WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical issues addressing

  1. Examination of lignocellulosic fibers for chemical, thermal, and separations properties: Addressing thermo-chemical stability issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carter David

    Natural fiber-plastic composites incorporate thermoplastic resins with fibrous plant-based materials, sometimes referred to as biomass. Pine wood mill waste has been the traditional source of natural fibrous feedstock. In anticipation of a waste wood shortage other fibrous biomass materials are being investigated as potential supplements or replacements. Perennial grasses, agricultural wastes, and woody biomass are among the potential source materials. As these feedstocks share the basic chemical building blocks; cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, they are collectively called lignocellulosics. Initial investigation of a number of lignocellulosic materials, applied to fiber-plastic composite processing and material testing, resulted in varied results, particularly response to processing conditions. Less thermally stable lignocellulosic filler materials were physically changed in observable ways: darkened color and odor. The effect of biomass materials' chemical composition on thermal stability was investigated an experiment involving determination of the chemical composition of seven lignocellulosics: corn hull, corn stover, fescue, pine, soy hull, soy stover, and switchgrass. These materials were also evaluated for thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis. The results of these determinations indicated that both chemical composition and pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can have an effect on their thermal stability. A second study was performed to investigate what effect different pretreatment systems have on hybrid poplar, pine, and switchgrass. These materials were treated with hot water, ethanol, and a 2:1 benzene/ethanol mixture for extraction times of: 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. This factorial experiment demonstrated that both extraction time and medium have an effect on the weight percent of extractives removed from all three material types. The extracted materials generated in the above study were then subjected to an evaluation of thermal

  2. Addressing Transgender Issues in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Marian

    2016-01-01

    As mainstream media focus more attention on transgender issues, and as anti-discrimination laws evolve, a shift is taking place on campuses. Many schools now include gender identity and expression in their inclusivity work and seek to establish policies and procedures to support transgender students and their families. It's not an easy task. In…

  3. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  4. Addressing the water resource management issue

    OpenAIRE

    Orprecio, J.; Rola, Agnes C.; Deutsch, William; Coxhead, Ian; Sumbalan, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record The rapid growth in demand for water by the agricultural, industrial and household sectors will place greater pressure on Philippine water supplies in the future. Among the many water management issues, surface water management, watershed management or more precisely, river basin management is prominent in both the local and national scenes.

  5. Protein Arrays: Issues to Be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Taussig

    2006-01-01

    Protein arrays are fast becoming established as a means to monitor protein expression levels and investigate protein interactions and function. They present particular technical demands that will need to be solved in order to achieve the maximum capability of efficient and sensitive protein analysis in the high throughput setting of functional genomics. The following resumé of some major issues around this new technology was made as the chairperson’s introduction to the workshop sessi...

  6. Protein Arrays: Issues to Be Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taussig

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein arrays are fast becoming established as a means to monitor protein expression levels and investigate protein interactions and function. They present particular technical demands that will need to be solved in order to achieve the maximum capability of efficient and sensitive protein analysis in the high throughput setting of functional genomics. The following resumé of some major issues around this new technology was made as the chairperson’s introduction to the workshop session on peptide and protein chips.

  7. Addressing endotoxin issues in bioengineered heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwan, Jiraporn; Torelli, Amanda; Onishi, Akihiro; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant that is prepared from pig intestine. A contamination of heparin in 2008 has led to a reexamination of animal-derived pharmaceuticals. A bioengineered heparin prepared by bacterial fermentation and chemical and enzymatic processing is currently under development. This study examines the challenges of reducing or removing endotoxins associated with this process that are necessary to proceed with preclinical in vivo evaluation of bioengineered heparin. The current process is assessed for endotoxin levels, and strategies are examined for endotoxin removal from polysaccharides and enzymes involved in this process. PMID:23586950

  8. Addressing Physical and Emotional Issues in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how physical and mental disabilities are addressed in children's literature. Many authors are able to integrate the issues into their work in a way that enhances the story and benefits the reader. As young readers learn about the issues and struggles faced by children with mental and physical disabilities,…

  9. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  10. Addressing Consent Issues in Donation After Circulatory Determination of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Kim J; Weinstein, Michael S; Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Given the widening gap between the number of individuals on transplant waiting lists and the availability of donated organs, as well as the recent plateau in donations based on neurological criteria (i.e., brain death), there has been a growing interest in expanding donation after circulatory determination of death. While the prevalence of this form of organ donation continues to increase, many thorny ethical issues remain, often creating moral distress in both clinicians and families. In this article, we address one of these issues, namely, the challenges surrounding patient and surrogate informed consent for donation after circulatory determination of death. First we discuss several general concerns regarding consent related to this form of organ donation, and then we address additional issues that are unique to three different patient categories: adult patients with medical decision-making capacity or potential capacity, adult patients who lack capacity, and pediatric patients. PMID:26225503

  11. Moderated discussion: Are we addressing the ''real'' issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Session 5 a was moderated discussion on the topic of ''Are we addressing the 'real' issue?'' The Moderator opened the session with the following questions areas to stimulate discussion. Questions Part 1: Is the concept of alarms and alarm systems still valid? Are we designing for physical features rather than information that has to be conveyed? Are we addressing the essential annunciation needs or are attempting to implement patch-work solutions to solve specific problems? Is the design process so firmly established in organizations that a major change is required to result in different and improved approaches? Will the cost of increasing scrutinity for Software QA make advancement impossible or too costly? What is the role of overview display in accident management and how do imbedded alarms play a role? Is the need for reliable signals adequately addressed (or can it be)? Questions Part 2: Should we include automated diagnosis and decision making with annunciation? What is the role of the operator? Is the operator someone who only follows fixed procedures, or is he/she a responsible authority, or both? Does the focus on safety-first divert the attention away from other important issues, such as operational efficiency? Does the concept of ''hard-wired'' annunciation still apply given advancements in reliability of computer systems? How do we shorten the design and implementation time period cost effectively while still improving the performance?

  12. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  13. Regional Seminars to Address Current Nuclear Export Control Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of nuclear-related exports, a critical component of the nonproliferation regime, is facing several opportunities and challenges. As countries sign and ratify the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards Additional Protocol (AP), they will begin to report far more export information, including exports of a list of items similar to the Nuclear Supplier Group's Trigger List that existed when the AP was developed in the mid-1990s. This positive development contrasts with challenges such as globalization, transshipments, and tracking of end-uses. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is proposing that the US Department of Energy (DOE) develop regional seminars that address these types of issues related to export/import controls. The DOE seminars would be designed to supplement regional seminars sponsored by the IAEA and member states on topics related to the Additional Protocol (referred to as 'IAEA seminars'). The topic of nuclear export/import controls is not thoroughly addressed in the IAEA seminars. The proposed DOE seminars would therefore have two objectives: familiarizing countries with the export/import provisions of the Additional Protocol, and addressing challenges such as those noted above. The seminars would be directed particularly at countries that have not ratified the AP, and at regions where export-related problems are particularly prevalent. The intent is to encourage governments to implement more effective nuclear export control systems that meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  14. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  15. The nation's first consortium to address waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 26, 1989, the secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE), Admiral James Watkins, announced approval of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC). The consortium is composed of New Mexico State University (NMSU), the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This pilot program is expected to form a model for other regional and national programs. The WERC mission is to expand the national capability to address issues associated with the management of hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste. Research, technology transfer, and education/training are the three areas that have been identified to accomplish the objectives set by the consortium. The members of the consortium will reach out to the DOE facilities, other government agencies and facilities, and private institutions across the country. Their goal is to provide resources for solutions to waste management problems

  16. Progress on Addressing Contingent Work Issues in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jacoby

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education workers in Washington State are challenging the use of contingent academic labor. This article examines data and policies relevant to the state's reliance upon part-time faculty in community colleges. Data from the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges is juxtaposed with results from a survey completed by 20% of the part-time faculty in 14 community colleges to show that most do not work part-time by choice. The quantitative analysis underlies a subsequent examination of legislative and court solutions pursued in Washington State. Despite significant spending constraints, the state shows signs of being in the national vanguard as it addresses contingent academic labor issues.

