WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical libraries enriched

  1. Designing Focused Chemical Libraries Enriched in Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O.; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  2. Designing focused chemical libraries enriched in protein-protein interaction inhibitors using machine-learning methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Reynès

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific. Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI

  3. Designing focused chemical libraries enriched in protein-protein interaction inhibitors using machine-learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynès, Christelle; Host, Hélène; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Laconde, Guillaume; Leroux, Florence; Mazars, Anne; Deprez, Benoit; Fahraeus, Robin; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Sperandio, Olivier

    2010-03-05

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) may represent one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets. So far, only a minute fraction of the estimated 650,000 PPIs that comprise the human interactome are known with a tiny number of complexes being drugged. Such intricate biological systems cannot be cost-efficiently tackled using conventional high-throughput screening methods. Rather, time has come for designing new strategies that will maximize the chance for hit identification through a rationalization of the PPI inhibitor chemical space and the design of PPI-focused compound libraries (global or target-specific). Here, we train machine-learning-based models, mainly decision trees, using a dataset of known PPI inhibitors and of regular drugs in order to determine a global physico-chemical profile for putative PPI inhibitors. This statistical analysis unravels two important molecular descriptors for PPI inhibitors characterizing specific molecular shapes and the presence of a privileged number of aromatic bonds. The best model has been transposed into a computer program, PPI-HitProfiler, that can output from any drug-like compound collection a focused chemical library enriched in putative PPI inhibitors. Our PPI inhibitor profiler is challenged on the experimental screening results of 11 different PPIs among which the p53/MDM2 interaction screened within our own CDithem platform, that in addition to the validation of our concept led to the identification of 4 novel p53/MDM2 inhibitors. Collectively, our tool shows a robust behavior on the 11 experimental datasets by correctly profiling 70% of the experimentally identified hits while removing 52% of the inactive compounds from the initial compound collections. We strongly believe that this new tool can be used as a global PPI inhibitor profiler prior to screening assays to reduce the size of the compound collections to be experimentally screened while keeping most of the true PPI inhibitors. PPI-HitProfiler is

  4. BiNChE: a web tool and library for chemical enrichment analysis based on the ChEBI ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Pablo; Beisken, Stephan; Harsha, Bhavana; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Tudose, Ilinca; Dekker, Adriano; Dornfeldt, Stefanie; Taruttis, Franziska; Grosse, Ivo; Hastings, Janna; Neumann, Steffen; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2015-02-21

    Ontology-based enrichment analysis aids in the interpretation and understanding of large-scale biological data. Ontologies are hierarchies of biologically relevant groupings. Using ontology annotations, which link ontology classes to biological entities, enrichment analysis methods assess whether there is a significant over or under representation of entities for ontology classes. While many tools exist that run enrichment analysis for protein sets annotated with the Gene Ontology, there are only a few that can be used for small molecules enrichment analysis. We describe BiNChE, an enrichment analysis tool for small molecules based on the ChEBI Ontology. BiNChE displays an interactive graph that can be exported as a high-resolution image or in network formats. The tool provides plain, weighted and fragment analysis based on either the ChEBI Role Ontology or the ChEBI Structural Ontology. BiNChE aids in the exploration of large sets of small molecules produced within Metabolomics or other Systems Biology research contexts. The open-source tool provides easy and highly interactive web access to enrichment analysis with the ChEBI ontology tool and is additionally available as a standalone library.

  5. DNA-Encoded Dynamic Combinatorial Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddavide, Francesco V; Lin, Weilin; Lehnert, Sarah; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-06-26

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions. Its application in the discovery of protein binders is largely limited by difficulties in the analysis of complex reaction mixtures. DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) technology allows the selection of binders from a mixture of up to billions of different compounds; however, experimental results often show low a signal-to-noise ratio and poor correlation between enrichment factor and binding affinity. Herein we describe the design and application of DNA-encoded dynamic combinatorial chemical libraries (EDCCLs). Our experiments have shown that the EDCCL approach can be used not only to convert monovalent binders into high-affinity bivalent binders, but also to cause remarkably enhanced enrichment of potent bivalent binders by driving their in situ synthesis. We also demonstrate the application of EDCCLs in DNA-templated chemical reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Energy consumption of chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, T.; Takeda, K.; Obanawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of chemical separation energy for enriching uranium-235 by the redox chromatography was conducted. Isotope exchange reactions between U 4+ -UO 2 2+ ions in the enrichment column are maintained by the redox reactions. The chemical separation energy is ultimately supplied by hydrogen and oxygen gas for regenerating redox agents. The redox energy for the isotope separation is theoretically predicted as a function of the dynamic enrichment factor observed in the chromatographic development of uranium adsorption band. Thermodynamic treatments of the equilibrium reactions implies and inverse redox reaction which can be enhanced by the chemical potential of the ion-exchange reaction of oxidant. Experimental results showed 30 to 90% recovery of the redox energy by the inverse reaction. These results will devise a simplified redox chromatography process where a number of columns in one module is reduced

  7. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION LIBRARY FOR GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users’ simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation—namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models—can use it. This library is named “CELib” after the term “Chemical Evolution Library” and is made available to the community.

  8. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION LIBRARY FOR GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R., E-mail: saitoh@elsi.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users’ simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation—namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models—can use it. This library is named “CELib” after the term “Chemical Evolution Library” and is made available to the community.

  9. Recursive deconvolution of combinatorial chemical libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, E; Janda, K D; Brenner, S

    1994-01-01

    A recursive strategy that solves for the active members of a chemical library is presented. A pentapeptide library with an alphabet of Gly, Leu, Phe, and Tyr (1024 members) was constructed on a solid support by the method of split synthesis. One member of this library (NH2-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) is a native binder to a beta-endorphin antibody. A variation of the split synthesis approach is used to build the combinatorial library. In four vials, a member of the library's alphabet is coupled to a...

  10. An emergent theory of digital library metadata enrich then filter

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Brett

    2015-01-01

    An Emergent Theory of Digital Library Metadata is a reaction to the current digital library landscape that is being challenged with growing online collections and changing user expectations. The theory provides the conceptual underpinnings for a new approach which moves away from expert defined standardised metadata to a user driven approach with users as metadata co-creators. Moving away from definitive, authoritative, metadata to a system that reflects the diversity of users’ terminologies, it changes the current focus on metadata simplicity and efficiency to one of metadata enriching, which is a continuous and evolving process of data linking. From predefined description to information conceptualised, contextualised and filtered at the point of delivery. By presenting this shift, this book provides a coherent structure in which future technological developments can be considered.

  11. Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie

    2016-07-28

    In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.

  12. Encoded libraries of chemically modified peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinis, Christian; Winter, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The use of powerful technologies for generating and screening DNA-encoded protein libraries has helped drive the development of proteins as pharmaceutical ligands. However the development of peptides as pharmaceutical ligands has been more limited. Although encoded peptide libraries are typically several orders of magnitude larger than classical chemical libraries, can be more readily screened, and can give rise to higher affinity ligands, their use as pharmaceutical ligands is limited by their intrinsic properties. Two of the intrinsic limitations include the rotational flexibility of the peptide backbone and the limited number (20) of natural amino acids. However these limitations can be overcome by use of chemical modification. For example, the libraries can be modified to introduce topological constraints such as cyclization linkers, or to introduce new chemical entities such as small molecule ligands, fluorophores and photo-switchable compounds. This article reviews the chemistry involved, the properties of the peptide ligands, and the new opportunities offered by chemical modification of DNA-encoded peptide libraries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Chemical enrichment in halo planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Peimbert, S; Rayo, J F; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrophotometry of emission lines in the 3400-7400 A region is presented for the planetary nebulae 108-76/sup 0/1(BB1). From these observations the relative abundances of H, He, C, N, O and Ne are derived. The abundances of the halo PN (BB1, H4-1 and K648) are compared to those predicted by stellar evolution theory under the assumption that the envelope has the chemical composition of the matter located between the H burning shell and the surface. The observed He/H and C/O values are higher than predicted which implies that halo PN contain matter from deeper layers than the H burning shell. Furthermore, the O/Ar, N/Ar and Ne/Ar values in halo PN are higher than in the solar neighbourhood, at least part of this enrichment is produced by the PN progenitors.

  14. The Populations of Carina. II. Chemical Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Casagrande, Luca; Dotter, Aaron [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Venn, Kim A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Gilmore, Gerard, E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: luca@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: aaron.dotter@gmail.com, E-mail: kvenn@uvic.ca, E-mail: gil@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Chemical abundances are presented for 19 elements in a sample of 63 red giants in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph), based on homogeneous 1D/LTE model atmosphere analyses of our own observations (32 stars) and data available in the literature (a further 31 independent stars). The (Fe) metallicity and [ α /Fe] distribution functions have mean values and dispersions of −1.59 and 0.33 dex ([Fe/H] range: −2.68 to −0.64) and 0.07 and 0.13 dex ([ α /Fe] range: −0.27 to 0.25), respectively. We confirm the finding of Venn et al. that a small percentage (some 10% in the present investigation) of the sample shows clear evidence for significant enrichment by Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) ejecta. Calcium, with the most accurately determined abundance of the α -elements, shows an asymmetric distribution toward smaller values of [Ca/Fe] at all [Fe/H], most significantly over −2.0 < [Fe/H] < −1.0, suggestive of incomplete mixing of the ejecta of SNe Ia with the ambient medium of each of Carina’s generations. Approximate color–magnitude diagram age estimates are presented for the sample, and together with our chemical abundances, compared with the results of our previous synthetic color–magnitude diagram analysis, which reported the details of Carina’s four well-defined populations. We searched for the Na–O anticorrelation universally reported in the Galaxy’s globular clusters and confirm that this phenomenon does not exist in Carina. We also found that one of the 32 stars in our sample has an extremely enhanced lithium abundance— A (Li){sub NLTE} = +3.36, consistent with membership of the ∼1% group of Li-rich stars in dSph described by Kirby et al.

  15. Enriching Critical Thinking and Language Learning with Educational Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsin-lin

    2012-01-01

    As the amount of information available in online digital libraries increases exponentially, questions arise concerning the most productive way to use that information to advance learning. Applying the earlier information seeking theories advocated by Kelly (1963), Taylor (1968), and Belkin (1980) to the digital libraries experience, Carol Kuhlthau…

  16. Chemical uranium enrichment with ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Obanawa, Heiichiro

    1991-01-01

    The uranium enrichment by using ion-exchange has been studied and developed since 1972. The ion-exchange rate has been improved approx. 3000 times and the electron exchange reaction, which occurs with ion-exchange reaction, was also accelerated with catalyst. Flow disturbance in a ion-exchange column has been fully studied and the value of turbulence has been reduced to 150μm. These results allowed us to design a very fine separation column, in which about 10000 stages can be obtained even when the column is more than 1 m in diameter. In the course of the development, a self-regenerating reaction between the redox agents was discovered and incorporated into the process, and has resulted in a reduction of 70 % in the separation energy requirement. (author)

  17. Chicken microsatellite markers isolated from libraries enriched for simple tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M; Dawson, D A; McCamley, C; Wardle, A F; Armour, J A; Burke, T

    1997-12-01

    The total number of microsatellite loci is considered to be at least 10-fold lower in avian species than in mammalian species. Therefore, efficient large-scale cloning of chicken microsatellites, as required for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map, is facilitated by the construction of libraries using an enrichment strategy. In this study, a plasmid library enriched for tandem repeats was constructed from chicken genomic DNA by hybridization selection. Using this technique the proportion of recombinant clones that cross-hybridized to probes containing simple tandem repeats was raised to 16%, compared with < 0.1% in a non-enriched library. Primers were designed from 121 different sequences. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of two chicken reference pedigrees enabled 72 loci to be localized within the collaborative chicken genetic map, and at least 30 of the remaining loci have been shown to be informative in these or other crosses.

  18. Semantically Enriching the Search System of a Music Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, Paloma; Iglesias, Carlos

    Traditional search systems are usually based on keywords, a very simple and convenient mechanism to express a need for information. This is the most popular way of searching the Web, although it is not always an easy task to accurately summarize a natural language query in a few keywords. Working with keywords means losing the context, which is the only thing that can help us deal with ambiguity. This is the biggest problem of keyword-based systems. Semantic Web technologies seem a perfect solution to this problem, since they make it possible to represent the semantics of a given domain. In this chapter, we present three projects, Harmos, Semusici and Cantiga, whose aim is to provide access to a music digital library. We will describe two search systems, a traditional one and a semantic one, developed in the context of these projects and compare them in terms of usability and effectiveness.

  19. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  20. Developing new microsatellite markers in walnut (Juglans regia L.) from Juglans nigra genomic GA enriched library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat Topcu; Nergiz Coban; Keith Woeste; Mehmet Sutyemez; Salih. Kafkas

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. genomic enriched library with GA repeat. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the...

  1. Toward Chemical Implementation of Encoded Combinatorial Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Janda, Kim D.

    1994-01-01

    The recent application of "combinatorial libraries" to supplement existing drug screening processes might simplify and accelerate the search for new lead compounds or drugs. Recently, a scheme for encoded combinatorial chemistry was put forward to surmount a number of the limitations possessed...

  2. Optimization of axial enrichment distribution for BWR fuels using scoping libraries and block coordinate descent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Wu-Hsiung, E-mail: wstong@iner.gov.tw; Lee, Tien-Tso; Kuo, Weng-Sheng; Yaur, Shung-Jung

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • An optimization method for axial enrichment distribution in a BWR fuel was developed. • Block coordinate descent method is employed to search for optimal solution. • Scoping libraries are used to reduce computational effort. • Optimization search space consists of enrichment difference parameters. • Capability of the method to find optimal solution is demonstrated. - Abstract: An optimization method has been developed to search for the optimal axial enrichment distribution in a fuel assembly for a boiling water reactor core. The optimization method features: (1) employing the block coordinate descent method to find the optimal solution in the space of enrichment difference parameters, (2) using scoping libraries to reduce the amount of CASMO-4 calculation, and (3) integrating a core critical constraint into the objective function that is used to quantify the quality of an axial enrichment design. The objective function consists of the weighted sum of core parameters such as shutdown margin and critical power ratio. The core parameters are evaluated by using SIMULATE-3, and the cross section data required for the SIMULATE-3 calculation are generated by using CASMO-4 and scoping libraries. The application of the method to a 4-segment fuel design (with the highest allowable segment enrichment relaxed to 5%) demonstrated that the method can obtain an axial enrichment design with improved thermal limit ratios and objective function value while satisfying the core design constraints and core critical requirement through the use of an objective function. The use of scoping libraries effectively reduced the number of CASMO-4 calculation, from 85 to 24, in the 4-segment optimization case. An exhausted search was performed to examine the capability of the method in finding the optimal solution for a 4-segment fuel design. The results show that the method found a solution very close to the optimum obtained by the exhausted search. The number of

  3. DNA-encoded chemical libraries: advancing beyond conventional small-molecule libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2014-04-15

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) represent a promising tool in drug discovery. DECL technology allows the synthesis and screening of chemical libraries of unprecedented size at moderate costs. In analogy to phage-display technology, where large antibody libraries are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage and are genetically encoded in the phage genome, DECLs feature the display of individual small organic chemical moieties on DNA fragments serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. The DNA-tag facilitates the synthesis and allows the simultaneous screening of very large sets of compounds (up to billions of molecules), because the hit compounds can easily be identified and quantified by PCR-amplification of the DNA-barcode followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing. Several approaches have been used to generate DECLs, differing both in the methods used for library encoding and for the combinatorial assembly of chemical moieties. For example, DECLs can be used for fragment-based drug discovery, displaying a single molecule on DNA or two chemical moieties at the extremities of complementary DNA strands. DECLs can vary substantially in the chemical structures and the library size. While ultralarge libraries containing billions of compounds have been reported containing four or more sets of building blocks, also smaller libraries have been shown to be efficient for ligand discovery. In general, it has been found that the overall library size is a poor predictor for library performance and that the number and diversity of the building blocks are rather important indicators. Smaller libraries consisting of two to three sets of building blocks better fulfill the criteria of drug-likeness and often have higher quality. In this Account, we present advances in the DECL field from proof-of-principle studies to practical applications for drug discovery, both in industry and in academia. DECL technology can yield specific binders to a variety of target

  4. Laboratory studies of 235U enrichment by chemical separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daloisi, P.J.; Orlett, M.J.; Tracy, J.W.; Saraceno, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on 235 U enrichment processes based on column redox ion exchange, electrodialysis, and gas exchange chromatography performed from August 1972 to September 1974 are summarized. Effluent from a 50 to 50 weight mixture of U +4 and U +6 (as UO 2 2+ ), at a total uranium concentration of 5 mg U per ml in 0.25N H 2 SO 4 -0.03N NaF solution, passing through a 100 cm length cation exchange column at 0.5 ml/min flow rates, was enriched in 235 U by 1.00090 +- .00012. The enriched fraction was mostly in the +6 valence form while the depleted fraction was U +4 retained on the resin. At flow rates of 2 ml/min, the enrichment factor decreases to 1.00033 +- .00003. In the electrodialysis experiments, the fraction of uranium diffusing through the membranes (mostly as +6 valence state) in 4.2 hours is enriched in 235 U by 1.00096 +- .00012. Gas exchange chromatography tests involved dynamic and static exposure of UF 6 over NaF. In dynamic tests, no significant change in isotopic abundance occurred in the initial one-half weight cut of UF 6 . The measured relative 235 U/ 238 U mole ratios were 1.00004 +- .00004 for these runs. In static runs, enrichment became evident. For the NaF(UF 6 )/sub x/-UF 6 system, there is 235 U depletion in the gas phase, with a single-stage factor of 1.00033 at 100 0 C and 1.00025 at 25 0 C after 10 days of equilibration. The single-stage or unit holdup time is impractically long for all three chemical processes

  5. 3G vector-primer plasmid for constructing full-length-enriched cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhou, Yanna; Zhang, Zidong; Li, Zaiyu; Liu, Xuedong

    2008-09-01

    We designed a 3G vector-primer plasmid for the generation of full-length-enriched complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries. By employing the terminal transferase activity of reverse transcriptase and the modified strand replacement method, this plasmid (assembled with a polydT end and a deoxyguanosine [dG] end) combines priming full-length cDNA strand synthesis and directional cDNA cloning. As a result, the number of steps involved in cDNA library preparation is decreased while simplifying downstream gene manipulation, sequencing, and subcloning. The 3G vector-primer plasmid method yields fully represented plasmid primed libraries that are equivalent to those made by the SMART (switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript) approach.

  6. DNA-encoded chemical libraries - achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Nicholas; Bassi, Gabriele; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2018-04-23

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are collections of compounds, individually coupled to DNA tags serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. Since individual compounds can be identified by the associated DNA tag, they can be stored as a mixture, allowing the synthesis and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, facilitated by the implementation of split-and-pool synthetic procedures or other experimental methodologies. In this review, we briefly present relevant concepts and technologies, which are required for the implementation and interpretation of screening procedures with DNA-encoded chemical libraries. Moreover, we illustrate some success stories, detailing how novel ligands were discovered from encoded libraries. Finally, we critically review what can realistically be achieved with the technology at the present time, highlighting challenges and opportunities for the future. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Enriching Traditional Cataloging for Improved Access to Information:Library of Congress Tables of Contents Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Byrum Jr.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, standard catalog records have provided bibliographic data that mostly address the basic features of library resources. At the same time, catalogs have offered access to these records through a limited array of names, titles, series, subject headings, class numbers, and a relatively small number of keywords contained within descriptions. Today’s catalog users expect access to information well beyond what can be offered by traditional approaches to bibliographic description and access. By pursuing a suite of projects, the Library of Congress (LC has responded to the challenge of enticing patrons to continue to include the online catalog among the tools they use for information retrieval. Drawing extensively on the power of automation, staff of LC’s Bibliographic Enrichment Advisory Team (BEAT have created and implemented a variety of initiatives to link researchers, catalogs, and Web resources; increase the content of the catalog record; and link the catalog to electronic resources. BEAT’s ongoing work demonstrates how, in the electronic era, it is possible to provide new and improved ways to capitalize on traditional services in the digital age. This paper will illustrate these points by focusing on BEAT’s tables of contents projects to demonstrate how library automation can make significant bibliographic enhancement efforts quick, easy, and affordable to achieve.

  8. Alternative splicing enriched cDNA libraries identify breast cancer-associated transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is a central mechanism in the generation of genomic complexity and is a major contributor to transcriptome and proteome diversity. Alterations of the splicing process can lead to deregulation of crucial cellular processes and have been associated with a large spectrum of human diseases. Cancer-associated transcripts are potential molecular markers and may contribute to the development of more accurate diagnostic and prognostic methods and also serve as therapeutic targets. Alternative splicing-enriched cDNA libraries have been used to explore the variability generated by alternative splicing. In this study, by combining the use of trapping heteroduplexes and RNA amplification, we developed a powerful approach that enables transcriptome-wide exploration of the AS repertoire for identifying AS variants associated with breast tumor cells modulated by ERBB2 (HER-2/neu) oncogene expression. Results The human breast cell line (C5.2) and a pool of 5 ERBB2 over-expressing breast tumor samples were used independently for the construction of two AS-enriched libraries. In total, 2,048 partial cDNA sequences were obtained, revealing 214 alternative splicing sequence-enriched tags (ASSETs). A subset with 79 multiple exon ASSETs was compared to public databases and reported 138 different AS events. A high success rate of RT-PCR validation (94.5%) was obtained, and 2 novel AS events were identified. The influence of ERBB2-mediated expression on AS regulation was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis and probe-ligation approaches in two mammary cell lines (Hb4a and C5.2) expressing different levels of ERBB2. The relative expression balance between AS variants from 3 genes was differentially modulated by ERBB2 in this model system. Conclusions In this study, we presented a method for exploring AS from any RNA source in a transcriptome-wide format, which can be directly easily adapted to next generation sequencers. We identified AS transcripts

  9. Chemical Enrichment and Physical Conditions in IZw18*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Heap, S.; Hubeny, I.; Kunth, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies are prime targets to understand the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. The H I region contains the bulk of the mass in blue compact dwarfs, and it provides important constraints on the dispersal and mixing of heavy elements released by successive star-formation episodes. The metallicity of the H I region is also a critical parameter to investigate the future star-formation history, as metals provide most of the gas cooling that will facilitate and sustain star formation. Aims. Our primary objective is to study the enrichment of the H I region and the interplay between star-formation history and metallicity evolution. Our secondary obje ctive is to constrain the spatial- and time-scales over which the HI and H II regions are enriched, and the mass range of stars responsible for the heavy element production. Finally, we aim to examine the gas heating and cooling mechanisms in the H I region. Methods. We observed the most metal-poor star-forming galaxy in the Local Universe, I Zw 18, with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph onboard Hubble. The abundances in the neutral gas are derived from far-ultraviolet absorption-lines (H I, CIII, CIIi*, N I, OI,...) and are compared to the abundances in the H II region. Models are constructed to calculate the ionization structure and the thermal processes. We investigate the gas cooling in the HIi region through physical diagnostics drawn from the fine-structure level of C+. Results. We find that H I region abundances are lower by a factor of approx 2 as compared to the H II region. There is no differential depletion on dust between the H I and H II region. Using sulfur as a metallicity tracer, we calculate a metallicity of 1/46 Z(solar) (vs. 1/31 Z(solar) in the H II region). From the study of the C/O, [O/Fe], and N/O abundance ratios, we propose that C, N, O, and Fe are mainly produced in massive stars. We argue that the H I envelope may contain pockets of pristine gas with a

  10. A quantitative infrared spectral library of vapor phase chemicals: applications to environmental monitoring and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.

    2004-12-01

    The utility of infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and early warning of accidental or deliberate chemical releases to the atmosphere is well documented. Regardless of the monitoring technique (open-path or extractive) or weather the spectrometer is passive or active (Fourier transform or lidar) a high quality, quantitative reference library is essential for meaningful interpretation of the data. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory through the support of the Department of Energy has been building a library of pure, vapor phase chemical species for the last 4 years. This infrared spectral library currently contains over 300 chemicals and is expected to grow to over 400 chemicals before completion. The library spectra are based on a statistical fit to many spectra at different concentrations, allowing for rigorous error analysis. The contents of the library are focused on atmospheric pollutants, naturally occurring chemicals, toxic industrial chemicals and chemicals specifically designed to do damage. Applications, limitations and technical details of the spectral library will be discussed.

  11. Virtual screening methods as tools for drug lead discovery from large chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X H; Zhu, F; Liu, X; Shi, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening methods have been developed and explored as useful tools for searching drug lead compounds from chemical libraries, including large libraries that have become publically available. In this review, we discussed the new developments in exploring virtual screening methods for enhanced performance in searching large chemical libraries, their applications in screening libraries of ~ 1 million or more compounds in the last five years, the difficulties in their applications, and the strategies for further improving these methods.

  12. HBIM TO VR. SEMANTIC AWARENESS AND DATA ENRICHMENT INTEROPERABILITY FOR PARAMETRIC LIBRARIES OF HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quattrini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently we assist to an increasing availability of HBIM models rich in geometric and informative terms. Instead, there is still a lack of researches implementing dedicated libraries, based on parametric intelligence and semantically aware, related to the architectural heritage. Additional challenges became from their portability in non-desktop environment (such as VR. The research article demonstrates the validity of a workflow applied to the architectural heritage, which starting from the semantic modeling reaches the visualization in a virtual reality environment, passing through the necessary phases of export, data migration and management. The three-dimensional modeling of the classical Doric order takes place in the BIM work environment and is configured as a necessary starting point for the implementation of data, parametric intelligences and definition of ontologies that exclusively qualify the model. The study also enables an effective method for data migration from the BIM model to databases integrated into VR technologies for AH. Furthermore, the process intends to propose a methodology, applicable in a return path, suited to the achievement of an appropriate data enrichment of each model and to the possibility of interaction in VR environment with the model.

  13. Compositional Bias in Naïve and Chemically-modified Phage-Displayed Libraries uncovered by Paired-end Deep Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bifang; Tjhung, Katrina F; Bennett, Nicholas J; Chou, Ying; Rau, Andrea; Huang, Jian; Derda, Ratmir

    2018-01-19

    Understanding the composition of a genetically-encoded (GE) library is instrumental to the success of ligand discovery. In this manuscript, we investigate the bias in GE-libraries of linear, macrocyclic and chemically post-translationally modified (cPTM) tetrapeptides displayed on the M13KE platform, which are produced via trinucleotide cassette synthesis (19 codons) and NNK-randomized codon. Differential enrichment of synthetic DNA {S}, ligated vector {L} (extension and ligation of synthetic DNA into the vector), naïve libraries {N} (transformation of the ligated vector into the bacteria followed by expression of the library for 4.5 hours to yield a "naïve" library), and libraries chemically modified by aldehyde ligation and cysteine macrocyclization {M} characterized by paired-end deep sequencing, detected a significant drop in diversity in {L} → {N}, but only a minor compositional difference in {S} → {L} and {N} → {M}. Libraries expressed at the N-terminus of phage protein pIII censored positively charged amino acids Arg and Lys; libraries expressed between pIII domains N1 and N2 overcame Arg/Lys-censorship but introduced new bias towards Gly and Ser. Interrogation of biases arising from cPTM by aldehyde ligation and cysteine macrocyclization unveiled censorship of sequences with Ser/Phe. Analogous analysis can be used to explore library diversity in new display platforms and optimize cPTM of these libraries.

  14. GPU Accelerated Chemical Similarity Calculation for Compound Library Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2012-01-01

    Chemical similarity calculation plays an important role in compound library design, virtual screening, and “lead” optimization. In this manuscript, we present a novel GPU-accelerated algorithm for all-vs-all Tanimoto matrix calculation and nearest neighbor search. By taking advantage of multi-core GPU architecture and CUDA parallel programming technology, the algorithm is up to 39 times superior to the existing commercial software that runs on CPUs. Because of the utilization of intrinsic GPU instructions, this approach is nearly 10 times faster than existing GPU-accelerated sparse vector algorithm, when Unity fingerprints are used for Tanimoto calculation. The GPU program that implements this new method takes about 20 minutes to complete the calculation of Tanimoto coefficients between 32M PubChem compounds and 10K Active Probes compounds, i.e., 324G Tanimoto coefficients, on a 128-CUDA-core GPU. PMID:21692447

  15. A cluster-based strategy for assessing the overlap between large chemical libraries and its application to a recent acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Michael F M; Gibbs, Alan C; Jaeger, Edward P; Verbinnen, Danny; Lobanov, Victor S; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K

    2006-01-01

    We report on the structural comparison of the corporate collections of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development (JNJPRD) and 3-Dimensional Pharmaceuticals (3DP), performed in the context of the recent acquisition of 3DP by JNJPRD. The main objective of the study was to assess the druglikeness of the 3DP library and the extent to which it enriched the chemical diversity of the JNJPRD corporate collection. The two databases, at the time of acquisition, collectively contained more than 1.1 million compounds with a clearly defined structural description. The analysis was based on a clustering approach and aimed at providing an intuitive quantitative estimate and visual representation of this enrichment. A novel hierarchical clustering algorithm called divisive k-means was employed in combination with Kelley's cluster-level selection method to partition the combined data set into clusters, and the diversity contribution of each library was evaluated as a function of the relative occupancy of these clusters. Typical 3DP chemotypes enriching the diversity of the JNJPRD collection were catalogued and visualized using a modified maximum common substructure algorithm. The joint collection of JNJPRD and 3DP compounds was also compared to other databases of known medicinally active or druglike compounds. The potential of the methodology for the analysis of very large chemical databases is discussed.

  16. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker

  17. Chemical Enrichment of the Solar System by Stellar Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    2015-03-01

    Spectroscopic observations of evolved stars have shown signatures of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. This suggests that complex organics with chemical structures similar to those of insoluble organic matter (IOM) found in carbonaceous meteorites are made in stars. This raises the possibility that in addition to known pre-solar grains such as silicon carbide, organic star dust may also have traveled across the Galaxy to the Solar System.

  18. Characterization of new Schistosoma mansoni microsatellite loci in sequences obtained from public DNA databases and microsatellite enriched genomic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues NB

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade microsatellites have become one of the most useful genetic markers used in a large number of organisms due to their abundance and high level of polymorphism. Microsatellites have been used for individual identification, paternity tests, forensic studies and population genetics. Data on microsatellite abundance comes preferentially from microsatellite enriched libraries and DNA sequence databases. We have conducted a search in GenBank of more than 16,000 Schistosoma mansoni ESTs and 42,000 BAC sequences. In addition, we obtained 300 sequences from CA and AT microsatellite enriched genomic libraries. The sequences were searched for simple repeats using the RepeatMasker software. Of 16,022 ESTs, we detected 481 (3% sequences that contained 622 microsatellites (434 perfect, 164 imperfect and 24 compounds. Of the 481 ESTs, 194 were grouped in 63 clusters containing 2 to 15 ESTs per cluster. Polymorphisms were observed in 16 clusters. The 287 remaining ESTs were orphan sequences. Of the 42,017 BAC end sequences, 1,598 (3.8% contained microsatellites (2,335 perfect, 287 imperfect and 79 compounds. The 1,598 BAC end sequences 80 were grouped into 17 clusters containing 3 to 17 BAC end sequences per cluster. Microsatellites were present in 67 out of 300 sequences from microsatellite enriched libraries (55 perfect, 38 imperfect and 15 compounds. From all of the observed loci 55 were selected for having the longest perfect repeats and flanking regions that allowed the design of primers for PCR amplification. Additionally we describe two new polymorphic microsatellite loci.

  19. Early history of chemical exchange isotope enrichment and lessons we learn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu; Ono, Yuriko

    2006-01-01

    The chemical exchange isotope enrichment process has an advantage over other isotope separation methods in that it involves two chemicals rather than one and, consequently, relatively large separation factors can be obtained. However, the chemical exchange method requires a chemical conversion of the substance enriched in the target isotope into the second substance. The idiosyncrasies of the isotope separation process by this method are pointed out using McCabe-Thiele diagram and, from them, the difficulties involved in the chemical exchange methods are itemized. Examples of the points being made are taken from the pioneering works of this field carried out by Harold C. Urey, his contemporaries, the students and the students' students. Lessons we learn from these works are discussed. (author)

  20. Full-length enriched multistage cDNA library construction covering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Full-length enriched ... complementary DNA; pfu, plaque-forming unit. ... Chinese-native tree species in Populus section Leuce ... the infected bacteria, 2 ml melted top agar was added, and the.

  1. Quantitative PCR is a Valuable Tool to Monitor the Performance of DNA-Encoded Chemical Library Selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhou; Zimmermann, Gunther; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2017-05-04

    Phage-display libraries and DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) represent useful tools for the isolation of specific binding molecules from large combinatorial sets of compounds. With both methods, specific binders are recovered at the end of affinity capture procedures by using target proteins of interest immobilized on a solid support. However, although the efficiency of phage-display selections is routinely quantified by counting the phage titer before and after the affinity capture step, no similar quantification procedures have been reported for the characterization of DECL selections. In this article, we describe the potential and limitations of quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for the evaluation of selection efficiency by using a combinatorial chemical library with more than 35 million compounds. In the experimental conditions chosen for the selections, a quantification of DNA input/recovery over five orders of magnitude could be performed, revealing a successful enrichment of abundant binders, which could be confirmed by DNA sequencing. qPCR provided rapid information about the performance of selections, thus facilitating the optimization of experimental conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Lightning talk slide for "SLACKHA: Software Library for Accelerating Chemical Kinetics on Hybrid Architectures"

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, Kyle; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Lightning talk slide describing the "SLACKHA: Software Library for Accelerating Chemical Kinetics on Hybrid Architectures" project at the 2018 NSF SI2 PI meeting: https://si2-pi-community.github.io/2018-meeting/

  3. Deiodinase 1 Screening of ToxCast Phase 1 Chemical Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This excel spreadsheet contains the resultant data for over from inhibition assays with human Deiodinase 1 screened against the ToxCast Phase 1 chemical library and...

