels; Bech, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Når flere uddannelser samles i en nybygning til Campus C på Ceres grunden i Aarhus, skal der også indrettes et fælles bibliotek. Når der samtidig er midler til at arbejde med brugerdreven innovation, lå det lige for at inddrage de studerende og få deres visioner for fremtidens bibliotek. Der blev...... arrangeret en udviklingsdag, hvor der skulle brainstormes – og projektet blev kaldt LibrarySTORM....

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  17. ORIGEN-S data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are five card-image nuclear data libraries: (1) a small light element library for 253 nuclides, (2) a large light element library for 687 nuclides, (3) an actinide library for 101 nuclides, (4) a small fission product library for 461 nuclides, and (5) a large fission product library for 821 nuclides. The data for each nuclide are contained on five card-image records. The first card image contains decay data (half-life, branching fractions, recoverable energy per decay and the fraction of recoverable energy from photons), percent natural abundance, and radioactivity concentration guides. The last four card images contain cross section and (for fission product nuclides) fission yield data for four reactor types (HTGR, LWR, LMFBR, and MSBR), with one card for each reactor type. The card-image nuclear data libraries are the basic libraries for ORIGEN-S. The code can be run using these libraries directly, or it can be run from a binary data library which (prior to any cross section or other nuclear data updating) was created by running the COUPLE code to convert one or more of these card-image libraries

  18. Googlizing a Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody DeRidder

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how we dramatically increased access to our content through the use of sitemap files and sets of browsable links. Digital libraries, when characterized by search and retrieval capabilities, are normally part of the Deep Web, inaccessible to general web crawlers and hence to generalized search engines such as Google. Yet the primary goals of digital libraries include enhancing accessibility, expanding one's audience to the general public, and promoting the library. Leveraging the capabilities of popular search engines is a potentially powerful and low-cost method of meeting these goals. An overview is provided of the problem, the solutions being developed, as well as an exploration of the current methods of remediation and their applicability to two other search engines, Yahoo! and Ask. A selection of methods is implemented for a dynamically-delivered database of 1081 finding aids (in the form of Encoded Archival Description. Access statistics (ruling out crawlers already indicate a remarkable increase in user and hit counts as a result.

  19. Service Innovation In Academic Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate whether management and employees in academic libraries involve users in library service innovations and what are these user roles. Design/methodology/approach: The paper first conducts a literature review focusing on innovation, new product...... development, new service development and library science with specific focus on users and management. Subsequently the research uses a case study approach to investigate management and customer involvement in a Danish academic library. Findings: Results from the case study show that academic libraries are...... the results of this study. Practical implications: This paper has practical implications for library managers, employees, library science and innovation researchers alike.Originality/value: This article is original because it generates new insights into management and especially customer involvement...

  20. Pros and cons of HaloPlex enrichment in cancer predisposition genetic diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Collet; Julien Tarabeux; Elodie Girard; Catherine Dubois DEnghien; Lisa Golmard; Vivien Deshaies; Alban Lermine; Anthony Laugé; Virginie Moncoutier; Cédrick Lefol; Florence Copigny; Catherine Dehainault; Henrique Tenreiro; Christophe Guy; Khadija Abidallah

    2015-01-01

    Panel sequencing is a practical option in genetic diagnosis. Enrichment and library preparation steps are critical in the diagnostic setting. In order to test the value of HaloPlex technology in diagnosis, we designed a custom oncogenetic panel including 62 genes. The procedure was tested on a training set of 71 controls and then blindly validated on 48 consecutive hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients tested negative for BRCA1/2 mutation. Libraries were sequenced on HiSeq2500 and ...