  17. Addressing security issues related to virtual institute distributed activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2008-03-01

    One issue confounding the development and experimentation of distributed modeling and simulation environments is the inability of the project team to identify and collaborate with resources, both human and technical, from outside the United States. This limitation is especially significant within the human behavior representation area where areas such as cultural effects research and joint command team behavior modeling require the participation of various cultural and national representatives. To address this limitation, as well as other human behavior representation research issues, NATO Research and Technology Organization initiated a project to develop a NATO virtual institute that enables more effective and more collaborative research into human behavior representation. However, in building and operating a virtual institute one of the chief concerns must be the cyber security of the institute. Because the institute "exists" in cyberspace, all of its activities are susceptible to cyberattacks, subterfuge, denial of service and all of the vulnerabilities that networked computers must face. In our opinion, for the concept of virtual institutes to be successful and useful, their operations and services must be protected from the threats in the cyber environment. A key to developing the required protection is the development and promulgation of standards for cyber security. In this paper, we discuss the types of cyber standards that are required, how new internet technologies can be exploited and can benefit the promulgation, development, maintenance, and robustness of the standards. This paper is organized as follows. Section One introduces the concept of the virtual institutes, the expected benefits, and the motivation for our research and for research in this area. Section Two presents background material and a discussion of topics related to VIs, uman behavior and cultural modeling, and network-centric warfare. Section Three contains a discussion of the

  18. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  19. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  20. Bulimia: Issues a University Counseling Center Needs To Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitner, Phillip A.; Shetterly, Arminta

    The eating disorder known as bulimia is a relatively new and baffling phenomenon. This paper raises questions that college and university counseling center professionals need to address regarding this phenomenon. The first section focuses on defining the term "bulimia" and its evolution. The second section identifies numerous symptoms that need to…

  1. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  2. Legal Considerations of Internet Use--Issues To Be Addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daphyne Saunders; Forcht, Karen A.; Counts, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Explores issues related to legal considerations of the widespread use of the Internet worldwide. Topics considered include: e-mail; data theft and piracy; search and seizure; electronic banking; offensive behavior; liability; copyright infringement; laws regulating the Internet; and the Telecommunications Act. (PEN)

  3. Creating Art Environments That Address Social Justice Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Gail

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I examine strategies for teaching students to make socially conscious art using a variety of media that emphasizes installation work. I present issues of social justice in the contemporary art world and include concerns of censorship that artists sometimes confront. I offer examples of team taught coordinated studies programs…

  4. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  5. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  6. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Ethnocentric approach to address South Asian health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A

    2012-09-01

    South Asian populations have distinct healthcare requirements to other ethnic demographics. Epidemiologically they constitute a high-risk group for many public health diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Despite individuals of South Asian backgrounds encompassing many individual countries, cultures, religions and backgrounds they share many common health concerns that are poorly tackled in established models of healthcare delivery. To successfully address this burgeoning public health burden, it is important for healthcare professionals and providers to appreciate the need for an ethnocentric approach to South Asian health requirements. Key stakeholders need to understand the need for an integrated ethnocentric approach to challenge the poor health status of this population. Appreciation of the socio-cultural dimension to South Asian healthcare requirements should help guide targeted and focused strategies to improve the outlook for this unique population at high public health risk. PMID:22753671

  8. Implementation of Knowledge Management Systems in Organizations for Addressing People Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Krishna Mahesh Kumar Kondraju

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper discusses about peoples issues that impact knowledge management practices and how organizations addressed it. Issues such as lack of collaboration, mistrust, missing leadership qualities and inadequate knowledge sharing have been discussed and how they would result in failure of knowledge management practices in an organization. Finally different strategies were provided to address these people’s issues.

  9. Using deliberation to address controversial issues: Developing Holocaust education curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS MISCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a cross-cultural project responded to the need for new Holocaust educational materials for the Republic of Latvia through the method of curriculum deliberation. Analysis of interview, observational, and document data drawn from seven curriculum writers and numerous project members suggest that curriculum deliberation helped awaken a controversial and silenced history while attending to a wide range of needs and concerns for a variety of stakeholders. The findings highlight structural features that empowered the curriculum writers as they engaged in protracted rumination, reflected upon competing norms, and considered the nuances of the curriculum problem in relation to implementation. Understanding the process, challenges, and promises of cross-cultural curriculum deliberation holds significance for educators, curricularists, and educational researchers wishing to advance teaching and learning within silenced histories and controversial issues.

  10. Quadrenniel Symposium Addresses Important Water and Climate Change Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology, Marine Ecosystems and Climate Change Studies was held from 27 March to 1 April 2011 in Monaco. This major IAEA meeting was jointly organized by the IAEA Water Resources Programme and the Marine and Environment Programme. The symposium was held at the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the IAEA Laboratory in the Principality of Monaco. The symposium also represented the thirteenth edition of the quadrennial symposium on isotope hydrology and water resources management, which has been regularly organized by the IAEA since 1963. The symposium attracted 278 participants and observers from 67 Member States, covering aspects related to the use and application of isotope tools to address a broad spectrum of scientific disciplines through invited talks, oral and poster presentations and workshops. Developing countries were well represented with 120 participants attending. There were 49 oral presentations in the morning sessions and workshops, and 142 posters were shown. Brent Newman and Luis Araguas from the IAEA Water Resources Programme and Hartmut Nies from the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory were the symposium's scientific secretaries.

  11. "Cairo must address the equity issue." Interview: Sandra Postel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Sandra Postel, of the Worldwatch Institute, believes that inequalities in consumption and income foster environmental degradation. The richest 20% are getting richer and consuming excessively. The bottom 20%, comprising about 1 billion people, are getting poorer and are degrading their environment in order to survive. Per capita availability of resources is continually being reduced. If there is a desire to improve the quality of life for the poorest segment of the world population, then the richest must forfeit something. Environmental taxation could reduce excessive consumption in general; this strategy would be the most efficient and useful. Taxes would be placed on pollution and resources in danger of depletion; income taxes could be reduced to balance the impact of increased taxes on the economy. Wealthy countries must make a renewed commitment to poverty alleviation and to realistic sustainable development. Aid budgets should no longer reflect military priorities or strategic objectives. Trade is clearly related to the environment and poverty, and these connections must be made publicly known. National and international trade policies must deal with poverty issues and not contribute to further environmental destruction. Eliminating debt problems is another problem in need of change. The World Bank and structural adjustment policies have not proved to be environmentally sound and have not benefitted the poor. Evaluation of programs is needed, and lending policies should reflect the growing awareness of the problems of the poor and environmental consequences. Consumption of energy, wood, paper, and water are all higher among industrialized wealthy countries. Technology needs to be applied to maximize resource use, and policies must reflect this commitment. Israel has set a good example with water consumption reduction through advanced technology. PMID:12345839

  12. Addressing the scaling issue by thermalhydraulic system codes: recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture presents an introduction into the scaling issue following a 'top-down' approach. This means, recent studies which deal with a scaling analysis in LWR with special regards to the WWER Russian reactor type are presented to demonstrate important phenomena for scaling, to be more precise, the counterpart test (CT) methodology. As an example, one CT, a Small Break LOCA carried out in the PSB facility, is presented. PSB is a full height, full pressure rig that reproduces a WWER 1000, power and volume scaling factor is 1:300. The CT has been designed deriving boundary and initial condition from the same test performed in LOBI (that reproduces a PWR). The adopted scaling approach is based on the selection of a few characteristic parameters. They are chosen taking into account their relevance in the behaviour of the transient. The calculation of the SBLOCA has been performed using Relap5/Mod3.3 computer code and its accuracy has been demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation. For the quantitative evaluation the use of the FFT Based Method is foreseen and the fulfilment of its limits has been obtained. The aim of the example is to give an overview about the theoretical concepts of scaling, which is termed the scaling strategy, and comprises the steps of the selected scaling approach. At the same time interesting results from ongoing research projects will be presented. Comparing experimental data it was found that the investigated facilities show similar behaviour concerning the time trends, and are able to predict on a qualitative level the same thermal hydraulic phenomena. Main obtained results are summarized as follows: PSB and LOBI main parameters have similar trends. This is a confirmation of the validity of the adopted scaling approach and shows that PWR and WWER reactor type behaviour are very close to each other. No new phenomena occur during the CT, notwithstanding the two facilities have a different lay out, and the already known

  13. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  14. Practising what we teach: addressing plagiarism prevention issues on professional development programmes for higher education teachers.

    OpenAIRE

    Baughan, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the role that professional development programmes for higher education teachers can have in addressing the issues of plagiarism and plagiarism prevention as part of their own curricula. It argues that such programmes should address plagiarism as a topic on the basis that staff, like students, should be inducted to such issues. This argument is supported through a three tier approach: through a consideration of previous academic literature about plagiarism; through the aut...