  4. Enrichment: CRISLA [chemical reaction by isotope selective activation] aims to reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Every year, more than $3 billion is spent on enriching uranium. CRISLA (Chemical Reaction by Isotope Selective Activation) uses a laser-catalyzed chemical reaction which, its proponents claim, could substantially reduce these costs. In CRISLA, an infrared CO laser illuminates the intracavity reaction cell (IC) at a frequency tuned to excite primarily UF 6 . When UF 6 and co-reactant RX are passed through the IC, the tuned laser photons preferentially enhance the reaction of UF 6 with RX ten-thousand-fold over the thermal reaction rate. Thus the laser serves as an activator and the chemical energy for separation is largely chemical. (author)

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags generated from full-length enriched cDNA libraries of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendahmane Abdelhafid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melon (Cucumis melo, an economically important vegetable crop, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which includes several other important crops such as watermelon, cucumber, and pumpkin. It has served as a model system for sex determination and vascular biology studies. However, genomic resources currently available for melon are limited. Result We constructed eleven full-length enriched and four standard cDNA libraries from fruits, flowers, leaves, roots, cotyledons, and calluses of four different melon genotypes, and generated 71,577 and 22,179 ESTs from full-length enriched and standard cDNA libraries, respectively. These ESTs, together with ~35,000 ESTs available in public domains, were assembled into 24,444 unigenes, which were extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein and functional domain databases, assigning them Gene Ontology (GO terms, and mapping them onto metabolic pathways. Comparative analysis of melon unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that 75% to 85% of melon unigenes had homologs in other dicot plants, while approximately 70% had homologs in monocot plants. The analysis also identified 6,972 gene families that were conserved across dicot and monocot plants, and 181, 1,192, and 220 gene families specific to fleshy fruit-bearing plants, the Cucurbitaceae family, and melon, respectively. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 175 tissue-specific genes, which provides a valuable gene sequence resource for future genomics and functional studies. Furthermore, we identified 4,068 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 3,073 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the melon EST collection. Finally, we obtained a total of 1,382 melon full-length transcripts through the analysis of full-length enriched cDNA clones that were sequenced from both ends. Analysis of these full-length transcripts indicated that sizes of melon 5' and 3' UTRs were similar to those of tomato, but

  6. Silica Retention and Enrichment in Open-System Chemical Weathering on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Thompson, L. M.; Berger, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical signatures of weathering are evident in the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) datasets from Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater. Comparisons across the landing sites show consistent patterns indicating silica retention and/or enrichment in open-system aqueous alteration.

  7. Methylation-sensitive linking libraries enhance gene-enriched sequencing of complex genomes and map DNA methylation domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Arvind K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plant genomes are resistant to whole-genome assembly due to an abundance of repetitive sequence, leading to the development of gene-rich sequencing techniques. Two such techniques are hypomethylated partial restriction (HMPR and methylation spanning linker libraries (MSLL. These libraries differ from other gene-rich datasets in having larger insert sizes, and the MSLL clones are designed to provide reads localized to "epigenetic boundaries" where methylation begins or ends. Results A large-scale study in maize generated 40,299 HMPR sequences and 80,723 MSLL sequences, including MSLL clones exceeding 100 kb. The paired end reads of MSLL and HMPR clones were shown to be effective in linking existing gene-rich sequences into scaffolds. In addition, it was shown that the MSLL clones can be used for anchoring these scaffolds to a BAC-based physical map. The MSLL end reads effectively identified epigenetic boundaries, as indicated by their preferential alignment to regions upstream and downstream from annotated genes. The ability to precisely map long stretches of fully methylated DNA sequence is a unique outcome of MSLL analysis, and was also shown to provide evidence for errors in gene identification. MSLL clones were observed to be significantly more repeat-rich in their interiors than in their end reads, confirming the correlation between methylation and retroelement content. Both MSLL and HMPR reads were found to be substantially gene-enriched, with the SalI MSLL libraries being the most highly enriched (31% align to an EST contig, while the HMPR clones exhibited exceptional depletion of repetitive DNA (to ~11%. These two techniques were compared with other gene-enrichment methods, and shown to be complementary. Conclusion MSLL technology provides an unparalleled approach for mapping the epigenetic status of repetitive blocks and for identifying sequences mis-identified as genes. Although the types and natures of

  8. Detection of interstellar DNC - Difficulties of chemical equilibrium hypothesis for enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, P. D.; Brown, R. D.; Gunn, H. I.; Blackman, G. L.; Storey, J. W. V.

    1977-01-01

    The J = 1-0 transition of DNC at 76.3058 GHz has been observed in emission in NGC 2264. Comparison with previous observations of HN(C-13) indicates that deuterium is enriched in DNC similarly to the enrichment reported for DCO(+) in this source. The DNC/HNC ratio is estimated to be about 1/24. The results cannot readily be interpreted in terms of chemical equilibria relating to the formation of DNC. It is suggested that the explanation must be sought in isotope effects on rates of formation of interstellar molecules.

  9. Current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Basyouny, A.; Bechthold, H.C.; Knoechel, A.; Vollmer, H.J.

    1985-04-01

    For this report, conference proceedings, patents and other types of literature have been collected to present an account of the current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions. The report further presents a new concept along with the relevant process strategy developed by the authors. The principal process of the new concept is a chemical exchange process with crown ethers, complexed or free, playing an important part in the reactions. The authors also describe their experiments carried out for establishing suitable chemical systems. (orig./PW) [de

  10. Enrichment of {sup 15}N and {sup 10}B isotopes by chemical exchange process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D` Souza, A B; Sonwalkar, A S; Subrahmanyam, B V; Valladares, B A [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Many processes are available for separation of stable isotopes like distillation, chemical exchange, thermal diffusion, gaseous diffusion, centrifuge etc. Chemical exchange process is eminently suitable for separation of isotopes of light elements. Work done on separation and enrichment of two of the stable isotopes viz. {sup 15}N and {sup 10}B in Chemical Engineering Division is presented. {sup 15}N is widely used as a tracer in agricultural research and {sup 10}B is used in nuclear industry as control rod material, soluble reactor poison, neutron detector etc. The work on {sup 15}N isotope resulted in a pilot plant, which was the only source of this material in the country for many years and later it was translated into a production plant as M/s. RCF Ltd. The work done on the ion-exchange process for enrichment of {sup 10}B isotope which is basically a chemical exchange process, is now being updated into a pilot plant to produce enriched {sup 10}B to be used as soluble reactor poison. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Enrichment of 15N and 10B isotopes by chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, A.B.; Sonwalkar, A.S.; Subrahmanyam, B.V.; Valladares, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many processes are available for separation of stable isotopes like distillation, chemical exchange, thermal diffusion, gaseous diffusion, centrifuge etc. Chemical exchange process is eminently suitable for separation of isotopes of light elements. Work done on separation and enrichment of two of the stable isotopes viz. 15 N and 10 B in Chemical Engineering Division is presented. 15 N is widely used as a tracer in agricultural research and 10 B is used in nuclear industry as control rod material, soluble reactor poison, neutron detector etc. The work on 15 N isotope resulted in a pilot plant, which was the only source of this material in the country for many years and later it was translated into a production plant as M/s. RCF Ltd. The work done on the ion-exchange process for enrichment of 10 B isotope which is basically a chemical exchange process, is now being updated into a pilot plant to produce enriched 10 B to be used as soluble reactor poison. (author)

  12. Validation of SCALE 4.0 -- CSAS25 module and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library for low-enriched uranium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    A version of KENO V.a and the 27-group library in SCALE-4.0 were validated for use in evaluating the nuclear criticality safety of low-enriched uranium systems. A total of 59 critical systems were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the results was performed, and subcritical acceptanced criteria are established.

  13. Validation of SCALE 4. 0 -- CSAS25 module and the 27-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section library for low-enriched uranium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    A version of KENO V.a and the 27-group library in SCALE-4.0 were validated for use in evaluating the nuclear criticality safety of low-enriched uranium systems. A total of 59 critical systems were analyzed. A statistical analysis of the results was performed, and subcritical acceptanced criteria are established.

  14. Preparation of a differentially expressed, full-length cDNA expression library by RecA-mediated triple-strand formation with subtractively enriched cDNA fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, T. B.; Spijkers, J. A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a fast and general method to obtain an enriched, full-length cDNA expression library with subtractively enriched cDNA fragments. The procedure relies on RecA-mediated triple-helix formation of single-stranded cDNA fragments with a double-stranded cDNA plasmid library. The complexes

  15. Cheminformatics Analysis of EPA ToxCast Chemical Libraries ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of toxicology research is the development of robust methods that use in vitro and chemical structure information to predict in vivo toxicity endpoints. The US EPA ToxCast program is addressing this goal using ~600 in vitro assays to create bioactivity profiles on a set of 320 compounds, mostly pesticide actives, that have well characterized in vivo toxicity. These 320 compounds (EPA-320 set evaluated in Phase I of ToxCast) are a subset of a much larger set of ~10,000 candidates that are of interest to the EPA (called here EPA-10K). Predictive models of in vivo toxicity are being constructed from the in vitro assay data on the EPA-320 chemical set. These models require validation on additional chemicals prior to wide acceptance, and this will be carried out by evaluating compounds from EPA-10K in Phase II of ToxCast. We have used cheminformatics approaches including clustering, data visualization, and QSAR to develop models for EPA-320 that could help prioritizing EPA-10K validation chemicals. Both chemical descriptors, as well as calculated physicochemical properties have been used. Compounds from EPA-10K are prioritized based on their similarity to EPA-320 using different similarity metrics, with similarity thresholds defining the domain of applicability for the predictive models built for EPA-320 set. In addition, prioritized lists of compounds of increasing dissimilarity from the EPA-320 have been produced, to test the ability of the EPA-320

  16. Analysing and Navigating Natural Products Space for Generating Small, Diverse, But Representative Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Steve; Kell, Douglas B

    2018-01-01

    Armed with the digital availability of two natural products libraries, amounting to some 195 885 molecular entities, we ask the question of how we can best sample from them to maximize their "representativeness" in smaller and more usable libraries of 96, 384, 1152, and 1920 molecules. The term "representativeness" is intended to include diversity, but for numerical reasons (and the likelihood of being able to perform a QSAR) it is necessary to focus on areas of chemical space that are more highly populated. Encoding chemical structures as fingerprints using the RDKit "patterned" algorithm, we first assess the granularity of the natural products space using a simple clustering algorithm, showing that there are major regions of "denseness" but also a great many very sparsely populated areas. We then apply a "hybrid" hierarchical K-means clustering algorithm to the data to produce more statistically robust clusters from which representative and appropriate numbers of samples may be chosen. There is necessarily again a trade-off between cluster size and cluster number, but within these constraints, libraries containing 384 or 1152 molecules can be found that come from clusters that represent some 18 and 30% of the whole chemical space, with cluster sizes of, respectively, 50 and 27 or above, just about sufficient to perform a QSAR. By using the online availability of molecules via the Molport system (www.molport.com), we are also able to construct (and, for the first time, provide the contents of) a small virtual library of available molecules that provided effective coverage of the chemical space described. Consistent with this, the average molecular similarities of the contents of the libraries developed is considerably smaller than is that of the original libraries. The suggested libraries may have use in molecular or phenotypic screening, including for determining possible transporter substrates. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley

  17. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Assumptions Using a 443 Chemical Library (IVIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increasing availability of high-throughput and in vitro data for untested chemicals, there is a need for pharmacokinetic (PK) models for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). Though some PBPK models have been created for individual compounds us...

  18. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Assumptions Using a 443 Chemical Library (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increasing availability of high-throughput and in vitro data for untested chemicals, there is a need for pharmacokinetic (PK) models for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). Though some PBPK models have been created for individual compounds using in vivo data, we ...

  19. Organization of GC/MS and LC/MS metabolomics data into chemical libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeHaven Corey D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics experiments involve generating and comparing small molecule (metabolite profiles from complex mixture samples to identify those metabolites that are modulated in altered states (e.g., disease, drug treatment, toxin exposure. One non-targeted metabolomics approach attempts to identify and interrogate all small molecules in a sample using GC or LC separation followed by MS or MSn detection. Analysis of the resulting large, multifaceted data sets to rapidly and accurately identify the metabolites is a challenging task that relies on the availability of chemical libraries of metabolite spectral signatures. A method for analyzing spectrometry data to identify and Quantify Individual Components in a Sample, (QUICS, enables generation of chemical library entries from known standards and, importantly, from unknown metabolites present in experimental samples but without a corresponding library entry. This method accounts for all ions in a sample spectrum, performs library matches, and allows review of the data to quality check library entries. The QUICS method identifies ions related to any given metabolite by correlating ion data across the complete set of experimental samples, thus revealing subtle spectral trends that may not be evident when viewing individual samples and are likely to be indicative of the presence of one or more otherwise obscured metabolites. Results LC-MS/MS or GC-MS data from 33 liver samples were analyzed simultaneously which exploited the inherent biological diversity of the samples and the largely non-covariant chemical nature of the metabolites when viewed over multiple samples. Ions were partitioned by both retention time (RT and covariance which grouped ions from a single common underlying metabolite. This approach benefitted from using mass, time and intensity data in aggregate over the entire sample set to reject outliers and noise thereby producing higher quality chemical identities. The

  20. The advanced CECE process for enriching tritium by the chemical exchange method with a hydrophobic catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Asashi; Shimizu, Masami; Masui, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    The monothermal chemical exchange process with electrolysis, i.e., CECE process, was an effective method for enriching and removing tritium from tritiated water with low to middle level activity. The purpose of this study is to propose the theoretical background of the two-parameter evaluation method, which is based on a two-step isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen gas and liquid water, for improvement of the performance of a hydrophobic catalyst by a trickle bed-type column. Finally, a two-parameter method could attain the highest performance of isotope separation and the lowest liquid holdup for a trickle bed-type column. Therefore, this method will present some effective and practical procedures in scaling up a tritium enrichment process. The main aspect of the CECE process in engineering design and system evaluation was to develop the isotope exchange column with a high performance catalyst. (author)

  1. The Alexandria library, a quantum-chemical database of molecular properties for force field development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanpour, Mohammad M; van Maaren, Paul J; van der Spoel, David

    2018-04-10

    Data quality as well as library size are crucial issues for force field development. In order to predict molecular properties in a large chemical space, the foundation to build force fields on needs to encompass a large variety of chemical compounds. The tabulated molecular physicochemical properties also need to be accurate. Due to the limited transparency in data used for development of existing force fields it is hard to establish data quality and reusability is low. This paper presents the Alexandria library as an open and freely accessible database of optimized molecular geometries, frequencies, electrostatic moments up to the hexadecupole, electrostatic potential, polarizabilities, and thermochemistry, obtained from quantum chemistry calculations for 2704 compounds. Values are tabulated and where available compared to experimental data. This library can assist systematic development and training of empirical force fields for a broad range of molecules.

  2. The Alexandria library, a quantum-chemical database of molecular properties for force field development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremanpour, Mohammad M.; van Maaren, Paul J.; van der Spoel, David

    2018-04-01

    Data quality as well as library size are crucial issues for force field development. In order to predict molecular properties in a large chemical space, the foundation to build force fields on needs to encompass a large variety of chemical compounds. The tabulated molecular physicochemical properties also need to be accurate. Due to the limited transparency in data used for development of existing force fields it is hard to establish data quality and reusability is low. This paper presents the Alexandria library as an open and freely accessible database of optimized molecular geometries, frequencies, electrostatic moments up to the hexadecupole, electrostatic potential, polarizabilities, and thermochemistry, obtained from quantum chemistry calculations for 2704 compounds. Values are tabulated and where available compared to experimental data. This library can assist systematic development and training of empirical force fields for a broad range of molecules.

  3. FilTer BaSe: A web accessible chemical database for small compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Baban S; Londhe, Sanjay R; Solanki, Bhushan R; Gacche, Rajesh N; Meshram, Rohan J

    2018-03-01

    Finding novel chemical agents for targeting disease associated drug targets often requires screening of large number of new chemical libraries. In silico methods are generally implemented at initial stages for virtual screening. Filtering of such compound libraries on physicochemical and substructure ground is done to ensure elimination of compounds with undesired chemical properties. Filtering procedure, is redundant, time consuming and requires efficient bioinformatics/computer manpower along with high end software involving huge capital investment that forms a major obstacle in drug discovery projects in academic setup. We present an open source resource, FilTer BaSe- a chemoinformatics platform (http://bioinfo.net.in/filterbase/) that host fully filtered, ready to use compound libraries with workable size. The resource also hosts a database that enables efficient searching the chemical space of around 348,000 compounds on the basis of physicochemical and substructure properties. Ready to use compound libraries and database presented here is expected to aid a helping hand for new drug developers and medicinal chemists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploiting Chemical Libraries, Structure, and Genomics in the Search for Kinase Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Wodicka, Lisa; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W.H.; Norman, Thea C.; Kwon, Soojin; Espinoza, F. Hernan; Morgan, David O.; Barnes, Georjana; LeClerc, Sophie; Meijer, Laurent; Kim, Sung-Hou; Lockhart, David J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    1998-01-01

    Selective protein kinase inhibitors were developed on the basis of the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of the human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). By iterating chemical library synthesis and biological screening, potent inhibitors

  5. Modeling chemical kinetics of avocado oil ethanolysis catalyzed by solid glycerol-enriched calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avhad, M.R.; Sánchez, M.; Bouaid, A.; Martínez, M.; Aracil, J.; Marchetti, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Raw materials for biodiesel production can be obtained from the natural resources. • The glycerol-enriched CaO catalyst was tested for the ethanolysis of avocado oil. • CaO synthesized through the thermal treatment of Mytilus Galloprovincialis shells. • The ethanol-adsorption step controlled the overall ethanolysis process. • The physico-chemical properties of avocado oil and FAEEs is presented. - Abstract: The catalytic activity of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide for the alcoholysis reaction between avocado oil and ethanol was investigated. The calcium oxide was derived from Mytilus Galloprovincialis shells. This study systematically examined the influence of temperature, ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, and the catalyst amount on the variation in the concentration of triacylglycerols and biodiesel with reaction time. The interaction between the reaction variables (ethanol-to-oil molar ratio and catalyst amount), their influence on the ethanolysis process, and the optimum variables affecting the process were determined through the response surface methodology. A previously developed mathematical model was applied for the current ethanolysis process, and the model parameters were determined. The ethanolysis reaction occurred between the surface chemisorbed ethoxide ions and oil molecules in the liquid phase, while, the overall process was controlled by the ethanol-adsorption step. The physico-chemical properties of biodiesel, produced using potassium methoxide catalyst, were additionally measured.

  6. Validation of KENO V.a. and two cross-section libraries for criticality calculations of low-enriched uranium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, M.E.

    1985-07-01

    The SCALE code system, utilizing the Monte Carlo computer code KENO V.a, was employed to calculate 37 critical experiments. The critical assemblies had 235 U enrichments of 5% or less and cover a variety of geometries and materials. Values of k/sub eff/ were calculated using two different results using either of the cross-section libraries. The 16-energy-group Hansen-Roach and the 27-energy-group ENDF/B-IV cross-section libraries, available in SCALE, were used in this validation study, and both give good results for the experiments considered. It is concluded that the code and cross sections are adequate for low-enriched uranium systems and that reliable criticality safety calculations can be made for such systems provided the limits of validated applicability are not exceeded

  7. FORMATION RATES OF POPULATION III STARS AND CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF HALOS DURING THE REIONIZATION ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenti, Michele; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The first stars in the universe formed out of pristine primordial gas clouds that were radiatively cooled to a few hundreds of degrees kelvin either via molecular or atomic (Lyman-α) hydrogen lines. This primordial mode of star formation was eventually quenched once radiative and/or chemical (metal enrichment) feedbacks marked the transition to Population II stars. In this paper, we present a model for the formation rate of Population III stars based on Press-Schechter modeling coupled with analytical recipes for gas cooling and radiative feedback. Our model also includes a novel treatment for metal pollution based on self-enrichment due to a previous episode of Population III star formation in progenitor halos. With this model, we derive the star formation history of Population III stars, their contribution to the reionization of the universe and the time of the transition from Population III star formation in minihalos (M ∼ 10 6 M sun , cooled via molecular hydrogen) to that in more massive halos (M ∼> 2 x 10 7 M sun , where atomic hydrogen cooling is also possible). We consider a grid of models highlighting the impact of varying the values for the free parameters used, such as star formation and feedback efficiency. The most critical factor is the assumption that only one Population III star is formed in a halo. In this scenario, metal-free stars contribute only to a minor fraction of the total number of photons required to reionize the universe. In addition, metal-free star formation is primarily located in minihalos, and chemically enriched halos become the dominant locus of star formation very early in the life of the universe-at redshift z ∼ 25-even assuming a modest fraction (0.5%) of enriched gas converted in stars. If instead multiple metal-free stars are allowed to form out of a single halo, then there is an overall boost of Population III star formation, with a consequent significant contribution to the reionizing radiation budget. In addition

  8. Library

    OpenAIRE

    Dulaney, Ronald E. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This study began with the desire to design a public town library of the future and became a search for an inkling of what is essential to Architecture. It is murky and full of contradictions. It asks more than it proposes, and the traces of its windings are better ordered through collage than logical synthesis. This study is neither a thesis nor a synthesis. When drawing out the measure of this study it may be beneficial to state what it attempts to place at the ...

  9. Screening of chemical compound libraries identified new anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluyomi Stephen; Sugi, Tatsuki; Han, Yongmei; Kato, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease that affects nearly one-third of the human population. The primary infection can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals but may prove fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Available treatment options for toxoplasmosis patients are limited, underscoring the urgent need to identify and develop new therapies. Non-biased screening of libraries of chemical compounds including the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as viable approach to achieving this goal. In the present investigation, we screened libraries of natural product and FDA-approved compounds to identify those that inhibited T. gondii growth. We identified 32 new compounds that potently inhibit T. gondii growth. Our findings are new and promising, and further strengthen the prospects of drug repurposing as well as the screening of a wide range of chemical compounds as a viable source of alternative anti-parasitic therapeutic agents.

  10. A chemical library to screen protein and protein-ligand crystallization using a versatile microfluidic platform

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard , Charline ,; Ferry , Gilles; Vuillard , Laurent ,; Boutin , Jean ,; Ferte , Nathalie ,; Grossier , Romain ,; Candoni , Nadine ,; Veesler , Stéphane ,

    2018-01-01

    Here, we describe a plug-and-play microfluidic platform, suitable for protein crystallization. The droplet factory is designed to generate hundreds of droplets as small as a few nanoliters (2 to 10nL) for screening and optimization of crystallization conditions. Commercially-available microfluidic junctions and tubing are combined to create the appropriate geometry. In addition, a " chemical library " is produced in tubing. The microfluidic geometry for a " crystallization agent-based chemica...

  11. Using Star Clusters as Tracers of Star Formation and Chemical Evolution: The Chemical Enrichment History of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor V.; Asa’d, Randa

    2018-05-01

    The star formation (SFH) and chemical enrichment (CEH) histories of Local Group galaxies are traditionally studied by analyzing their resolved stellar populations in a form of color–magnitude diagrams obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Star clusters can be studied in integrated light using ground-based telescopes to much larger distances. They represent snapshots of the chemical evolution of their host galaxy at different ages. Here we present a simple theoretical framework for the chemical evolution based on the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA) model. We infer a CEH from an SFH and vice versa using observational data. We also present a more advanced model for the evolution of individual chemical elements that takes into account the contribution of supernovae type Ia. We demonstrate that ages, iron, and α-element abundances of 15 star clusters derived from the fitting of their integrated optical spectra reliably trace the CEH of the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained from resolved stellar populations in the age range 40 Myr age–metallicity relation. Moreover, the present-day total gas mass of the LMC estimated by the IRA model (6.2× {10}8 {M}ȯ ) matches within uncertainties the observed H I mass corrected for the presence of molecular gas (5.8+/- 0.5× {10}8 {M}ȯ ). We briefly discuss how our approach can be used to study SFHs of galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc at the level of detail that is currently available only in a handful of nearby Milky Way satellites. .

  12. Screening and hit evaluation of a chemical library against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Vicky M; Bashyam, Sridevi; Burrows, Jeremy N; Duffy, Sandra; Papadatos, George; Puthukkuti, Shyni; Sambandan, Yuvaraj; Singh, Shivendra; Spangenberg, Thomas; Waterson, David; Willis, Paul

    2014-05-27

    In view of the need to continuously feed the pipeline with new anti-malarial agents adapted to differentiated and more stringent target product profiles (e.g., new modes of action, transmission-blocking activity or long-duration chemo-protection), a chemical library consisting of more than 250,000 compounds has been evaluated in a blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition assay and further assessed for chemical diversity and novelty. The selection cascade used for the triaging of hits from the chemical library started with a robust three-step in vitro assay followed by an in silico analysis of the resulting confirmed hits. Upon reaching the predefined requirements for selectivity and potency, the set of hits was subjected to computational analysis to assess chemical properties and diversity. Furthermore, known marketed anti-malarial drugs were co-clustered acting as 'signposts' in the chemical space defined by the hits. Then, in cerebro evaluation of the chemical structures was performed to identify scaffolds that currently are or have been the focus of anti-malarial medicinal chemistry programmes. Next, prioritization according to relaxed physicochemical parameters took place, along with the search for structural analogues. Ultimately, synthesis of novel chemotypes with desired properties was performed and the resulting compounds were subsequently retested in a P. falciparum growth inhibition assay. This screening campaign led to a 1.25% primary hit rate, which decreased to 0.77% upon confirmatory repeat screening. With the predefined potency (EC₅₀  10) criteria, 178 compounds progressed to the next steps where chemical diversity, physicochemical properties and novelty assessment were taken into account. This resulted in the selection of 15 distinct chemical series. A selection cascade was applied to prioritize hits resulting from the screening of a medium-sized chemical library against blood-stage P. falciparum. Emphasis was placed on chemical

  13. On the enrichment of low-abundant isotopes of light chemical elements by gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, V.D.; Morozov, O.E.; Zaozerskiy, Yu.P.; Shmelev, G.M.; Shipilov, Yu.D.

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the main areas for the application of the isotopes 15 N and 13 C is made. Separation of the nitrogen isotopes in a single gas centrifuge in the form of pure nitrogen, ammonia, and trifluoride of nitrogen as well as the carbon isotopes in the form of carbon dioxide has been studied by means of numerical simulation. The parameters of the centrifugal machine investigated were close to the parameters of the Iguassu machine. The dependence of the efficiency criterion versus the basic parameters of the separation process has been explored in the computational experiments. Comparisons of the calculated results with the experimental data have shown good agreement. The results obtained have demonstrated the possibility of using gas centrifuge technology to enrich successfully the low-abundant isotopes of light chemical elements

  14. Development of the chemical decontamination process of uranium enrichment gas centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yutaka; Endo, Yuji; Yamanaka, Toshihiro; Oohashi, Yusuke

    2002-01-01

    In Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, many of the centrifuges that were tested for uranium enrichment are kept in storage. In the future, it will be necessary to dispose of them properly. By categorizing these centrifuges as 'items that are not required to be treated as radioactive waste', chemical decontamination tests were conducted with the wet process (diluted sulfuric acid) to reduce the amount of such radioactive waste. As a result, concerning the rotors, the assumed radioactive level was attained as items that are not required to be treated as radioactive waste', but the effectiveness of the casings varied. As a future subject, in order to find the optimal decontamination process, the basic test shall be conducted continuously. By taking economical efficiency and the processing time into consideration, the decontamination process will be evaluated and a rational method examined. (author)

  15. Solvent extraction as a method of promoting uranium enrichment by chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathurrachman.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis examines a chemical exchange process for uranium enrichment using solvent extraction. The system selected is the isotope exchange for uranium species in the form of uranous and uranyl chloride complexes. Solvent extraction has been studied before by French workers for this application but little was published on this. Much of this present work is therefore novel. The equilibrium data for the extraction of U(IV) as U 4+ and U(VI) as UO 2 2+ from hydrochloric media into an organic phase containing tri-n-octylamine (TOA) in benzene is given. Benzene is used to prevent third phase formation. In 4 M HCl U(VI) was found to be very soluble in the organic phase but U(IV) was virtually insoluble. Most of the equilibrium data has been correlated by the Langmuir isotherm. This thesis also outlines the methodology that has to be used to design a plant based on this process. (author)

  16. Artificial specific binders directly recovered from chemically modified nucleic acid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yuuya; Kuwahara, Masayasu

    2012-01-01

    Specific binders comprised of nucleic acids, that is, RNA/DNA aptamers, are attractive functional biopolymers owing to their potential broad application in medicine, food hygiene, environmental analysis, and biological research. Despite the large number of reports on selection of natural DNA/RNA aptamers, there are not many examples of direct screening of chemically modified nucleic acid aptamers. This is because of (i) the inferior efficiency and accuracy of polymerase reactions involving transcription/reverse-transcription of modified nucleotides compared with those of natural nucleotides, (ii) technical difficulties and additional time and effort required when using modified nucleic acid libraries, and (iii) ambiguous efficacies of chemical modifications in binding properties until recently; in contrast, the effects of chemical modifications on biostability are well studied using various nucleotide analogs. Although reports on the direct screening of a modified nucleic acid library remain in the minority, chemical modifications would be essential when further functional expansion of nucleic acid aptamers, in particular for medical and biological uses, is considered. This paper focuses on enzymatic production of chemically modified nucleic acids and their application to random screenings. In addition, recent advances and possible future research are also described.

  17. Artificial Specific Binders Directly Recovered from Chemically Modified Nucleic Acid Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuya Kasahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific binders comprised of nucleic acids, that is, RNA/DNA aptamers, are attractive functional biopolymers owing to their potential broad application in medicine, food hygiene, environmental analysis, and biological research. Despite the large number of reports on selection of natural DNA/RNA aptamers, there are not many examples of direct screening of chemically modified nucleic acid aptamers. This is because of (i the inferior efficiency and accuracy of polymerase reactions involving transcription/reverse-transcription of modified nucleotides compared with those of natural nucleotides, (ii technical difficulties and additional time and effort required when using modified nucleic acid libraries, and (iii ambiguous efficacies of chemical modifications in binding properties until recently; in contrast, the effects of chemical modifications on biostability are well studied using various nucleotide analogs. Although reports on the direct screening of a modified nucleic acid library remain in the minority, chemical modifications would be essential when further functional expansion of nucleic acid aptamers, in particular for medical and biological uses, is considered. This paper focuses on enzymatic production of chemically modified nucleic acids and their application to random screenings. In addition, recent advances and possible future research are also described.

  18. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN. Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs, carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%, effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5% and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%. Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ that provides a platform enriched for the study

  19. Extending Immunological Profiling in the Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata, by Enriched cDNA Library Analysis, Microarray Design and Initial Studies upon the Inflammatory Response to PAMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Castellana, Barbara; Goetz, Giles; Tort, Lluis; Teles, Mariana; Mulero, Victor; Novoa, Beatriz; Figueras, Antonio; Goetz, Frederick W; Gallardo-Escarate, Cristian; Planas, Josep V; Mackenzie, Simon

    2017-02-03

    This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge. The developed microarray was further validated by analysing monocyte/macrophage activation profiles after challenge with two Gram-negative bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN)). Of the approximately 10,000 EST sequenced, we obtained a total of 6837 EST longer than 100 nt, with 3778 and 3059 EST obtained from the bacterial-primed and from the viral-primed cDNA libraries, respectively. Functional classification of contigs from the bacterial- and viral-primed cDNA libraries by Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the top five represented categories were equally represented in the two libraries: metabolism (approximately 24% of the total number of contigs), carrier proteins/membrane transport (approximately 15%), effectors/modulators and cell communication (approximately 11%), nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism (approximately 7.5%) and intracellular transducers/signal transduction (approximately 5%). Transcriptome analyses using this enriched oligonucleotide platform identified differential shifts in the response to PGN and LPS in macrophage-like cells, highlighting responsive gene-cassettes tightly related to PAMP host recognition. As observed in other fish species, PGN is a powerful activator of the inflammatory response in S. aurata macrophage-like cells. We have developed and validated an oligonucleotide microarray (SAQ) that provides a platform enriched for the study of gene

  20. The extent of chemically enriched gas around star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae driven winds are often invoked to remove chemically enriched gas from galaxies to match the low metallicities of dwarf galaxies. In such shallow potential wells, outflows may produce massive amounts of enriched halo gas (circum-galactic medium or CGM) and pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM). I will present a survey of the CGM and IGM around 18 star-forming field dwarf galaxies with stellar masses of log M*/M⊙ ≈ 8 ‑ 9 at z ≈ 0.2. Eight of these have CGM probed by quasar absorption spectra at projected distances, d, less than the host virial radius, Rh. Ten are probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 to study the surrounding IGM. The absorption measurements include neutral hydrogen (H I), the dominant silicon ions for diffuse cool gas (T ∼ 104 K; Si II, Si III, and Si IV), more highly ionized carbon (C IV), and highly ionized oxygen (O VI). The metal absorption from the CGM of the dwarf galaxies is less common and ≈ 4× weaker compared to massive star-forming galaxies though O VI absorption is still common. None of the dwarfs probed at d/Rh = 1 ‑ 3 have definitive metal-line detections. Combining the available silicon ions, we estimate that the cool CGM accounts for only 2 ‑ 6% of the expected silicon budget. CGM absorption from O VI can account for ≈ 8% of the expected oxygen budget. As O VI traces an ion with expected equilibrium ion fractions of 0.2, this highly ionized phase of the CGM may represent a significant metal reservoir even for dwarf galaxies not expected to maintain gravitationally shock heated hot halos.