  1. Benchmark calculation for water reflected STACY cores containing low enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Takemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    In order to validate the availability of criticality calculation codes and related nuclear data library, a series of fundamental benchmark experiments on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution have been performed with a Static Experiment Criticality Facility, STACY in JAERI. The basic core composed of a single tank with water reflector was used for accumulating the systematic data with well-known experimental uncertainties. This paper presents the outline of the core configurations of STACY, the standard calculation model, and calculation results with a Monte Carlo code and JENDL 3.2 nuclear data library. (author)

  2. Academic library user survey: Faculty of Education Library in Osijek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Petr

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the user study, conducted in 1998, among the users of the Osijek Faculty of Education Library. The objective of the study was to determine the scope of library usage, the degree of users’ dis/satisfaction with library services, holdings and the staff. The results indicate that there are differences in library usage between two main user groups – students and teachers. They differ, among other things, in the objectives of library visits, the scope of library usage, the degree of satisfaction with the library and its services, the familiarisation and the level of usage of information technology.Differences in behaviour between these two groups indicate the necessity of a different approach by the library personnel, e.g. intensified work on students’ education.The analysis of the questionnaire leads to the following conclusions:1. Two main user groups of the Faculty of Education Library differ in their requests and needs.2. The degree of dis/satisfaction depends on the group the user belongs to.3. Library users from the fields of arts and humanities, and natural sciences, use information technology to the same degree.

  3. CNA Laboratory Enrichment By Virtualization

    OpenAIRE

    Adodo, Segun

    2011-01-01

    This study is related to networking and the aim is to enrich the laboratory work aspect of the networking study module as implemented by the school’s information technology department. The existing practice lab structures in the institution’s information technology degree programme rely more on Microsoft windows than other operating systems. As a result, experience in non-window operating systems is low in students. To increase the awareness of the Linux operating system among networking ...

  4. Enrichment of solid fuels. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers deal with the methods for solid fuels enrichment, spatially coals, biomass and solid wastes, in order to improve their quality, as well as the price and interest of their use. The priority is given to the Macedonian lignite due to its low calorific value, moisture, ash content and bad mechanical characteristics. The holding of this Meeting was initiated by ZEMAK - Association of power engineers of Macedonia. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Enrichment techniques employed in phosphoproteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2012), s. 1025-1047. ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA ČR GA525/09/0994; GA MŠk OC08011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phosphoproteomics * Enrichment * IMAC Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2012

  6. Enrichment of lanthanides in aragonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿成利; 路波; 刘刚

    2009-01-01

    Using the constant addition technique,the coprecipitation of lanthanum,gadolinium,and lutetium with aragonite in seawater was experimentally investigated at 25 ℃.Their concentrations in aragonite overgrowths were determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer.All these lanthanides were strongly enriched in aragonite overgrowths.The amount of lanthanum,gadolinium,and lutetium incorporated into aragonite accounted for 57%-99%,50%-89%,and 40%-91% of their initial total amount,respectively.With the in...

  7. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    OpenAIRE

    James D Stephenson; Lydia J Hallis; Kazuhide Nagashima; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest minera...

  8. Environmental signatures of enrichment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental sampling is a potentially useful tool that could be used for the detection of undeclared enrichment facilities. However, this would be likely to require the use of sophisticated and expensive analytical techniques to evaluate 235U/238U ratios. It would be, therefore, unlikely to be an inexpensive approach to detect proliferation. The probability of detecting an enrichment operation will depend on the type of facility. A gaseous diffusion operation will be relatively difficult to detect in relation to an EMIS facility and a gaseous centrifuge plant will be more difficult still. Releases from an enrichment operation are likely to be restricted to atmospheric discharges. Aquatic discharges would be relatively easy to contain and it would be unwise to devise a sampling strategy based on the measurement of these. The detection of atmospheric discharges is likely to be dependent on meteorological conditions, in particular stability. Stable atmospheric conditions are the most favourable for detecting releases at significant distances from the plant. Given stable conditions, detection of an EMIS facility might be possible at a distance of several 10s of km

  9. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  10. Uranium enrichment (a strategy analysis overview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of available information on enrichment technology, separative work supply and demand, and SWU cost is presented. Estimates of present and future enrichment costs are provided for use in strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles and systems. (auth)

  11. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  12. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  13. Architectural Optimization of Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser, Aileen O.