  15. The New ASERVIC Competencies for Addressing Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Watts, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, leaders in the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) developed new competencies for addressing spiritual and religious issues in counseling. This article briefly addresses the need for new ASERVIC competencies, provides an overview of the process whereby the new competencies emerged, and concludes…

  16. BP refinery closure raises chemical feed issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-20

    BP chemicals has reaffirmed its plans to carry on chemicals production at Lima, OH, even though British Petroleum has decided to close the 160,000-bbl/day refinery there in two years. The closure will cut off some streams for chemicals production and marketing. {open_quotes}There will be some things to sort out,{close_quotes} the company says, {open_quotes}but we feel they`re manageable issues.{close_quotes} As with many refineries shut down in the past few years in the US, the site will continue to be operated as a terminal and blending facility. The key chemical plant is a 400-million lbs/year acrylonitrile unit, which uses 200 million lbs/year of propylene from the refinery. BP is the top acrylo producer in North America and its expanding its Green Lake, TX plant from 700 million lbs/year to more than 900 million lbs/year by adding a third reactor; the unit is to be onstream by the end of the year. BP says is will be able to find merchant propylene, if necessary, but will be working on {open_quotes}creative{close_quotes} ways of keeping the propylene splitter on-site operating, it says. BP also produces nitrogen, catalysts, and polymers at its site adjacent to the refinery--all of which will stay in operation. Merchant benzene production of 115 million gal/year and captive toluene production of 110 million gal/year will end with the refinery closing.

  17. Sensitive issues in natural resource management and discursive strategies addressing them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouevi, T.A.; Mierlo, van B.C.; Leeuwis, C.; Vodouhê, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    In natural resource management facilitation literature, little attention is paid to sensitive issues in multi-stakeholder interaction and learning. This article aims to fill this gap. It discusses the variety of discursive strategies used by stakeholders to address sensitive issues with regard to fi

  18. Adequacy of human reliability data for addressing risk reduction issues at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) data address a representative set of human risk issues of current concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A three-step process was used to make that assessment. First, all Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) data included in 19 PRAs were identified, collected, and stored on a computer. Second, a list of human risk ''working level issues'' of concern to NRC was compiled. Finally, the HRA/PRA data which were collected from 19 PRAs were compared to the data needs to assess the extent to which currently available PRA data are useful in addressing human risk issues of concern to NRC. Less than 1% of the data needs were determined to be addressed by currently available PRA data. Findings indicate that PRA data could be far more useful in addressing human risk issues with modification of the development process and documentation structure of PRAs. In addition, information from non-PRA sources could be integrated with PRA data to address many other issues. 7 refs., 13 tabs

  19. Proceedings of the seminar on strategies to address the present and future water quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference reviewed the broad scope of water related issues under the topic Proceedings of the seminar on strategies to address the present and future water quality issues. This seminar was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from March 6-7, 2002. This seminar was arranged keeping in view the issues and challenges of the water sector and to create general awareness among the planners and general public about water quality in Pakistan. Subject specialists and experts of relevant fields from all parts of the country participated in the seminar and came up with valuable suggestions pertaining to the issues related to quality of drinking and irrigation water. (A.B.)

  20. Chemical addressability of ultraviolet-inactivated viral nanoparticles (VNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rae

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short wave (254 nm UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0-2.5 J/cm(2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications.

  1. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  2. A framework for elaborating a geological disposal safety case: Main issues to be addressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International guidance on safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste is being elaborated by IAEA. A comparison of experiences acquired in developing deep repository projects shows that many important issues related to the progressive building of confidence in the safety demonstration of such facilities are commonly addressed by the various organisations involved in radioactive waste management. However, there is still some discrepancies in defining the steps that form the staged elaboration of a safety case. This paper intends to propose a framework for defining the safety case in describing the main issues to be addressed and highlighting questions of consistency between former steps. (author)

  3. Use of human reliability data reported in probabilistic risk assessments in addressing human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a research program currently being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which aims to identify and improve means of using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results to address human factors safety issues. The long-term goal of this research (FY 1987) will be to make the development process and documentation structure of PRAs more applicable to human factors safety issues facing NRC. Of particular interest are (1) the identification of retrofit requirements, (2) development of baseline measures to evaluate them, and (3) identification of future human factors research needs. Research has started in two phases at BNL. These steps involve (1) identifying and cataloging the human reliability data reported in PRAs and (2) identifying and articulating human factors safety issues confronting NRC. Human factors safety issues and human reliability PRA data will be matched in order to determine how useful current PRA results are in addressing those issues. Methods of using PRA data through manipulation and combination with other data sources to address issues will also be developed. In addition, information concerning errors of commission and omission used in PRAs are being examined and reported on. In the following fiscal years, changes in the PRA process and structure proposed in related efforts will be evaluated by BNL to determine how to optimize the usefulness of PRAs as a regulatory tool. These efforts are discussed separately in the paper

  4. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  5. 32 CFR 37.1010 - What substantive issues should my award document address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What substantive issues should my award document address? 37.1010 Section 37.1010 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... may adjust amounts of future milestone payments if a project's expenditures fall too far below...

  6. Safety and licensing issues that are being addressed by the Power Burst Facility test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the results of the experimental program being conducted in the Power Burst Facility and the relationship of these results to certain safety and licensing issues. The safety issues that were addressed by the Power-Cooling-Mismatch, Reactivity Initiated Accident, and Loss of Coolant Accident tests, which comprised the original test program in the Power Burst Facility, are discussed. The resolution of these safety issues based on the results of the thirty-six tests performed to date, is presented. The future resolution of safety issues identified in the new Power Burst Facility test program which consists of tests which simulate BWR and PWR operational transients, anticipated transients without scram, and severe fuel damage accidents, is described

  7. The adequacy of human reliability data for addressing risk reduction issues at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) data address a representative set of human risk issues of current concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A three-step process was used to make that assessment. First, all Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) data included in 19 PRAs were identified, collected, and stored on a computer. For each HRA/PRA datum identified, a data record was compiled into which all descriptive information presented in the PRA was catalogued including, when available, the (1) personnel, (2) actions, (3) performance shaping factors (PSFs), (4) situation, and (5) systems involved. This resulted in the collection of 1,976 individual HRA/PRA data records. Only 193 of these data records were complete with respect to all five types of descriptive information. Second, a list of human risk ''working level issues'' of concern to NRC was compiled. This was done by reviewing (1) Generic Safety Issues, (2) NRC planning documents, and (3) conducting interviews with cognizant NRC staff. This resulted in a list of 175 working level issues which reflect the data needed by NRC to address the human performance aspects of the Generic Safety Issues. This list was then analyzed using a method which identified data needed in terms of (1) personnel, (2) actions, (3) PSFs, (4) situations, and (5) systems. Using all reasonable conbinations of these five information categories a total of 30,292 individual data needs were identified. Finally, the HRA/PRA data which were collected from 19 PRAs were compared to the data needs to access the extent to which currently available PRA data are useful in addressing human risk issues of concern to NRC. Less than 1% of the data needs were determined to be addressd by currently available PRA data

  8. Chemical differentiation of planets: a core issue

    OpenAIRE

    Toulhoat, Herve; Beaumont, Valerie; Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Larin, Nikolay; Larin, Vladimir N.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalent theories of the Solar System formation minimize the role of matter ionization and magnetic field in the Solar nebula. Instead, we propose that a magnetically driven chemical gradient at the scale of the Solar nebula has imprinted chemical differentiation of planets in the further accretion stages. For a given planet, we theoretically relate element abundances relative to Sun to first ionization potentials and distance to Sun. This simple model is successfully tested against availabl...