  1. Construction of a Full-Length Enriched cDNA Library and Preliminary Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqing; Liu, Dan; Guo, Yu; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Zhang, Minghai; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Bengal tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28 × 106 pfu/mL and 1.56 × 109 pfu/mL respectively. The percentage of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.2% and average length of exogenous inserts was 0.98 kb. A total of 212 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 356 to 1108 bps were then analyzed. The BLASTX score revealed that 48.1% of the sequences were classified as a strong match, 45.3% as nominal and 6.6% as a weak match. Among the ESTs with known putative function, 26.4% ESTs were found to be related to all kinds of metabolisms, 19.3% ESTs to information storage and processing, 11.3% ESTs to posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, 11.3% ESTs to transport, 9.9% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.0% ESTs to structure protein, 3.8% ESTs to cell cycle, and only 6.6% ESTs classified as novel genes. By EST sequencing, a full-length gene coding ferritin was identified and characterized. The recombinant plasmid pET32a-TAT-Ferritin was constructed, coded for the TAT-Ferritin fusion protein with two 6× His-tags in N and C-terminal. After BCA assay, the concentration of soluble Trx-TAT-Ferritin recombinant protein was 2.32 ± 0.12 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genome and transcriptome research of Bengal tigers. PMID:23708105

  2. Construction of a Full-Length Enriched cDNA Library and Preliminary Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Bengal tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28 × 106 pfu/mL and 1.56 × 109 pfu/mL respectively. The percentage of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.2% and average length of exogenous inserts was 0.98 kb. A total of 212 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 356 to 1108 bps were then analyzed. The BLASTX score revealed that 48.1% of the sequences were classified as a strong match, 45.3% as nominal and 6.6% as a weak match. Among the ESTs with known putative function, 26.4% ESTs were found to be related to all kinds of metabolisms, 19.3% ESTs to information storage and processing, 11.3% ESTs to posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, 11.3% ESTs to transport, 9.9% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.0% ESTs to structure protein, 3.8% ESTs to cell cycle, and only 6.6% ESTs classified as novel genes. By EST sequencing, a full-length gene coding ferritin was identified and characterized. The recombinant plasmid pET32a-TAT-Ferritin was constructed, coded for the TAT-Ferritin fusion protein with two 6× His-tags in N and C-terminal. After BCA assay, the concentration of soluble Trx-TAT-Ferritin recombinant protein was 2.32 ± 0.12 mg/mL. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genome and transcriptome research of Bengal tigers.

  3. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Mikova, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS

  4. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Mikova, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar Soares, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS

  5. Effect of increasing helium content and disk dwarfs evolution on the chemical enrichment of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-07-01

    The author deals with two main effects: First the empirical metal abundance distribution in Main Sequence disk dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood, and second, the theoretical possibility of (i) an increased helium content as the Galaxy evolves, and (ii) the presence of evolutionary effects in disk dwarfs (i.e., the age of some or all stars considered up to the subgiant phase is not necessarily longer than the age of the galactic disk). Account is taken of a linear increase of helium content with metal content, and some constraints are imposed relative to initial, solar and present-day observed values of Y and Z, and to observed relative helium to heavy element enrichment, ..delta..Y/..delta..Z. In this way, little influence is found on the empirical metal abundance distribution in the range 0<=..delta..Y/..delta..Z<=3, while larger values of ..delta..Y/..delta..Zwould lead to a more significant influence. 'Evolved' and 'unevolved' theoretical metal abundance distributions are derived by accounting for a two-phase model of chemical evolution of galaxies and for a linear mass dependence of star lifetimes in the spectral range G2V-G8V and are compared with the empirical distribution. All are in satisfactory agreement due to systematic shift data by different observations; several values of collapse time Tsub(c) and age of the Galaxy T are also considered. Finally, models of chemical evolution invoking homogeneous collapse without infall and inhomogeneous collapse with infall, are briefly discussed relative to the empirical metal abundance distribution in Main Sequence disk dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood.

  6. Potential for supernova-induced chemical enrichment of protoglobular cluster clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Smith, G.H.; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, Canada)

    1986-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain the large internal abundance variations that are seen in the globular cluster Omega Cen in terms of supernova-induced chemical enrichment that occurred when the cluster was still largely in a gaseous phase and star formation was continuing. Using a simple power-law density model of this protoglobular gas cloud, the conditions under which this can occur have been established analytically. Clouds less massive than about 100,000 solar masses are completely disrupted by supernova explosions in their adiabatic phase. In clouds of greater mass, supernova explosions occurring near the tidal radius tend to lose their hot gas and metals to the intercloud medium. For explosions occurring closer to the mass center the ejecta must be slowed below the escape velocity, and this can only occur in clouds more massive than about 3 x 10 to the 6th solar masses. If this condition is met, then the slow isothermal momentum-conserving shocks generated by the supernova explosions may eventually induce secondary star formation. For such shocks converging on the mass center, it is found that a cloud mass of at least 10 to the 7th solar masses is required for this process to be efficient. From the observed properties of Omega Cen, a primordial mass of order 10 to the 8th solar masses is estimated, which emphasizes the unusual character of this object. 39 references

  7. Prediction of Effective Drug Combinations by Chemical Interaction, Protein Interaction and Target Enrichment of KEGG Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug combinatorial therapy could be more effective in treating some complex diseases than single agents due to better efficacy and reduced side effects. Although some drug combinations are being used, their underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Therefore, it is of great interest to deduce a novel drug combination by their molecular mechanisms in a robust and rigorous way. This paper attempts to predict effective drug combinations by a combined consideration of: (1 chemical interaction between drugs, (2 protein interactions between drugs’ targets, and (3 target enrichment of KEGG pathways. A benchmark dataset was constructed, consisting of 121 confirmed effective combinations and 605 random combinations. Each drug combination was represented by 465 features derived from the aforementioned three properties. Some feature selection techniques, including Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance and Incremental Feature Selection, were adopted to extract the key features. Random forest model was built with its performance evaluated by 5-fold cross-validation. As a result, 55 key features providing the best prediction result were selected. These important features may help to gain insights into the mechanisms of drug combinations, and the proposed prediction model could become a useful tool for screening possible drug combinations.

  8. Biocompatibility of Titania Nanotube Coatings Enriched with Silver Nanograins by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Piszczek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity investigations of titania nanotube (TNT coatings enriched with silver nanograins (TNT/Ag have been carried out. TNT/Ag nanocomposite materials were produced by combining the electrochemical anodization and chemical vapor deposition methods. Fabricated coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The release effect of silver ions from TNT/Ag composites immersed in bodily fluids, has been studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The metabolic activity assay (MTT was applied to determine the L929 murine fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on the surface of TNT/Ag coatings. Moreover, the results of immunoassays (using peripheral blood mononuclear cells—PBMCs isolated from rats allowed the estimation of the immunological activity of TNT/Ag surface materials. Antibacterial activity of TNT/Ag coatings with different morphological and structural features was estimated against two Staphylococcus aureus strains (ATCC 29213 and H9. The TNT/Ag nanocomposite layers produced revealed a good biocompatibility promoting the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. A desirable anti-biofilm activity against the S. aureus reference strain was mainly noticed for these TiO2 nanotube coatings, which contain dispersed Ag nanograins deposited on their surface.

  9. Artificial muscles' enrichment text: Chemical Literacy Profile of pre-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernani, Ulum, Luthfi Lulul; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to determine the profile of chemical literacy abilities of pre-service teachers based on scientific attitudes and scientific competencies in PISA 2015 through individualized learning by using an artificial muscle context based-enrichment book. This research uses descriptive method, involving 20 of the 90 randomly selected population. This research uses a multiple-choice questions instrument. The result of this research are : 1) in the attitude aspects of interest in science and technology, valuing scientific approaches to inquiry, and environmental awareness, the results obtained respectively for 90%, 80%, and 30%. 2) for scientific competence of apply appropriate scientific knowledge, identify models and representations, make appropriate predictions, and explain the potential implications of scientific knowledge for society, the results obtained respectively for 30%, 50%, 60%, and 55%. 3) For scientific competence of identify the question explored in a given scientific study and distinguish questions that could be investigated scientifically, the results obtained respectively for 30 % and 50%. 4) For scientific competence of transform data from one representation to another and draw appropriate conclusions, the results obtained respectively for 60% and 45%. Based on the results, which need to be developed in pre-service chemistry teachers are environmental awareness, apply appropriate scientific knowledge, identify the question explored in a given scientific study, and draw appropriate conclusions.

  10. Enrichment of 13C by chemical exchange between CO2 and amine carbamate in nonaqueous solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raica, Paula; Axente, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Enrichment of 13 C by chemical exchange between CO 2 and amine carbamate in nonaqueous solvent has been mathematically modelled in two ways. The height equivalent to a theoretical plate and steady-state separation, based on the two models, have been obtained. If only the isotopic exchange between CO 2 gas and amine carbamate is considered, the model can estimate the process performance for pressures close to the atmospheric one and room temperature. For process analysis at pressures higher than atmospheric one and lower temperatures, a two-step model has been developed. Using the two models the effects of pressure increasing have been studied. At atmospheric pressure and 2M DNBA - methanol solution the isotope transfer rate is lower at 5 deg. C than at 25 deg. C. The isotope transfer is supported by pressure increasing according the increase of the CO 2 concentration in the amine solution. A lower temperature determines also an increase in the concentration of dissolved CO 2 and, for this reason, at 5 deg.C and higher pressures the isotope exchange reaction rate is higher than at 25 deg. C, HETP being lower with more than 100% at 5 deg. C than at 25 deg. C. (authors)

  11. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry.

  12. Multi-layer solid-phase extraction and evaporation-enrichment methods for polar organic chemicals from aqueous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köke, Niklas; Zahn, Daniel; Knepper, Thomas P; Frömel, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of polar organic chemicals in the aquatic environment is exacerbated by the lack of suitable and widely applicable enrichment methods. In this work, we assessed the suitability of a novel combination of well-known solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials in one cartridge as well as an evaporation method and for the enrichment of 26 polar model substances (predominantly log D evaporation method were investigated for the recovery and matrix effects of the model substances and analyzed with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). In total, 65% of the model substances were amenable (> 10% recovery) to the mlSPE method with a mean recovery of 76% while 73% of the model substances were enriched with the evaporation method achieving a mean recovery of 78%. Target and non-target screening comparison of both methods with a frequently used reversed-phase SPE method utilizing "hydrophilic and lipophilic balanced" (HLB) material was performed. Target analysis showed that the mlSPE and evaporation method have pronounced advantages over the HLB method since the HLB material retained only 30% of the model substances. Non-target screening of a ground water sample with the investigated enrichment methods showed that the median retention time of all detected features on a HILIC system decreased in the order mlSPE (3641 features, median t R 9.7 min), evaporation (1391, 9.3 min), HLB (4414, 7.2 min), indicating a higher potential of the described methods to enrich polar analytes from water compared with HLB-SPE. Graphical abstract Schematic of the method evaluation (recovery and matrix effects) and method comparison (target and non-target analysis) of the two investigated enrichment methods for very polar chemicals in aqueousmatrices.

  13. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  14. Uniform Contribution of Supernova Explosions to the Chemical Enrichment of Abell 3112 out to R{sub 200}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezer, Cemile; Ercan, E. Nihal [Department of Physics, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bulbul, Esra; Bautz, Mark W.; McDonald, Mike; Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Smith, Randall K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Loewenstein, Mike, E-mail: cemile.ezer@boun.edu.tr [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The spatial distribution of the metals residing in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters records all the information on a cluster’s nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment history. We present measurements from a total of 1.2 Ms Suzaku XIS and 72 ks Chandra observations of the cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 3112 out to its virial radius (∼1470 kpc). We find that the ratio of the observed supernova type Ia explosions to the total supernova explosions has a uniform distribution at a level of 12%–16% out to the cluster’s virial radius. The observed fraction of type Ia supernova explosions is in agreement with the corresponding fraction found in our Galaxy and the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy. The non-varying supernova enrichment suggests that the ICM in cluster outskirts was enriched by metals at an early stage before the cluster itself was formed during a period of intense star formation activity. Additionally, we find that the 2D delayed detonation model CDDT produce significantly worse fits to the X-ray spectra compared to simple 1D W7 models. This is due to the relative overestimate of Si, and the underestimate of Mg in these models with respect to the measured abundances.

  15. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  16. A linear concatenation strategy to construct 5'-enriched amplified cDNA libraries using multiple displacement amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2013-06-01

    In various experimental systems, limiting available amounts of RNA may prevent a researcher from performing large-scale analyses of gene transcripts. One way to circumvent this is to 'pre-amplify' the starting RNA/cDNA, so that sufficient amounts are available for any downstream analysis. In the present study, we report the development of a novel protocol for constructing amplified cDNA libraries using the Phi29 DNA polymerase based multiple displacement amplification (MDA) system. Using as little as 200 ng of total RNA, we developed a linear concatenation strategy to make the single-stranded cDNA template amenable for MDA. The concatenation, made possible by the template switching property of the reverse transcriptase enzyme, resulted in the amplified cDNA library with intact 5' ends. MDA generated micrograms of template, allowing large-scale polymerase chain reaction analyses or other large-scale downstream applications. As the amplified cDNA library contains intact 5' ends, it is also compatible with 5' RACE analyses of specific gene transcripts. Empirical validation of this protocol is demonstrated on a highly characterized (tomato) and an uncharacterized (corn gromwell) experimental system.

  17. Cloning and characterization of a novel human zinc finger gene, hKid3, from a C2H2-ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Li; Sun Chong; Qiu Hongling; Liu Hui; Shao Huanjie; Wang Jun; Li Wenxin

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the zinc finger genes involved in human embryonic development, we constructed a C 2 H 2 -ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library, from which a novel human gene named hKid3 was identified. The hKid3 cDNA encodes a 554 amino acid protein with an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 11 carboxyl-terminal C 2 H 2 zinc finger motifs. Northern blot analysis indicates that two hKid3 transcripts of 6 and 8.5 kb express in human fetal brain and kidney. The 6 kb transcript can also be detected in human adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle while the 8.5 kb transcript appears to be embryo-specific. GFP-fused hKid3 protein is localized to nuclei and the ZF domain is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization. To explore the DNA-binding specificity of hKid3, an oligonucleotide library was selected by GST fusion protein of hKid3 ZF domain, and the consensus core sequence 5'-CCAC-3' was evaluated by competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, The KRAB domain of hKid3 exhibits transcription repressor activity when tested in GAL4 fusion protein assay. These results indicate that hKid3 may function as a transcription repressor with regulated expression pattern during human development of brain and kidney

  18. A rational workflow for sequential virtual screening of chemical libraries on searching for new tyrosinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Casanola-Martín, Gerardo M; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Rescigno, Antonio; Abad, Concepcion; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosinase is a bifunctional, copper-containing enzyme widely distributed in the phylogenetic tree. This enzyme is involved in the production of melanin and some other pigments in humans, animals and plants, including skin pigmentations in mammals, and browning process in plants and vegetables. Therefore, enzyme inhibitors has been under the attention of the scientist community, due to its broad applications in food, cosmetic, agricultural and medicinal fields, to avoid the undesirable effects of abnormal melanin overproduction. However, the research of novel chemical with antityrosinase activity demands the use of more efficient tools to speed up the tyrosinase inhibitors discovery process. This chapter is focused in the different components of a predictive modeling workflow for the identification and prioritization of potential new compounds with activity against the tyrosinase enzyme. In this case, two structure chemical libraries Spectrum Collection and Drugbank are used in this attempt to combine different virtual screening data mining techniques, in a sequential manner helping to avoid the usually expensive and time consuming traditional methods. Some of the sequential steps summarize here comprise the use of drug-likeness filters, similarity searching, classification and potency QSAR multiclassifier systems, modeling molecular interactions systems, and similarity/diversity analysis. Finally, the methodologies showed here provide a rational workflow for virtual screening hit analysis and selection as a promissory drug discovery strategy for use in target identification phase.

  19. Effects of the EVCAM chemical validation library on differentiation using marker gene expression in lmouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay was used to profile the effects of the ECVAM EST validation chemical library (19 compounds) on J1 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) provided a high-content assessment of al...

  20. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  1. Lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with DNA-encoded chemical libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünzner, S.; Reddavide, F. V.; Steinfelder, C.; Cui, M.; Busek, M.; Klotzbach, U.; Zhang, Y.; Sonntag, F.

    2017-02-01

    The fast development of DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECL) in the past 10 years has received great attention from pharmaceutical industries. It applies the selection approach for small molecular drug discovery. Because of the limited choices of DNA-compatible chemical reactions, most DNA-encoded chemical libraries have a narrow structural diversity and low synthetic yield. There is also a poor correlation between the ranking of compounds resulted from analyzing the sequencing data and the affinity measured through biochemical assays. By combining DECL with dynamical chemical library, the resulting DNA-encoded dynamic library (EDCCL) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions as well as the advantages of DNA encoded compounds for manipulation/detection, thus leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio of the selection process and higher library quality. However, the library dynamics are caused by the weak interactions between the DNA strands, which also result in relatively low affinity of the bidentate interaction, as compared to a stable DNA duplex. To take advantage of both stably assembled dual-pharmacophore libraries and EDCCLs, we extended the concept of EDCCLs to heat-induced EDCCLs (hi-EDCCLs), in which the heat-induced recombination process of stable DNA duplexes and affinity capture are carried out separately. To replace the extremely laborious and repetitive manual process, a fully automated device will facilitate the use of DECL in drug discovery. Herein we describe a novel lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with hi-EDCCL. A microfluidic system with integrated actuation was designed which is able to provide a continuous sample circulation by reducing the volume to a minimum. It consists of a cooled and a heated chamber for constant circulation. The system is capable to generate stable temperatures above 75 °C in the heated chamber to melt the double strands of the DNA and less than 15 °C in the cooled chamber

  2. Analysis of 235U enrichment by chemical exchange in U(IV) - U(VI) system on anionite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raica, Paula; Axente, Damian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A theoretical study about the 235 U enrichment by chemical exchange method in U(IV)-U(VI) system on anion-exchange resins is presented. The 235 U isotope concentration profiles along the band were numerically calculated using an accurate mathematical model and simulations were carried out for the situation of product and waste withdrawal and feed supply. By means of numerical simulation, an estimation of the migration time, necessary for a desired enrichment degree, was obtained. The required migration distance, the production of uranium 3 at.% 235 U per year and the plant configuration are calculated for different operating conditions. An analysis of the process scale for various experimental conditions is also presented. (authors)

  3. Chemical processes for the extreme enrichment of tellurium into marine ferromanganese oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Teruhiko; Oishi, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sugiyama, Toshiki; Usui, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2014-04-01

    Tellurium, an element of growing economic importance, is extremely enriched in marine ferromanganese oxides. We investigated the mechanism of this enrichment using a combination of spectroscopic analysis and adsorption/coprecipitation experiments. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) analysis showed that in adsorption/coprecipitation systems, Te(IV) was oxidized on δ-MnO2 and not oxidized on ferrihydrite. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis showed that both Te(IV) and Te(VI) were adsorbed on the surface of δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite via formation of inner-sphere complexes. In addition, Te(VI) can be structurally incorporated into the linkage of Fe octahedra through a coprecipitation process because of its molecular geometry that is similar to the Fe octahedron. The largest distribution coefficient obtained in the adsorption/coprecipitation experiments was for the Te(VI)/ferrihydrite coprecipitation system, and it was comparable to those calculated from the distribution between natural ferromanganese oxides and seawater. Our XAFS and micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping of natural ferromanganese oxides showed that Te was structurally incorporated as Te(VI) in Fe (oxyhydr)oxide phases. We conclude that the main process for the enrichment of Te in ferromanganese oxides is structural incorporation of Te(VI) into Fe (oxyhydr)oxide phases through coprecipitation. This mechanism can explain the unique degree of enrichment of Te compared with other oxyanions, which are mainly enriched via adsorption on the surface of the solid structures. In particular, the great contrast in the distributions of Te and Se is caused by their oxidized species: (i) the similar geometry of the Te(VI) molecule to Fe octahedron, and (ii) quite soluble nature of Se(VI). Coexisting Mn oxide phases may promote structural incorporation of Te(VI) by oxidation of Te(IV), although the surface oxidation itself may not work as the critical enrichment process as

  4. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified...... by gas chromatography-olfactometry were 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, but despite their potency, none of the separated volatiles imparted a fishy or metallic odor. Two isomers, (E,Z,Z) and (E,E,Z) of 2...

  5. Chemical toxicity and radiological health detriment associated with the inhalation of various enrichments of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3C Limited, Queen Square House, 18-21 Queen Square, Bristol BS1 4NH (United Kingdom))" data-affiliation=" (SR3C Limited, Queen Square House, 18-21 Queen Square, Bristol BS1 4NH (United Kingdom))" >Bryant, P A

    2014-01-01

    The occupational risks associated with the chemical toxicity of uranium can be overlooked during the processing, handling and storage of the material, as the radioactivity of the material is often used alone to assess the health consequences of exposure to uranium compounds. This note provides a summary of the current United Kingdom occupational standards for uranium based on radiation dose and/or chemical toxicity with a particular focus on intake via inhalation. A simple model is subsequently presented to allow a comparison to be drawn between the occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity and radiological dose limit. Using these data a set of suggested limits on occupational exposure to airborne uranium is proposed that indicate where the legal annual radiological dose limit for workers or the Health and Safety Executive occupational exposure standard for chemical toxicity are at risk of being breached. (note)

  6. Gene discovery from Jatropha curcas by sequencing of ESTs from normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library from developing seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugantham Priyanka Annabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas L. is promoted as an important non-edible biodiesel crop worldwide. Jatropha oil, which is a triacylglycerol, can be directly blended with petro-diesel or transesterified with methanol and used as biodiesel. Genetic improvement in jatropha is needed to increase the seed yield, oil content, drought and pest resistance, and to modify oil composition so that it becomes a technically and economically preferred source for biodiesel production. However, genetic improvement efforts in jatropha could not take advantage of genetic engineering methods due to lack of cloned genes from this species. To overcome this hurdle, the current gene discovery project was initiated with an objective of isolating as many functional genes as possible from J. curcas by large scale sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Results A normalized and full-length enriched cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas. The cDNA library contained about 1 × 106 clones and average insert size of the clones was 2.1 kb. Totally 12,084 ESTs were sequenced to average high quality read length of 576 bp. Contig analysis revealed 2258 contigs and 4751 singletons. Contig size ranged from 2-23 and there were 7333 ESTs in the contigs. This resulted in 7009 unigenes which were annotated by BLASTX. It showed 3982 unigenes with significant similarity to known genes and 2836 unigenes with significant similarity to genes of unknown, hypothetical and putative proteins. The remaining 191 unigenes which did not show similarity with any genes in the public database may encode for unique genes. Functional classification revealed unigenes related to broad range of cellular, molecular and biological functions. Among the 7009 unigenes, 6233 unigenes were identified to be potential full-length genes. Conclusions The high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed from developing seeds of J. curcas for the first time and 7009 unigenes coding

  7. Concrete reflected cylinders of highly enriched solutions of uranyl nitrate ICSBEP Benchmark: A re-evaluation by means of MCNPX using ENDF/B-VI cross section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzate, J.A.; Carelli, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical re-evaluation of a set of original experiments included in the 2009 issue of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, as “Concrete Reflected Cylinders of Highly Enriched Solutions of Uranyl Nitrate” (identification number: HEU-SOL-THERM- 002) [4]. The present evaluation has been made according to benchmark specifications [4], and added data taken out of the original published report [3], but applying a different approach, resulting in a more realistic calculation model. In addition, calculations have been made using the latest version of MCNPX Monte Carlo code, combined with an updated set of cross section data, the continuous-energy ENDF/B-VI library. This has resulted in a comprehensive model for the given experimental situation. Uncertainties analysis has been made based on the evaluation of experimental data presented in the HEU-SOLTHERM-002 report. Resulting calculations with the present improved physical model have been able to reproduce the criticality of configurations within 0.5%, in good agreement with experimental data. Results obtained in the analysis of uncertainties are in general agreement with those at HEU-SOL-THERM-002 benchmark document. Qualitative results from analyses made in the present work can be extended to similar fissile systems: well moderated units of 235 U solutions, reflected with concrete from all directions. Results have confirmed that neutron absorbers, even as impurities, must be taken into account in calculations if at least approximate proportions were known. (authors)

  8. Novel HIV-1 knockdown targets identified by an enriched kinases/phosphatases shRNA library using a long-term iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a complex retrovirus that uses host machinery to promote its replication. Understanding cellular proteins involved in the multistep process of HIV-1 infection may result in the discovery of more adapted and effective therapeutic targets. Kinases and phosphatases are a druggable class of proteins critically involved in regulation of signal pathways of eukaryotic cells. Here, we focused on the discovery of kinases and phosphatases that are essential for HIV-1 replication but dispensable for cell viability. We performed an iterative screen in Jurkat T-cells with a short-hairpin-RNA (shRNA library highly enriched for human kinases and phosphatases. We identified 14 new proteins essential for HIV-1 replication that do not affect cell viability. These proteins are described to be involved in MAPK, JNK and ERK pathways, vesicular traffic and DNA repair. Moreover, we show that the proteins under study are important in an early step of HIV-1 infection before viral integration, whereas some of them affect viral transcription/translation. This study brings new insights for the complex interplay of HIV-1/host cell and opens new possibilities for antiviral strategies.

  9. Construction and evaluation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences for rapid discovery of new genes from Sisal (Agave sisalana Perr.) different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Zhao; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Lu, Jun-Ying; Li, Jun-Feng

    2012-10-12

    To provide a resource of sisal-specific expressed sequence data and facilitate this powerful approach in new gene research, the preparation of normalized cDNA libraries enriched with full-length sequences is necessary. Four libraries were produced with RNA pooled from Agave sisalana multiple tissues to increase efficiency of normalization and maximize the number of independent genes by SMART™ method and the duplex-specific nuclease (DSN). This procedure kept the proportion of full-length cDNAs in the subtracted/normalized libraries and dramatically enhanced the discovery of new genes. Sequencing of 3875 cDNA clones of libraries revealed 3320 unigenes with an average insert length about 1.2 kb, indicating that the non-redundancy of libraries was about 85.7%. These unigene functions were predicted by comparing their sequences to functional domain databases and extensively annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Comparative analysis of sisal unigenes and other plant genomes revealed that four putative MADS-box genes and knotted-like homeobox (knox) gene were obtained from a total of 1162 full-length transcripts. Furthermore, real-time PCR showed that the characteristics of their transcripts mainly depended on the tight expression regulation of a number of genes during the leaf and flower development. Analysis of individual library sequence data indicated that the pooled-tissue approach was highly effective in discovering new genes and preparing libraries for efficient deep sequencing.

  10. A Detailed Study of Chemical Enrichment History of Galaxy Clusters out to Virial Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    The origin of the metal enrichment of the intracluster medium (ICM) represents a fundamental problem in extragalactic astrophysics, with implications for our understanding of how stars and galaxies form, the nature of Type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitors, and the thermal history of the ICM. These heavy elements are ultimately synthesized by supernova (SN) explosions; however, the details of the sites of metal production and mechanisms that transport metals to the ICM remain unclear. To make progress, accurate abundance profiles for multiple elements extending from the cluster core out to the virial radius (r180) are required for a significant cluster sample. We propose an X-ray spectroscopic study of a carefully-chosen sample of archival Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of 23 clusters: XMM-Newton data probe the cluster temperature and abundances out to (0.5-1)r500, while Suzaku data probe the cluster outskirts. A method devised by our team to utilize all elements with emission lines in the X-ray bandpass to measure the relative contributions of supernova explosions by direct modeling of their X-ray spectra will be applied in order to constrain the demographics of the enriching supernova population. In addition we will conduct a stacking analysis of our already existing Suzaku and XMM-Newton cluster spectra to search for weak emssion lines that are important SN diagnostics, and to look for trends with cluster mass and redshift. The funding we propose here will also support the data analysis of our recent Suzaku observations of the archetypal cluster A3112 (200 ks each on the core and outskirts). Our data analysis, intepreted using theoretical models we have developed, will enable us to constrain the star formation history, SN demographics, and nature of SNIa progenitors associated with galaxy cluster stellar populations - and, hence, directly addresess NASA s Strategic Objective 2.4.2 in Astrophysics that aims to improve the understanding of how the Universe works

  11. Photon production in an expanding and chemically equilibrating gluon-enriched plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1993-12-01

    Photon production in a longitudinally and transversely expanding gluon plasma with initially little quark admixture is considered. Chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons is followed by rate equations. The yields of hard photons with E ≥ 2 GeV are insensitive to chemical equilibration and depend mainly on the initial thermalized state. Medium-energy photons with E ∼ 1 GeV are more frequently produced in case of faster equilibration, despite of faster cooling. For an assumed fast equilibration we follow the evolution of matter through mixed and hadron phases. The transverse momentum kick, due to transverse expansion, of photons from hadron matter is shown to be reduced for an equation of state with reduced latent heat. The photon yield in the region E > 1 GeV from deconfined matter dominates for conditions, estimated to be achieved at RHIC, in case of a weakly first-order confinement transition. (orig.)

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    OpenAIRE

    Kabri, Tin-hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions...

  13. Metal-Poor Stars and the Chemical Enrichment of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal-poor stars hold the key to our understanding of the origin of the elements and the chemical evolution of the Universe. This chapter describes the process of discovery of these rare stars, the manner in which their surface abundances (produced in supernovae and other evolved stars) are determined from the analysis of their spectra, and the interpretation of their abundance patterns to elucidate questions of origin and evolution. More generally, studies of these stars contribute to other ...

  14. High-Throughput Screening and Quantitative Chemical Ranking for Sodium-Iodide Symporter Inhibitors in ToxCast Phase I Chemical Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hallinger, Daniel R; Murr, Ashley S; Buckalew, Angela R; Simmons, Steven O; Laws, Susan C; Stoker, Tammy E

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid uptake of iodide via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is the first step in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones that are critical for health and development in humans and wildlife. Despite having long been a known target of endocrine disrupting chemicals such as perchlorate, information regarding NIS inhibition activity is still unavailable for the vast majority of environmental chemicals. This study applied a previously validated high-throughput approach to screen for NIS inhibitors in the ToxCast phase I library, representing 293 important environmental chemicals. Here 310 blinded samples were screened in a tiered-approach using an initial single-concentration (100 μM) radioactive-iodide uptake (RAIU) assay, followed by 169 samples further evaluated in multi-concentration (0.001 μM-100 μM) testing in parallel RAIU and cell viability assays. A novel chemical ranking system that incorporates multi-concentration RAIU and cytotoxicity responses was also developed as a standardized method for chemical prioritization in current and future screenings. Representative chemical responses and thyroid effects of high-ranking chemicals are further discussed. This study significantly expands current knowledge of NIS inhibition potential in environmental chemicals and provides critical support to U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) initiative to expand coverage of thyroid molecular targets, as well as the development of thyroid adverse outcome pathways (AOPs).

  15. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOOeTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail: gil@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: lmonaco@eso.org, E-mail: wyse@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-20

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  16. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOÖTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Monaco, Lorenzo; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from –3.7 to –1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = –3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  17. Automated recycling of chemistry for virtual screening and library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Mikko J; Kogej, Thierry; Raubacher, Florian

    2012-07-23

    An early stage drug discovery project needs to identify a number of chemically diverse and attractive compounds. These hit compounds are typically found through high-throughput screening campaigns. The diversity of the chemical libraries used in screening is therefore important. In this study, we describe a virtual high-throughput screening system called Virtual Library. The system automatically "recycles" validated synthetic protocols and available starting materials to generate a large number of virtual compound libraries, and allows for fast searches in the generated libraries using a 2D fingerprint based screening method. Virtual Library links the returned virtual hit compounds back to experimental protocols to quickly assess the synthetic accessibility of the hits. The system can be used as an idea generator for library design to enrich the screening collection and to explore the structure-activity landscape around a specific active compound.

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabri, Tin-Hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-09-21

    Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions were taken according to size, electrophoretic mobility, conductivity, viscosity, turbidity, cristallization and melting point. The RHLB was calculated for each formulation in order to achieve maximum stability. Results Both tween 80 and soya lecithin were found to stabilize formulations. The results showed that rapeseed oil and miglyol are the predominant parameters for determining the expression of results concerning the characterization of emulsion. Based on the mixture design, we achieved the optimal point using the following formulation: 56.5% rapessed oil, 35.5% miglyol, and 8% salmon oil. We considered this formulation to be the best as a nanocosmeceutical product due to the small size, good turbidity, and average HLB. Conclusions This study demonstrates the influence of formulation on the physico-chemical properties of each nano-emulsion obtained by the mixture design.

  20. Star Formation, Quenching And Chemical Enrichment In Local Galaxies From Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Within the currently well-established ΛCDM cosmological framework we still lack a satisfactory understanding of the processes that trigger, regulate and eventually quench star formation on galactic scales. Gas flows (including inflows from the cosmic web and supernovae-driven outflows) are considered to act as self-regulatory mechanisms, generating the scaling relations between stellar mass, star formation rate and metallicity observed in the local Universe by large spectroscopic surveys. These surveys, however, have so far been limited by the availability of only one spectrum per galaxy. The aim of this dissertation is to expand the study of star formation and chemical abundances to resolved scales within galaxies by using integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data, mostly from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. In the first part of this thesis I demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of extended low ionisation emission-line regions (LIERs) in both late- and early-type galaxies. By studying the Hα equivalent width and diagnostic line ratios radial profiles, together with tracers of the underlying stellar population, I show that LIERs are not due to a central point source but to hot evolved (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. In light of this, I suggest a new classification scheme for galaxies based on their line emission. By analysing the colours, star formation rates, morphologies, gas and stellar kinematics and environmental properties of galaxies with substantial LIER emission, I identify two distinct populations. Galaxies where the central regions are LIER-like, but show star formation at larger radii are late types in which star formation is slowly quenched inside-out. This transformation is associated with massive bulges. Galaxies dominated by LIER emission at all radii, on the other hand, are red-sequence galaxies harbouring a residual cold gas component, acquired mostly via external accretion. Quiescent galaxies devoid of line emission reside in denser

  1. Assessment of a 42 metal salts chemical library in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The developmental effects of xenobiotics on differentiation can be profiled using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity (ACDC) technique was used to evaluate a library of 42 metal and metaloid salts. Jl mESCs were allowed to prolif...