    1998-01-01

    This work investigates performance and scaling issues relevant to large scale distributed digital libraries. Presently, performance and scaling studies focus on specific implementations of production or prototype digital libraries. Although useful information is gained to aid these designers and other researchers with insights to performance and scaling issues, the broader issues relevant to very large scale distributed libraries are not addressed. Specifically, no current studies look at the extreme or worst case possibilities in digital library implementations. A survey of digital library research issues is presented. Scaling and performance issues are mentioned frequently in the digital library literature but are generally not the focus of much of the current research. In this thesis a model for a Generic Distributed Digital Library (GDDL) and nine cases of typical user activities are defined. This model is used to facilitate some basic analysis of scaling issues. Specifically, the calculation of Internet traffic generated for different configurations of the study parameters and an estimate of the future bandwidth needed for a large scale distributed digital library implementation. This analysis demonstrates the potential impact a future distributed digital library implementation would have on the Internet traffic load and raises questions concerning the architecture decisions being made for future distributed digital library designs.

  14. Social Metadata for Libraries, Archives and Museums: Research Findings from the RLG Social Metadata Working Group

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose; Smith-Yoshimura, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Rose is part of the RLG Social Metadata Working Group and her presentation focuses on the research and findings of this group from 2009 - 2010, particularly in relation to user contributions that enrich descriptive metadata created by libraries, archives, and museums, such as tagging, commenting and text correction.

  15. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  16. Teaching Analytics: A Clustering and Triangulation Study of Digital Library User Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beijie; Recker, Mimi

    2012-01-01

    Teachers and students increasingly enjoy unprecedented access to abundant web resources and digital libraries to enhance and enrich their classroom experiences. However, due to the distributed nature of such systems, conventional educational research methods, such as surveys and observations, provide only limited snapshots. In addition,…

  17. The preservation assessment of library materials in the Slavic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Košič Humar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to assess the preservation of library collections in the Slavic library and to determine the level of emergency to modify the present conditions of preservation.Methodology/approach: It addresses the situation in the period from December 2010 to June 2011 in three different depots of the Slavic Library as well as preservation aspects of handling of library materials. The methodology of S. Michalski and R. Waller is used for a systematic analysis and assessment of risk factors as well as the level of risk.Results: Observation and analysis of the situation showed problems with maintaining a constant humidity and temperature level, the occurrence of mold and deficiencies of the recently constructed library building. The article identifies the placement of library depot in the basement as inappropriate, the air conditioning systems as ill-suited to the standards of library material preservation and the inadequacy of equipment and fixtures. The assessment according to Michalski showed the »level of emergency« relating to the moisture and temperature, fire safety and intrusion of water into the depot.Research limitation: The study refers to the period of seven months and is limited to the depots of the Slavic Library.Originality/practical implications: The example shows how to detect the causes of damage on library materials and how to recognize risk factors and threats on the basis of the state of library materials and storage conditions. It anticipates developments and allows reflections on library equipment and optimal library building construction.

  18. The CENDL21 library - neutron data library for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a visit to the IAEA Nuclear Data Section from 13 June to 12 December 1997, the author used the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System, Version 94.66, together with the evaluated nuclear data library CENDL-2.1, to generate the working library CENDL21 in ACE format, for input to the continuous energy neutron-photon Monte Carlo Code MCNP. For validation purposes, the CENDL21 library was subjected to a number of integral benchmark tests. (author)

  19. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U3O8; conclusions. (U.K.)

  20. Arrangement of library materials models in Slovene public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kobal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification and the alignment of library material represent an important part of the library science from its early beginnings onwards. The introduction of UDC into Slovene public libraries coincided with the alteration of the open access library collection.In Slovenia the public libraries in average take into account the references and recommendations for the arrangement of the free access library collection, considering the age groups of the users, adults and juniors. The next division is connected with the functional type of the material, which is divided into fiction, and scientific material,and then there is the UDC label for the arrangement of the material on the shelves or word systematic in one of the public libraries. In the junior department there is a need for a further division into four age/reading groups of books instead of three.Within the formed groups there is the further arrangement of books in an alphabetical order by means of author or subject headings. The public library is a unit, which services all the residents in its local area. The different needs and interests of users should take into account in the formation of a library material arrangement.