  9. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Monica N; Palmer, Sheallah; Armstrong, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as violence committed by a current or former boyfriend or girlfriend, spouse or ex-spouse. Each year, 1.3 to 5.3 million women in the United States experience IPV. The large number of individuals affected, the enormous healthcare costs, and the need for a multidisciplinary approach make IPV an important healthcare issue. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) addresses domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking. It emphasizes development of coordinated community care among law enforcement, prosecutors, victim services, and attorneys. VAWA was not reauthorized in 2012 because it lacked bipartisan support. VAWA 2013 contains much needed new provisions for Native Americans; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gay, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals; and victims of human trafficking but does not address the large amount of intimate partner violence in America's immigrant population. There are important remaining issues regarding intimate partner violence that need to be addressed by future legislation. This review examines the role of legislation and addresses proposals for helping victims of IPV. PMID:24299159

  10. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are constructed through media, the use of mass media in the science classroom may be risky. Limited research has explored how science teachers naturally use mass media to explore scientific issues in the classroom or how mass media is used to address potential overlaps between socio-scientific-issue based instruction and education for sustainability. This naturalistic study investigated the reported and actual classroom uses of mass media by secondary science teachers' to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues as well as the extent to which their instructional approaches did or did not overlap with frameworks for SSI-based instruction, education for sustainability, and media literacy education. The results of this study suggest that secondary science teachers use mass media to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues, but their use of frameworks aligned with SSI-based, education for sustainability, and media literacy education was limited. This paper provides suggestions for how we, as science educators and researchers, can advance a teaching and learning agenda for encouraging instruction that more fully utilizes the potential of mass media to explore socio-scientific issues in line with perspectives from education for sustainability.

  11. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  12. Chemical differentiation of planets: a core issue

    CERN Document Server

    Toulhoat, Herve; Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Larin, Nikolay; Larin, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    Prevalent theories of the Solar System formation minimize the role of matter ionization and magnetic field in the Solar nebula. Here we propose that a magnetically driven chemical gradient at the scale of the Solar nebula predates radial chemical differentiation of each planet. We report an observed correlation between the first ionization potentials of the elements and their abundances on Earth surface relative to Sun, interpreted as a Boltzmann distribution depending on the distance from the Sun. This predictive model for distribution of the elements in the Solar System is successfully tested for relative abundance data from CI chondrites, Moon, Mars and Venus. Deviations from the proposed law for a given planet correspond to surface segregation of elements following periodic trends. Bulk Earth would have included up to 18%wt H, with definite consequences on theories about inner Earth composition. From this model, a new picture of the Solar System emerges.

  13. Computer Science and Engineering Students Addressing Critical Issues Regarding Gender Differences in Computing: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrikleia Tsagala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how Computer Science and Engineering Students (CSESs of both genders address certain critical issues for gender differences in the field of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE. This case study is based on research conducted on a sample of 99 Greek CSESs, 43 of which were women. More specifically, these students were asked to respond to a specially designed questionnaire addressing the following issues: a essential motives in selecting CSE as a subject of study, their primary experience with computers and their family’s views regarding CSE as a career prospect, b the relationship between gender, strengths and weaknesses in CSE and cooperation with fellow students of the opposite gender, c the desirability of having both male and female University Professors in CSE, d CSE courses and CSESschoice, and e career issues. The analysis of the data shows that: a gender inequality in CSE still exists at tertiary level, b there is a number of students of both genders who feel interest and self confident in CSE, they believe in equality in competence of both genders in CSE and have dreams of a job with prospects as computer professionals, c interest, self confidence in CSE are closely related to previous experience with computers and to the encouragement byfamily and school to learn about computers, and d the general atmosphere and policy in CSE Departments play an essential role for women-students to feel as equals to their male counterparts.

  14. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  15. Public health at the vicinity of nuclear installations: how to address the raised issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is proposed by a work-group which gathered the IRSN, public local information commissions and the French Health Survey Institute (InVS). It is designed to be a methodological document on the benefits and limits of health analysis tools with respect to real situations. The first part discusses the implementation of a public health survey, its approach, its modalities and how its results are published. The second part deals with methodological issues for the definition of the specifications of a public health survey, and its protocol. Thus, it discusses how releases in the environment are to be addressed (releases from nuclear installations and from other activities involving radioactivity), the different pathologies to be studied, the existing health data and survey tools (mortality and cancer incidence data, medical-administrative data), and the possible survey types (descriptive or analytical epidemiological surveys) and their limitations

  16. Feasibility of a mindfulness-based intervention to address youth issues in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Trieu, Don T

    2016-06-01

    Youth problems including risky sex, drug use, violence and mental health issues are on the rise in Vietnam. Mindfulness is proposed as one way to address unskillful responses to stress that give rise to these behavioral and psychosocial issues in Vietnam. This study explores the feasibility of a mindfulness program for adolescents and young adults in a central city in Vietnam. The mindfulness-based intervention was comprised 1-h daily session over 3 weeks that was conducted at two different sites, one with handicapped adolescents/young adults at the Vocational School for Handicapped and the other with at-risk youth at a semi-private high school. Forty-two Vietnamese youth participants and five Vietnamese teachers/facilitators who were trained in the mindfulness program provided personal reflections of their experiences. Analyses of the qualitative data suggest that mindfulness was enthusiastically received and accepted by both youth and teachers. There is strong indication that mindfulness is promising as a prevention strategy to help with stress and to build important life skills among Vietnamese youth. PMID:25452422

  17. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R and D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  18. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VINCENT, ANDREW

    2005-04-25

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture.

  19. Progress in Addressing DNFSB Recommendation 2002-1 Issues: Improving Accident Analysis Software Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (''Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software'') identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls to prevent or mitigate potential accidents. Over the last year, DOE has begun several processes and programs as part of the Implementation Plan commitments, and in particular, has made significant progress in addressing several sets of issues particularly important in the application of software for performing hazard and accident analysis. The work discussed here demonstrates that through these actions, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) guidance and software tools are available that can be used to improve resulting safety analysis. Specifically, five of the primary actions corresponding to the commitments made in the Implementation Plan to Recommendation 2002-1 are identified and discussed in this paper. Included are the web-based DOE SQA Knowledge Portal and the Central Registry, guidance and gap analysis reports, electronic bulletin board and discussion forum, and a DOE safety software guide. These SQA products can benefit DOE safety contractors in the development of hazard and accident analysis by precluding inappropriate software applications and utilizing best practices when incorporating software results to safety basis documentation. The improvement actions discussed here mark a beginning to establishing stronger, standard-compliant programs, practices, and processes in SQA among safety software users, managers, and reviewers throughout the DOE Complex. Additional effort is needed, however, particularly in: (1) processes to add new software applications to the DOE Safety Software Toolbox; (2) improving the effectiveness of software issue communication; and (3) promoting a safety software quality assurance culture

  20. Addressing Issues of Broadening Participation Highlighted in the Report on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; Iverson, E. A. R.

    2015-12-01

    The final report for the Summit on the Future of Geoscience Education lays out a consensus on issues that must be tackled by the geoscience community collectively if there are to be enough qualified people to fill the large number of expected geoscience job vacancies over the coming decade. Focus areas cited in the report include: Strengthening the connections between two-year colleges and four-year institutions Sharing and making use of successful recruitment and retention practices for students from underrepresented groups Making students aware of high-quality job prospects in the geosciences as well as its societal relevance The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) program, and the Building Strong Geoscience Departments (BSGD) project together have developed a suite of web resources to help faculty and program leaders begin to address these and other issues. These resources address practices that support the whole student, both in the classroom and as a part of the co-curriculum as well as information on geoscience careers, guidance for developing coherent degree programs, practical advice for mentoring and advising, and many others. In addition to developing web resources, InTeGrate has also undertaken an effort to profile successful program practices at a variety of institutions. An analysis of these data shows several common themes (e.g. proactive marketing, community building, research experiences) that align well with the existing literature on what works to support student success. But there are also indications of different approaches and emphases between Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Primarily White Institutions (PWIs) as well as between different kinds of MSIs. Highlighting the different strategies in use can point both MSIs and PWIs to possible alternate solutions to the challenges their students face. InTeGrate - http

  1. The USA approach to address the issue of the safety of final waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, the approach to address the issue of safety for high-level nuclear waste repositories is not a simple approach. It involves three agencies of the Federal Government (Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which have assumed responsibilities for the safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. DOE has received through a number of actions including legislation such Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the responsibility for constructing and operating a high-level radioactive wastes repository. NRC is responsible for licensing and regulating the receipt and possession of high-level radioactive wastes. Its requirements governing the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a geologic repository are contained in 10 CFR Part 60 and cover pre-licensing activities, construction authorization, receipt and possession of spent fuel or high-level radioactive wastes. With respect to EPA, its responsibilities are to establish generally applicable standards governing releases of radioactivity. These regulations are found in 40 CFR Part 191 and set the environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes

  2. A modular approach to addressing model design, scale, and parameter estimation issues in distributed hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Restrepo, P.J.; Viger, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A modular approach to model design and construction provides a flexible framework in which to focus the multidisciplinary research and operational efforts needed to facilitate the development, selection, and application of the most robust distributed modelling methods. A variety of modular approaches have been developed, but with little consideration for compatibility among systems and concepts. Several systems are proprietary, limiting any user interaction. The US Geological Survey modular modelling system (MMS) is a modular modelling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. Implementation of a common modular concept is not a trivial task. However, it brings the resources of a larger community to bear on the problems of distributed modelling, provides a framework in which to compare alternative modelling approaches objectively, and provides a means of sharing the latest modelling advances. The concepts and components of the MMS are described and an example application of the MMS, in a decision-support system context, is presented to demonstrate current system capabilities. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  3. Environmental Issues Related to Chemical Fertilizer Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOZHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The current status of chemical fertilizers production and consumption in China as well as their important roles in Chinese modern agriculture are discussed with special concerns to the environmental issues related to chemical fertilizer use.On the one hand.the total amount of chemical fertilizer produced is insufficient to meet the agricultural needs.On the other hand.the production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in China are obviously not balanced.In some areas over application of nitrogen fertilizers and loss of phosphate fertilizer due to soil erosion have resulted in some undesirable environmental problems such as increase of nitrate in water and eutrophication of water bodies.Maximum scientific uses of organic manures in combination with reasonable use of chemical fertilizers are part of good practices not only in increasuing soil productivity and keeping sustainable agriculture development but also in minimizing their detrimental effects on the environment.

  4. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  5. Addressing ageing of the workforce issues by enabling knowledge management systems with social networks analysis capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A method of addressing ageing of the workforce and knowledge transfer issues, especially in the area of potential loss of knowledge, is presented through the integration of social networks analysis capabilities within knowledge management systems. In the context of the ageing of the workforce, a key component is the identification of not only the individuals that are about to retire, but also the knowledge and the knowledge transfer capabilities that they will take with them they do so. This loss impacts decisions made about human resources 'supply side' programs such as education, but also programs for building 'communities of practices' within the IAEA community to foster development and research across regions and countries. Within this context, an integrated social network analysis component provides the ability to map out the network of knowledge on any specific topic. The stability of the network itself is a measure of the robustness of the knowledge within the selected IAEA community. Further, the network, by identifying 'brokers' and 'bridges', pinpoints key weaknesses that have to be addressed. In the case of ageing of the workforce, balancing, stabilizing and building redundancies within this social network is key to maintaining a safe nuclear policy. The core of the method relies on a system that has a holistic view of the body of knowledge accumulated within the IAEA community. For scalability issues, this system cannot replicate the plethora of potential sources of information, but rather has to harvest from each of them a set of metadata which in turn enables the knowledge management system. This metadata is defined and stored in a way to allow the rendering of a complete picture stored within the subsystems. A key component used by the social network analysis component is, of course, the name of all individuals tied to any knowledge object within the database, but also their affiliation, country, seniority or 'age to retirement' (when

  6. Addressing ageing of the workforce issues by enabling knowledge management systems with social networks analysis capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A method of addressing ageing of the workforce and knowledge transfer issues, especially in the area of potential loss of knowledge, is presented through the integration of social networks analysis capabilities within knowledge management systems. In the context of the ageing of the workforce, a key component is the identification of not only the individuals that are about to retire, but also the knowledge and the knowledge transfer capabilities that they will take with them they do so. This loss impacts decisions made about human resources 'supply side' programs such as education, but also programs for building 'communities of practices' within the IAEA community to foster development and research across regions and countries. Within this context, an integrated social network analysis component provides the ability to map out the network of knowledge on any specific topic. The stability of the network itself is a measure of the robustness of the knowledge within the selected IAEA community. Further, the network, by identifying 'brokers' and 'bridges', pinpoints key weaknesses that have to be addressed. In the case of ageing of the workforce, balancing, stabilizing and building redundancies within this social network is key to maintaining a safe nuclear policy. The core of the method relies on a system that has a holistic view of the body of knowledge accumulated within the IAEA community. For scalability issues, this system cannot replicate the plethora of potential sources of information, but rather has to harvest from each of them a set of metadata which in turn enables the knowledge management system. This metadata is defined and stored in a way to allow the rendering of a complete picture stored within the sub-systems. A key component used by the social network analysis component is, of course, the name of all individuals tied to any knowledge object within the database, but also their affiliation, country, seniority or 'age to retirement' (when

  7. Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600 was initially observed in pressure water reactors (PWR's) in 1971 in steam generator tubes. Since that time PWSCC occurrences have increased dramatically spreading to many more Alloy 600 components within the reactor coolant system (RCS), including upper and lower reactor vessel head penetrations, dissimilar metal butt welds, instrumentation nozzles, and pressurizer heaters and sleeves. The impact to the nuclear industry has been profound in its effects on outage time and repair/replacement costs. Other effects experienced by the plants include added scrutiny by the regulatory agencies and public concern of plant operations. Throughout this dilemma, Framatome ANP has provided engineering, inspection and repair aid to the worldwide Utilities. Inspection techniques once thought adequate required improvements in not only detection and sizing, but also in accessibility and coverage. Emergent repairs over the last several years have placed high demands on personnel training and equipment availability. Framatome ANP continues to produce innovative weld repair approaches with faster repair times, lower dose and longer component life. Repair applications combine the latest in welding techniques with advancements in tool design. In anticipation of future challenges and proactive resolution of present problems, Framatome ANP has devoted global resources toward corrective approaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies

  8. Dublin Ireland: a city addressing challenging water supply, management, and governance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kelly-Quinn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of Dublin City and its suburbs currently stands at 1.3 million and is projected to reach 2.1 million by 2022. There is pressure on its water supply system (inadequate catchment sources, ageing infrastructure including treatment facilities, and distribution network with little or no spare capacity despite Ireland's relatively high rainfall that is well distributed throughout the year; albeit the greatest rainfall occurs in the west and southwest and at some remove from Dublin. The current governance approach to addressing the projected water supply deficit relies heavily on a combination of identifying new supply sources to secure the long-term water supply needs of the city together with an intense drive toward achieving "demand-side" reduced usage and conservation targets in accordance with EU benchmarks for various individual and sectoral users. This potentially emerging crisis of water scarcity in Dublin, with drivers including population growth, greater industrial and institutional demands, migration, and climate change, has generated one of the most significant public water works projects proposed in Irish history, which is to abstract raw water from the Shannon River Basin in the midland region and, following treatment, pump it to a storage reservoir in a cut-away bog before piping to the Greater Dublin Area. The preparations for this scheme have brought to the forefront some longstanding Irish water resources governance issues and challenges. This provides a unique opportunity and imperative at this time to take a more comprehensive look at the decision-making process in this regard, one done in the context of new European and national policies requiring incorporation of integrated planning to sustain ecosystem services, water resources management, water services management, and flood defense principles, and one taking account of the current unprecedented state of flux in which water resources management institutions in

  9. Scaling issues in forest ecosystem management and how to address them with models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, R.; Eastaugh, C.S.; Kramer, K.; Maroschek, M.; Reyer, C.; Socha, J.; Vacchiano, G.; Zlatanov, T.; Hasenauer, H.

    2013-01-01

    Scaling is widely recognized as a central issue in ecology. The associated cross-scale interactions and process transmutations make scaling (i.e. a change in spatial or temporal grain and extent) an important issue in understanding ecosystem structure and functioning. Moreover, current concepts of e

  10. Pursuing Justice for Refugee Students: Addressing Issues of Cultural (Mis)Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper Nancy Fraser's conceptual tools are drawn on to theorise issues of justice in a culturally diverse primary school in Australia where approximately 30% of the student population are immigrant/refugees. The paper examines justice issues of cultural recognition in relation to refugee student identity, behaviour and assessment. Drawing…

  11. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to address coral reef conservation issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to address aspects of coral reef conservation: Enhancing Management of Pacific ESA-listed Corals with Improved...