  2. CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF THE FIRST GALAXIES: CRITERIA FOR ONE-SHOT ENRICHMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frebel, Anna; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We utilize metal-poor stars in the local, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs; L tot ≤ 10 5 L ☉ ) to empirically constrain the formation process of the first galaxies. Since UFDs have much simpler star formation histories than the halo of the Milky Way, their stellar populations should preserve the fossil record of the first supernova (SN) explosions in their long-lived, low-mass stars. Guided by recent hydrodynamical simulations of first galaxy formation, we develop a set of stellar abundance signatures that characterize the nucleosynthetic history of such an early system if it was observed in the present-day universe. Specifically, we argue that the first galaxies are the product of chemical 'one-shot' events, where only one (long-lived) stellar generation forms after the first, Population III, SN explosions. Our abundance criteria thus constrain the strength of negative feedback effects inside the first galaxies. We compare the stellar content of UFDs with these one-shot criteria. Several systems (Ursa Major II, and also Coma Berenices, Bootes I, Leo IV, Segue 1) largely fulfill the requirements, indicating that their high-redshift predecessors did experience strong feedback effects that shut off star formation. We term the study of the entire stellar population of a dwarf galaxy for the purpose of inferring details about the nature and origin of the first galaxies 'dwarf galaxy archaeology'. This will provide clues to the connection of the first galaxies, the surviving, metal-poor dwarf galaxies, and the building blocks of the Milky Way.

  3. Early chemical enrichment of the Galactic dwarf satellites from a homogeneous and NLTE abundance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Jablonka, Pascale; Sitnova, Tatyana; Pakhomov, Yuri; North, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    We review recent abundance results for very metal-poor (VMP, -4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2) stars in seven dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and in the Milky Way (MW) halo comparison sample that were obtained based on high-resolution spectroscopic datasets, homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameters, and the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for 10 chemical species. A remarkable gain of using such an approach is the reduction, compared to a simple compilation of the literature data, of the spread in abundance ratios at given metallicity within each galaxy and from one to the other. We show that all massive galaxies in our sample, that is, the MW halo and the classical dSphs Sculptor, Ursa Minor, Sextans, and Fornax, reveal a similar plateau at [α/Fe] \\simeq 0.3 for each of the α-process elements: Mg, Ca, and Ti. We put on a firm ground the evidence for a decline in α/Fe with increasing metallicity in the Boötes I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD), that is most probably due to the ejecta of type Ia supernovae. In our classical dSphs, we observe the dichotomy in the [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] diagram, similarly to the MW halo, calling for two different nucleosynthesis channels for Sr at the earliest evolution stages of these galaxies. Our three UFDs, that is Boötes I, UMa II, and Leo IV, are depleted in Sr and Ba relative to Fe and Mg, with very similar ratios of [Sr/Mg] ≈ -1.3 and [Ba/Mg] ≈ -1 on the entire range of their Mg abundances. The subsolar Sr/Ba ratios of Boötes I and UMa II indicate a common r-process origin of their neutron-capture elements. For Na/Fe, Na/Mg, and Al/Mg, the MW halo and all dSphs reveal indistinguishable trends with metallicity, suggesting that the processes of Na and Al synthesis are identical in all systems, independent of their mass. Sculptor remains the classical dSph, in which the evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the early evolution stage, at [Fe/H] < -2, is the strongest.

  4. A Prospective Virtual Screening Study: Enriching Hit Rates and Designing Focus Libraries To Find Inhibitors of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm-Ganamet, Kelly L; Bembenek, Scott D; Venable, Jennifer W; Castro, Glenda G; Mangelschots, Lieve; Peeters, Daniëlle C G; Mcallister, Heather M; Edwards, James P; Disepio, Daniel; Mirzadegan, Taraneh

    2016-05-12

    Here, we report a high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) study using phosphoinositide 3-kinase (both PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ). Our initial HTVS results of the Janssen corporate database identified small focused libraries with hit rates at 50% inhibition showing a 50-fold increase over those from a HTS (high-throughput screen). Further, applying constraints based on "chemically intuitive" hydrogen bonds and/or positional requirements resulted in a substantial improvement in the hit rates (versus no constraints) and reduced docking time. While we find that docking scoring functions are not capable of providing a reliable relative ranking of a set of compounds, a prioritization of groups of compounds (e.g., low, medium, and high) does emerge, which allows for the chemistry efforts to be quickly focused on the most viable candidates. Thus, this illustrates that it is not always necessary to have a high correlation between a computational score and the experimental data to impact the drug discovery process.

  5. Elemental Abundances and their Implications for the Chemical Enrichment of the Boötes I Ultrafaint Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Monaco, Lorenzo; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and "carbon-normal." Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal P82.182.B-0372, PI: G. Gilmore).

  6. Generation and analysis of large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a full-length enriched cDNA library of porcine backfat tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hae-Young

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome research in farm animals will expand our basic knowledge of the genetic control of complex traits, and the results will be applied in the livestock industry to improve meat quality and productivity, as well as to reduce the incidence of disease. A combination of quantitative trait locus mapping and microarray analysis is a useful approach to reduce the overall effort needed to identify genes associated with quantitative traits of interest. Results We constructed a full-length enriched cDNA library from porcine backfat tissue. The estimated average size of the cDNA inserts was 1.7 kb, and the cDNA fullness ratio was 70%. In total, we deposited 16,110 high-quality sequences in the dbEST division of GenBank (accession numbers: DT319652-DT335761. For all the expressed sequence tags (ESTs, approximately 10.9 Mb of porcine sequence were generated with an average length of 674 bp per EST (range: 200–952 bp. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 5,008 unique sequences with 1,776 contigs (35.46% and 3,232 singleton (65.54% ESTs. From a total of 5,008 unique sequences, 3,154 (62.98% were similar to other sequences, and 1,854 (37.02% were identified as having no hit or low identity (Sus scrofa. Gene ontology (GO annotation of unique sequences showed that approximately 31.7, 32.3, and 30.8% were assigned molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. A total of 1,854 putative novel transcripts resulted after comparison and filtering with the TIGR SsGI; these included a large percentage of singletons (80.64% and a small proportion of contigs (13.36%. Conclusion The sequence data generated in this study will provide valuable information for studying expression profiles using EST-based microarrays and assist in the condensation of current pig TCs into clusters representing longer stretches of cDNA sequences. The isolation of genes expressed in backfat tissue is the

  7. Lessons from Library Power: Enriching Teaching and Learning. Final Report of the Evaluation of the National Library Power Initiative, an Initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweizig, Douglas L.; Hopkins, Dianne McAfee

    This book presents the results of an evaluation of Library Power, an initiative of the DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund that provided support for school library development in 19 communities. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters are organized around key questions of the evaluation. Chapters 2 through 4 address the implementation of…

  8. PyBioMed: a python library for various molecular representations of chemicals, proteins and DNAs and their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Yao, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Feijun; Lin, Qinlu; Lu, Ai-Ping; Chen, Alex F; Cao, Dong-Sheng

    2018-03-20

    With the increasing development of biotechnology and informatics technology, publicly available data in chemistry and biology are undergoing explosive growth. Such wealthy information in these data needs to be extracted and transformed to useful knowledge by various data mining methods. Considering the amazing rate at which data are accumulated in chemistry and biology fields, new tools that process and interpret large and complex interaction data are increasingly important. So far, there are no suitable toolkits that can effectively link the chemical and biological space in view of molecular representation. To further explore these complex data, an integrated toolkit for various molecular representation is urgently needed which could be easily integrated with data mining algorithms to start a full data analysis pipeline. Herein, the python library PyBioMed is presented, which comprises functionalities for online download for various molecular objects by providing different IDs, the pretreatment of molecular structures, the computation of various molecular descriptors for chemicals, proteins, DNAs and their interactions. PyBioMed is a feature-rich and highly customized python library used for the characterization of various complex chemical and biological molecules and interaction samples. The current version of PyBioMed could calculate 775 chemical descriptors and 19 kinds of chemical fingerprints, 9920 protein descriptors based on protein sequences, more than 6000 DNA descriptors from nucleotide sequences, and interaction descriptors from pairwise samples using three different combining strategies. Several examples and five real-life applications were provided to clearly guide the users how to use PyBioMed as an integral part of data analysis projects. By using PyBioMed, users are able to start a full pipelining from getting molecular data, pretreating molecules, molecular representation to constructing machine learning models conveniently. PyBioMed provides

  9. High content screening of defined chemical libraries using normal and glioma-derived neural stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovi, Davide; Folarin, Amos A; Baranowski, Bart; Pollard, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with potent biological effects on the fate of normal and cancer-derived stem cells represent both useful research tools and new drug leads for regenerative medicine and oncology. Long-term expansion of mouse and human neural stem cells is possible using adherent monolayer culture. These cultures represent a useful cellular resource to carry out image-based high content screening of small chemical libraries. Improvements in automated microscopy, desktop computational power, and freely available image processing tools, now means that such chemical screens are realistic to undertake in individual academic laboratories. Here we outline a cost effective and versatile time lapse imaging strategy suitable for chemical screening. Protocols are described for the handling and screening of human fetal Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and their malignant counterparts, Glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells (GNS). We focus on identification of cytostatic and cytotoxic "hits" and discuss future possibilities and challenges for extending this approach to assay lineage commitment and differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Building biomarker libraries with novel chemical sensors: correlating differential mobility spectrometer signal outputs with mass spectrometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; Zhao Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a widely used analytic tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. However, GC/MS use is limited by its large size, lack of portability, high cost and inherent complexity. Smaller instruments capable of high-throughput analysis of volatile compounds have the potential of combining MS-like sensitivity with portability. The micromachined differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is a miniature sensor capable of registering volatile compounds in sub-parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations. It is small, portable, and can be coupled with multiple other compound separation methods. Here we describe paired volatile sample analyses using both GC/MS and GC/DMS which show that the DMS is capable of registering known compounds as verified by MS. Furthermore, we show that MS can be used to help build a library for our unique DMS sensor outputs and detect compounds in chemically complex backgrounds.

  11. Building biomarker libraries with novel chemical sensors: correlating differential mobility spectrometer signal outputs with mass spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Aksenov, Alexander A; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; Zhao Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E, E-mail: cedavis@ucdavis.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-10-29

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a widely used analytic tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. However, GC/MS use is limited by its large size, lack of portability, high cost and inherent complexity. Smaller instruments capable of high-throughput analysis of volatile compounds have the potential of combining MS-like sensitivity with portability. The micromachined differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is a miniature sensor capable of registering volatile compounds in sub-parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations. It is small, portable, and can be coupled with multiple other compound separation methods. Here we describe paired volatile sample analyses using both GC/MS and GC/DMS which show that the DMS is capable of registering known compounds as verified by MS. Furthermore, we show that MS can be used to help build a library for our unique DMS sensor outputs and detect compounds in chemically complex backgrounds.

  12. Identification of three classes of heteroaromatic compounds with activity against intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi by chemical library screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bettiol

    Full Text Available The development of new drugs against Chagas disease is a priority since the currently available medicines have toxic effects, partial efficacy and are targeted against the acute phase of disease. At present, there is no drug to treat the chronic stage. In this study, we have optimized a whole cell-based assay for high throughput screening of compounds that inhibit infection of mammalian cells by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. A 2000-compound chemical library was screened using a recombinant T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain expressing beta-galactosidase. Three hits were selected for their high activity against T. cruzi and low toxicity to host cells in vitro: PCH1, NT1 and CX1 (IC(50: 54, 190 and 23 nM, respectively. Each of these three compounds presents a different mechanism of action on intracellular proliferation of T. cruzi amastigotes. CX1 shows strong trypanocidal activity, an essential characteristic for the development of drugs against the chronic stage of Chagas disease where parasites are found intracellular in a quiescent stage. NT1 has a trypanostatic effect, while PCH1 affects parasite division. The three compounds also show high activity against intracellular T. cruzi from the Y strain and against the related kinetoplastid species Leishmania major and L. amazonensis. Characterization of the anti-T. cruzi activity of molecules chemically related to the three library hits allowed the selection of two compounds with IC(50 values of 2 nM (PCH6 and CX2. These values are approximately 100 times lower than those of the medicines used in patients against T. cruzi. These results provide new candidate molecules for the development of treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis.

  13. Identification of three classes of heteroaromatic compounds with activity against intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi by chemical library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettiol, Esther; Samanovic, Marie; Murkin, Andrew S; Raper, Jayne; Buckner, Frederick; Rodriguez, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The development of new drugs against Chagas disease is a priority since the currently available medicines have toxic effects, partial efficacy and are targeted against the acute phase of disease. At present, there is no drug to treat the chronic stage. In this study, we have optimized a whole cell-based assay for high throughput screening of compounds that inhibit infection of mammalian cells by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. A 2000-compound chemical library was screened using a recombinant T. cruzi (Tulahuen strain) expressing beta-galactosidase. Three hits were selected for their high activity against T. cruzi and low toxicity to host cells in vitro: PCH1, NT1 and CX1 (IC(50): 54, 190 and 23 nM, respectively). Each of these three compounds presents a different mechanism of action on intracellular proliferation of T. cruzi amastigotes. CX1 shows strong trypanocidal activity, an essential characteristic for the development of drugs against the chronic stage of Chagas disease where parasites are found intracellular in a quiescent stage. NT1 has a trypanostatic effect, while PCH1 affects parasite division. The three compounds also show high activity against intracellular T. cruzi from the Y strain and against the related kinetoplastid species Leishmania major and L. amazonensis. Characterization of the anti-T. cruzi activity of molecules chemically related to the three library hits allowed the selection of two compounds with IC(50) values of 2 nM (PCH6 and CX2). These values are approximately 100 times lower than those of the medicines used in patients against T. cruzi. These results provide new candidate molecules for the development of treatments against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis.

  14. Contemporary technology of enrichment of kaolins of Angren deposit. II. Removal of impurities and whitening of kaolins: using electrophysical and chemical methods of cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivorotov, V.F.; Usmanov, ZH.M.; Fridman, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary methods of enrichment of Angren kaolins have been described. The electrophoresis and chemical whitening are demonstrated to be the most effective methods of scavenging. Application of ultrasonic dispersion, electrophoresis and chemical whitening methods allows one to obtain kaolin with whiteness ≅ 88% and content of iron oxides ≅ 0.4%. Using such kaolin as a sorbent at de coloration of plant oil have been shown good adsorption properties, meeting the level of world-wide standards for such class of materials. (authors)

  15. School Libraries Addressing the Needs of ELL Students: Enhancing Language Acquisition, Confidence, and Cultural Fluency in ELL Students by Developing a Targeted Collection and Enriching Your Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peggy Henderson

    2018-01-01

    English Language Learner (ELL) students are sometimes a small constituency. Many resources already in the library can be used to enhance their language acquisition, confidence, and cultural fluency--resources such as graphic novels, hi-lo books, and makerspace materials. This article discusses enhancing language acquisition, confidence, and…

  16. Structure-Guided Screening for Functionally Selective D2 Dopamine Receptor Ligands from a Virtual Chemical Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männel, Barbara; Jaiteh, Mariama; Zeifman, Alexey; Randakova, Alena; Möller, Dorothee; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Carlsson, Jens

    2017-10-20

    Functionally selective ligands stabilize conformations of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that induce a preference for signaling via a subset of the intracellular pathways activated by the endogenous agonists. The possibility to fine-tune the functional activity of a receptor provides opportunities to develop drugs that selectively signal via pathways associated with a therapeutic effect and avoid those causing side effects. Animal studies have indicated that ligands displaying functional selectivity at the D 2 dopamine receptor (D 2 R) could be safer and more efficacious drugs against neuropsychiatric diseases. In this work, computational design of functionally selective D 2 R ligands was explored using structure-based virtual screening. Molecular docking of known functionally selective ligands to a D 2 R homology model indicated that such compounds were anchored by interactions with the orthosteric site and extended into a common secondary pocket. A tailored virtual library with close to 13 000 compounds bearing 2,3-dichlorophenylpiperazine, a privileged orthosteric scaffold, connected to diverse chemical moieties via a linker was docked to the D 2 R model. Eighteen top-ranked compounds that occupied both the orthosteric and allosteric site were synthesized, leading to the discovery of 16 partial agonists. A majority of the ligands had comparable maximum effects in the G protein and β-arrestin recruitment assays, but a subset displayed preference for a single pathway. In particular, compound 4 stimulated β-arrestin recruitment (EC 50 = 320 nM, E max = 16%) but had no detectable G protein signaling. The use of structure-based screening and virtual libraries to discover GPCR ligands with tailored functional properties will be discussed.

  17. Enriching the Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    After decades of costly and time-consuming effort, nearly all libraries have completed the retrospective conversion of their card catalogs to electronic form. However, bibliographic systems still are really not much more than card catalogs on wheels. Enriched content that Amazon.com takes for granted--such as digitized tables of contents, cover…

  18. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  19. Chemical library subset selection algorithms: a unified derivation using spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamprecht, Fred A; Thiel, Walter; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2002-01-01

    If similar compounds have similar activity, rational subset selection becomes superior to random selection in screening for pharmacological lead discovery programs. Traditional approaches to this experimental design problem fall into two classes: (i) a linear or quadratic response function is assumed (ii) some space filling criterion is optimized. The assumptions underlying the first approach are clear but not always defendable; the second approach yields more intuitive designs but lacks a clear theoretical foundation. We model activity in a bioassay as realization of a stochastic process and use the best linear unbiased estimator to construct spatial sampling designs that optimize the integrated mean square prediction error, the maximum mean square prediction error, or the entropy. We argue that our approach constitutes a unifying framework encompassing most proposed techniques as limiting cases and sheds light on their underlying assumptions. In particular, vector quantization is obtained, in dimensions up to eight, in the limiting case of very smooth response surfaces for the integrated mean square error criterion. Closest packing is obtained for very rough surfaces under the integrated mean square error and entropy criteria. We suggest to use either the integrated mean square prediction error or the entropy as optimization criteria rather than approximations thereof and propose a scheme for direct iterative minimization of the integrated mean square prediction error. Finally, we discuss how the quality of chemical descriptors manifests itself and clarify the assumptions underlying the selection of diverse or representative subsets.

  20. A Robust and Versatile Method of Combinatorial Chemical Synthesis of Gene Libraries via Hierarchical Assembly of Partially Randomized Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Blagovesta; Schubert, Steffen; Bulla, Ingo; Buchwald, Daniela; Kramer, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in gene library generation is to guarantee a large functional size and diversity that significantly increases the chances of selecting different functional protein variants. The use of trinucleotides mixtures for controlled randomization results in superior library diversity and offers the ability to specify the type and distribution of the amino acids at each position. Here we describe the generation of a high diversity gene library using tHisF of the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima as a scaffold. Combining various rational criteria with contingency, we targeted 26 selected codons of the thisF gene sequence for randomization at a controlled level. We have developed a novel method of creating full-length gene libraries by combinatorial assembly of smaller sub-libraries. Full-length libraries of high diversity can easily be assembled on demand from smaller and much less diverse sub-libraries, which circumvent the notoriously troublesome long-term archivation and repeated proliferation of high diversity ensembles of phages or plasmids. We developed a generally applicable software tool for sequence analysis of mutated gene sequences that provides efficient assistance for analysis of library diversity. Finally, practical utility of the library was demonstrated in principle by assessment of the conformational stability of library members and isolating protein variants with HisF activity from it. Our approach integrates a number of features of nucleic acids synthetic chemistry, biochemistry and molecular genetics to a coherent, flexible and robust method of combinatorial gene synthesis. PMID:26355961

  1. Tritium analysis in natural waters: experimental characteristics of the electrolitic enrichment system of the Chemical Department - Sao Carlos Federal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozeto, A.A.; Fontanetti, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The working conditions of a system for low-level tritium analyses in natural waters were determined using eletrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The system installed at the Departamento de Quimica - UFScar is characterized by the following experimental parameters: (a) sample volume reduction factor during eletrolysis = 16.7; (b) tritium recovery factor = 80%; (c) tritium enrichment factor = 13.4; (d) counting efficiency = 12.5%; (e) background level = 11.5 cpm; (f) counting time per sample = 500 minutes; (g) sensitivity = 8.3 TU/cpm; (h) lower detection limit = 3.6 TU + - 50% and (i) analytical capacity = 30 samples/month. It is also discussed the suitability of the analytical system in terms of rain and ground water samples as well. (Author) [pt

  2. Enrichment of 15N and 18O by chemical exchange reactions between nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) and aqueous nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrudean, M.; Axente, D.; Baldea, A.

    1981-01-01

    The enrichment of 15 N and 18 O by chemical exchange in the NO, NO 2 -H 2 O, HNO 3 system is described. A laboratory experimental plant and a cascade for producing the two isotopes has been used. The production plant consists of two exchange columns for 15 N separation and two 18 O separation columns feeded with nitrogen oxides, depleted of 15 N, from the top of the first 15 N separation column. The by-products nitric acid and sulphuric acid, both depleted of 15 N and 18 O, are of commercial interest. (author)

  3. Systematic evaluation and optimization of modification reactions of oligonucleotides with amines and carboxylic acids for the synthesis of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Samain, Florent; Abd Elrahman, Maaly; Mikutis, Gediminas; Nauer, Angela; Zimmermann, Mauro; Scheuermann, Jörg; Hall, Jonathan; Neri, Dario

    2014-08-20

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries are collections of small molecules, attached to DNA fragments serving as identification barcodes, which can be screened against multiple protein targets, thus facilitating the drug discovery process. The preparation of large DNA-encoded chemical libraries crucially depends on the availability of robust synthetic methods, which enable the efficient conjugation to oligonucleotides of structurally diverse building blocks, sharing a common reactive group. Reactions of DNA derivatives with amines and/or carboxylic acids are particularly attractive for the synthesis of encoded libraries, in view of the very large number of building blocks that are commercially available. However, systematic studies on these reactions in the presence of DNA have not been reported so far. We first investigated conditions for the coupling of primary amines to oligonucleotides, using either a nucleophilic attack on chloroacetamide derivatives or a reductive amination on aldehyde-modified DNA. While both methods could be used for the production of secondary amines, the reductive amination approach was generally associated with higher yields and better purity. In a second endeavor, we optimized conditions for the coupling of a diverse set of 501 carboxylic acids to DNA derivatives, carrying primary and secondary amine functions. The coupling efficiency was generally higher for primary amines, compared to secondary amine substituents, but varied considerably depending on the structure of the acids and on the synthetic methods used. Optimal reaction conditions could be found for certain sets of compounds (with conversions >80%), but multiple reaction schemes are needed when assembling large libraries with highly diverse building blocks. The reactions and experimental conditions presented in this article should facilitate the synthesis of future DNA-encoded chemical libraries, while outlining the synthetic challenges that remain to be overcome.

  4. Visual characterization and diversity quantification of chemical libraries: 2. Analysis and selection of size-independent, subspace-specific diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliandre, Lionel; Le Guilloux, Vincent; Bourg, Stephane; Morin-Allory, Luc

    2012-02-27

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) is a standard technique widely used to find hit compounds in drug discovery projects. The high costs associated with such experiments have highlighted the need to carefully design screening libraries in order to avoid wasting resources. Molecular diversity is an established concept that has been used to this end for many years. In this article, a new approach to quantify the molecular diversity of screening libraries is presented. The approach is based on the Delimited Reference Chemical Subspace (DRCS) methodology, a new method that can be used to delimit the densest subspace spanned by a reference library in a reduced 2D continuous space. A total of 22 diversity indices were implemented or adapted to this methodology, which is used here to remove outliers and obtain a relevant cell-based partition of the subspace. The behavior of these indices was assessed and compared in various extreme situations and with respect to a set of theoretical rules that a diversity function should satisfy when libraries of different sizes have to be compared. Some gold standard indices are found inappropriate in such a context, while none of the tested indices behave perfectly in all cases. Five DRCS-based indices accounting for different aspects of diversity were finally selected, and a simple framework is proposed to use them effectively. Various libraries have been profiled with respect to more specific subspaces, which further illustrate the interest of the method.

  5. A DNA-Encoded Library of Chemical Compounds Based on Common Scaffolding Structures Reveals the Impact of Ligand Geometry on Protein Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Nicholas; Biendl, Stefan; Hartmann, Marco; Piazzi, Jacopo; Sladojevich, Filippo; Gräslund, Susanne; Brown, Peter J; Näreoja, Katja; Schüler, Herwig; Scheuermann, Jörg; Franzini, Raphael; Neri, Dario

    2018-06-01

    A DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) with 1.2 million compounds was synthesized by combinatorial reaction of seven central scaffolds with two sets of 343×492 building blocks. Library screening by affinity capture revealed that for some target proteins, the chemical nature of building blocks dominated the selection results, whereas for other proteins, the central scaffold also crucially contributed to ligand affinity. Molecules based on a 3,5-bis(aminomethyl)benzoic acid core structure were found to bind human serum albumin with a K d value of 6 nm, while compounds with the same substituents on an equidistant but flexible l-lysine scaffold showed 140-fold lower affinity. A 18 nm tankyrase-1 binder featured l-lysine as linking moiety, while molecules based on d-Lysine or (2S,4S)-amino-l-proline showed no detectable binding to the target. This work suggests that central scaffolds which predispose the orientation of chemical building blocks toward the protein target may enhance the screening productivity of encoded libraries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with sieve plates) or liquid centrifugal contactors. Chemical conversions (oxidation and reduction) are.... Plastic, plastic-lined (including use of fluorocarbon polymers) and/or glass-lined columns and piping are... their internals are made of or protected by suitable plastic materials (such as fluorocarbon polymers...

  7. Metal Abundances at z<1.5: Fresh Clues to the Chemical Enrichment History of Damped Lyα Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettini, Max; Ellison, Sara L.; Steidel, Charles C.; Bowen, David V.

    1999-01-01

    We explore the redshift evolution of the metal content of damped Lyα systems (DLAs) with new observations of four absorbers at zintermediate redshifts for which the abundance of Zn has been measured. The main conclusion is that the column density-weighted mean metallicity, []=-1.03+/-0.23 (on a logarithmic scale), is not significantly higher at zaccounted for, leaves no room for the enhancement of the α elements over iron seen in metal-poor stars in the Milky Way. This is contrary to previous assertions that DLAs have been enriched solely by Type II supernovae, but it can be understood if the rate of star formation in the systems studied proceeded more slowly than in the early history of our Galaxy. These results add to a growing body of data pointing to the conclusion that known DLAs do not trace the galaxy population responsible for the bulk of star formation. Possible reasons are that sight lines through metal-rich gas are systematically underrepresented, because the background QSOs are reddened, and that the most actively star-forming galaxies are also the most compact, presenting too small a cross-section to have been probed yet with the limited statistics of current samples. Most of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Featured Library: Parrish Library

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkwood, Hal P, Jr

    2015-01-01

    The Roland G. Parrish Library of Management & Economics is located within the Krannert School of Management at Purdue University. Between 2005 - 2007 work was completed on a white paper that focused on a student-centered vision for the Management & Economics Library. The next step was a massive collection reduction and a re-envisioning of both the services and space of the library. Thus began a 3 phase renovation from a 2 floor standard, collection-focused library into a single floor, 18,000s...

  9. New microsatellite markers developed from an enriched microsatellite common bean library Novos marcadores microssatélites desenvolvidos a partir de uma biblioteca genômica enriquecida em feijão-comum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Kupper Cardoso

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop new microsatellite markers in common bean. Ninety nine new microsatelitte loci were developed from a microsatellite enriched library for (CT8 and (GT8 motifs, from CAL-143 line. The majority of microsatellite sequences (51% was related to cellular metabolism. The remaining sequences were associated to transcription functions. Only 17.2% of the sequences presented some level of similarity with other plant species genes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver novos marcadores microssatélites para feijão-comum. Noventa e nove novos locos de microssatélites foram desenvolvidos a partir de uma biblioteca enriquecida com motivos (CT8 e (GT8, proveniente da linhagem CAL-143. A maioria dos microssatélites (51% esteve relacionada ao metabolismo celular. As demais seqüências estiveram associadas a funções de transcrição. Apenas 17,2% das seqüências apresentaram alguma semelhança com genes de outras espécies.

  10. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance.

  11. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  12. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  13. The first year pre-service teachers' chemical literacy in individual learning case using the fuel cell technology based-chemical enrichment book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernani, Saefulloh, Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to analyze chemical literacy ability of pre-service teachers based on PISA 2015 scientific competency. This research used descriptive method. Instrument that used in this research is multiple choice question that built based on scientific competency of PISA 2015. The result is grouping by PISA 2015 competency and mapped by high, medium and low GPA classified. This research involves 19 the first year pre-service teachers of 90 population that randomly chosen. According to the result, chemical literacy ability of pre-service described as follows: 1) 35.5% of sample are able to explain phenomena scientifically. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 25.0%, 40.3% and 29.2%; 2) 31.6% of sample are able to evaluate and design scientific enquiry. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 16.7%, 35.4% and 31.3%; 3) 31.6% of sample are able to Interpret data and evidence scientifically. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 50.0%, 25.0% and 37.5%; For the attitude competency, 68.4% of sample able to showing PISA attitude competency that consist of interest in science, environment awareness and Valuing scientific approaches to enquiry attitude. Based on GPA, for high, medium and low GPA group respectively 77.8%, 63.9% and 75.0%. According to the data, chemical literacy ability of pre-service teachers in average are bellow to 50.0% thereby need to be given special attention while scientific attitude are above to 50.0%.

  14. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report looks at the following issues: How much Soviet uranium ore and enriched uranium are imported into the United States and what is the extent to which utilities flag swap to disguise these purchases? What are the U.S.S.R.'s enriched uranium trading practices? To what extent are utilities required to return used fuel to the Soviet Union as part of the enriched uranium sales agreement? Why have U.S. utilities ended their contracts to buy enrichment services from DOE?

  15. A view of the H-band light-element chemical patterns in globular clusters under the AGB self-enrichment scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Mészáros, Sz; Masseron, T.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, B.; Shetrone, M.; Zamora, O.; Lucatello, S.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the self-enrichment scenario by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars for the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) by analysing data set of giant stars observed in nine Galactic GCs, covering a wide range of metallicities and for which the simultaneous measurements of C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are available. To this aim, we calculated six sets of AGB models, with the same chemical composition as the stars belonging to the first generation of each GC. We find that the AGB yields can reproduce the set of observations available, not only in terms of the degree of contamination shown by stars in each GC but, more important, also the observed trend with metallicity, which agrees well with the predictions from AGB evolution modelling. While further observational evidences are required to definitively fix the main actors in the pollution of the interstellar medium from which new generation of stars formed in GCs, the present results confirm that the gas ejected by stars of mass in the range 4 M_{⊙} ≤ M ≤ 8 M_{⊙} during the AGB phase share the same chemical patterns traced by stars in GCs.

  16. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS. I. THE SINGLE-DEGENERATE SCENARIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, Noelia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Tissera, Patricia B. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC. 67 Suc. 28, C1428ZAA, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Matteucci, Francesca, E-mail: nj22@st-andrews.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo, 11, I-34100, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    The nature of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors remains uncertain. This is a major issue for galaxy evolution models since both chemical and energetic feedback plays a major role in the gas dynamics, star formation, and therefore the overall stellar evolution. The progenitor models for the SNe Ia available in the literature propose different distributions for regulating the explosion times of these events. These functions are known as the delay time distributions (DTDs). This work is the first one in a series of papers aiming at studying five different DTDs for SNe Ia. Here we implement and analyze the single-degenerate (SD) scenario in galaxies dominated by a rapid quenching of the star formation, displaying the majority of the stars concentrated in the bulge component. We find a good fit to both the present observed SN Ia rates in spheroidal-dominated galaxies and the [O/Fe] ratios shown by the bulge of the Milky Way. Additionally, the SD scenario is found to reproduce a correlation between the specific SN Ia rate and the specific star formation rate (sSFR), which closely resembles the observational trend, at variance with previous works. Our results suggest that SN Ia observations in galaxies with very low and very high sSFRs can help to impose more stringent constraints on the DTDs and therefore on SN Ia progenitors.