  1. Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

  2. Perspectives on Job Enrichment and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suojanen, Waino W., Ed.; And Others

    The book of reading focuses on the state of job enrichment in the United States today, as well as some of its international implications. Featured in the book are 20 selected working papers analyzing the development and use of job enrichment in various types of organizations, union response to job enrichment, and its outlook for the future. The…

  3. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  4. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  5. Strategic library futures

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    This ebook focuses on the future of libraries and the strategies which they should best adopt in order to respond effectively to significantly changed circumstances and requirements. This ebook, then, looks at the significant challenges facing librarians as they adopt new technologies and adapt to a world that can never be the same again. But all the authors in this ebook are able to paint a positive picture of developments, with a wide range of descriptions of how librarianship is transforming itself to help shape and lead information and resource provision and discovery in ways unimaginable

  6. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  7. Science photo library

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    SPL [Science Photo Library] holds a wide range of pictures on all aspects of science, medicine and technology. The pictures come with detailed captions and are available as high quality transparencies in medium or 35mm format. Digital files can be made available on request. Our website provides low resolution files of the pictures in this catalogue, which you can search and download for layout presentation use once you have registered. High resolution files or reproduction are available on request and can be delivered to you by disk or ISDN. Visit the online catalog: www.sciencephoto.com

  8. Strategic marketing planning in library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea that every library can design instruments for creating events and managing the important resources of today's world, especially to manage the changes. This process can only be successful if libraries use adequate marketing methods. Strategic marketing planning starts with the analysis of library's mission, its objectives, goals and corporate culture. By analysing the public environment, the competitive environment and the macro environment, libraries recognise their opportunities and threats. These analyses are the foundations for library definitions: What does the library represent?, What does it aspire to? Which goals does it want to reach? What kind of marketing strategy will it use for its target market?

  9. Service Innovation In Academic Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate whether management and employees in academic libraries involve users in library service innovations and what these user roles are. Design/methodology/approach – The article first reviews the literature focusing on innovation, new product...... development, new service development and library science with specific focus on users and management. Subsequently the research uses a case study approach to investigate management and customer involvement in a Danish academic library. Findings – Results from the case study show that academic libraries are...... making some attempts to draw on customers in service innovations and not only rely on management and employees. The main conclusion is that there are unexplored possibilities for customer involvement in library service innovations. Research limitations/implications – One limitation relates to the...

  10. Screening of a virtual mirror-image library of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taro; Oishi, Shinya; Honda, Kaori; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Tamio; Ohno, Hiroaki; Osada, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2016-06-01

    We established a facile access to an unexplored mirror-image library of chiral natural product derivatives using d-protein technology. In this process, two chemical syntheses of mirror-image substances including a target protein and hit compound(s) allow the lead discovery from a virtual mirror-image library without the synthesis of numerous mirror-image compounds. PMID:27198617

  11. Chemical element ratios of SDSS early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Jonas; Maraston, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    We discuss chemical enrichments of ~4000 SDSS early-type galaxies using as tracers the element abundance ratios [C/Fe], [N/Fe], [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe], [Ca/Fe] and for the first time for unresolved stellar populations [Ti/Fe]. We utilise the stellar population models of absorption line indices from Thomas, Maraston & Johansson (2011), which are based on the MILES stellar library. We confirm previous results of increasing age, [Z/H] and [O/Fe] ratios (often represented by [{\\alpha}/Fe] in the literature) with velocity dispersion. We further derive identical correlations with velocity dispersion for the abundance ratios [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [C/Fe], implying that C/Mg and C/O are close to solar values. This sets a lower limit on the formation time-scales and star-burst components of early-type galaxies to ~0.4 Gyr, which is the lifetime of a 3M\\odot star, since the full C enrichment must be reached. [N/Fe] correlates with velocity dispersion, but offset to lower values and with a steeper slope compared to the other ...