  12. Core Issues that Must be Addressed in Order to Improve Vocational Education and Training in Indonesia. An Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Indonesia, like many other countries has to come to terms with the challenges of a rapidly advancing economic globalization. In order to address the major issues involved the government must take some very essential steps that are practical, attainable and sustainable. With global economies evolving from a traditional resource structure to that of…

  13. Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers to Address Issues of Sexual Orientation in Their Classrooms: Walking the Walk & Talking the Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe ways that teacher educators can encourage future teachers to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) issues in their own classrooms. The Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network's ThinkB4YouSpeak Educator's Guide served as the framework for the activities that the author has implemented in…

  14. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  15. 2016 State of the State Addresses: Governors' Top Education Issues. Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auck, Alyssa; Railey, Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Each year, governors take the stage to highlight accomplishments and outline policy priorities for their states. In an effort to provide up-to-date information on education policy trends, Education Commission of the States tracks all education policy proposals and accomplishments featured by governors in these State of the State addresses. At the…

  16. Addressing Air, Land & Water Nitrogen Issues under Changing Climate Trends & Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The climate of western U.S. dairy producing states is anticipated to change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years. A multimedia modeling system based upon the “nitrogen cascade” concept has been configured to address three aspects of sustainability (environmenta...

  17. The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    CERN Document Server

    Djeflat, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

  18. Ghost Surgery: A Frank Look at the Issue and How to Address It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Ghost surgery occurs when a physician assistant, a surgical assistant, an RN first assistant, a resident, or another surgeon assists on or performs an operative or other invasive procedure without the patient's knowledge, regardless of whether the surgeon who obtained the consent was scrubbed in or not. This practice denies patients important information, eliminates their ability to provide informed consent, and represents an ethical issue that nurses must deal with when working with peers and patients. The American Nurses Association developed the Code of Ethics for Nurses to help guide nursing practice, and the provisions within the code embody the ethical issues that should guide nurses' practice in advocating for patients. PMID:26616321

  19. A Critical Look at Physical Education and What Must Be Done to Address Obesity Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Keven; Graser, Susan Vincent; Pennington, Todd; Zanandrea, Maria; Wilkinson, Carol; Hager, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Historically, physical education (PE) has been designed to do one thing--teach sport skills. However, it is now being asked to deal with lifestyle issues such as obesity and inactivity. Since the target and purposes of PE have changed, a fundamental shift in the way it is delivered is essential to its survival. This article highlights some…

  20. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  1. Skirting the Issue: Teachers' Experiences "Addressing Sexuality in Middle School Language Arts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Klein, Nicole Aydt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine perceptions, attitudes, and reported practices of a group of middle level Language Arts teachers concerning sexuality-related issues. Through interviews with 15 teachers, the study found that sexuality was in one sense pervasive, as it came up frequently in the teachers' practice. Yet at the same time the…

  2. Addressing Sexual Minority Issues in Social Work Education: A Curriculum Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Gezinski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore a curriculum framework that explicitly addresses the reduction of heterosexism as a means to produce students that are culturally competent of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ community. Van Den Bergh and Crisp (2004 place great importance on addressing beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, and skills when broaching culturally competent practice with the LGBTQ population. Beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, and skills in an educational approach will be advocated in this paper. Specifically, the creation of a constructivist environment will be endorsed as a means for students to critically assess their own beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, and skills. A curriculum framework that utilizes classroom activities related to heterosexual privilege, policy, and practice role plays will be discussed. This curriculum framework is intended to prepare social work students to work with LGBTQ clients.

  3. Issues to be Addressed in the Design and Fabrication of Ultralightweight, Meter Class Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Krumweide, Gary

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing need for large aperture, ultralightweight, deployable optics (mirrors) for various science, military and commercial compact satellites (Pleimann 1997). This paper will examine the engineering and manufacturing considerations that must be addressed in order to satisfy the requirements for these sought after optics. In order to limit the scope of this paper, only Graphite Fiber Reinforced/Polymer Matrix Composites (GFR/PMC) will be under consideration because of the potential...

  4. Addressing weight-related issues in an elementary school: what do students, parents, and school staff recommend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Thiel, Lynnell

    2007-01-01

    This study examined weight-related issues affecting elementary school children to gain insight into how best to address these issues within a school-based intervention. The study population included 21 students, 12 school staff members, and 21 parents from a school that serves an ethnically-diverse population. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews and were analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Weight-related teasing and poor body image emerged as prominent issues affecting students. Results suggest that programs aimed at the prevention of weight-related disorders should go beyond issues of nutrition and physical activity and include strategies to reduce weight-related mistreatment and to improve students' body image. PMID:17162638

  5. A Simple Soil Moisture Simulation Model to Address Irrigation Water Management Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hussain Azhar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple soil moisture simulation model to use in irrigation water management issues was developed. The model employs traditional water budgeting approach, and includes mechanisms for simulating soil moisture movement, root growth and crop evapotranspiration. The model requires only a few readily available input parameters. This model was evaluated through a case study conducted at a farm in the Goulburn Irrigation Area in Victoria (Australia. The soil moisture simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of model and revealed that the developed model was quite successful to account for the variability of evaporative demand of tested perennial pasture and the amount of rainfall received during the irrigation period. The qualitative and quantitative procedures used in model\\'s evaluation supported its use to deal with agricultural water management issues for yielding significant water savings.

  6. Conference proceedings on science communication addressing women's issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most dynamic campaigns of National Centre for Science Communicators (NCSC) is its intensive interaction with teaching community to inculcate excitement regarding science education and scientific method of knowledge transfer. The conference focused on the theme engaging women in science and science communication, challenges -education, gender differences etc., myths and misconceptions: women related issues, and health awareness in women. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Improving Engineering Students’ Design Skills in a Project-Based Learning Course by Addressing Epistemological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Gavin; Chance, Shannon; Bowe, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A novice designer is prone to making premature decisions. Rather than explore issues and research information and options, he may quickly jump to posing solutions and view design as a linear, step-by-step process. Instead of testing a variety of ideas, a beginning designer often becomes mesmerized by his initial ideas. An experienced designer, on the other hand, is much more likely conduct research and delay making decisions until the challenge has been fully explored [1]. She uses a variety ...

  8. The Spiritual Dimension of Education – Addressing Issues of Identity and Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Marian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a shrinking world where events across the globe become relevant for the lives of masses of people regardless of the distances that divide them, some serious issues have arisen which have particular significance for education policies and practice. Too many children are growing up against a backdrop of polarised views and attitudes which is a cause for concern in many countries where societies are characterized by racial, cultural and religious diversity.

  9. Address for the Beginning Issue of “RFID Technologies and Applicationsn”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Recently RFID technology got a widely attentions. As a result of this, RFID Technology and Application is published as the first professional RFID publication mainly issuing in the China and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. This article summarizes the RFID characteristic, suitable applied field and its development situation and its developing reason in Asia-Pacific area. The article also presents the Magazine’s target and goal, column and the future perspective.

  10. A historical review on the roles of science and politics in addressing global environmental issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter USHER; Qian YE

    2009-01-01

    Based on a historical review of the so-called Ozone crisis in the late 1970s and global climate changes since the 1980s, this paper examines the role of sciences and policies in the international community in dealing with the global environmental issues. Lessons show that a multi-discipline, multi-organizational and multi-national UN agency which remains relevant, assisting rather than guiding the process of climate negotiations is important.

  11. Addressing non-communicable diseases in disaster risk reduction - an issue of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanapragasam, Sam; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Rashbrook, Elaine; Murray, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The issues raised by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during and after disasters are a challenge to equity within local communities, as well as between countries. Individuals with NCDs are particularly vulnerable in disasters and their aftermath given health systems are disrupted. Although welcome progress has been made in taking NCDs and equity into account in the UN General Assembly ratified agreement, the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction 2015-2030, there is need now for a clear plan of implementation. PMID:27001076

  12. Siting of a Swedish deep geological repository: An issue of safety and democracy. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting has been started in Sweden for a deep geological repository for encapsulated spent nuclear fuel. It is based on a voluntary process and currently involves four municipalities. A deep repository project is a sensitive issue and it has to be managed accordingly. The keys to successful siting are believed to be excellence in safety matters and an open and democratic decision making process with the active participation of all parties concerned. (author)

  13. Progression in Ethical Reasoning When Addressing Socio-scientific Issues in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Birgitta

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of an intervention in a Swedish school in which the author, a teacher-researcher, sought to develop students' (14-15 years old) ethical reasoning in science through the use of peer discussions about socio-scientific issues. Prior to the student discussions various prompts were used to highlight different aspects of the issues. In addition, students were given time to search for further information themselves. Analysis of students' written arguments, from the beginning of the intervention and afterwards, suggests that many students seem to be moving away from their use of everyday language towards using scientific concepts in their arguments. In addition, they moved from considering cloning and 'designer babies' solely in terms of the present to considering them in terms of the future. Furthermore, the students started to approach the issues in additional ways using not only consequentialism but also the approaches of virtue ethics, and rights and duties. Students' progression in ethical reasoning could be related to the characteristics of the interactions in peer discussions as students who critically and constructively argued with each other's ideas, and challenged each other's claims, made progress in more aspects of ethical reasoning than students merely using cumulative talk. As such, the work provides valuable indications for the importance of introducing peer discussions and debates about SSIs in connection to biotechnology into the teaching of science in schools.