  17. Discovery of new erbB4 inhibitors: Repositioning an orphan chemical library by inverse virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Assunta; Forte, Giovanni; Massimo, Luigia; Riccio, Raffaele; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Di Micco, Simone

    2018-04-12

    Inverse Virtual Screening (IVS) is a docking based approach aimed to the evaluation of the virtual ability of a single compound to interact with a library of proteins. For the first time, we applied this methodology to a library of synthetic compounds, which proved to be inactive towards the target they were initially designed for. Trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamides 3-21 were repositioned by means of IVS identifying new lead compounds (14-16, 19 and 20) for the inhibition of erbB4 in the low micromolar range. Among these, compound 20 exhibited an interesting value of IC 50 on MCF7 cell lines, thus validating IVS in lead repurposing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    GAO was asked to address several questions concerning a number of proposed uranium enrichment bills introduced during the 100th Congress. The bill would have restructured the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation to allow it to compete more effectively in the domestic and international markets. Some of GAO's findings discussed are: uranium market experts believe and existing market models show that the proposed DOE purchase of a $750 million of uranium from domestic producers may not significantly increase production because of large producer-held inventories; excess uranium enrichment production capacity exists throughout the world; therefore, foreign producers are expected to compete heavily in the United States throughout the 1990s as utilities' contracts with DOE expire; and according to a 1988 agreement between DOE's Offices of Nuclear Energy and Defense Programs, enrichment decommissioning costs, estimated to total $3.6 billion for planning purposes, will be shared by the commercial enrichment program and the government

  19. Impact of a Central Scaffold on the Binding Affinity of Fragment Pairs Isolated from DNA-Encoded Self-Assembling Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatti, Martina; Dal Corso, Alberto; Vanetti, Sara; Cazzamalli, Samuele; Rieder, Ulrike; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario; Sladojevich, Filippo

    2017-11-08

    The screening of encoded self-assembling chemical libraries allows the identification of fragment pairs that bind to adjacent pockets on target proteins of interest. For practical applications, it is necessary to link these ligand pairs into discrete organic molecules, devoid of any nucleic acid component. Here we describe the discovery of a synergistic binding pair for acid alpha-1 glycoprotein and a chemical strategy for the identification of optimal linkers, connecting the two fragments. The procedure yielded a set of small organic ligands, the best of which exhibited a dissociation constant of 9.9 nm, as measured in solution by fluorescence polarization. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of uranium, most of which is enriched elsewhere for use as fuel in LWRs. The feasibility of a Canadian uranium-enrichment enterprise is therefore a perennial question. Recent developments in uranium-enrichment technology, and their likely impacts on separative work supply and demand, suggest an opportunity window for Canadian entry into this international market. The Canadian opportunity results from three particular impacts of the new technologies: 1) the bulk of the world's uranium-enrichment capacity is in gaseous diffusion plants which, because of their large requirements for electricity (more than 2000 kW·h per SWU), are vulnerable to competition from the new processes; 2) the decline in enrichment costs increases the economic incentive for the use of slightly-enriched uranium (SEU) fuel in CANDU reactors, thus creating a potential Canadian market; and 3) the new processes allow economic operation on a much smaller scale, which drastically reduces the investment required for market entry and is comparable with the potential Canadian SEU requirement. The opportunity is not open-ended. By the end of the century the enrichment supply industry will have adapted to the new processes and long-term customer/supplier relationships will have been established. In order to seize the opportunity, Canada must become a credible supplier during this century

  1. Uranium enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article includes an introduction about the isotopes of natural uranium, their existence and the difficulty of the separation between them. Then it goes to the details of a number of methods used to enrich uranium: Gaseous Diffusion method, Electromagnetic method, Jet method, Centrifugal method, Chemical method, Laser method and Plasma method.

  2. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

  3. Probing the ToxCastTM Chemical Library for Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity - Poster at Teratology Society Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s ToxCast™ project is profiling the in vitro bioactivity of chemical compounds to assess pathway-level and cell-based signatures that correlate with observed in vivo toxicity. We hypothesize that cell signaling pathways are primary targets for diverse environmental chemicals ...

  4. Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriot, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

  5. Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library Search Site submit Contact Us | Remote Access Standards Theses/Dissertations Research Help Subject Guides Library Training Video Tutorials Alerts Research Library: delivering essential knowledge services for national security sciences since 1947 Los

  6. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ceulemans

    Full Text Available Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  7. Nutrient enrichment is associated with altered nectar and pollen chemical composition in Succisa pratensis Moench and increased larval mortality of its pollinator Bombus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, Tobias; Hulsmans, Eva; Vanden Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators are declining worldwide and possible underlying causes include disease, invasive pest species and large scale land use changes resulting in habitat loss and degradation. One particular cause of habitat degradation is the increased inflow of nutrients due to anthropogenic combustion processes and large scale application of agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient pollution has been shown to affect pollinators through the loss of nectar and pollen-providing plant species. However, it may also affect pollinators through altering the nectar and pollen chemical composition of plant species, hence influencing pollinator food quality. Here, we experimentally investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on amino acid and sugar composition of nectar and pollen in the grassland plant Sucissa pratensis, and the subsequent colony size and larval mortality of the pollinating bumblebee Bombus terrestris. We found less of the essential amino acids glycine and arginine in the pollen of fertilized plants, and more arginine, ornithine and threonine in the pollen of control plants. Nectar glucose and pollen fructose levels were lower in fertilized plants as compared to control plants. Furthermore, bumblebee colonies visiting fertilized plants showed more dead larvae than colonies visiting control plants. Our results suggest that the fitness of bumblebees can be negatively affected by changes in their food quality following nutrient pollution. If similar patterns hold for other plant and pollinator species, this may have far reaching implications for the maintenance of pollination ecosystem services, as nutrient pollution continues to rise worldwide.

  8. Support vector regression scoring of receptor-ligand complexes for rank-ordering and virtual screening of chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Wang, Bo; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-09-26

    The community structure-activity resource (CSAR) data sets are used to develop and test a support vector machine-based scoring function in regression mode (SVR). Two scoring functions (SVR-KB and SVR-EP) are derived with the objective of reproducing the trend of the experimental binding affinities provided within the two CSAR data sets. The features used to train SVR-KB are knowledge-based pairwise potentials, while SVR-EP is based on physicochemical properties. SVR-KB and SVR-EP were compared to seven other widely used scoring functions, including Glide, X-score, GoldScore, ChemScore, Vina, Dock, and PMF. Results showed that SVR-KB trained with features obtained from three-dimensional complexes of the PDBbind data set outperformed all other scoring functions, including best performing X-score, by nearly 0.1 using three correlation coefficients, namely Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall. It was interesting that higher performance in rank ordering did not translate into greater enrichment in virtual screening assessed using the 40 targets of the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). To remedy this situation, a variant of SVR-KB (SVR-KBD) was developed by following a target-specific tailoring strategy that we had previously employed to derive SVM-SP. SVR-KBD showed a much higher enrichment, outperforming all other scoring functions tested, and was comparable in performance to our previously derived scoring function SVM-SP.

  9. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  10. Depleting high-abundant and enriching low-abundant proteins in human serum: An evaluation of sample preparation methods using magnetic nanoparticle, chemical depletion and immunoaffinity techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; da Silva Fernandes, Rafael; de Souza Pessôa, Gustavo; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of three different depletion methods to remove the most abundant proteins, enriching those human serum proteins with low abundance is checked to make more efficient the search and discovery of biomarkers. These methods utilize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemical reagents (sequential application of dithiothreitol and acetonitrile, DTT/ACN), and commercial apparatus based on immunoaffinity (ProteoMiner, PM). The comparison between methods shows significant removal of abundant protein, remaining in the supernatant at concentrations of 4.6±0.2, 3.6±0.1, and 3.3±0.2µgµL -1 (n=3) for MNPs, DTT/ACN and PM respectively, from a total protein content of 54µgµL -1 . Using GeLC-MS/MS analysis, MNPs depletion shows good efficiency in removing high molecular weight proteins (>80kDa). Due to the synergic effect between the reagents DTT and ACN, DTT/ACN-based depletion offers good performance in the depletion of thiol-rich proteins, such as albumin and transferrin (DTT action), as well as of high molecular weight proteins (ACN action). Furthermore, PM equalization confirms its efficiency in concentrating low-abundant proteins, decreasing the dynamic range of protein levels in human serum. Direct comparison between the treatments reveals 72 proteins identified when using MNP depletion (43 of them exclusively by this method), but only 20 proteins using DTT/ACN (seven exclusively by this method). Additionally, after PM treatment 30 proteins were identified, seven exclusively by this method. Thus, MNPs and DTT/ACN depletion can be simple, quick, cheap, and robust alternatives for immunochemistry-based protein depletion, providing a potential strategy in the search for disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of MoS{sub 2} ribbons and their branched structures by chemical vapor deposition in sulfur-enriched environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D., E-mail: rmahyavanshi@gmail.com [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kondo, Masuharu; Dewa, Takeshita [Department of Life Science and Applied Chemistry, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kawahara, Toshio [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate synthesis of monolayer MoS{sub 2} ribbons and their branched structures. • Unidirectional, bi and tri-directional growth of ribbons from the nucleation point are obtained. • Unidirectional and other branched structures can be synthesized controlling the composition of MoO{sub 3} and sulfur vapor. • The ribbons possess uneven edge structures with angles of 60° and 120°, indicating molybdenum and sulfur terminations. - Abstract: Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) ribbons and their branched structures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in sulfur-enriched environment. The growth of the MoS{sub 2} ribbons, triangular and other crystals significantly depends on the exposure of sulfur and concentration of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) vapor on the substrate surface. The width and length of the synthesized ribbons is around 5–10 and 50–100 μm, respectively, where the width reduces from the nucleation point toward the end of the ribbon. Unidirectional, bi and tri-directional growth of ribbons from the nucleation point with an angle of 60° and 120° were obtained attributing to crystallographic growth orientation of MoS{sub 2} crystals. The directional growth of dichalcogenides ribbons is a significant challenge, our process shows that such unidirectional and other branched structures can be achieved by controlling the stoichiometric composition of MoO{sub 3} and sulfur exposure on the substrate surface. Interestingly, all the individual and branched ribbons possess uneven abundant edge structures, where the edges are formed with angles of 60° and 120°, indicating variation in molybdenum and sulfur edge terminations. The directional growth of MoS{sub 2} ribbons with defined edge structures in particular CVD condition can open up new possibilities for electronic and electrochemical applications.

  12. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  13. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  14. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg196 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg 196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment

  15. The UK chemical nuclear data library: a summary of the data available in ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.

    1981-11-01

    The UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee files have been considerably revised and extended. The files now embrace: fission yields (C31), fission product decay data (UKFPDD-2), activation product decay data (UKPADD-1), and heavy element decay data (UKHEDD-1). The fission yield data is based on Crouch's third round of adjustment and includes yields to isometric states. The decay data files include data on half-life, decay modes, branching ratios and alpha, beta and gamma radiation energies and intensities. The data have all been recommended by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee for use in the UK reactor programme; they are stored on magnetic tape at AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith and CEGB Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. (author)

  16. Managing, profiling and analyzing a library of 2.6 million compounds gathered from 32 chemical providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Aurélien; Arrault, Alban; Marot, Christophe; Morin-Allory, Luc

    2006-08-01

    The data for 3.8 million compounds from structural databases of 32 providers were gathered and stored in a single chemical database. Duplicates are removed using the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier. After this, 2.6 million compounds remain. Each database and the final one were studied in term of uniqueness, diversity, frameworks, 'drug-like' and 'lead-like' properties. This study also shows that there are more than 87 000 frameworks in the database. It contains 2.1 million 'drug-like' molecules among which, more than one million are 'lead-like'. This study has been carried out using 'ScreeningAssistant', a software dedicated to chemical databases management and screening sets generation. Compounds are stored in a MySQL database and all the operations on this database are carried out by Java code. The druglikeness and leadlikeness are estimated with 'in-house' scores using functions to estimate convenience to properties; unicity using the InChI code and diversity using molecular frameworks and fingerprints. The software has been conceived in order to facilitate the update of the database. 'ScreeningAssistant' is freely available under the GPL license.

  17. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

  18. Library Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Computing, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Special supplement to "Library Journal" and "School Library Journal" covers topics of interest to school, public, academic, and special libraries planning for automation: microcomputer use, readings in automation, online searching, databases of microcomputer software, public access to microcomputers, circulation, creating a…

  19. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and virtual screening studies for identifying HDAC2 inhibitors from known HDAC bioactive chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-The, H; Casañola-Martin, G; Diéguez-Santana, K; Nguyen-Hai, N; Ngoc, N T; Vu-Duc, L; Le-Thi-Thu, H

    2017-03-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are emerging as promising targets in cancer, neuronal diseases and immune disorders. Computational modelling approaches have been widely applied for the virtual screening and rational design of novel HDAC inhibitors. In this study, different machine learning (ML) techniques were applied for the development of models that accurately discriminate HDAC2 inhibitors form non-inhibitors. The obtained models showed encouraging results, with the global accuracy in the external set ranging from 0.83 to 0.90. Various aspects related to the comparison of modelling techniques, applicability domain and descriptor interpretations were discussed. Finally, consensus predictions of these models were used for screening HDAC2 inhibitors from four chemical libraries whose bioactivities against HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC6 and HDAC8 have been known. According to the results of virtual screening assays, structures of some hits with pair-isoform-selective activity (between HDAC2 and other HDACs) were revealed. This study illustrates the power of ML-based QSAR approaches for the screening and discovery of potent, isoform-selective HDACIs.

  1. Uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This paper analyzes under four different scenarios the adequacy of a $500 million annual deposit into a fund to pay for the cost of cleaning up the Department of Energy's (DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants. These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. In summary the following was found: A fixed annual $500 million deposit made into a cleanup fund would not be adequate to cover total expected cleanup costs, nor would it be adequate to cover expected decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) costs. A $500 million annual deposit indexed to an inflation rate would likely be adequate to pay for all expected cleanup costs, including D and D costs, remedial action, and depleted uranium costs

  2. JCE Digital Library Grand Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematical Education Digital Library (NSDL), inaugurated in December 2002, is developed to promote science education on a comprehensive scale. The Journal of Chemical, Education (JCE) Digital Library, incorporated into NSDL, contains its own collections of digital resources for chemistry…

  3. About the Library - Betty Petersen Memorial Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    branch library of the NOAA Central Library. The library serves the NOAA Science Center in Camp Springs , Maryland. History and Mission: Betty Petersen Memorial Library began as a reading room in the NOAA Science Science Center staff and advises the library on all aspects of the library program. Library Newsletters

  4. Chlorination pattern effect on thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability for C₁₀-SCCPs: Quantum chemical calculation based on virtual combinational library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuzhen; Pan, Wenxiao; Lin, Yuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are still controversial candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention. The inherent mixture nature of SCCPs makes it rather difficult to explore their environmental behaviors. A virtual molecule library of 42,720 C10-SCCP congeners covering the full structure spectrum was constructed. We explored the structural effects on the thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability of C10-SCCPs through semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The thermodynamic properties were acquired using the AM1 method, and frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out to obtain the E(HOMO), E(LUMO) and E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) for degradability exploration at the same level. The influence of the chlorination degree (N(Cl)) on the relative stability and environmental degradation was elucidated. A novel structural descriptor, μ, was proposed to measure the dispersion of the chlorine atoms within a molecule. There were significant correlations between thermodynamic values and N(Cl), while the reported N(Cl)-dependent pollution profile of C10-SCCPs in environmental samples was basically consistent with the predicted order of formation stability of C10-SCCP congeners. In addition, isomers with large μ showed higher relative stability than those with small μ. This could be further verified by the relationship between μ and the reactivity of nucleophilic substitution and OH attack respectively. The C10-SCCP congeners with less Cl substitution and lower dispersion degree are susceptible to environmental degradation via nucleophilic substitution and hydroxyl radical attack, while direct photolysis of C10-SCCP congeners cannot readily occur due to the large E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) values. The chlorination effect and the conclusions were further checked with appropriate density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Library Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model.......A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model....

  6. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  7. Nigerian Libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the digital divide: the potential role of the National Library of Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Juliana Obiageri Akidi, Joy Chituru Onyenachi, 11-19 ...

  8. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  9. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Key words: academic libraries, open access, research, researchers, technology ... European commission (2012) reports that affordable and easy access to the results ...

  10. Juvenile psittacine environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Freilicher, Elisabeth; Rupley, Agnes E

    2015-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is of great import to the emotional, intellectual, and physical development of the juvenile psittacine and their success in the human home environment. Five major types of enrichment include social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional. Occupational enrichment includes exercise and psychological enrichment. Physical enrichment includes the cage and accessories and the external home environment. Sensory enrichment may be visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or taste oriented. Nutritional enrichment includes variations in appearance, type, and frequency of diet, and treats, novelty, and foraging. Two phases of the preadult period deserve special enrichment considerations: the development of autonomy and puberty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High-throughput screening of suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries using DNA microarray analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Berg, N

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient construction of cDNA libraries enriched for differentially expressed transcripts is an important first step in many biological investigations. We present a quantitative procedure for screening cDNA libraries constructed by suppression...

  12. Safety criteria of uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardocci, A.C.; Oliveira Neto, J.M. de

    1994-01-01

    The applicability of nuclear reactor safety criteria applied to uranium enrichment plants is discussed, and a new criterion based on the soluble uranium compounds and hexafluoride chemical toxicities is presented. (L.C.J.A.). 21 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  14. Generation and analysis of a large-scale expressed sequence Tag database from a full-length enriched cDNA library of developing leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is one of the world's most economically-important crops. However, its entire genome has not been sequenced, and limited resources are available in GenBank for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf development and senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 9,874 high-quality ESTs were generated from a normalized, full-length cDNA library derived from pooled RNA isolated from throughout leaf development during the plant blooming stage. After clustering and assembly of these ESTs, 5,191 unique sequences, representative 1,652 contigs and 3,539 singletons, were obtained. The average unique sequence length was 682 bp. Annotation of these unique sequences revealed that 84.4% showed significant homology to sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, and 57.3% had significant hits to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database. Comparative analysis indicated that our library added 2,400 ESTs and 991 unique sequences to those known for cotton. The unigenes were functionally characterized by gene ontology annotation. We identified 1,339 and 200 unigenes as potential leaf senescence-related genes and transcription factors, respectively. Moreover, nine genes related to leaf senescence and eleven MYB transcription factors were randomly selected for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, which revealed that these genes were regulated differentially during senescence. The qRT-PCR for three GhYLSs revealed that these genes express express preferentially in senescent leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These EST resources will provide valuable sequence information for gene expression profiling analyses and functional genomics studies to elucidate their roles, as well as for studying the mechanisms of leaf development and senescence in cotton and discovering candidate genes related to important agronomic traits of cotton. These data will also facilitate future whole-genome sequence

  15. The library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A specialized library is essential for conducting the research work of the Uranium Institute. The need was recognized at the foundation of the Institute and a full-time librarian was employed in 1976 to establish the necessary systems and begin the task of building up the collection. A brief description is given of the services offered by the library which now contains books, periodicals, pamphlets and press cuttings, focussed on uranium and nuclear energy, but embracing economics, politics, trade, legislation, geology, mining and mineral processing, environmental protection and nuclear technology. (author)

  16. Libraries on the MOVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Jim; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents papers from Illinois State Library and Shawnee Library System's "Libraries on the MOVE" conference focusing on how libraries can impact economic/cultural climate of an area. Topics addressed included information services of rural libraries; marketing; rural library development; library law; information access; interagency…

  17. Personal Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  18. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  19. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  20. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  1. Fractional enrichment of proteins using [2-{sup 13}C]-glycerol as the carbon source facilitates measurement of excited state {sup 13}Cα chemical shifts with improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlner, Alexandra; Andresen, Cecilia; Khan, Shahid N. [Linköping University, Division of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Sweden); Kay, Lewis E. [The University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry, One King’s College Circle (Canada); Lundström, Patrik, E-mail: patlu@ifm.liu.se [Linköping University, Division of Chemistry, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    A selective isotope labeling scheme based on the utilization of [2-{sup 13}C]-glycerol as the carbon source during protein overexpression has been evaluated for the measurement of excited state {sup 13}Cα chemical shifts using Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion (RD) experiments. As expected, the fractional incorporation of label at the Cα positions is increased two-fold relative to labeling schemes based on [2-{sup 13}C]-glucose, effectively doubling the sensitivity of NMR experiments. Applications to a binding reaction involving an SH3 domain from the protein Abp1p and a peptide from the protein Ark1p establish that accurate excited state {sup 13}Cα chemical shifts can be obtained from RD experiments, with errors on the order of 0.06 ppm for exchange rates ranging from 100 to 1000 s{sup −1}, despite the small fraction of {sup 13}Cα–{sup 13}Cβ spin-pairs that are present for many residue types. The labeling approach described here should thus be attractive for studies of exchanging systems using {sup 13}Cα spin probes.

  2. Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  3. MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES: A TOOL FOR SURVIVAL IN THE ... This article discusses the concept of marketing library and information services as an ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Chemical fingerprint of iron oxides related to iron enrichment of banded iron formation from the Cauê Formation - Esperança Deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil: a laser ablation ICP-MS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilia Aparecida Ramos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Chemical signatures of iron oxides from dolomitic itabirite and high-grade iron ore from the Esperança deposit, located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, indicate that polycyclic processes involving changing of chemical and redox conditions are responsible for the iron enrichment on Cauê Formation from Minas Supergroup. Variations of Mn, Mg and Sr content in different generations of iron oxides from dolomitic itabirite, high-grade iron ore and syn-mineralization quartz-carbonate-hematite veins denote the close relationship between high-grade iron ore formation and carbonate alteration. This indicates that dolomitic itabirite is the main precursor of the iron ore in that deposit. Long-lasting percolation of hydrothermal fluids and shifts in the redox conditions have contributed to changes in the Y/Ho ratio, light/heavy rare earth elements ratio and Ce anomaly with successive iron oxide generations (martite-granular hematite, as well as lower abundance of trace elements including rare earth elements in the younger specularite generations.

  5. Library news

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has been providing electronic access to the "Techniques de l'Ingénieur" database for the past 8 months. As a reminder, this is a multidisciplinary database of over 4000 technical and scientific articles in French, covering a broad range of topics such as mechanical engineering, safety, electronics and the environment. In a few simple steps, you can create your own account, select the types of documents you are interested in and configure your settings so as to receive alerts when articles in your field of activity are published. You can now access this resource from outside CERN using the "remote access to electronic resources" service. Further information is available here. Direct access to the database. Remote access to electronic resources. If you have any questions or comments, don't hesitate to contact us at: library.desk@cern.ch.

  6. CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT IN THE FAINTEST GALAXIES: THE CARBON AND IRON ABUNDANCE SPREADS IN THE BOOeTES I DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY AND THE SEGUE 1 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard; Belokurov, V.; Zucker, Daniel B.; Frebel, Anna; Wilkinson, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    We present an AAOmega spectroscopic study of red giants in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Booetes I (M V ∼ -6) and the Segue 1 system (M V ∼ -1.5), either an extremely low luminosity dwarf galaxy or an unusually extended globular cluster. Both Booetes I and Segue 1 have significant abundance dispersions in iron and carbon. Booetes I has a mean abundance of [Fe/H] = -2.55 ± 0.11 with an [Fe/H] dispersion of σ = 0.37 ± 0.08, and abundance spreads of Δ[Fe/H] = 1.7 and Δ[C/H] = 1.5. Segue 1 has a mean of [Fe/H] = -2.7 ± 0.4 with [Fe/H] dispersion of σ = 0.7 ± 0.3, and abundances spreads of Δ[Fe/H] = 1.6 and Δ[C/H] = 1.2. Moreover, Segue 1 has a radial-velocity member at four half-light radii that is extremely metal-poor and carbon-rich, with [Fe/H] = -3.5, and [C/Fe] = +2.3. Modulo an unlikely non-member contamination, the [Fe/H] abundance dispersion confirms Segue 1 as the least-luminous ultra-faint dwarf galaxy known. For [Fe/H] V = -5. The very low mean iron abundances and the high carbon and iron abundance dispersions in Segue 1 and Booetes I are consistent with highly inhomogeneous chemical evolution starting in near zero-abundance gas. These ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are apparently surviving examples of the very first bound systems.

  7. Library Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term benchmarking has been encountered in the implementation of total quality (TQM or in Indonesian termed holistic quality management because benchmarking is a tool to look for ideas or learn from the library. Benchmarking is a processof measuring and comparing for continuous business process of systematic and continuous measurement, the process of measuring and comparing for continuous business process of an organization to get information that can help these organization improve their performance efforts.

  8. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  9. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; Gagne, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are covered: the status of the Government's existing uranium enrichment services contracts, natural uranium requirements based on the latest contract information, uncertainty in predicting natural uranium requirements based on uranium enrichment contracts, and domestic and foreign demand assumed in enrichment planning

  10. Library fingerprints: a novel approach to the screening of virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klon, Anthony E; Diller, David J

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel method to prioritize libraries for combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening that assesses the viability of a particular library on the basis of the aggregate physical-chemical properties of the compounds using a naïve Bayesian classifier. This approach prioritizes collections of related compounds according to the aggregate values of their physical-chemical parameters in contrast to single-compound screening. The method is also shown to be useful in screening existing noncombinatorial libraries when the compounds in these libraries have been previously clustered according to their molecular graphs. We show that the method used here is comparable or superior to the single-compound virtual screening of combinatorial libraries and noncombinatorial libraries and is superior to the pairwise Tanimoto similarity searching of a collection of combinatorial libraries.

  11. A Study on Education and the Organization of School Libraries in the Perspective of Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Aslan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of enriched school libraries (Z Library established by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education are analyzed in the perspective of total quality management in terms of institutionalization and supervision, goals and productivity.

  12. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  13. A Non-imaging High Throughput Approach to Chemical Library Screening at the Unmodified Adenosine-A3 Receptor in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Arruda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in fluorescent ligand technology have enabled the study of G protein-coupled receptors in their native environment without the need for genetic modification such as addition of N-terminal fluorescent or bioluminescent tags. Here, we have used a non-imaging plate reader (PHERAstar FS to monitor the binding of fluorescent ligands to the human adenosine-A3 receptor (A3AR; CA200645 and AV039, stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells. To verify that this method was suitable for the study of other GPCRs, assays at the human adenosine-A1 receptor, and β1 and β2 adrenoceptors (β1AR and β2AR; BODIPY-TMR-CGP-12177 were also carried out. Affinity values determined for the binding of the fluorescent ligands CA200645 and AV039 to A3AR for a range of classical adenosine receptor antagonists were consistent with A3AR pharmacology and correlated well (R2 = 0.94 with equivalent data obtained using a confocal imaging plate reader (ImageXpress Ultra. The binding of BODIPY-TMR-CGP-12177 to the β1AR was potently inhibited by low concentrations of the β1-selective antagonist CGP 20712A (pKi 9.68 but not by the β2-selective antagonist ICI 118551(pKi 7.40. Furthermore, in experiments conducted in CHO K1 cells expressing the β2AR this affinity order was reversed with ICI 118551 showing the highest affinity (pKi 8.73 and CGP20712A (pKi 5.68 the lowest affinity. To determine whether the faster data acquisition of the non-imaging plate reader (~3 min per 96-well plate was suitable for high throughput screening (HTS, we screened the LOPAC library for inhibitors of the binding of CA200645 to the A3AR. From the initial 1,263 compounds evaluated, 67 hits (defined as those that inhibited the total binding of 25 nM CA200645 by ≥40% were identified. All compounds within the library that had medium to high affinity for the A3AR (pKi ≥6 were successfully identified. We found three novel compounds in the library that displayed unexpected sub-micromolar affinity

  14. Uranium Enrichment, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF 6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

  15. Data from Tiered High-Throughput Screening Approach to Identify Thyroperoxidase Inhibitors within the ToxCast Phase I and II Chemical Libraries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High-throughput screening for potential thyroid-disrupting chemicals requires a system of assays to capture multiple molecular-initiating events (MIEs) that converge...

  16. Libraries for users services in academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Alvite, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews the quality and evolution of academic library services. It revises service trends offered by academic libraries and the challenge of enhancing traditional ones such as: catalogues, repositories and digital collections, learning resources centres, virtual reference services, information literacy and 2.0 tools.studies the role of the university library in the new educational environment of higher educationrethinks libraries in academic contextredefines roles for academic libraries

  17. Enhanced Catalogue Records Positively Impact Circulation but Are Not Used to Their Potential in Patron Searching. A Review of: Tosaka, Y., & Weng, C. (2011. Reexamining content-enriched access: Its effect on usage and discovery. College & Research Libraries, 72(5, 412-427.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine how contentenrichedcatalogue records impact thecirculation rates of print resources in foursubject areas, and to investigate how thisadditional metadata influences OPACsearching and item retrieval.Design – Analysis of circulation data,bibliographic records, and OPAC search logs.Setting – A library at a four-yearundergraduate residential college in theNorth-eastern United States.Subjects – Bibliographic records for 88,538titles; data from 7,782 circulation transactions;and 130 OPAC search strings and relatedcirculation data.Methods – In the first part of the study,bibliographic records for print items publishedsince 1990 were extracted from the library’sintegrated library system (ILS in the followingLibrary of Congress (LC classes: D, E, F, H, J,L, P, Q, R, S, and T. It is assumed thatelectronic books were excluded from thisstudy because their usage is not tracked in theILS. These LC classes were chosen tocorrespond to the subject areas targeted by theresearchers for comparison – “history, socialsciences, language and literature, and scienceand technology” (p. 416. The data fileincluded the publication date of the title, aswell as values for the MARC fields identified by the researchers as containing content-enriched data. These fields were MARC 505 (an item’s table of contents or list of works included, MARC 520 (summaries or annotations, and MARC 856 (URL to electronic location of related material or electronic copy (p. 416; Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office, 2003, 2008a, 2008b. The authors analyzed records for 88,538 titles and determined the total number of records containing each of the MARC fields either singly or in combination.Data relating to circulation transactions for items located in these LC classes from January to May 2009 was also identified. Like the bibliographic records, circulation data was pulled for print items only. The researchers identified 7

  18. Lending a helping hand, screening chemical libraries for compounds that enhance β-hexosaminidase A activity in GM2 gangliosidosis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropak, Michael B.; Mahuran, Don

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme enhancement therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat many genetic diseases. Candidate diseases are those associated with a mutant protein that has difficulty folding and/or assembling into active oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum. Many lysosomal storage diseases are candidates for enzyme enhancement therapy and have the additional advantage of requiring only 5–10% of normal enzyme levels to reduce and/or prevent substrate accumulation. Our long experience in working with the β-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) isozymes system and its associated deficiencies (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease) lead us to search for possible enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that could treat the chronic forms of these diseases which express 2–5% residual activity. Pharmacological chaperones are enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that are competitive inhibitors of the target enzyme. Each of the known β-hexosaminidase inhibitors (low μM IC50) increased mutant enzyme levels to ≥ 10% in chronic Tay-Sachs fibroblasts and also attenuated the thermo-denaturation of β-hexosaminidase. To expand the repertoire of pharmacological chaperones to more ‘drug-like’ compounds, we screened the Maybridge library of 50 000 compounds using a real-time assay for non-carbohydrate-based β-hexosaminidase inhibitors and identified several that functioned as pharmacological chaperones in patient cells. Two of these inhibitors had derivatives that had been tested in humans for other purposes. These observations lead us to screen the NINDS library of 1040 Food and Drug Administration approved compounds for pharmacological chaperones. Pyrimethamine, an antimalarial drug with well documented pharmacokinetics, was confirmed as a β-hexosaminidase pharmacological chaperone and compared favorably with our best carbohydrate-based pharmacological chaperone in patient cells with various mutant genotypes. PMID:17894780

  19. Rationalizing the chemical space of protein-protein interaction inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Olivier; Reynès, Christelle H; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2010-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are one of the next major classes of therapeutic targets, although they are too intricate to tackle with standard approaches. This is due, in part, to the inadequacy of today's chemical libraries. However, the emergence of a growing number of experimentally validated inhibitors of PPIs (i-PPIs) allows drug designers to use chemoinformatics and machine learning technologies to unravel the nature of the chemical space covered by the reported compounds. Key characteristics of i-PPIs can then be revealed and highlight the importance of specific shapes and/or aromatic bonds, enabling the design of i-PPI-enriched focused libraries and, therefore, of cost-effective screening strategies. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Compound Libraries for Modulators of Salicylic Acid Signaling by In Situ Monitoring of Glucuronidase-Based Reporter Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Vivek; Kombrink, Erich

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a vital phytohormone that is intimately involved in coordination of the complex plant defense response to pathogen attack. Many aspects of SA signaling have been unraveled by classical genetic and biochemical methods using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but many details remain unknown, owing to the inherent limitations of these methods. In recent years, chemical genetics has emerged as an alternative scientific strategy to complement classical genetics by virtue of identifying bioactive chemicals or probes that act selectively on their protein targets causing either activation or inhibition. Such selective tools have the potential to create conditional and reversible chemical mutant phenotypes that may be combined with genetic mutants. Here, we describe a facile chemical screening methodology for intact Arabidopsis seedlings harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter by directly quantifying GUS activity in situ with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (4-MUG) as substrate. The quantitative nature of this screening assay has an obvious advantage over the also convenient histochemical GUS staining method, as it allows application of statistical procedures and unbiased hit selection based on threshold values as well as distinction between compounds with strong or weak bioactivity. We show pilot screens for chemical activators or inhibitors of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling using the Arabidopsis line expressing the SA-inducible PR1p::GUS reporter gene. Importantly, the screening methodology provided here can be adopted for any inducible GUS reporter line.

  1. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  2. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1987-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  3. Marketing the Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  4. State Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  5. Public Libraries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Overview of library movement in Bangladesh highlights British (1851-1947) and Pakistan periods (1947-1971), separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, libraries in development plans (1951-1970), three important public libraries, development of national library, book resources, a library network plan, legislation, finance, leadership, library…

  6. 36 CFR 701.2 - Acquisition of Library material by non-purchase means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policy of the Library of Congress to foster the enrichment of its collections through gifts of materials within the terms of the Library's acquisitions policies. In implementing this policy, division chiefs and... accompanied by a signed Agreement of Deposit. (2) It is the policy of the Library of Congress to accept...

  7. Protogalactic explosions and intracluster chemical enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fazio, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati; Vagnetti, F.; Wilson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Using a hydrodynamic model of protogalactic evolution, we explain the amount of iron in rich clusters, deduced from X-ray observations. In fact, our calculations show that a strong shock wave originates in the first violent collapse phase and leaves the protogalaxy, carrying out a substantial fraction of its mass, with roughly solar metallicity and high temperature (10 7 -10 8 K). We also show that hot material ejected from proto-cD galaxies can probably explain the observed X-ray emission in clusters. (orig.)

  8. Uranium enrichment: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a general presentation of uranium enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. It gives first some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general and explains the differences between statistical and selective processes in particular. Then a review of the different processes is made with a comparison between them. Finally, some general remarks concerning applications are given and the risks of proliferation related to enrichment are mentioned. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  9. The enrichment secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einbund, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper will addresses two topics: the background to the present status of the enrichment secondary market and the future outlook of the secondary market in enrichment services, and the viability of the nuclear fuel brokerage industry. These two topics are inevitably connected, as most secondary market activity, not only in enrichment but also in natural uranium, has traditionally been conducted with the participation of brokers. Therefore, the author interrelates these topics

  10. Tiered High-Throughput Screening Approach to Identify Thyroperoxidase Inhibitors within the ToxCast Phase I and II Chemical Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput screening (HTS) for potential thyroid–disrupting chemicals requires a system of assays to capture multiple molecular-initiating events (MIEs) that converge on perturbed thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. Screening for MIEs specific to TH-disrupting pathways is limi...