  12. PhysiomeSpace: digital library service for biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Debora; Quadrani, Paolo; Viceconti, Marco

    2010-06-28

    Every research laboratory has a wealth of biomedical data locked up, which, if shared with other experts, could dramatically improve biomedical and healthcare research. With the PhysiomeSpace service, it is now possible with a few clicks to share with selected users biomedical data in an easy, controlled and safe way. The digital library service is managed using a client-server approach. The client application is used to import, fuse and enrich the data information according to the PhysiomeSpace resource ontology and upload/download the data to the library. The server services are hosted on the Biomed Town community portal, where through a web interface, the user can complete the metadata curation and share and/or publish the data resources. A search service capitalizes on the domain ontology and on the enrichment of metadata for each resource, providing a powerful discovery environment. Once the users have found the data resources they are interested in, they can add them to their basket, following a metaphor popular in e-commerce web sites. When all the necessary resources have been selected, the user can download the basket contents into the client application. The digital library service is now in beta and open to the biomedical research community. PMID:20478910

  13. BIM-based Modeling and Data Enrichment of Classical Architectural Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Ivan Apollonio; Marco Gaiani; Zheng Sun

    2012-01-01

    EnIn this paper we presented a BIM-based approach for the documentation of Architectural Heritage. Knowledge of classical architecture is first extracted from the treatises for parametric modeling in object level. Then we established a profile library based on semantic studies to sweep out different objects. Variants grow out from the parametric models by editing or regrouping parameters based on grammars. Multiple data including material, structure and real-life state are enriched with respe...

  14. Enriching Orphans’ Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulwahida Hj Azid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.

  15. Enriching The Metadata On CDS

    CERN Document Server

    Chhibber, Nalin

    2014-01-01

    The project report revolves around the open source software package called Invenio. It provides the tools for management of digital assets in a repository and drives CERN Document Server. Primary objective is to enhance the existing metadata in CDS with data from other libraries. An implicit part of this task is to manage disambiguation (within incoming data), removal of multiple entries and handle replications between new and existing records. All such elements and their corresponding changes are integrated within Invenio to make the upgraded metadata available on the CDS. Latter part of the report discuss some changes related to the Invenio code-base itself.

  16. eMarketing for Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Marcial, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    These days advertorials, microsites, social networks, blogging and viral videos are just some manifestations of promoting libraries. E-marketing brings opportunities for libraries to connect whith their target groups. Different publications show how library users are esenciatially digital citizens and with e-marketing it is possible to connect with the users in their own natural habitat. It is also allows spreading a message with a lower cost than other strategies.

  17. Distributed and Parallel Component Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng-quan; XU Yang; YAN Ai-ping

    2005-01-01

    Software component library is the essential part of reuse-based software development. It is shown that making use of a single component library to store all kinds of components and from which components are searched is very inefficient. We construct multi-libraries to support software reuse and use PVM as development environments to imitate largescale computer, which is expected to fulfill distributed storage and parallel search of components efficiently and improve software reuse.

  18. Biological characterization of liver fatty acid binding gene from miniature pig liver cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y H; Wang, K F; Zhang, S; Fan, Y N; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind to long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Wuzhishan miniature pig, and then the L-FABP gene was cloned from this cDNA library and an expression vector (pEGFP-N3-L-FABP) was constructed in vitro. This vector was transfected into hepatocytes to test its function. The results of western blotting analysis demonstrated that the L-FABP gene from our full-length enriched cDNA library regulated downstream genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family in hepatocytes. This study provides a theoretical basis and experimental evidence for the application of L-FABP for the treatment of liver injury. PMID:26345909

  19. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  20. EMIS: Enrichment Management Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the effort was the development of a calculational tool which would permit DOE to make realistic projections of the separative work demands of its customers as an aid in planning for the future operation of the enrichment facilities. The calculational methods were to recognize the flexibility in scheduling, etc., available to DOE customers under their enrichment contreacts as well as the ability to pool separative work withdrawn under two or more contracts. It was also to be designed to permit the user to add new customers or delete existing contracts as well as to allow variation of the estimated start-up dates for those reactors currently under construction. The output of the model was to display projections of separative work demand as SWU and in triplet form for several categories of reactors. These included, in addition to the total demand on the enrichment complex, separate totals for domestic and foreign customers, for reactors with Requirements and Adjustable Fixed Commitment contracts and for reactors in operation, under construction and projected new reactors designated by the user. The foundations upon which the system is based are described in this report. This includes a discussion of the available alternatives for customer management of separative work and the assumptions and guidelines established for development of the model. The report also contains a description of the computational procedures used in the model, and a description of the EMIS system itself, which also serves as a users' manual for the code. Finally, samples demonstrating the use of the system and indicating the form of the input and output are included