  14. Potential vulnerabilities of nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the year 2000 (Y2K) issue and measures to address them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange of information and experience among Member Sates is an essential component of the IAEA action plan for addressing the Year 2000 problem. The objective is to enable Member States to identify any gaps in their own conversion programmes, benefit form the experience of others in developing remedial actions and establish the basis for future action to solve remaining problems. Experts in Year 2000 issues particularly those related to digital equipment prepared this report dealing with nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  15. Developing and Using Benchmarks for Eddy Current Simulation Codes Validation to Address Industrial Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayos, M.; Buvat, F.; Costan, V.; Moreau, O.; Gilles-Pascaud, C.; Reboud, C.; Foucher, F.

    2011-06-01

    To achieve performance demonstration, which is a legal requirement for the qualification of NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, the use of modeling tools is a valuable support, provided that the employed models have been previously validated. To achieve this, in particular for eddy current modeling, a validation methodology based on the use of specific benchmarks close to the actual industrial issue has to be defined. Nonetheless, considering the high variability in code origin and complexity, the feedback from experience on actual cases has shown that it was critical to define simpler generic and public benchmarks in order to perform a preliminary selection. A specific Working Group has been launched in the frame of COFREND, the French Association for NDE, resulting in the definition of several benchmark problems. This action is now ready for mutualization with similar international approaches.

  16. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Dean D

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the ability of proteins from GMOs to elicit potentially harmful immunologic responses, including allergic hypersensitivity. The lack of information of the potential toxicity of these products suggests a need to identify the critical issues and research needs regarding these materials and to develop testing strategies to examine the allergenicity of these compounds. PMID:12826482

  17. An Inclusive Design Method for Addressing Human Variability and Work Performance Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hussain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans play vital roles in manufacturing systems, but work performance is strongly influenced by factors such as experience, age, level of skill, physical and cognitive abilities and attitude towards work. Current manufacturing system design processes need to consider these human variability issues and their impact on work performance. An ‘inclusive design’ approach is proposed to consider the increasing diversity of the global workforce in terms of age, gender, cultural background, skill and experience. The decline in physical capabilities of older workers creates a mismatch between job demands and working capabilities which can be seen in manufacturing assembly that typically requires high physical demands for repetitive and accurate motions. The inclusive design approach leads to a reduction of this mismatch that results in a more productive, safe and healthy working environment giving benefits to the organization and individuals in terms of workforce satisfaction, reduced turnover, higher productivity and improved product quality.

  18. Nuclear power plants in Canada: how we address community issues and concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation was developed by the public affairs staff of three Canadian utilities who offered case studies from three nuclear generating stations. Ontario Power Generation (OPG) facilities include Pickering Nuclear, with 8 units, and Darlington Nuclear, with 4 units, both located in the Region of Durham. The Pickering community is located east of Toronto on the shore of Lake Ontario. The facilities are located in the City of Pickering but are close to Ajax and the City of Toronto as well. They are surrounded by residences and businesses. The Darlington station is close to Pickering but further east of Toronto. It is located in a more rural environment in the Municipality of Clarington. Approximately 96% of installed capacity in Quebec is based on hydropower. Hydro-Quebec's Gentilly-2 is the only thermal nuclear generation station in operation. The station is located in Becancour on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River between Quebec City and Montreal. The population of Becancour is 12 000, while Trois-Rivieres and Champlain, on the north shore, count 100 000 residents. New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau generating station (PLGS) is the only nuclear facility in Atlantic Canada, and supplies some 30% of in-province energy. The station is located in a rural area on the Lepreau peninsula overlooking the Bay of Fundy. It is located within 10 kilometers of the small communities of Dipper Harbour, Maces Bay, Little Lepreau and Chance Harbour. Approximately 38 kilometers to the northeast is located Saint John with a population of about 120 000. Corporate-community relations objectives are similar across the three utilities. They include building trust, garnering support for ongoing operations, and being - as well as being viewed as - a good corporate citizen. Meeting these objectives implies knowing and caring for the community and the issues raised by residents - not just issues of interest to the company. (author)

  19. Extending and Refining Usability Heuristics to Better Address User Centered Design Issues in the Development and Evaluation of Municipal Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin PRIBEANU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Usability of public administration websites is a key issue in the information society. Unfortunately, the web content is still difficult to use if not unusable in many websites. Developers seem to neglect basic principles of user centered design. Usability heuristics are valuable resources for both developers and evaluators during and after the development process. The purpose of this work is to extend and refine an existing set of heuristics in order to better address some user centered design issues. Previous studies revealed specific usability problems of municipal websites as well as some evaluation issues. Two heuristics were added that refer to user guidance and task support. The revised heuristics could better help evaluators to explain and developers to understand usability problems in municipal websites.

  20. Chemically synthesized zinc finger molecules as nano-addressable probes for double-stranded DNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christmann Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our experiments describe an alternative method of dsDNA recognition using zinc finger (ZF molecules which bind DNA specifically and with high affinity. Our aim was to develop zinc finger probes which are able to bind to dsDNA molecules at predetermined sites. In our basic approach we used pairs of complementary oligonucleotides to form dsDNAs, containing one of the three SP1-transcription factor motifs as a zinc finger recognition site. Two zinc finger probes of the SP1 motif were chemically synthesized and modified with a Dy-633 fluorophore. The SP1 peptides were folded into functional zinc fingers using zinc chloride. The addressable dsDNAs were immobilized on optical fibres, and the kinetics and binding rates of the artificial zinc finger probes were measured by a fluorescence detecting device (photomultiplying tube. The two zinc fingers and their corresponding DNA recognition sites served as specific probes and controls for the matching site and vice versa. Our experiments showed that a variety of dsDNA-binding probes may be created by modification of the amino acid sequence of natural zinc finger proteins. Our findings offer an alternative approach of addressing dsDNA molecules, for example for use in a nanoarray device.

  1. Addressing the issue of precipitates in maraging steels – Unambiguous answer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshka, O. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse-Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Pinkas, M.; Brosh, E. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84100 (Israel); Ezersky, V. [Ilse-Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Meshi, L., E-mail: Louisa@bgu.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse-Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2015-06-25

    Despite several decades' long study, the identity of the precipitating phases responsible for the strengthening of maraging steels is still not clear. In the current work, this issue was extensively investigated using experimental and theoretical approaches. First, in-depth characterization of the precipitates in C250 steel and the precipitation order were performed through a combination of various Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods. In parallel, thermodynamic calculations were used for the prediction of the phase content at equilibrium. Then, in order to isolate the effects of the different precipitates, model alloys were cast and aged. It was shown that the phases responsible for the strengthening during the initial stages of aging are Ni{sub 3}Mo and Ni{sub 3}Ti. In the over-aged (close to equilibrium) condition, the steel consists of martensite, reverted austenite, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and Fe–Mo phases. This conclusion was found to be in perfect agreement with thermodynamic calculations. The formation of Ni{sub 3}Mo at early stages of aging, despite its calculated lowest driving force for formation, was attributed to a low barrier for formation.