  11. Multigroup cross section library; WIMS library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Umasankari

    2000-01-01

    The WIMS library has been extensively used in thermal reactor calculations. This multigroup constants library was originally developed from the UKNDL in the late 60's and has been updated in 1986. This library has been distributed with the WIMS-D code by NEA data bank. The references to WIMS library in literature are the 'old' which is the original as developed by the AEA Winfrith and the 'new' which is the current 1986 WIMS library. IAEA has organised a CRP where a new and fully updated WIMS library will soon be available. This paper gives an overview of the definitions of the group constants that go into any basic nuclear data library used for reactor calculations. This paper also outlines the contents of the WIMS library and some of its shortcomings

  12. Library Design-Facilitated High-Throughput Sequencing of Synthetic Peptide Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Gates, Zachary P; Zhang, Chi; Quartararo, Anthony J; Halloran, Kathryn H; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2017-11-13

    A methodology to achieve high-throughput de novo sequencing of synthetic peptide mixtures is reported. The approach leverages shotgun nanoliquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of library mixtures (up to 2000 peptides) as well as automated data analysis protocols to filter away incorrect assignments, noise, and synthetic side-products. For increasing the confidence in the sequencing results, mass spectrometry-friendly library designs were developed that enabled unambiguous decoding of up to 600 peptide sequences per hour while maintaining greater than 85% sequence identification rates in most cases. The reliability of the reported decoding strategy was additionally confirmed by matching fragmentation spectra for select authentic peptides identified from library sequencing samples. The methods reported here are directly applicable to screening techniques that yield mixtures of active compounds, including particle sorting of one-bead one-compound libraries and affinity enrichment of synthetic library mixtures performed in solution.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  14. Construction of CRISPR Libraries for Functional Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Carsten P; Felts, Katherine A; Johns, Sarah E

    2018-01-01

    Identification of gene function has been aided by the ability to generate targeted gene knockouts or transcriptional repression using the CRISPR/CAS9 system. Using pooled libraries of guide RNA expression vectors that direct CAS9 to a specific genomic site allows identification of genes that are either enriched or depleted in response to a selection scheme, thus linking the affected gene to the chosen phenotype. The quality of the data generated by the screening is dependent on the quality of the guide RNA delivery library with regards to error rates and especially evenness of distribution of the guides. Here, we describe a method for constructing complex plasmid libraries based on pooled designed oligomers with high representation and tight distributions. The procedure allows construction of plasmid libraries of >60,000 members with a 95th/5th percentile ratio of less than 3.5.

  15. Uranium enrichment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.W.; Thomas, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of existing uranium enrichment contracts in the US is reviewed and expected natural uranium requirements for existing domestic uranium enrichment contracts are evaluated. Uncertainty in natural uranium requirements associated with requirements-type and fixed-commitment type contracts is discussed along with implementation of variable tails assay

  16. LIBRARY SKILL INSTRUCTION IN NIGERIAN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com. LIBRARY SKILL INSTRUCTION IN NIGERIAN ACADEMIC. LIBRARIES. P. C. AZIAGBA AND E. H. UZOEZI. (Received 10, September 2009; Revision Accepted 8, February 2010). ABSTRACT. This survey was undertaken to portray the level of library involvement ...

  17. Development and application of characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy in the library of Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (BRICEM) is a multi disciplinary comprehensive research institute engaged in uranium mining, engineering design and related material researches. After 53 years of researches and development, BRICEM has accumulated a plenty of valuable data and resources. By analyzing the actual conditions of BRICEM's technological database, this thesis aims to propose the idea of building a characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy. It gives an in-depth analysis on content design, development status and problems of database development, in order to come up with solutions to these problems, as well as suggestions on the future development plans of the characteristic database. (author)

  18. Sensitivity analysis of critical experiments with evaluated nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, D.; Kosaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Criticality benchmark testing was performed with evaluated nuclear data libraries for thermal, low-enriched uranium fuel rod applications. C/E values for k eff were calculated with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP2 and its libraries generated from Endf/B-VI.8, Endf/B-VII.0, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1. Subsequently, the observed k eff discrepancies between libraries were decomposed to specify the source of difference in the nuclear data libraries using sensitivity analysis technique. The obtained sensitivity profiles are also utilized to estimate the adequacy of cold critical experiments to the boiling water reactor under hot operating condition. (authors)

  19. Synthesis and Use of Stable Isotope Enriched Retinals in the Field of Vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lugtenburg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin A and its metabolites in the life processes starting with the historical background and its up to date information is discussed in the introduction. Also the role of 11Z-retinal in vision and retinoic acid in the biological processes is elucidated. The essential role of isotopically enriched systems in the progress of vision research, nutrition research etc. is discussed. In part B industrial commercial syntheses of vitamin A by the two leading companies Hoffmann-La Roche (now DSM and BASF are discussed. The knowledge obtained via these pioneering syntheses has been essential for the further synthetic efforts in vitamin A field by other scientific groups. The rest of the paper is devoted to the synthetic efforts of the Leiden group that gives an access to the preparation of site directed high level isotope enrichment in retinals. First the synthesis of the retinals with deuterium incorporation in the conjugated side chain is reviewed. Then, 13C-labeled retinals are discussed. This is followed by the discussion of a convergent synthetic scheme that allows a rational access to prepare any isotopomer of retinals. The schemes that provide access to prepare any possible isotope enriched chemically modified systems are discussed. Finally, nor-retinals and bridged retinals that give access to a whole (as yet incomplete library of possible isotopomers are reviewed.

  20. Natural product-like virtual libraries: recursive atom-based enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Melvin J

    2011-03-28

    A new molecular enumerator is described that allows chemically and architecturally diverse sets of natural product-like and drug-like structures to be generated from a core structure as simple as a single carbon atom or as complex as a polycyclic ring system. Integrated with a rudimentary machine-learning algorithm, the enumerator has the ability to assemble biased virtual libraries enriched in compounds predicted to meet target criteria. The ability to dynamically generate relatively small focused libraries in a recursive manner could reduce the computational time and infrastructure necessary to construct and manage extremely large static libraries. Depending on enumeration conditions, natural product-like structures can be produced with a wide range of heterocyclic and alicyclic ring assemblies. Because natural products represent a proven source of validated structures for identifying and designing new drug candidates, mimicking the structural and topological diversity found in nature with a dynamic set of virtual natural product-like compounds may facilitate the creation of new ideas for novel, biologically relevant lead structures in areas of uncharted chemical space.

  1. Developments in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The enrichment services market is still characterized by overcapacities. While consumption worldwide will rise by some 15% to 39,000 t SWU/a over the next ten years, capacities amount to nearly 50,000 t SWU/a. The price for enrichment services probably has reached its all time low. Prices below U.S. $ 100/kg SWU are not likely to cover costs even of the economically most advanced enrichment processes. Urenco has prepared for the difficult enrichment business in the years to come by streamlining and cost cutting measures. The company intends to hold and increase its share of more than 10% in the world market. The uranium enrichment plant of Gronau will be expanded further. Expansion beyond 1000 t is subject to another permit being granted under the Atomic Energy Act, an application for which was filed in December 1994. Centrifuge technology is the superior enrichment technology, i.e., there is still considerable potential for further development. Construction of enrichment plants employing the centrifuge technology in the United States and in France is being pursued in various phases, from feasibility studies to licensing procedures. Before these plants could be implemented, however, considerable problems of organization would have to be solved, and the market would have to change greatly, respectively. The laser process, at the present time, does not seem to be able to develop into a major industrial competitor. (orig.) [de

  2. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  3. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  4. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

  5. TRIGA low enrichment fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gietzen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

  6. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.; Nabielek, H.; Yang, L.

    1978-08-01

    The available data on low-enriched (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance and fuel particle chemical performande. (orig.) [de

  7. Low-enriched fuel particle performance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.; Nabielek, H.; Yang, L.

    1978-08-01

    The available data on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel particles were reviewed under the United States-Federal Republic of Germany Agreement. The most influential factors controlling the irradiation performance of LEU fuel particles were found to be plutonium transport, fission product transport, fuel particle mechanical performance, and fuel particle chemical performance

  8. Libraries and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Americans think local libraries serve the educational needs of their communities and families pretty well and library users often outpace others in learning activities. But many do not know about key education services libraries provide. This report provides statistics on library usage and presents key education services provided…

  9. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  10. The library marketing toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    A guide that offers coverage of various elements of library marketing and branding for different sectors including archives and academic, public and special libraries. It is suitable for those who are involved in promoting their library or information service, whether at an academic, public or special library or in archives or records management.

  11. Automating the Small Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapura, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  12. Validation of the 172 group ENDFB7GX library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmad; Raj, Devesh; Karthikeyan, R.; Jagannathan, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Five 172 group libraries, viz., IAEAGX, ENDFB6GX, JENDL3GX, JEFF31GX, and LWRPSGX were obtained as a part of the IAEA WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP). The first four libraries have data available for 173 nuclides up to 244 Cm. The LWRPSGX library based on JEFF3.1 point dataset is an extended library up to 252 Cf. Data for 12 more actinides and the related burnup chain were added. The five libraries were validated against known experiments in an earlier work. In general the LWRPSGX was found to be giving better results. Recently another version of 172 group library 'ENDFB7GX' has been released. In the present work we provide the results of validation of the ENDFB7GX library against the same set of experimental data and a comparison with results of other libraries. The experimental configuration data include a variety of uniform lattices with enriched UO 2 , U- metal, mixed oxide (UO 2 -PuO 2 ) fuels with H 2 O and D 2 O moderators for a wide range of enrichment, fuel diameter and ratio of moderator to fuel volume (V m /V f ). The calculations have been done using the code LATTEST which solves the single pin lattice cell problem by 1-D multi-group transport theory after cylindricalising the square or hexagonal cell boundary. The LATTEST code is an improved version of the MURLI code and is capable of providing a ready testing of any new cross section library against a set of experimental benchmark lattices collected from various sources. The calculated k eff values and certain spectral indices, where available, have been compared for all the libraries for more than hundred critical lattices. There is a general under prediction of k eff values by all libraries. The maximum under prediction is for ENDFB6GX library and the least is for JENDL3GX library. The ENDFB7GX library, in general, is found to over predict in comparison to the k eff values obtained using LWRPSGX library. While scrutinizing the basic nuclear data it was noted that the slowing down cross

  13. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  14. InfoGallery: Informative Arts Services for Physical Library Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Rohde, Anne; Sundararajah, Balasuthas

    2006-01-01

    Much focus in digital libraries research has been devoted to new online services rather than services for the visitors in the physical library. This paper describes InfoGallery, which is a web-based infrastructure for enriching the physical library space with informative art "exhibitions......" of digital library material and other relevant information, such as RSS news streams, event announcements etc. InfoGallery presents information in an aesthetically attractive manner on a variety of surfaces in the library, including cylindrical displays and floors. The infrastructure consists of a server...... structure, an editor application and a variety of display clients. The paper discusses the design of the infrastructure and its utilization of RSS, podcasts and manually edited news. Applications in the library domain are described and the experiences are discussed....

  15. On Real and Imaginary Libraries in Relation to the Infinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Škerlj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Libraries as institutions, architectures, collections, symbols and metaphors are crucially determined by the concept of infinity. Forms of infinity may occur in real libraries (in architecture, in classification and arrangement of the collections, content of the materials, symbolism, imaginary libraries (which figure in imaginary places, immune to the laws of familiar time, space or perspective, and invisible libraries (which vary from reader to reader and are not referred to in texts, but can be supplied by the readers themselves and used to populate the places and worlds of the stories. The paper shows how real libraries may be infiltrated, through a creative turn of mind and a sharpened sense of the infinite, by visions of imaginary or even invisible libraries, and thus enriched in manifold ways.

  16. Evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for support of in vitro drug discovery assays: increasing scope, robustness and throughput of the LDTD technique for use with chemically diverse compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Iain; Smith, Aaron; Weston, Daniel J; White, Peter; Szwandt, Simon; Sealey, Laura

    2012-02-05

    Within the drug discovery environment, the key process in optimising the chemistry of a structural series toward a potential drug candidate is the design, make and test cycle, in which the primary screens consist of a number of in vitro assays, including metabolic stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, and time-dependent inhibition assays. These assays are often carried out using multiple drug compounds with chemically diverse structural features, often in a 96 well-plate format for maximum time-efficiency, and are supported using rapid liquid chromatographic (LC) sample introduction with a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) endpoint, taking around 6.5 h per plate. To provide a faster time-to-decision at this critical point, there exists a requirement for higher sample throughput and a robust, well-characterized analytical alternative. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD), a relatively new ambient sample ionization technique, for compound screening assays. By systematic modification of typical LDTD instrumentation and workflow, and providing deeper understanding around overcoming a number of key issues, this work establishes LDTD as a practical, rapid alternative to conventional LC-MS/MS in drug discovery, without need for extensive sample preparation or expensive, scope-limiting internal standards. Analysis of both the five and three cytochrome P450 competitive inhibition assay samples by LDTD gave improved sample throughput (0.75 h per plate) and provided comparable data quality as the IC₅₀ values obtained were within 3 fold of those calculated from the LC-MS/MS data. Additionally when applied generically to a chemically diverse library of over 250 proprietary compounds from the AstraZeneca design, make and test cycle, LDTD demonstrated a success rate of 98%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative proteomic assessment of matrisome enrichment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Lukas; Paul, Angela; Wai, Patty; Howard, Beatrice A.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The matrisome is a complex and heterogeneous collection of extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated proteins that play important roles in tissue development and homeostasis. While several strategies for matrisome enrichment have been developed, it is currently unknown how the performance of these different methodologies compares in the proteomic identification of matrisome components across multiple tissue types. In the present study, we perform a comparative proteomic assessment of two widely used decellularisation protocols and two extraction methods to characterise the matrisome in four murine organs (heart, mammary gland, lung and liver). We undertook a systematic evaluation of the performance of the individual methods on protein yield, matrisome enrichment capability and the ability to isolate core matrisome and matrisome-associated components. Our data find that sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) decellularisation leads to the highest matrisome enrichment efficiency, while the extraction protocol that comprises chemical and trypsin digestion of the ECM fraction consistently identifies the highest number of matrisomal proteins across all types of tissue examined. Matrisome enrichment had a clear benefit over non-enriched tissue for the comprehensive identification of matrisomal components in murine liver and heart. Strikingly, we find that all four matrisome enrichment methods led to significant losses in the soluble matrisome-associated proteins across all organs. Our findings highlight the multiple factors (including tissue type, matrisome class of interest and desired enrichment purity) that influence the choice of enrichment methodology, and we anticipate that these data will serve as a useful guide for the design of future proteomic studies of the matrisome. PMID:27589945

  18. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  19. Hybridization Capture Using Short PCR Products Enriches Small Genomes by Capturing Flanking Sequences (CapFlank)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Wales, Nathan; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , a non-negligible fraction of the resulting sequence reads are not homologous to the bait. We demonstrate that during capture, the bait-hybridized library molecules add additional flanking library sequences iteratively, such that baits limited to targeting relatively short regions (e.g. few hundred...... nucleotides) can result in enrichment across entire mitochondrial and bacterial genomes. Our findings suggest that some of the off-target sequences derived in capture experiments are non-randomly enriched, and that CapFlank will facilitate targeted enrichment of large contiguous sequences with minimal prior...

  20. The competitive enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.W.; Huffman, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    With the enactment of the ''Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'' in 1964, the U.S. Government made provisions to enter into the uranium enrichment services business. Since nuclear power was in its infancy and the Government was promoting its growth as well as trying to help U.S. industry sell reactors overseas, the initial contracts (Requirements Contracts) for enrichment services placed most of the risks associated with the supplying of the services on the Government. Projections of nuclear power additions continued to grow and in 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) stopped contracting under Requirements Contracts in order to study which mode of contracting best suited the commercial development of the industry. In mid-1973, the AEC introduced the Long-Term Fixed Commitment (LTFC) contract which shifted the risk to the customer. By mid-1974, AEC had contracts which completely used the enrichment capacity of its complex and refused to accept requests for additional contracts. This action further convinced European nations that they should continue to develop their own enrichment capacity and resulted in the EURODIF and URENCO projects. Before this time the U.S. supplied 100% of the world market for enriching services

  1. Enrichment: Dealing with overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today's surplus of enrichment capacity will continue until at least the end of this century. This will challenge the ingenuity of the separative work unit (SWU) suppliers as they attempt to keep market share and remain profitable in a very competitive marketplace. The utilities will be faced with attractive choices, but making the best choice will require careful analysis and increased attention to market factors. Current demand projections will probably prove too high to the extent that more reactors are canceled or delayed. The DOE has the vast majority of the unused capacity, so it will feel the most immediate impact of this large surplus in productive capacity. The DOE has responded to these market challenges by planning another reorganization of its enriching operations. Without a major agreement among the governments affected by the current surplus in enrichment capacity, the future will see lower prices, more competitive terms, and the gradual substitution of centrifuge or laser enrichment for the gaseous diffusion plants. The competition that is forcing the gaseous diffusion prices down to marginal cost will provide the long-term price basis for the enrichment industry

  2. Libraries and Accessibility: Istanbul Public Libraries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Yücel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study; the assessment of accessibility has been conducted in Istanbul public libraries within the scope of public area. Public libraries commonly serve with its user of more than 20 million in total, spread to the general of Turkey, having more than one thousand branches in the centrums and having more than one million registered members. The building principles and standards covering the subjects such as the selection of place, historical and architectural specification of the region, distance to the centre of population and design in a way that the disabled people could benefit from the library services fully have been determined with regulations in the construction of new libraries. There are works for the existent libraries such as access for the disabled, fire safety precautions etc. within the scope of the related standards. Easy access by everyone is prioritized in the public libraries having a significant role in life-long learning. The purpose of the study is to develop solution suggestions for the accessibility problems in the public libraries. The study based on the eye inspection and assessments carried out within the scope of accessibility in the public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate Library and Publications Department within the provincial borders of Istanbul. The arrangements such as reading halls, study areas, book shelves etc. have been examined within the frame of accessible building standards. Building entrances, ramps and staircases, horizontal and vertical circulation of building etc. have been taken into consideration within the scope of accessible building standards. The subjects such as the reading and studying areas and book shelf arrangements for the library have been assessed within the scope of specific buildings. There are a total of 34 public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate on condition that 20 ea. of them are in the

  3. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  4. Laser and gas centrifuge enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Olli [Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Principles of uranium isotope enrichment using various laser and gas centrifuge techniques are briefly discussed. Examples on production of high enriched uranium are given. Concerns regarding the possibility of using low end technologies to produce weapons grade uranium are explained. Based on current assessments commercial enrichment services are able to cover the global needs of enriched uranium in the foreseeable future.

  5. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  6. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  7. Centrifuge enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astley, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    Exxon Nuclear has been active in privately funded research and development of centrifuge enrichment technology since 1972. In October of 1975, Exxon Nuclear submitted a proposal to design, construct, and operate a 3000-MT SWU/yr centrifuge enrichment plant, under the provisions of the proposed Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act of 1975. The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accepted the proposal as a basis for negotiation. It was proposed to build a 1000-MT SWU/yr demonstration increment to be operational in 1982; and after successful operation for about one year, expand the facilities into a 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. As part of the overall centrifuge enrichment plant, a dedicated centrifuge manufacturing plant would be constructed; sized to support the full 3000-MT SWU/yr plant. The selection of the centrifuge process by Exxon Nuclear was based on an extremely thorough evaluation of current and projected enrichment technology; results show that the technology is mature and the process will be cost effective. The substantial savings in energy (about 93%) from utilization of the centrifuge option rather than gaseous diffusion is a compelling argument. As part of this program, Exxon Nuclear has a large hardware R and D program, plus a prototype centrifuge manufacturing capability in Malta, New York. To provide a full-scale machine and limited cascade test capability, Exxon Nuclear is constructing a $4,000,000 Centrifuge Test Facility in Richland, Washington. This facility was to initiate operations in the Fall of 1976. Exxon Nuclear is convinced that the centrifuge enrichment process is the rational selection for emergence of a commercial enrichment industry

  8. US enrichment reduction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    A major national program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is currently under way in the U.S., centered at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), to reduce the potential of research and test reactor fuels for increasing the proliferation of nuclear explosive devices. The main objective of the program is to provide the technical means by which the uranium enrichment to be used in these reactors can be reduced to less than 20% without significant economic and performance penalties. The criteria, basis and goals of the program are consistent with the results of a number of case studies which have been performed as part of the program

  9. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  10. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  11. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  12. Israeli Special Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  13. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating deuterium, i.e., heavy hydrogen, from certain naturally occurring sources using tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose specified classes of organic molecules (i.e., RX) into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms is described. The deuterium containing molecules are easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. The undecomposed molecules and the other reaction products which are depleted of their deuterium containing species can be catalytically treated, preferably using normal water, to restore the natural abundance of deuterium and such restored molecules can then be recycled

  14. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    A method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment using infrared laser technology in combination with chemical processes for treating and recycling the unreacted and deuterium-depleted starting materials is described. Organic molecules of the formula RX (where R is an ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl, or cyclopentenyl group and X is F, Cl, Br or OH) containing a normal abundance of hydrogen and deuterium are exposed to intense laser infrared radiation. An olefin containing deuterium (olefin D) will be formed, along with HX. The enriched olefin D can be stripped from the depleted stream of RX and HX, and can be burned to form enriched water or pyrolyzed to produce hydrogen gas with elevated deuterium content. The depleted RX is decomposed to olefins and RX, catalytically exchanged with normal water to restore the deuterium content to natural levels, and recombined to form RX which can be recycled. (LL)

  15. Gasket for uranium enrichment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, S; Aiyoshi, H

    1977-02-08

    A gasket to be inserted between flange joints in the equipments and pipe lines of an uranium enrichment plant having neither permeability nor adsorptivity to water while maintaining mechanical, physical and chemical properties of an elastomer gasket is described. A gasket made of an elastomeric material such as a polymer is integratedly formed at its surface with anti-slip projections. The gasket is further surrounded at its upper and lower peripheral sides, as well as outer circumferential portion with a U-sectioned cover (enclosure) made of fluoro-plastics. In this arrangement, the gasket main body shows a gas-tightness for uranium hexafluoride gas and the cover exhibits a gas-tightness for other component gases such as moisture to thereby prevent degradation of the gasket due to absorption and permeation of the moisture.

  16. Marketing library and information services in academic libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing library and information services in academic libraries in Niger State, Nigeria. ... This study was designed to investigate the marketing of library services in academic libraries in Niger state, ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  17. Caracterização físico-química de creme vegetal enriquecido com ésteres de fitosteróis Physico-chemical characterization of a phytosterol ester enriched margarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    added to special margarines, which are commercially available as functional foods with the ability to reduce both total and LDL cholesterol levels. As part of a healthy diet, this type of product has been scientifically proven to lower blood LDL cholesterol by around 10-15%, which implies a dramatic lowering in coronary heart disease risk by 25%. Current literature on this field provides a great amount of information on the effects of phytosterols/phytostanols in cholesterol lowering and attempts to explain their metabolism in human body, but researches on their physical and chemical properties and their application in food products are limited in the food technology area. The objective of this study is to characterize a phytosterol ester enriched margarine and to compare their physical behavior to common margarines commercially available. Fatty acid and sterol compositions were determined by gas-liquid cromatography and a constant speed texture analyser was used to evaluate the texture profiles of the samples. The phytosterol ester-enriched margarine contains 49.3% of moisture, 49.6% of lipids and 1.1% of solids. ß-Sitosterol is the most abundant sterol, totalizing 36.1%. Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6 is the fatty acid that is present in the greatest amount and corresponds to 45.3% of total fatty acid composition. In general, texture properties of the fat base and its respective spread presented a significant linear correlation. Although harder than common margarines commercially available, margarine with phytosterol esters presents good spread ability in the range of temperature between room and refrigeration and is more resistant to higher temperatures than common margarines. In general, the phytosterol esters presented melting and crystallization behavior quite different from other edible fats and oils.

  18. Construction of High-Quality Camel Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Ema; Poignavent, Vianney; Vincke, Cécile; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Muyldermans, Serge; Monsion, Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10 7 -10 8 individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward. In this chapter, we provide the protocol to generate a high-quality immune VHH library using the Golden Gate Cloning strategy employing an adapted phage display vector where a lethal ccdB gene has to be substituted by the VHH gene. With this procedure, the construction of the library can be shortened to less than a week starting from bleeding the animal. Our libraries exceed 10 8 individual transformants and close to 100% of the clones harbor a phage display vector having an insert with the length of a VHH gene. These libraries are also more economic to make than previous standard approaches using classical restriction enzymes and ligations. The quality of the Nanobodies that are retrieved from immune libraries obtained by Golden Gate Cloning is identical to those from immune libraries made according to the classical procedure.

  19. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  20. FENDL multigroup libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Muir, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Selected neutron reaction nuclear data libraries and photon-atomic interaction cross section libraries for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into MATXSR format using the NJOY system on the VAX4000 computer of the IAEA. This document lists the resulting multigroup data libraries. All the multigroup data generated are available cost-free upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 9 refs

  1. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  2. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  3. Reforming Prison Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current widespread acceptance of the public library model for prison libraries, in which preferences of the inmates are the chief consideration in programing and collection development. It is argued that this model results in recreational programs and collections that fail to fulfill the prison library's role in education and…

  4. LANL Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory The LANL Research Library website has been moved to http ://www.lanl.gov/library/. Please update your bookmarks. If you are not redirected to the new location within 10 http:// | Last Modified: Send email to the Library

  5. Joint-Use Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The joint-use library is a place where people of all ages, interests, and income levels can find items of interest at no personal cost. The mission of A. H. Meadows Public and High School Library in Midlothian, Texas, is to offer what other public libraries provide: educational and entertainment resources to a community. Yet, the staff also wants…

  6. Learning Boost C++ libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    If you are a C++ programmer who has never used Boost libraries before, this book will get you up-to-speed with using them. Whether you are developing new C++ software or maintaining existing code written using Boost libraries, this hands-on introduction will help you decide on the right library and techniques to solve your practical programming problems.

  7. Technostress and Library Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  8. Marketing and Library Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kurt R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the role of marketing in the management of libraries. The role of public relations (PR) in the total marketing concept is discussed, surveys that have explored PR efforts in academic and public libraries are described, and changes affecting libraries that marketing efforts could help to manage are discussed. (seven references) (LRW)

  9. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in society that have resulted from information and communication technologies focuses on changes in libraries and a new market for library services with new styles of clients. Highlights client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. (Author/LRW)

  10. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  11. Editorial Library: User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Cecily J.

    This report presents the findings of a survey conducted by the editorial library of the Los Angeles Times to measure usage and satisfaction with library service, provide background information on library user characteristics, collect information on patterns of use of the Times' clipping files, relate data on usage and satisfaction parameters to…

  12. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  13. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  14. An Enriching Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  15. Requirements for enrichment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Winkels, R.; Trompper, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report gives a high level overview of requirements for Enrichment tools in the Openlaws.eu project. Openlaws.eu aims to initiate a platform and develop a vision for Big Open Legal Data (BOLD): an open framework for legislation, case law, and legal literature from across Europe.

  16. FY 2009 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2009 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  17. FY 2010 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2010 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  18. FY 2011 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2011 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  19. FY 2008 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2008 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  20. Availability of enrichment services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenke, E.

    1977-01-01

    The report summarizes major uncertainties which are likely to influence future demands for uranium isotopic enrichment. Since for the next decade the development of nuclear power will be largely concerned with the increment in demand the timely need for enrichment capacity will be particularly sensitive to assumptions about growth rates. Existing worldwide capacity together with capacities under construction will be sufficient well into the 1980's. However, long decision and construction leadtime, uncertainty as to future demand as well as other factors, specifically high capital need, all of which entail financial risks, create hindrances to a timely development of increment. The adequacy of current technology is well demonstrated in plant operation and new technology is under way. Technology is, however, not freely available on a purely commercial basis. Commercial willingness, which anticipates a limited degree of financial risk, is requesting both long term back-up from the utilities that would parallel their firm decisions on the acquisition of nuclear power units, and a protective government umbrella. This situation depends on the symbiotic relationship that exists between the nuclear power generating organizations, the enrichment undertakings and the governments involved. The report accordingly stresses the need for a more cooperative approach and this, moreover, at the multinational level. There is otherwise a risk that proper resources and financing means will not be allocated to the enrichment sector. Export limitations that request the highest degree of industrial processing of nuclear fuel, i.e. the compulsory enrichment of natural uranium, do not serve the interests of overall industrial efficiency

  1. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  2. Development of library documents in BRICEM on network-based environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the internet, the transformation from a traditional library to a modem one is essential to the development of BRICEM (Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy) Technology Library and the situations of other libraries, this thesis integrates the reality of BRICEM and its library in an effort to work out a tentative plan, as well as concrete measures and procedures of digitalising and online-sharing the resources of BRICEM Technology Library. (author)

  3. Promotion of uranium enrichment business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1981-01-01

    The Committee on Nuclear Power has studied on the basic nuclear power policy, establishing its five subcommittees, entrusted by the Ministry of Nternational Trade and Industry. The results of examination by the subcommittee on uranium enrichment business are given along with a report in this connection by the Committee. In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle, the aspect of uranium enrichment is essential. The uranium enrichment by centrifugal process has proceeded steadily in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The following matters are described: the need for domestic uranium enrichment, the outlook for overseas enrichment services and the schedule for establishing domestic enrichment business, the current state of technology development, the position of the prototype enrichment plant, the course to be taken to establish enrichment business the main organization operating the prototype and commercial plants, the system of supplying centrifuges, the domestic conversion of natural uranium the subsidies for uranium enrichment business. (J.P.N.)

  4. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  5. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  6. Teleporting the library?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, six Danish public libraries established a virtual library, Info Island DK, in Second Life. This article discusses the library project in terms of design. The design processes include the planning and implementation of the virtual library structure and its equipment, as well...... as the organizing and carrying out of activities in the virtual setting. It will be argued that, to a large extent, conventions have determined design and use of the virtual library, and also that design has had an impact on the attitudes and understanding of the participants....

  7. Validating MCNP5 libraries and tracking the reason for differences between libraries in criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossny, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to validate MCNP5 libraries by simulating 4 detailed benchmark experiments and comparing MCNP5 results (each library) with the experimental results and also the previously validated codes for the same experiments MORET 4.A coupled with APOLLO2 (France), and MONK8 (UK). The reasons for difference between libraries are also investigated in this work. Investigating the reason for the differences between libraries will be done by specifying a different library for specific part (clad, fuel, light water) and checking the result deviation than the previously calculated result (with all parts of the same library). The investigated benchmark experiments are of single fuel rods arrays that are water-moderated and water-reflected. Rods contained low-enriched (4.738 wt.% 92 235 U)uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel were clad with aluminum alloy AGS. These experiments were subcritical approaches extrapolated to critical, with the multiplication factor reached being very close to 1.000 (within 0.1%); the subcritical approach parameter was the water level. The studied four cases differ from each other in pitch, number of fuel rods and of course critical height of water. The results show that although library ENDF/B-IV lacks light water treatment card, however its results can be reliable as light water treatment library does not have significant differences from library to another, so it will not be necessary to specify light water treatment card. The main reason for differences between ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI is light water material, especially the Hydrogen element. Specifying the library of Uranium is necessary in case of using library ENDF/B-IV. On the other hand it is not necessary to specify library of cladding material whatever the used library. Validated libraries are ENDF/BIV, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI with codes in MCNP 42C, 50C and 60C respectively. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  8. Generation and analysis of chemical compound libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, John M.; Jin, Jian; Kan, Kevin S.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Newhouse, Paul F.; Suram, Santosh K.; Xiang, Chengxiang; Zhou, Lan

    2017-10-03

    Various samples are generated on a substrate. The samples each includes or consists of one or more analytes. In some instances, the samples are generated through the use of gels or through vapor deposition techniques. The samples are used in an instrument for screening large numbers of analytes by locating the samples between a working electrode and a counter electrode assembly. The instrument also includes one or more light sources for illuminating each of the samples. The instrument is configured to measure the photocurrent formed through a sample as a result of the illumination of the sample.

  9. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  10. Planning & Urban Affairs Library Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Mary L., Ed.; Lessel, Janice W., Ed.

    Written especially for persons without a library degree who are operating a small urban study or planning agency library on a part-time basis. Subjects covered are: (1) library function and staff function, duties and training; (2) physical layout and equipment of library; (3) establishing and maintaining the library; (4) library administration;…

  11. Special Libraries and Multitype Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the history of multitype library networks; examines the reasons why special libraries and other network participants have resisted the inclusion of special libraries in these networks; and discusses the benefits to both special libraries and to other libraries in the network that would result from special library participation. (17…

  12. NOAA Miami Regional Library > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Collections Open Access Resources Research Tools E-resources NOAA S. and NOAA N.E. Library Institutional Repository DIVE INTO About the Library | Collections | Research Tools | Library Services & NOAA Miami Regional Library @ AOML & NHC NOAA Miami Regional Library at National Hurricane

  13. Libraries in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura Henriette Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  14. The participatory public library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    2016-01-01

    of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies......Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...

  15. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  16. Method for separation and enrichment of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, H.; Miyamatsu, T.

    1977-01-01

    Boron or uranium isotopes can be chemically separated and enriched with high speed and with high separating efficiency by using weakly basic anion exchange fibers having a diameter of not more than 100 μ, an aspect ratio of at least 5 and an exchange capacity of at least 2 meq/g-dry fiber, which are packed in a column at a specific volume of 2.0 to 20.0 ml/g-dry fiber

  17. Future of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmer, C.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing amount of separative work being done in government facilities to produce low-enriched uranium fuel for nuclear utilities again raises the question: should this business-type, industrial function be burned over the private industry. The idea is being looked at by the Reagan administration, but faces problems of national security as well as from the unique nature of the business. This article suggests that a joint government-private venture combining enriching, reprocessing, and waste disposal could be the answer. Further, a separate entity using advanced laser technology to deplete existing uranium tails and lease them for fertile blankets in breeder reactors might earn substantial revenues to help reduce the national debt

  18. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  19. A Century of Change: The Evolution of School Library Resources, 1915-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Annette

    2015-01-01

    School libraries have been in existence since at least the eighth century. However, it wasn't until the twentieth century that the school library was seen primarily as "a source of enrichment for the curriculum, and a means of developing reading and study habits in the pupils" (Clyde 1981, 263). While the formats available and tools for…

  20. Assessing Library Automation and Virtual Library Development in Four Academic Libraries in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the level of library automation and virtual library development in four academic libraries. A validated questionnaire was used to capture the responses from academic librarians of the libraries under study. The paper discovers that none of the four academic libraries is fully automated. The libraries make use of librarians with…

  1. Benchmarking methods and data sets for ligand enrichment assessment in virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jie; Tilahun, Ermias Lemma; Reid, Terry-Elinor; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective small-scale virtual screening (VS) based on benchmarking data sets has been widely used to estimate ligand enrichments of VS approaches in the prospective (i.e. real-world) efforts. However, the intrinsic differences of benchmarking sets to the real screening chemical libraries can cause biased assessment. Herein, we summarize the history of benchmarking methods as well as data sets and highlight three main types of biases found in benchmarking sets, i.e. "analogue bias", "artificial enrichment" and "false negative". In addition, we introduce our recent algorithm to build maximum-unbiased benchmarking sets applicable to both ligand-based and structure-based VS approaches, and its implementations to three important human histone deacetylases (HDACs) isoforms, i.e. HDAC1, HDAC6 and HDAC8. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO CV) demonstrates that the benchmarking sets built by our algorithm are maximum-unbiased as measured by property matching, ROC curves and AUCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wikis in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bejune

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Wikis have recently been adopted to support a variety of collaborative activities within libraries. This article and its companion wiki, LibraryWikis (http://librarywikis.pbwiki.com/, seek to document the phenomenon of wikis in libraries. This subject is considered within the framework of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW. The author identified thirty-three library wikis and developed a classification schema with four categories: (1 collaboration among libraries (45.7 percent; (2 collaboration among library staff (31.4 percent; (3 collaboration among library staff and patrons (14.3 percent; and (4 collaboration among patrons (8.6 percent. Examples of library wikis are presented within the article, as is a discussion for why wikis are primarily utilized within categories I and II and not within categories III and IV. It is clear that wikis have great utility within libraries, and the author urges further application of wikis in libraries.

  3. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Library to be merged with the Central Library. Not everyone knows that CERN Scientific Information Service currently counts three physical libraries on site. The Central Library is located in Building 52 and there are two satellite libraries located respectively in building 30 (the LHC Library) and in building 864 on Prévessin site (the SPS Library). Moreover, the Legal Service Library is located in Building 60. In the past, there have been at CERN up to 6 satellite libraries; they were essential at a time when information was only in paper form and having multiple copies of documents located in several places at CERN was useful to facilitate scientific research. Today, this need is less critical as most of our resources are online. That is why, following a SIPB (Scientific Information Policy Board) decision, the collections of the LHC Library will be merged this summer with the Central collection. This reorganization and centralization of resources will improve loan services. The SP...

  4. Utilization of serial resources in libraries of selected tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... security personnel for adequate monitoring of the serial materials, as well as the need for authors and stakeholders in education to donate more serial materials in order to enrich the collections in the library and enhance academic performance.

  5. Principal component analysis as a tool for library design: a case study investigating natural products, brand-name drugs, natural product-like libraries, and drug-like libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderski, Todd A; Stratton, Christopher F; Bauer, Renato A; Kopp, Felix; Tan, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool in the design and planning of chemical libraries. PCA can be used to reveal differences in structural and physicochemical parameters between various classes of compounds by displaying them in a convenient graphical format. Herein, we demonstrate the use of PCA to gain insight into structural features that differentiate natural products, synthetic drugs, natural product-like libraries, and drug-like libraries, and show how the results can be used to guide library design.

  6. Virtual screening of compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A; Sousa, Sérgio F; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria João

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, Virtual Screening (VS) has definitively established itself as an important part of the drug discovery and development process. VS involves the selection of likely drug candidates from large libraries of chemical structures by using computational methodologies, but the generic definition of VS encompasses many different methodologies. This chapter provides an introduction to the field by reviewing a variety of important aspects, including the different types of virtual screening methods, and the several steps required for a successful virtual screening campaign within a state-of-the-art approach, from target selection to postfilter application. This analysis is further complemented with a small collection important VS success stories.

  7. Opportunities for systematic change in the academic research library: elements of the post-digital library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Neal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on a talk delivered at the University of Leeds on 19 April 2011, seeks to outline a series of important trends that are influencing the roles and responsibilities of the academic research library, and a program of radical collaboration that would enable deeper integration of resources and a more systemic approach to the critical collection and service challenges. The academic research library must sustain its core responsibilities, albeit in an increasingly digitized, networked and mobile condition, enrich fundamental relationships with its user communities, and assume powerful new roles in support of learning and scholarship. New measures of quality, impact, productivity, innovation and leadership must be advanced. The paper suggests that the evolution of the academic library will focus more on an evolving period of polygamy, parabiosis and particularism, as we think beyond the transition to electronic and more about a post-digital context.

  8. The Library International Partnerweek 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presentation at the Library International Partnerweek, held at Copenhagen Technical Library at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering. Participant: Ms. Carmen Priesto Estravid from Madrid Technical University, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Library. Spain Ms.Tuulikki Hattunen from TUAS Library....... Finland Ms. Anitta Ôrm from Kemi-Tornio UAS Library. Finland Mr. Manfred Walter from HTW-Berlin. Germany Mr. Peter Hald from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark Mr. Ole Micahelsen from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark...

  9. KAERI photonuclear library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Young Ouk; Han, Yin Iu

    2000-03-01

    This report contains summary information and figures depicting the KAERI photonuclear data library that extends up to 140 MeV of incident photon. The library consists of 143 isotopes from C-12 to Bi-209, providing the photoabsorption cross section and the emission spectra for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, alpha particles, and all residual nuclides in ENDF6 format. The contents of this report and ENDF-6 format data library are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/.

  10. The CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Hester, Alec G

    1968-01-01

    Any advanced research centre needs a good Library. It can be regarded as a piece of equipment as vital as any machine. At the present time, the CERN Library is undergoing a number of modifications to adjust it to the changing scale of CERN's activities and to the ever increasing flood of information. This article, by A.G. Hester, former Editor of CERN COURIER who now works in the Scientific Information Service, describes the purposes, methods and future of the CERN Library.

  11. Virtual Reality and the Virtual Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Explains virtual reality, including proper and improper uses of the term, and suggests ways that libraries might be affected by it. Highlights include elements of virtual reality systems; possible virtual reality applications, including architecture, the chemical industry, transport planning, armed forces, and entertainment; and the virtual…

  12. Computationally designed libraries for rapid enzyme stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Baker, David; Marrink, Siewert J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    The ability to engineer enzymes and other proteins to any desired stability would have wide-ranging applications. Here, we demonstrate that computational design of a library with chemically diverse stabilizing mutations allows the engineering of drastically stabilized and fully functional variants

  13. Computational design of chimeric protein libraries for directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Jonathan J; Nguyen, Peter Q; Stevenson, Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The best approach for creating libraries of functional proteins with large numbers of nondisruptive amino acid substitutions is protein recombination, in which structurally related polypeptides are swapped among homologous proteins. Unfortunately, as more distantly related proteins are recombined, the fraction of variants having a disrupted structure increases. One way to enrich the fraction of folded and potentially interesting chimeras in these libraries is to use computational algorithms to anticipate which structural elements can be swapped without disturbing the integrity of a protein's structure. Herein, we describe how the algorithm Schema uses the sequences and structures of the parent proteins recombined to predict the structural disruption of chimeras, and we outline how dynamic programming can be used to find libraries with a range of amino acid substitution levels that are enriched in variants with low Schema disruption.

  14. The Personal Virtual Library

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Looking for "library" in the usual search engines of the World Wide Web gives: "Infoseek found 3,593,126 pages containing the word library" and it nicely proposes: "Search only within these 3,59 3,126 pages ?" "Yahoo! Found 1299 categories and 8669 sites for library" "LycOs: 1-10 von 512354 relevanten Ergebnissen" "AltaVista: About 14830527 documents match your query" and at the botto m: "Word count: library: 15466897" ! Excite: Top 10 matches and it does not say how many can be browsed... "Library" on the World Wide Web is really popular. At least fiveteen million pages ar e supposed to contain this word. Half of them may have disappeared by now but one more hit will be added once the search robots will have indexed this document ! The notion of Personal Library i s a modest attempt, in a small environment like a library, to give poor users lost in cyber-libraries the opportunity to keep their own private little shelves - virtually. In this paper, we will l ook at the usual functionalities of library systems...

  15. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  16. NEIC Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC) Environmental Forensic Library partners with NEIC's forensic scientists to retrieve, validate and deliver information to develop methods, defensible regulations, and environmental measurements.

  17. Library and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Buluţă

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The psycho-social phenomena generated by mass-media and the new information and communication technologies at the level of the young generations have led to new communication practices that bypass libraries and revolutionized the intellectual labor practices, with texts being rather used than read. In this context, our article examines the need to increase the library's role in developing the quality of education and research and brings to attention a few possible solutions which include a partnership between various types of libraries and between librarians' associations and NGOs to facilitate education through library and safeguard reading.

  18. Libraries and licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Žumer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 90s, the abundance of various electronic publications exposed libraries to the problems of licensing electronic content. Various licensing principles have been prepared recently to help libraries in the process; it can be said that in general, the knowledge of licensing issues has improved in libraries of all types. Libraries form consortia in order to gain stronger negotiating positions and obtain better conditions.In the article, new licensing principles are presented in more detail, as well as some domestic and foreign experiences with consortia forming.

  19. International Youth Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available International Youth Library, the biggest youth library in the world, was founded in 1948 in Munich, Germany, by Jella Lepman. She aimed to unite all the children of the world through books by establishing this library. IYL is still trying to achieve this end supporting scholarship programmes in children’s literature research, participating in or organizing meetings on children’s literature, and working with other national and international organizations deeding with children’s literature. Unfortunately the library is facing some problems recently which have risen from economic difficulties which also inhibits promotional activities.

  20. Beta activity of enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.P.V.J.; Ramachandran, V.

    1975-01-01

    Use of enriched uranium as reactor fuel necessitates its handling in various forms. For purposes of planning and organising radiation protection measures in enriched uranium handling facilities, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of the radiation status of enriched uranium systems. The theoretical variations in beta activity and energy with U 235 enrichment are presented. Depletion is considered separately. Beta activity build up is also studied for two specific enrichments, in respect of which experimental values for specific alpha activity are available. (author)

  1. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  3. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  4. Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

    2002-01-01

    Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

  5. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.; McCants, C.; Rutkowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  6. Motif enrichment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. ADDRESS: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Development and Synthesis of DNA-Encoded Benzimidazole Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yun; Chai, Jing; Centrella, Paolo A; Gondo, Chenaimwoyo; DeLorey, Jennifer L; Clark, Matthew A

    2018-04-25

    Encoded library technology (ELT) is an effective approach to the discovery of novel small-molecule ligands for biological targets. A key factor for the success of the technology is the chemical diversity of the libraries. Here we report the development of DNA-conjugated benzimidazoles. Using 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid as a key synthon, we synthesized a 320 million-member DNA-encoded benzimidazole library using Fmoc-protected amino acids, amines and aldehydes as diversity elements. Affinity selection of the library led to the discovery of a novel, potent and specific antagonist of the NK3 receptor.

  8. Novel meat-enriched foods for older consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Yoo, Michelle J Y; Hamid, Nazimah S A; Staincliffe, Maryann; Davies, Briar; Knowles, Scott O

    2018-02-01

    Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (pice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (pice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p>0.05) but that of non-flavoured ice cream and yoghurt went down (pindustry stretch its established business models, and encouraging further development of novel food choices for elderly and other groups of consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of novel malarial cysteine protease inhibitors using structure-based virtual screening of a focused cysteine protease inhibitor library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Falgun; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Gut, Jiri; Legac, Jennifer; Rosenthal, Philip J; Tekwani, Babu L; Avery, Mitchell A

    2011-04-25

    Malaria, in particular that caused by Plasmodium falciparum , is prevalent across the tropics, and its medicinal control is limited by widespread drug resistance. Cysteine proteases of P. falciparum , falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3), are major hemoglobinases, validated as potential antimalarial drug targets. Structure-based virtual screening of a focused cysteine protease inhibitor library built with soft rather than hard electrophiles was performed against an X-ray crystal structure of FP-2 using the Glide docking program. An enrichment study was performed to select a suitable scoring function and to retrieve potential candidates against FP-2 from a large chemical database. Biological evaluation of 50 selected compounds identified 21 diverse nonpeptidic inhibitors of FP-2 with a hit rate of 42%. Atomic Fukui indices were used to predict the most electrophilic center and its electrophilicity in the identified hits. Comparison of predicted electrophilicity of electrophiles in identified hits with those in known irreversible inhibitors suggested the soft-nature of electrophiles in the selected target compounds. The present study highlights the importance of focused libraries and enrichment studies in structure-based virtual screening. In addition, few compounds were screened against homologous human cysteine proteases for selectivity analysis. Further evaluation of structure-activity relationships around these nonpeptidic scaffolds could help in the development of selective leads for antimalarial chemotherapy.

  10. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  11. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  12. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  13. Special Libraries in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Alice

    1979-01-01

    Distinguishes five main categories of special libraries in Singapore: those of private organizations, foreign governments, government departments, statutory boards, and regional organizations. Statistical data are provided for library holdings, professional staff employment, and subject profiles, and suggestions for improving various aspects of…

  14. Iranian Library Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the state of Iranian libraries since the revolution: the printing industry flourishes because of obsolete copyright laws, and the government is attempting to dewesternize media and education. Also considered are budget cuts, the revolution's cost to libraries, and its effect on individual librarians. (SW)

  15. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  16. Privacy and Library Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  17. Hospital Library Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  18. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  19. TRAC Searchable Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Relational Data Modeling (VRDM) computational paradigm. VRDM has the key attributes of being cloud available, using domain semantics for configured...Figure 1. Methodology for TRAC Searchable Research Library Development. ........................... 5 Figure 2. The conceptual model for the cloud ...TRAC Searchable Research Library project was initiated by TRAC- HQ to address a current capability gap in the TRAC organization. Currently TRAC does not

  20. XML in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the…

  1. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  2. Library Consortia in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csajbok, Edit; Szluka, Peter; Vasas, Livia

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades many Hungarian libraries have developed considerably, beyond what was considered possible prior to 1989 and the beginning of events signaling the end of Communism in the country. Some of the modernization of library services has been realized through participation in cooperative agreements. Many smaller and larger…

  3. The academic library network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wojciechowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of libraries, academic libraries in particular, necessitates organizational changes facilitating or even imposing co-operation. Any structure of any university has to have an integrated network of libraries, with an appropriate division of work, and one that is consolidated as much as it is possible into medium-size or large libraries. Within thus created network, a chance arises to centralize the main library processes based on appropriate procedures in the main library, highly specialized, more effective and therefore cheaper in operation, including a co-ordination of all more important endeavours and tasks. Hierarchically subordinated libraries can be thus more focused on performing their routine service, more and more frequently providing for the whole of the university, and being able to adjust to changeable requirements and demands of patrons and of new tasks resulting from the new model of the university operation. Another necessary change seems to be a universal implementation of an ov rall programme framework that would include all services in the university’s library networks.

  4. Increasing Library Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Susan

    1977-01-01

    Libraries could benefit from the businesslike approach of an entrepreneur. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior of value to libraries include: moderate risk-taking as a function of skill, not chance; energetic instrumental activity; insistence upon individual responsibility; knowledge of results of decisions; anticipation of future…

  5. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  6. An Online Library Catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloro, Giovanna; Ugolini, Donatella

    1992-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an online catalog in the library of the National Institute for Cancer Research and the Clinical and Experimental Oncology Institute of the University of Genoa. Topics addressed include automation of various library functions, software features, database management, training, and user response. (10 references) (MES)

  7. Libraries and Lenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This instructional unit combines a study of the Soviet leader V. I. Lenin with a study of libraries. Lenin was selected as the focus because of his support of books and libraries and because he oversaw a revolution that altered the political and social structure of Russia and the balance of power throughout the world. Included are lesson plan…

  8. Chief Information Officer > Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    DCIO R&A DCIO CS In the News Library Contact us Library Policies CIO Charter DoD CIO Charter that many laws, and DoD policies and procedures apply to or include the use of IbC, even when such use Service Site Registry Policies Education and Training Terms of Service Agreements Site Registry Policies

  9. Marketing and health libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Maurice

    2004-12-01

    To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries. A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google. Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation are identified and discussed in relation to health libraries. In increasingly complex health service and information environments, the marketing and promotion of library services is becoming more important if those services are to justify the resources given to them. Marketing techniques are equally applicable to physical and digital library services.

  10. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  11. Modular enrichment measurement system for in-situ enrichment assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A modular enrichment measurement system has been designed and is in operation within General Electric's Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility for the in-situ enrichment assay of uranium-bearing materials in process containers. This enrichment assay system, which is based on the ''enrichment meter'' concept, is an integral part of the site's enrichment control program and is used in the in-situ assay of the enrichment of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder in process containers (five gallon pails). The assay system utilizes a commercially available modular counting system and a collimnator designed for compatability with process container transport lines and ease of operator access. The system has been upgraded to include a microprocessor-based controller to perform system operation functions and to provide data acquisition and processing functions. Standards have been fabricated and qualified for the enrichment assay of several types of uranium-bearing materials, including UO 2 powders. The assay system has performed in excess of 20,000 enrichment verification measurements annually and has significantly contributed to the facility's enrichment control program

  12. Public libraries in the library regions in the year 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Regional public libraries were initiated in 2003 to connect professional activities of libraries within regional networks and to ensure coordinated library development in a region in cooperation with the Library System Development Centre at the National and University Library performing a coordinating role. The article analyses the performance of public libraries and their integration in regional library networks in order to find out the level of development of conditions of performance of public libraries.Methodology/approach: Statistical data for the year 2009 were the basis for the overview of library activities of ten library regions with regard to applicable legislation and library standards. The level of regional library activities is compared to the socio-economic situation of statistical regions thus representing a new approach to the presentation of Slovenian’s public libraries’ development.Results: Absolute values indicate better development of nine libraries in the central Slovenia region while relative values offer a totally different picture. Four libraries in the region of Nova Gorica prove the highest level of development.Research limitation: Research is limited to the year 2009 and basic statistical analysis.Originality/practical implications: Findings of the analysis are useful for public libraries to plan their development strategy within a region and for financial bodies to provide for adequate financing for library activities in a specific region. The basic condition for successful public library performance is the even and harmonized development of conditions of performance as recommended by library standards.

  13. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  14. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  15. The moderization of the Leopard library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, L.H.; Cunha Menezes Filho, A. da.

    1983-07-01

    The LEOPARD library is updated and tested for typical PWR unit cells with enrichment ranging from 1.0 to 4.%(W/o) and H 2 O:U ratio varying from 1.0 to 10.0. A reasonably good agreement with experimental values for some spectral indices is obtained if the fission cross section of U-235 is reduced by .6% in the thermal range and by 20% in the epithermal range; the epithermal capture cross section for U-238 is increased by about 20% and the number of neutrons per fission in the thermal range of U-235 is increased by .8%. (Author) [pt

  16. EPA Library Network Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish Agency-wide procedures for the EPA National Library Network libraries to communicate, using a range of established mechanisms, with other EPA libraries, EPA staff, organizations and the public.

  17. Enrichment of boron 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.M.M.; Rodrigues Filho, J.S.R.; Umeda, K.; Echternacht, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

  18. Enrichr: interactive and collaborative HTML5 gene list enrichment analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edward Y; Tan, Christopher M; Kou, Yan; Duan, Qiaonan; Wang, Zichen; Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Clark, Neil R; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2013-04-15

    System-wide profiling of genes and proteins in mammalian cells produce lists of differentially expressed genes/proteins that need to be further analyzed for their collective functions in order to extract new knowledge. Once unbiased lists of genes or proteins are generated from such experiments, these lists are used as input for computing enrichment with existing lists created from prior knowledge organized into gene-set libraries. While many enrichment analysis tools and gene-set libraries databases have been developed, there is still room for improvement. Here, we present Enrichr, an integrative web-based and mobile software application that includes new gene-set libraries, an alternative approach to rank enriched terms, and various interactive visualization approaches to display enrichment results using the JavaScript library, Data Driven Documents (D3). The software can also be embedded into any tool that performs gene list analysis. We applied Enrichr to analyze nine cancer cell lines by comparing their enrichment signatures to the enrichment signatures of matched normal tissues. We observed a common pattern of up regulation of the polycomb group PRC2 and enrichment for the histone mark H3K27me3 in many cancer cell lines, as well as alterations in Toll-like receptor and interlukin signaling in K562 cells when compared with normal myeloid CD33+ cells. Such analyses provide global visualization of critical differences between normal tissues and cancer cell lines but can be applied to many other scenarios. Enrichr is an easy to use intuitive enrichment analysis web-based tool providing various types of visualization summaries of collective functions of gene lists. Enrichr is open source and freely available online at: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/Enrichr.

  19. STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    Science and technology are widely recognized as major drivers of innovation and industry (e.g. Rising above the Gathering Storm, 2006). While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement and public understanding of STEM disciplines. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. Designed spaces, like libraries, allow lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep learning to take place though the research basis for learning in libraries is not as developed as other informal settings like science centers. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national education project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. This project will deepen our knowledge of informal/lifelong learning that takes place in libraries and establish a learning model that can be compared to the more established free-choice learning model for science centers and museums. The project includes the development of two STEM hands-on exhibits on topics that are of interest to library staff and their patrons: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. In addition, the project will produce resources and inquiry-based activities that libraries can use to enrich the exhibit experience. Additional resources will be provided through partnerships with relevant

  20. PWR steam generator tubing sample library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In order to compile the tubing sample library, two approaches were employed: (a) tubing sample replication by either chemical or mechanical means, based on field tube data and metallography reports for tubes already destructively examined; and (b) acquisition of field tubes removed from operating or retired steam generators. In addition, a unique mercury modeling concept is in use to guide the selection of replica samples. A compendium was compiled that summarizes field observations and morphologies of steam generator tube degradation types based on available NDE, destructive examinations, and field reports. This compendium was used in selecting candidate degradation types that were manufactured for inclusion in the tube library

  1. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capossela, H.J.; Dwyer, J.R.; Luce, R.G.; McCoy, D.F.; Merriman, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect. 1 figure

  2. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low-enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium-enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which was initially designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology

  3. Systematic cloning of human minisatellites from ordered array charomid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Povey, S; Jeremiah, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1990-11-01

    We present a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of minisatellite loci from human DNA. The method combines cloning a size-selected fraction of human MboI DNA fragments in a charomid vector with hybridization screening of the library in ordered array. Size-selection of large MboI fragments enriches for the longer, more variable minisatellites and reduces the size of the library required. The library was screened with a series of multi-locus probes known to detect a large number of hypervariable loci in human DNA. The gridded library allowed both the rapid processing of positive clones and the comparative evaluation of the different multi-locus probes used, in terms of both the relative success in detecting hypervariable loci and the degree of overlap between the sets of loci detected. We report 23 new human minisatellite loci isolated by this method, which map to 14 autosomes and the sex chromosomes.

  4. Libraries Today, Libraries Tomorrow: Contemporary Library Practices and the Role of Library Space in the L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vogrinčič Čepič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The article uses sociological concepts in order to rethink the changes in library practices. Contemporary trends are discussed with regard to the changing nature of working habits, referring mostly to the new technology, and the (emergence of the third space phenomenon. The author does not regard libraries only as concrete public service institutions, but rather as complex cultural forms, taking in consideration wider social context with a stress on users’ practices in relation to space.Methodology/approach: The article is based on the (self- observation of the public library use, and on the (discourse analysis of internal library documents (i.e. annual reports and plans and secondary sociological literature. As such, the cultural form approach represents a classic method of sociology of culture.Results: The study of relevant material in combination with direct personal experiences reveals socio-structural causes for the change of users’ needs and habits, and points at the difficulty of spatial redefinition of libraries as well as at the power of the discourse.Research limitations: The article is limited to an observation of users’ practices in some of the public libraries in Ljubljana and examines only a small number of annual reports – the discoveries are then further debated from the sociological perspective.Originality/practical implications: The article offers sociological insight in the current issues of the library science and tries to suggest a wider explanation that could answer some of the challenges of the contemporary librarianship.

  5. Enrichment plants. A survey of major new uranium enriching projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    The work enrichment situation is reported. The development of enrichment in the U.S. and in Europe is outlined. A brief description is given of the technology of separation by diffusion and by centrifugation and the advantages and disadvantages of the two processes are compared. Finally the supply and demand situation is briefly considered. (U.K.)

  6. Gender, Technology, and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Lamont

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is vitally important to many organizations, including libraries. Yet a review of employment statistics and a citation analysis show that men make up the majority of the IT workforce, in libraries and in the broader workforce. Research from sociology, psychology, and women’s studies highlights the organizational and social issues that inhibit women. Understanding why women are less evident in library IT positions will help inform measures to remedy the gender disparity.

  7. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  8. FRDS.Broker Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The FRDS.Broker library is a teaching oriented implementation of the Broker architectural pattern for distributed remote method invocation. It defines the central roles of the pattern and provides implementations of those roles that are not domain/use case specific. It provides a JSON based (GSon...... library) Requestor implementation, and implementations of the ClientRequestHandler and ServerRequestHandler roles in both a Java socket based and a Http/URI tunneling based variants. The latter us based upon the UniRest and Spark-Java libraries. The Broker pattern and the source code is explained...

  9. INSIGHTS INTO PRE-ENRICHMENT OF STAR CLUSTERS AND SELF-ENRICHMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES FROM THEIR INTRINSIC METALLICITY DISPERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaman, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Star clusters are known to have smaller intrinsic metallicity spreads than dwarf galaxies due to their shorter star formation timescales. Here we use individual spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of stars in 19 Local Group dwarf galaxies, 13 Galactic open clusters, and 49 globular clusters to show that star cluster and dwarf galaxy linear metallicity distributions are binomial in form, with all objects showing strong correlations between their mean linear metallicity Z-bar and intrinsic spread in metallicity σ(Z) 2 . A plot of σ(Z) 2 versus Z-bar shows that the correlated relationships are offset for the dwarf galaxies from the star clusters. The common binomial nature of these linear metallicity distributions can be explained with a simple inhomogeneous chemical evolution model, where the star cluster and dwarf galaxy behavior in the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar diagram is reproduced in terms of the number of enrichment events, covering fraction, and intrinsic size of the enriched regions. The inhomogeneity of the self-enrichment sets the slope for the observed dwarf galaxy σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar correlation. The offset of the star cluster sequence from that of the dwarf galaxies is due to pre-enrichment, and the slope of the star cluster sequence represents the remnant signature of the self-enriched history of their host galaxies. The offset can be used to separate star clusters from dwarf galaxies without a priori knowledge of their luminosity or dynamical mass. The application of the inhomogeneous model to the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship provides a numerical formalism to connect the self-enrichment and pre-enrichment between star clusters and dwarf galaxies using physically motivated chemical enrichment parameters. Therefore we suggest that the σ(Z) 2 - Z-bar relationship can provide insight into what drives the efficiency of star formation and chemical evolution in galaxies, and is an important prediction for galaxy simulation models to reproduce.

  10. SCHOOL COMMUNITY PERCEPTION OF LIBRARY APPS AGAINTS LIBRARY EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Riyadi Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated by the development of information and communication technology (ICT in the library world so rapidly that allows libraries in the present to develop its services into digital-based services. This study aims to find out the school community’s perception of library apps developed by Riche Cynthia Johan, Hana Silvana, and Holin Sulistyo and its influence on library empowerment at the library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Library apps in this research belong to the context of m-libraries, which is a library that meets the needs of its users by using mobile platforms such as smartphones,computers, and other mobile devices. Empowerment of library is the utilization of all aspects of the implementation of libraries to the best in order to achieve the expected goals. An analysis of the schoolcommunity’s perception of library apps using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM includes: ease of use, usefulness, usability, usage trends, and real-use conditions. While the empowerment of the library includes aspects: information empowerment, empowerment of learning resources, empowerment of human resources, empowerment of library facilities, and library promotion. The research method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative approach. Population and sample in this research is school community at SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Determination of sample criteria by using disproportionate stratified random sampling with the number of samples of 83 respondents. Data analysis using simple linear regression to measure the influence of school community perception about library apps to library empowerment. The result of data analysis shows that there is influence between school community perception about library apps to library empowerment at library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung which is proved by library acceptance level and library empowerment improvement.

  11. The USF Libraries Virtual Library Project: A Blueprint for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Wiseman, Monica; Silver, Susan; Hanson, Ardis; Johnston, Judy; Grohs, Kim; Neville, Tina; Sanchez, Ed; Gray, Carolyn

    This report of the Virtual Library Planning Committee (VLPC) is intending to serve as a blueprint for the University of South Florida (USF) Libraries as it shifts from print to digital formats in its evolution into a "Virtual Library". A comprehensive planning process is essential for the USF Libraries to make optimum use of technology,…

  12. Croatian library leaders’ views on (their library quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Petr Balog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and describe the library culture in Croatian public libraries. Semi-structured interviews with 14 library directors (ten public and four academic were conducted. The tentative discussion topics were: definition of quality, responsibility for quality, satisfaction with library services, familiarization with user perspective of library and librarians, monitoring of user expectations and opinions. These interviews incorporate some of the findings of the project Evaluation of library and information services: public and academic libraries. The project investigates library culture in Croatian public and academic libraries and their preparedness for activities of performance measurement. The interviews reveal that library culture has changed positively in the past few years and that library leaders have positive attitude towards quality and evaluation activities. Library culture in Croatian libraries is a relatively new concept and as such was not actively developed and/or created. This article looks into the library culture of Croatian libraries, but at the same time investigates whether there is any trace of culture of assessment in them. Also, this article brings the latest update on views, opinions and atmosphere in Croatian public and academic libraries.

  13. National Libraries Section. General Research Libraries Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on national library services and activities, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The National Library of China in its Gradual Application of Modern Technology," a discussion by Zhu Nan and Zhu Yan (China) of microform usage and library automation; (2)…

  14. Library Science Education: A New Role for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Threasa L.

    2018-01-01

    Many individuals working in library and information organizations do not hold a master of library science (MLS) degree or other specialized library science credential. Recognizing that this professional gap could be addressed by diversified educational opportunities, the W. Frank Steely Library at Northern Kentucky University in Highland Heights…

  15. History of enrichment research at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.

    1996-01-01

    French researches about uranium enrichment have been carried out at the CEA for about 40 years. In the beginning, these researches were considered as marginal and were carried out by a small team from the Powders Central Laboratory. They became intensive since 1955 and culminated in 1967 with the conception of Pierrelatte's factory. Several processes were studied: the gaseous diffusion, the chemical treatments, the centrifugation, the laser and electromagnetic separation processes on atomic and molecular vapors. Only a few of them were fully developed. This paper summarizes the development of these different processes in their historical context. (J.S.). 1 fig

  16. Controlling hospital library theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Theresa M; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-04-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal.

  17. Working in the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Head Librarian Jens Vigen seeking information on the first discussions concerning the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the LEP Tunnel (1984), here assisted by two of the library apprentices, Barbara Veyre and Dina-Elisabeth Bimbu (seated).

  18. Marketing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  19. LIBRARY MANAGEMNT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Tilca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of any educational institution is the content and services of the university library. The mission of the library is to obtain, organize, preserve and update the information with the greatest possible accuracy, minimum effort and time. This requires automation of the library’s operations. This paper presents a software application for managing the activity of the territorial "Vasile Goldiş" West University library. The application is developed using Visual Basic for Application programming language and using the database management system Microsoft Access 2010. The goal of this application is to optimize the inner workings of local library and to meet the requests of the institution and of the readers.

  20. Mainstreaming the New Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of methods of integrating the corporate library into the mainstream of affairs highlights three major elements of the process: marketing, production, and advertising. Professionalism and the information seeking behavior of clients are noted. Five references are provided. (EJS)

  1. Research in the Library

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... devoted to a similar purpose. Over the past 100 years, the Library has been growing and developing to support the unique educational and research programs of the College, and its collections are, therefore, strong in the areas...

  2. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  3. Iowa DNR - NRGIS Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Natural Resources Geographic Information System (NRGIS) Library is a Geographic Information System (GIS) repository developed and maintained by the GIS Section...

  4. The library assessment cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Aaron W

    2017-01-01

    The Library Assessment Cookbook features 80 practical, easy-to-implement recipes divided into nine sections. This Cookbook will help librarians of all levels of experience measure and demonstrate their institutional value.

  5. Unified accelerator libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators

  6. Archives Library Information Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — ALIC is an online library catalog of books, periodicals, and other materials contained in Archives I and II and book collections located in other facilities.

  7. Foreign Data Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Data Library consists of meteorological data from nations other than the United States. The data are on original observational forms, in publications,...

  8. Web design for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Rubenstein, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Having a clear, attractive, and easy-to-navigate website that allows users to quickly find what they want is essential for any organization-including a library. This workbook makes website creation easy-no HTML required.

  9. Nigerian School Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian School Library Journal is a scholarly publication of the Nigerian ... media resources management, reading development, e-learning/m-learning, and other ... Team management in the 21 century: A human relations theory angle ...

  10. Medical Library Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Generation Data Sciences Challenges in Health and Biomedicine Fri November 3, 2017 The Medical Library Association ... Next Generation Data Science Challenges in Health and Biomedicine. MLA's comments and recommendations will help formulate strategic ...

  11. The Library as Publisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Roy

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to for-profit library publishing of reprints, original manuscripts, and smaller items. Discussed are creation of a publications panel to manage finances and preparation, determining prices of items, and drawing up author contracts. (SW)

  12. Industrial aspects in uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezin, M.

    1982-05-01

    Characteristics of isotope separation processes in operation and under development are discussed. These include the number of stages in series, the number of components, the component unit capacity and enery requirements. The implementation of an enrichment process and the question of an enrichment plant in Australia are also considered

  13. Marketing and health libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeham, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries.\\ud METHODS: A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google.\\ud RESULTS: Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation ...

  14. The LAW library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.M.; Parks, C.V.; Arwood, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The 238 group LAW library is a new multigroup library based on ENDF/B-V data. It contains data for 302 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, though it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections

  15. Digital library usability studies

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2005-01-01

    Each summer, circulation staff in my library inventories a section of the stacks andbrings collection issues to the attention of appropriate bibliographers. Since I amresponsible for the economics collection, I see an array of government documents thathave managed to elude the cataloging process. Many of these titles are decades old,having squatted in the library undisturbed and uncirculated since our online catalogwas implemented in 1990.

  16. Outsourcing in libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Žaucer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other organisations more flexible libraries tend to conform to the changing environment as this is the only way to be successful and effective. They are expected to offer "more for less" and they are reorganising and searching the ways to reduce the costs. Outsourcing is one of possible solutions. The article deals with the possibilities of outsourcing in libraries, higher quality of their work eoneentrated on principal activities and gives some experienees in this field.

  17. City model enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  18. The Library Work Order Processing System: A New Approach to Motivate Employees and to Increase Production in the Technical Service Department of Mercer County Community College Library. Applied Educational Research and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yong Sup

    After reviewing the current movement toward job enrichment, a system was designed for the technical services department of the Mercer County Community College Library. The Library Work Order Processing System, as tried between January and March, 1974, was designed to permit each worker more variety of jobs. The technical services department was…

  19. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  20. I.G. Tyulin Scientific Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Reshetnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Library MGIMO opened to readers in 1944 became the basis for her book fund of the Faculty of International Relations, Moscow State University on the basis of which was created by an independent institution - Institute of International Relations (MGIMO in the future. In 1954, when the composition of the MGIMO was included from the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies, the merger of the two libraries. This has considerably enriched the book collection, as the Institute of Oriental led his chronicle of the Lazarev School of Oriental Languages, founded in 1815 and features a wonderful book collection. In 1958, the merger with the Institute of Moscow State Institute of Foreign Trade funds replenished special economic literature. Thus was formed the basis of the library's collection of MGIMO, which develops in accordance with the curriculum and subjects research university. Pride Library -176 manuscripts and more than 21 thousands of rare and valuable editions of XIII -the beginning of XX century. Among them - the first and the lifetime editions of works by prominent scholars, writers and public figures (N.M. Karamzin, V.O. Kliuchevskoi, N. Kostomarov S.M. Solovyev, J. Bodin, Hobbes, A.F. Koni, Martens et al., autographed books, N.M. Przewalski, A.N. Kuropatkin, A.E. Crimean and other famous people. The collection of rare books and manuscripts research library also includes: - life time edition of the French writer and politician Jean Bodin "Six Books of the Republic" (1577; - the second edition of the famous treatise of the English philosopher and writer Thomas Hobbes "On Citizenship" (1647; - english (1669 and german (1696 edition of the book Adam Oleary "Descriptions Travel to Muscovy and Persia through Muscovy and back".

  1. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF 6 containing low enriched (approximately 4% 235 U) and highly enriched (above 20% 235 U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a 109 Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF 6 gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF 6 product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  2. Library Services Funding Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Jonathan A.

    2004-01-01

    The Glenn Technical Library is a science and engineering library that primarily supports research activities at the Glenn Research Center, and provides selected services to researchers at all of the NASA research centers. Resources available in the library include books, journals, CD-ROMs, and access to various online sources, as well as live reference and inter-library loan services. The collection contains over 77,000 books, 800,000 research reports, and print or online access to over 1,400 journals. Currently the library operates within the Logistics and Technical Information Division, and is funded as an open-access resource within the GRC. Some of the research units at the GRC have recently requested that the library convert to a "pay-for-services" model, in which individual research units could fund only those journal subscriptions for which they have a specific need. Under this model, the library would always maintain a certain minimum level of pooled-expense services, including the ready reference and book collections, and inter-library loan services. Theoretically the "pay-for-services" model would encourage efficient financial allocation, and minimize the extent to which paid journal subscriptions go unused. However, this model also could potentially negate the benefits of group purchases for journal subscriptions and access. All of the major journal publishers offer package subscriptions that compare favorably in cost with the sum of individual subscription costs for a similar selection of titles. Furthermore, some of these subscription packages are "consortium" purchases that are funded collectively by the libraries at multiple NASA research centers; such consortia1 memberships would be difficult for the library to pay, if enough GRC research units were to withdraw their pooled contributions. cost of collectively-funded journal access with the cost of individual subscriptions. My primary task this summer is to create the cost dataset framework, and

  3. Technical status study of heavy water enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono; Imam Dahroni; Didik Herhady

    2007-01-01

    Technical status study of heavy water enrichment in Indonesia and also in the world has been done. Heavy water enrichment processes have been investigated were water distillation, hydrogen distillation, laser enrichment, electrolysis and isotop exchange. For the isotop exchange, the chemical pair can be used were water-hydrogen sulphite, ammonium-hydrogen, aminomethane-hydrogen, and water-hydrogen. For the isotope exchange, there was carried out by mono thermal or bi thermal. The highest producer of heavy water is Canada, and the other producer is USA, Norwegian and India. The processes be used in the world are isotope exchange Girdler Sulphide (GS), distillation and electrolysis. Research of heavy water carried out in Batan Yogyakarta, has a purpose to know the characteristic of heavy water purification. Several apparatus which has erected were 3 distillation column: Pyrex glass of 2 m tall, stainless steel column of 3 m tall and steel of 6 m tall. Electrolysis apparatus is 50 cell electrolysis and an isotope exchange unit which has catalyst: Ni- Cr 2 O 3 and Pt-Carbon. These apparatus were not ready to operate. (author)

  4. R and D on laser uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    An AEC Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment has completed investigations into the actual condition of laser isotope separation. The working group set up for the purpose has issued a report on the series of investigations made on its development and measures for promoting it. The report says that the development of the process in Japan is at a fundamental stage. Noting that further efforts are needed before its future can be predicted, the report proposes a cource of research and development for the immediate future. For the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), government organizations are engaged in data base buildup and conducting basis engineering tests, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute will consider the re-enrichment of uranium recovered from reprocessing. Non-governmental unions of researchers will promote the combination of copper-vapor laser and dye laser. For the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS), the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research will take up studies with the cooperation of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. In chapters covering the philosophy of laser uranium enrichment technology development, the report deals with its significance, actual conditions and tasks, and goals and measures for its promotion. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Libraries from the Inside Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This annual report on library facilities and furnishings includes articles on: (1) designing libraries that are both handsome and functional; (2) functional use of color and light in library interior design; (3) creating user-friendly libraries; and (4) the seven deadly sins of architects. An eight-page section of photographs is included. (MES)

  6. Tomorrow's Library: The American View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the continuing role of the public library in society, discussing the mission of the library (highlights the Chicago Public Library's new mission statement), funding collections and buildings, technology, capital improvements, challenges to intellectual freedom, librarian education, library outreach, and private-sector partnerships. (PEN)

  7. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  8. A Constitution for Danish Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, O. Perch

    This overview of the history of legislation governing the Danish library system from 1920 to the present: describes the various kinds of libraries in Denmark, explores the current controversies surrounding the roles of several supervisory library bodies, and details recent recommendations of the Danish Library Commission. (FM)

  9. Hispanic College Students Library Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Risa; Newman, Eric; Brown, Haakon T.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at undergraduate Hispanic students' interpretations and current perceptions of the academic library's purpose, usefulness and value. What are the reasons to use the library? What are the barriers to use? This study will examine academic libraries' move toward electronic library materials and what it means for Hispanic students.…

  10. Library Anxiety of Teacher Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Attri, Poonam

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the library anxiety in Teacher Trainees and found it to be a prevalent phenomenon in students. The five dimensions of library anxiety, namely, barriers with staff, affective barriers, comfort with the library, knowledge of the library, and mechanical barriers have been identified. The sample of the study constituted 58…

  11. Service Innovation In Academic Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to investigate whether management and employees in academic libraries involve users in library service innovations and what these user roles are. Design/methodology/approach – The article first reviews the literature focusing on innovation, new product...... development, new service development and library science with specific focus on users and management. Subsequently the research uses a case study approach to investigate management and customer involvement in a Danish academic library. Findings – Results from the case study show that academic libraries...... in academic library service innovations on the basis of an in-depth case study of a Danish academic library....

  12. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  13. THE TERMINOLOGY OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Матић

    2014-01-01

    The master’s thesis entitled The Terminology of Library Science presents the general state of the terminology of library science in the Serbian language and analyses the terminological system which was formed in the last couple of decades in relation to library and information science. The terminology of library science is seen as a characteristic of professional language. The research is conducted on a corpus which excludes sources relating extremely to either library science or information ...

  14. Enriched Title-Based Keyword Index Generation Using dBase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, P. P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of a database management system (DBMS)--dBaseII--to create an enriched title-based keyword index for a collection of news items at the Renewable Energy Resources Information Center of the Asian Institute of Technology. The use of DBMSs in libraries in developing countries is emphasized. (Author/LRW)

  15. An improved cell recovery method for iron oxidizing bacterial (IOB) enrichments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ran; Graf, Joerg; Smets, Barth F.

    2008-01-01

    Two cell recovery methods for IOB enrichments were evaluated for DNA extraction and further PCR-based 16S rRNA gene clone library creation. One was a published method consisting of heating plus oxalic acid treatment and the other one was a new method based on enzymatic agarose digestion (using β...

  16. Library 3.0 intelligent libraries and apomediation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwanya, Tom; Underwood, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emerging generation of research and academic library users expect the delivery of user-centered information services. 'Apomediation' refers to the supporting role librarians can give users by stepping in when users need help. Library 3.0 explores the ongoing debates on the "point oh” phenomenon and its impact on service delivery in libraries. This title analyses Library 3.0 and its potential in creating intelligent libraries capable of meeting contemporary needs, and the growing role of librarians as apomediators. Library 3.0 is divided into four chapters. The first chapter introduces and places the topic in context. The second chapter considers "point oh” libraries. The third chapter covers library 3.0 librarianship, while the final chapter explores ways libraries can move towards '3.0'.

  17. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, P.; Madariaga, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author) [es

  18. Enrichment and isolation of microbial strains degrading bioplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... The sea sediments and sea water samples were collected from sites highly polluted with plastic waste from one of the beaches of Mumbai, India. Polymer sample. PVA (M.W. 125000) in powdered form was purchased from S. D.. Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India. Enrichment of PVA degrading microbial stains.

  19. Safety of uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekawa, Shigeru; Morikami, Yoshio; Morita, Minoru; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Tokuyasu, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    With respect to safety evaluation of the gas centrifuge enrichment facility, several characteristic problems are described as follows. Criticality safety in the cascade equipments can be obtained to maintain the enrichment of UF 6 below 5 %. External radiation dose equivalent rate of the 30B cylinder is low enough, the shield is not necessary. Penetration ratio of the two-stage HEPA filters for UF 6 aerosol is estimated at 10 -9 . From the experimental investigation, vacuum tightness is not damaged by destruction of gas centrifuge rotor. Carbon steel can be used for uranium enrichment equipments under the condition below 100degC. (author)

  20. Environmental enrichment for aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Aquatic animals are the most popular pets in the United States based on the number of owned pets. They are popular display animals and are increasingly used in research settings. Enrichment of captive animals is an important element of zoo and laboratory medicine. The importance of enrichment for aquatic animals has been slower in implementation. For a long time, there was debate over whether or not fish were able to experience pain or form long-term memories. As that debate has reduced and the consciousness of more aquatic animals is accepted, the need to discuss enrichment for these animals has increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  2. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  3. A borderless Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has a large collection of documents in online or printed format in all disciplines needed by physicists, engineers and technicians. However,  users sometimes need to read documents not available at CERN. But don’t worry! Thanks to its Interlibrary loan and document delivery service, the CERN Library can still help you. Just fill in the online form or email us. We will then locate the document in other institutions and order it for you free of charge. The CERN Library cooperates with the largest libraries in Europe, such as ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich, TIB (Technische Informationsbibliothek) in Hanover and the British Library in London. Thanks to our network and our expertise in document search, most requests are satisfied in record time: articles are usually served in .pdf version a few hours after the order, and books or other printed materials are delivered within a few days. It is possible to ask for all types of documents suc...

  4. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  5. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  6. Centar's gas centrifuge enrichment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abajian, V.V.; Fishman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for the building and operating of Centar Associates gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant are described. Operating costs and machine manufacture are considered. Commitments with the utilities are summarised. (U.K.)

  7. Extraosseus enrichments in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochens, R.; Schumacher, T.; Amthauer, H.; Wolter, M.; Stock, W.; Stroszczynski, C.; Moersler, J.P.; Eichstaedt, H.

    1996-01-01

    Extraosseus enrichments are common findings in bone scintigraphy. Main causes are artifacts by skin or cloth contamination, paravenous and subcutaneous injection. Physical examination, removal of cloths, skin cleaning or further images in differing projections lead to the correct diagnosis artefact or extraosseous enrichments. Further on, extraosseous enrichments are seen in physiological variants. In different diseases extraosseous enrichments are common, especially in urinary tract, liver and extremities. Further diagnostics, e.g. conventional radiologic procedures, sonography and CT scans, have to be performed. In individual cases side results in bone scintigraphy lead to formerly unknown diagnosis, further diagnostic procedure is influenced decisively. Own cases show for example a cerebral apoplectic insult, formerly unknown liver metastasis or metastasis in extraosseous Ewings's sarcoma. (orig.) [de

  8. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  9. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  10. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF 6 and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF 6 with diluent UF 6 to produce LWR grade LEU-UF 6 . The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry

  11. The CASTOR shower library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim Filho, Luiz Martins; Carvalho, Wagner de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: CASTOR (Centaur And Strange Object Research) is an electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic (HAD) calorimeter, based on tungsten and quartz plates, operating in the CMS Detector (Compact Muon Solenoid) at LHC. The calorimeter detects Cerenkov radiation and is positioned around the beam pipe in the very forward region of CMS (at 14.38 m from the interaction point), covering the pseudo-rapidity range between -6.6 ≤ η≤-5.1 . It is longitudinally segmented into 14 sections, 2 for the EM and 12 for the HAD parts and is 16-fold azimuthally symmetric around the beam pipe. A Shower Library is needed for CASTOR Monte Carlo simulation, as the full simulation of showers takes a long time and the high multiplicity of particles in the forward region makes this simulation very time consuming. The Shower Library is used as a look-up table in the form of a ROOT file, so that when a simulated particle enters the detector with a certain energy and direction, characterized by the azimuthal angle φ and the pseudo-rapidity η, instead of making the full simulation of the shower in CASTOR, it is substituted by one already stored in the Shower Library. Showers corresponding to two types of particles are included in the Shower Library: electrons (or photons) and charged pions. The software implemented to make the Shower Library is described, as well as the validation of this library and timing studies. This package has been developed in the context of the official software of the CMS Collaboration, CMSSW. (author)

  12. Uranium enrichment: an evolving market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.; Witzel, R.

    1997-01-01

    With over half of the world uranium enrichment market uncommitted to any supplier early in the next century, competition is certain to be fierce. In the meantime the outlood remains unclear, with the market dominated by a number of developments -privatisation of the United States Enrichment Corp (USEC), increasing availability of Russian and US military inventories, the deployment of advanced technology and the closure of nuclear power plants due to deregulation. (author)

  13. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  14. WIMS Library updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.; Holubar, A.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of 1990 the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) has been initiated at the International Atomic Energy Agency. The project was organized as an international research project, coordinated at the J. Stefan Institute. Up to now, 22 laboratories from 19 countries joined the project. Phase 1 of the project, which included WIMS input optimization for five experimental benchmark lattices, has been completed. The work presented in this paper describes also the results of Phase 2 of the Project, in which the cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV evaluated nuclear data library have been processed. (author) [sl

  15. Astrophysical opacity library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Merts, A.L.; Magee, N.H. Jr.; Argo, M.F.

    1977-08-01

    The astrophysical elements opacity library includes equation of state data, various mean opacities, and 2000 values of the frequency-dependent extinction coefficients in equally spaced intervals u identical with hν/kT from 0 to 20 for 41 degeneracy parameters eta from -28 (nondegenerate) to 500 and 46 temperatures kT from 1 eV to 100 keV. Among available auxiliary quantities are the free electron density, mass density, and plasma cutoff frequency. A library-associated program can produce opacities for mixtures with up to 20 astrophysically abundant constituent elements at 4 levels of utility for the user

  16. Reference neutron activation library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,{alpha}), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,{sup 3}He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain

  17. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10 -5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  18. Application Portable Parallel Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) computer program is subroutine-based message-passing software library intended to provide consistent interface to variety of multiprocessor computers on market today. Minimizes effort needed to move application program from one computer to another. User develops application program once and then easily moves application program from parallel computer on which created to another parallel computer. ("Parallel computer" also include heterogeneous collection of networked computers). Written in C language with one FORTRAN 77 subroutine for UNIX-based computers and callable from application programs written in C language or FORTRAN 77.

  19. Future of research libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Naryandas, Narakesari; Kindström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research libraries have been an integral part of the scholarly communication system since that system emerged in its present form. They now face a period of unprecedentedly drastic and rapid change. This is caused, first and foremost, by the migration of much scholarly material to digital formats, raising the question of the future purpose of the 'library space'. Together with this come transfigurational changes to the communication change of recorded information, with the roles of authors , publishers, database producers and librarians and archivists all in a state of flux. Finally, new forms

  20. Wordpress for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Haefele, Chad

    2015-01-01

    WordPress is not only the most popular blogging software in the world, but it is also a powerful content management system that runs more than 23 percent of all websites. The current version alone has been downloaded almost 20 million times, and the WordPress community has built more than 38,000 plugins to extend and enhance the system. Libraries are using this technology to create community-oriented websites, blogs, subject guides, digital archives, and more. This hands-on, practical book walks readers through the entire process of setting up a WordPress website for their library,

  1. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  2. Knowledge management for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Forrestal, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Libraries are creating dynamic knowledge bases to capture both tacit and explicit knowledge and subject expertise for use within and beyond their organizations. In this book, readers will learn to move policies and procedures manuals online using a wiki, get the most out of Microsoft SharePoint with custom portals and Web Parts, and build an FAQ knowledge base from reference management applications such as LibAnswers. Knowledge Management for Libraries guides readers through the process of planning, developing, and launching th

  3. Academic Library Administrators Perceive Value in Their Librarians’ Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Perkins, G.H. & Slowik, A.J.W. (2013. The value of research in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 74(2, 143-158. Retrieved from http://crl.acrl.org/content/74/2/143.full.pdf+html Abstract Objective – To explore academic library administrators’ perceived value of their librarians’ research, specifically the importance to the profession and the library community. Design – Qualitative, exploratory study using a survey questionnaire. Setting – Academic libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – 23 library administrators. Methods – During the summer of 2010, one of the authors conducted 20-30 minute telephone interviews with 23 academic library administrators. Interviews were recorded and transcribed for coding. Interview questions 1-3 and 8-19 were content-analyzed; the authors described common themes for each of these questions. Items 4-7 had Likert scale response formats, and a mean and standard deviation were computed for each of these items. Main Results – The benefits of librarians’ research included fulfilling tenure-track requirements, enriching relationships with teaching faculty, library faculty recognition, improved services and programs, collaboration with others, research result application to daily issues, development as librarians, and improved knowledge of the research field. The perceived current changes and future issues for university libraries included increased digitization of collections, scholarly communication, and expanded instructional engagement of faculty and students, as well as future economic downturn and budget cuts. Administrators noted several methods that influenced their thinking: professional meetings, reading professional journals, informal discussions with colleagues, and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Academic library administrators used a variety of methods to support their librarians’ research. These included tenure-track requirements

  4. Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA): Dimensionally Reduced Multivariate Gene Set Enrichment Analysis Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Neil R; Szymkiewicz, Maciej; Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D; Jones, Matthew R; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2015-11-01

    Gene set analysis of differential expression, which identifies collectively differentially expressed gene sets, has become an important tool for biology. The power of this approach lies in its reduction of the dimensionality of the statistical problem and its incorporation of biological interpretation by construction. Many approaches to gene set analysis have been proposed, but benchmarking their performance in the setting of real biological data is difficult due to the lack of a gold standard. In a previously published work we proposed a geometrical approach to differential expression which performed highly in benchmarking tests and compared well to the most popular methods of differential gene expression. As reported, this approach has a natural extension to gene set analysis which we call Principal Angle Enrichment Analysis (PAEA). PAEA employs dimensionality reduction and a multivariate approach for gene set enrichment analysis. However, the performance of this method has not been assessed nor its implementation as a web-based tool. Here we describe new benchmarking protocols for gene set analysis methods and find that PAEA performs highly. The PAEA method is implemented as a user-friendly web-based tool, which contains 70 gene set libraries and is freely available to the community.

  5. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  6. Phage display peptide libraries: deviations from randomness and correctives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Arie; Ashkenazy, Haim; Weiss-Ottolenghi, Yael; Piller, Chen; Pupko, Tal; Gershoni, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Peptide-expressing phage display libraries are widely used for the interrogation of antibodies. Affinity selected peptides are then analyzed to discover epitope mimetics, or are subjected to computational algorithms for epitope prediction. A critical assumption for these applications is the random representation of amino acids in the initial naïve peptide library. In a previous study, we implemented next generation sequencing to evaluate a naïve library and discovered severe deviations from randomness in UAG codon over-representation as well as in high G phosphoramidite abundance causing amino acid distribution biases. In this study, we demonstrate that the UAG over-representation can be attributed to the burden imposed on the phage upon the assembly of the recombinant Protein 8 subunits. This was corrected by constructing the libraries using supE44-containing bacteria which suppress the UAG driven abortive termination. We also demonstrate that the overabundance of G stems from variant synthesis-efficiency and can be corrected using compensating oligonucleotide-mixtures calibrated by mass spectroscopy. Construction of libraries implementing these correctives results in markedly improved libraries that display random distribution of amino acids, thus ensuring that enriched peptides obtained in biopanning represent a genuine selection event, a fundamental assumption for phage display applications. PMID:29420788

  7. Library Standards: Evidence of Library Effectiveness and Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbinghouse, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses accreditation standards for libraries based on experiences in an academic law library. Highlights include the accreditation process; the impact of distance education and remote technologies on accreditation; and a list of Internet sources of standards and information. (LRW)

  8. Staff development and library services in academic libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staff development and library services in academic libraries in Bayelsa and Delta States. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Descriptive survey research design was used for this study, data was ...

  9. More library mashups exploring new ways to deliver library data

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Nicole Engard follows up her ground-breaking 2009 book Library Mashups with a fresh collection of mashup projects that virtually any library can emulate, customize, and build upon. In More Library Mashups, Engard and 24 creative library professionals describe how they are mashing up free and inexpensive digital tools and techniques to improve library services and meet everyday (and unexpected) challenges. Examples from libraries of all types are designed to help even non-programmers share and add value to digital content, update and enhance library websites and collections, mashup catalog data, connect to the library's automation system, and use emerging tools like Serendip-o-matic, Umlaut, and Libki to engage users, staff, and the community.

  10. Report of Sectional Committee on Industrialization of Uranium Enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In order to accelerate the development and utilization of atomic energy which is the core of the substitute energies for petroleum, it is indispensable requirement to establish independent fuel cycle as the base. In particular, the domestic production of enriched uranium is necessary to eliminate the obstacles to secure the energy supply in Japan. The construction and operation of the pilot plant for uranium enrichment by centrifugal separation method have progressed smoothly, and the technical base for the domestic production of enriched uranium is being consolidated. For the time being, the service of uranium enrichment is given by USA and France, but it is expected that the short supply will arise around 1990. The start of operation of the uranium enrichment plant in Japan is scheduled around 1990, and the scale of the plant will be expanded stepwise thereafter. The scale of production is assumed as 3000 t SWU/year in 2000. Prior to this commercial plant, the prototype plant of up to 250 t SWU/year capacity will be operated in 1986, starting the production of centrifugal separators in 1983. The production line for centrifugal separators will have the capacity of up to 125 t SWU/year. The organization for operating these plants, the home production of natural uranium conversion, the uranium enrichment by chemical method and others are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. Renewing library Web sites CMS at libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Vida, A

    2006-01-01

    The use of the Internet has a ten-year history in Hungary. In the beginning, users were surfing on textual Web sites with the browser Lynx (1991), then a range of graphic browsers appeared: Mosaic (1993) , Netscape (1994), and finally Internet Explorer (1995). More and more institutions, including libraries decided to enter the World Wide Web with their own homepage. The past ten years have brought enormous changes and new requirements in the way that institutional homepages are designed. This article offers an overview of the development phases of Web sites, presents the new tools necessary for the state-of-the-art design and gives advice on their up-to-date maintenance.

  12. Library of INCA

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Aeron

    2013-01-01

    LIBRARY OF INCA. Åpning: 25. august 2012. (18.00 til 21.00) Utstillingsperiode: 25. august - 22. september. Utstillere: Aurora Harris, Frido Evers, Lina Persson, Per-Oskar Leu, Cary Loren, Inger Wold Lund, Hamilton Poe. Kuratorer: Aeron Bergman and Alejandra Salinas. Visningssted: INCA - Institute for Neo Connotative Action, Detroit, USA.

  13. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    A third of the world’s current literature in electrical engineering is available on your CERN desktop Looking for a technical standard on software reviews and audits? Is it referred to as "IEEE color books"? Want to download and read NOW the latest version of IEEE 802? Whenever a need for a technical standard or specification arises in your activity, the Library is here to serve you. For IEEE standards it is particularly easy; the whole collection is available for immediate download. Indeed, since 2007, the CERN Library offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET journals and proceedings, starting from the first issue. But not everyone knows that this resource gives also access to all current IEEE standards as well as a selection of archival ones. The Library is now working on the integration of a selection of these standards in our onlin...

  14. School Library Nostalgias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores nostalgia as both a limiting cultural force in the lives of school librarians and a practice that can be used to more accurately portray library work. The stereotype of the shushing, lone school librarian, based on restorative nostalgia, is related to a nostalgic oversimplification of the school librarian's historical role.…

  15. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan

    This paper discusses client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. Themes related to the transitional nature of society in the knowledge era are presented, including: paradox and a contradictory nature; blurring of boundaries; networks, systems, and holistic thinking; process/not product, becoming/not…

  16. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  17. In the CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    Seen in this picture is Noria Christophoridou, librarian of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, who has been sent by her government to CERN for a year to widen her experience of library and documentation services. In the photograph she is providing information to Kurt Gottfried, a CERN visiting scientist from Harvard University, who is spending a year with CERN's Theory Division

  18. Library Budget Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Alice Sizer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of six types of budgets commonly used by many different kinds of libraries. The budget types covered are lump-sum; formula; line or line-item; program; performance or function; and zero-based. Accompanying figures demonstrate the differences between four of the budget types. (three references) (KRN)

  19. The Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    2006-01-01

    Today's school libraries must meet student needs as both a physical and virtual space. Existing both offline and online, they must offer around-the-clock access as well as instruction and guidance that support the face-to-face interactions of students with librarians and classroom teachers. Although students are often technologically proficient,…

  20. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  1. Virtual digital library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, George R.

    1996-03-01

    The virtual digital library, a concept that is quickly becoming a reality, offers rapid and geography-independent access to stores of text, images, graphics, motion video and other datatypes. Furthermore, a user may move from one information source to another through hypertext linkages. The projects described here further the notion of such an information paradigm from an end user viewpoint.

  2. Alleviating Library Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Erica Carlson

    2009-01-01

    As librarians work to make their services more user-centered, to put forward their best and most approachable faces in order to meet user needs, they are still met with students who approach them hesitantly and apologize for asking them questions, and by students who are obviously intimidated by the libraries in which they work. A good part of…

  3. Fission product data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hep, J.; Valenta, V.

    1975-01-01

    Reprints of values from BIBFP for 39 isotopes for which either a mistake in the BIBFP Library or updated values in the literature have been found, are given. Most corrections concern the branching ratios for isotopes which are the precursors of delayed neutron emitters

  4. Nigerian Libraries: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Contributions to the Nigerian Libraries for publication should not be more than 5,0000 words. They should be double-spaced typed in A4 paper size. Foot notes should be avoided ... Magazine: Fatima, G (date of publication) article title, magazine title, volume(issue), page(s). Website: Uchenna, O. (date ...

  5. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    Even more books available electronically!   For several years now, the Library has been offering a large collection of electronic books in a wide range of disciplines. The books can be accessed by all CERN users with a Nice account and, like printed books, can be borrowed for a given period. In a few clicks of the mouse, you can leaf through and read books and even print parts of them from your computer. The Library catalogue now comprises a total of more than 10,000 different e-books. The long-awaited electronic versions of O'Reilly book titles are now available: 70 titles have recently been added to the Library's collection and many others will follow in the coming weeks. This collection of books, mainly on IT subjects, is widely used in the development field. Their availability on line is thus a clear bonus. But there's no need for fans of paper versions to worry: the Library will continue to expand its collection of printed books. The two collections exist side by side and even complement ea...

  6. Library Online Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folda, Linda; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Issues related to library online systems are discussed in six articles. Topics covered include staff education through vendor demonstrations, evaluation of online public access catalogs, the impact of integrated online systems on cataloging operations, the merits of smart and dumb barcodes, and points to consider in planning for the next online…

  7. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  8. Evaluated nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collection of evaluated data for neutron-, photon-, and charged-particle-induced reactions is maintained in a computer-oriented system. In this report we recount the history of Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, describe the methods of evaluation, and give examples of input and output representation of the data

  9. Rx for Library Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cage, Alvin C.

    1986-01-01

    Examines recent developments in field of systems theory that can improve library management practices by broadening perspective in which these problems may be approached. The concept of organizational life cycles is discussed and a paradigm for application of its principles is developed. An Rx decision chart is appended. (9 references) (EJS)

  10. Library science talks

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Vigen, Jens; CERN. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    The new interface to the CERN library data base by Jean-Yves Le Meur / CERN-AS I will give a short (hands on) demonstration of the new interface to the whole library database. Emphasis will be given to the new feature allowing any user to build his personal virtual library. A user oriented interface to physics preprint servers by Carlos Loureno / CERN-PPE I will give a (hands-on) presentation of a first version of a tailor made WEB based interface to the preprints kept in the CERN or Los Alamos servers. This interface has already been successfully implemented for the field of high energy heavy ion physics, and can easily be expanded or adapted to other research fields of interest to the HEP community. For the already published papers, a direct link to the published e-journal version is provided (if available). Status of the digital library at CERN by Jens Vigen / CERN-AS I will review the present situation concerning the availability of the electronic versions of scientific publications at CERN and the el...

  11. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  12. Flexible digital library search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, M.; Schmidt, A.; Zwol, van R.; Petkovic, M.; Blok, H.E.; Dahanayake, A.; Gerhardt, W.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter the development of a specialised search engine for a digital library is described. The proposed system architecture consists of three levels: the conceptual, the logical and the physical level. The conceptual level schema enables by its exposure of a domain specific schema

  13. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  14. Applying DEA Technique to Library Evaluation in Academic Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Wonsik

    2003-01-01

    This study applied an analytical technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate the relative technical efficiency of 95 academic research libraries, all members of the Association of Research Libraries. DEA, with the proper model of library inputs and outputs, can reveal best practices in the peer groups, as well as the technical…

  15. Assessment of Library Instruction and Library Literacy Skills of First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effectiveness and impact of library instruction (GST 111 – the use of library) course on library literacy skills of first year undergraduate students. The study adopted the descriptive survey research method and questionnaire was used as the research instrument. First year undergraduate students of ...

  16. Student Library Pages: Valuable Resource for the Library Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Eleanor

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of students as library pages at the Loudoun Country Day School (Virginia). Highlights include student selection procedures, including interviews; parental consent form; library page duties; benefits to students; benefits to the library; and parent attitudes. Copies of the student interview form and parental consent form are…

  17. Evaluating Public Libraries Using Standard Scores: The Library Quotient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a method for assessing the performance of public libraries using a standardized scoring system and provides an analysis of public library data from New Jersey as an example. Library standards and the derivation of measurement ratios are also discussed. A 33-item bibliography and three data tables are included. (JL)

  18. The impact of computerisation of library operations on library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of computer-based systems in libraries and information units is now a vogue. The era of manual system in library operations is on its way to extinction. Recent developments in information world tend towards a globalized information communication technology (ICT). The library as a dynamic institution cannot afford ...

  19. E-Library and Traditonal Library Resources Usage: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative usage of e-library and traditional resources in Nigerian libraries was examined in this study. A descriptive survey method was adopted and a purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and the process produced 125 academic, research, and public libraries in Nigeria. A total of 116 cases ...

  20. Is Your Academic Library Pinning? Academic Libraries and Pinterest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Academic libraries are flocking to online social networking sites in an effort to meet users where they are. Pinterest is the latest of these rapidly growing online social networking tools. The author of this article reports results from a survey on academic libraries' presence on Pinterest. The survey found most academic library pinboards are in…