  2. Addressing the issue of precipitates in maraging steels – Unambiguous answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite several decades' long study, the identity of the precipitating phases responsible for the strengthening of maraging steels is still not clear. In the current work, this issue was extensively investigated using experimental and theoretical approaches. First, in-depth characterization of the precipitates in C250 steel and the precipitation order were performed through a combination of various Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods. In parallel, thermodynamic calculations were used for the prediction of the phase content at equilibrium. Then, in order to isolate the effects of the different precipitates, model alloys were cast and aged. It was shown that the phases responsible for the strengthening during the initial stages of aging are Ni3Mo and Ni3Ti. In the over-aged (close to equilibrium) condition, the steel consists of martensite, reverted austenite, Ni3Ti, and Fe–Mo phases. This conclusion was found to be in perfect agreement with thermodynamic calculations. The formation of Ni3Mo at early stages of aging, despite its calculated lowest driving force for formation, was attributed to a low barrier for formation

  3. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  4. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  5. A Flaw Tolerance Approach to Address Reactor Vessel Head Penetration Cracking Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel-based alloys and the associated welds are susceptible to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking. In Pressurized Water Reactor nuclear power plants, the reactor vessel closure head upper penetration nozzles used for the Control Rod Drive Mechanisms and other instrumentation systems are made of such nickel-based alloys. Cracking and leakage have been observed in the upper head penetration nozzles in nuclear power plants worldwide. Such cracking and the resulting leakage is a degradation of the reactor vessel pressure boundary. Regulatory requirements have been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regarding periodic inspection of the susceptible areas to enable detection of indications and provide reasonable assurance of continued structural integrity for reactor vessel closure head. A flaw tolerance approach has been used in the disposition of detected indications to minimize outage delays, by performing up-front fracture mechanics evaluations for the common types of indications detected in the susceptible areas. Details of the flaw tolerance approach are presented in this paper. (authors)

  6. Addressing the Issue of Chronic, Inappropriate Benzodiazepine Use: How Can Pharmacists Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Gallagher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescribing guidelines do not recommend the long-term use of benzodiazepines since their effectiveness with chronic use is out-weighed by risks including dependence, memory and cognitive impairment, hip fractures and traffic accidents. Despite these guidelines, historical data points to an increasing proportion of inappropriate, repeat prescribing of benzodiazepines in Ireland and elsewhere, with up to 33% of patients who use these drugs doing so long-term. The typical long-term benzodiazepine user is an older, socio-economically disadvantaged patient who has been prescribed these medicines by their general practitioner (GP and dispensed them by their community pharmacist. Misuse of benzodiazepines in nursing homes and psychiatric institutions is also of concern, with one Irish study indicating that almost half of all admissions to a psychiatric hospital were prescribed these drugs, usually despite a lack of clear clinical need. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines has proven to be of benefit, as it is followed by improvements in cognitive and psychomotor function, particularly in elderly patients. It is obvious that an inter-professional effort, focusing on the primary care setting, is required to address benzodiazepine misuse and to ensure appropriate pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists must be an integral part of this inter-professional effort, not least because they are uniquely positioned as the health professional with most frequent patient contact. There is already some supporting evidence that pharmacists’ involvement in interventions to reduce benzodiazepine use can have positive effects on patient outcomes. Here, this evidence is reviewed and the potential for pharmacists to play an expanded role in ensuring the appropriate use of benzodiazepines is discussed.

  7. End of life and life after death - issues to be addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojar Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Being an Oncologist, I have seen many patients suffering from cancer. It pains a lot looking at them fighting the battle of life, though knowing that they would lose miserably and surrender meekly as majority of the patients report to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease and only palliative care may be the option. There is an urgent need to create - Cancer Awareness in the villages and also about the end of life care in all terminally ill patients. 20 patients in the terminal phase were questioned regarding end of life care. The common questions they asked are, why has God punished me like this? Why me on earth? Should I die so early? Why should I leave my near and dear ones and go far away, from the point of no return? Do I ever see them again? With deep sorrow and sigh, they suffer till the last breath, having the feeling of insecurity as what would happen to their dear ones. In the terminal phase, the patients wishes must be respected and their needs must be fulfilled. The health care professionals should plan an appropriate care for each patient. Most of them feel that the best place to be in end of life is the home. Research has shown that Hospice care may improve the quality of life of a patient who is dying and of the patient′s family. Communication about end of life care and decision making during the final moments of a person′s life are very important. The patients suffering are mainly due to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues. Death of a terminally ill patient should never be a sudden loss. All healthcare professionals, Social workers and Non-Governmental Organisations must install the life after death of the person, who has struggled for every breath and assure that he/she shall rest in peace and shall smile seeing their near and dear ones living with dignity and pride in the society. Ultimately, the patient must have dignity in dying.

  8. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  9. End of Life and Life After Death - Issues to be Addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Poojar; Renuka, Pramod Kallur Parameshwar; Bonanthaya, Ravikiran

    2012-09-01

    Being an Oncologist, I have seen many patients suffering from cancer. It pains a lot looking at them fighting the battle of life, though knowing that they would lose miserably and surrender meekly as majority of the patients report to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease and only palliative care may be the option. There is an urgent need to create - Cancer Awareness in the villages and also about the end of life care in all terminally ill patients. 20 patients in the terminal phase were questioned regarding end of life care. The common questions they asked are, why has God punished me like this? Why me on earth? Should I die so early? Why should I leave my near and dear ones and go far away, from the point of no return? Do I ever see them again? With deep sorrow and sigh, they suffer till the last breath, having the feeling of insecurity as what would happen to their dear ones. In the terminal phase, the patients wishes must be respected and their needs must be fulfilled. The health care professionals should plan an appropriate care for each patient. Most of them feel that the best place to be in end of life is the home. Research has shown that Hospice care may improve the quality of life of a patient who is dying and of the patient's family. Communication about end of life care and decision making during the final moments of a person's life are very important. The patients suffering are mainly due to the physical, psychological, social and spiritual issues. Death of a terminally ill patient should never be a sudden loss. All healthcare professionals, Social workers and Non-Governmental Organisations must install the life after death of the person, who has struggled for every breath and assure that he/she shall rest in peace and shall smile seeing their near and dear ones living with dignity and pride in the society. Ultimately, the patient must have dignity in dying. PMID:23440306

  10. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  11. Langley's DEVELOP Team Applies NASA's Earth Observations to Address Environmental Issues Across the Country and Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lauren M.; Miller, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program was established over a decade ago to provide students with experience in the practical application of NASA Earth science research results. As part of NASA's Applied Sciences Program, DEVELOP focuses on bridging the gap between NASA technology and the public through projects that innovatively use NASA Earth science resources to address environmental issues. Cultivating a diverse and dynamic group of students and young professionals, the program conducts applied science research projects during three terms each year (spring, summer, and fall) that focus on topics ranging from water resource management to natural disasters.

  12. Investigating pay-as-you-go to address issues of trust, privacy and security around media use at home

    OpenAIRE

    Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Whitham, Roger; Kondo, Koko; Hill, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) concept as a means of addressing issues of trust, privacy, billing and security around media in the home. The findings are based on a study conducted in 2007 and 2008, looking at the media-use habits of 27 families in the Greater London area. The study investigated attitudes towards uses of various forms of media within the home environment, with a particular emphasis on television (TV). To facilitate the study, a rapid prototype of an exp...

  13. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  14. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  15. What Is the Purpose of the Theses Addressing the Issue of Program Evaluation in Turkey? (The Case of Curriculum and Instruction: 1997-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin-Sahin, Senar; Tunca, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the aim is to investigate the theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) in 1997-2015. The study employed the survey model. The universe of the study consists of totally 87 theses addressing the issue of program evaluation in the field of C&I in 1997-2015. As the…

  16. Life-cycle studies of biodiesel in Europe: A review addressing the variability of results and modeling issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy sources, and particularly biofuels, are being promoted as possible solutions to address global warming and the depletion of petroleum resources. Nevertheless, significant disagreement and controversies exist regarding the actual benefits of biofuels displacing fossil fuels, as shown by a large number of life-cycle studies that have varying and sometimes contradictory conclusions. This article presents a comprehensive review of life-cycle studies of biodiesel in Europe. Studies have been compared in terms of nonrenewable primary energy requirement and GHG intensity of biodiesel. Recently published studies negate the definite and deterministic advantages for biodiesel presented in former studies. A high variability of results, particularly for biodiesel GHG intensity, with emissions ranging from 15 to 170 gCO2eq MJf-1 has been observed. A detailed assessment of relevant aspects, including major assumptions, modeling choices and results, has been performed. The main causes for this high variability have been investigated, with emphasis on modeling choices. Key issues found are treatment of co-product and land use modeling, including high uncertainty associated with N2O and carbon emissions from cultivated soil. Furthermore, a direct correlation between how soil emissions were modeled and increasing values for calculated GHG emission has been found. A robust biodiesel life-cycle modeling has been implemented and the main sources of uncertainty have been investigated to show how uncertainty can be addressed to improve the transparency and reliability of results. Recommendations for further research work concerning the improvement of biofuel life cycle modeling are also presented. (author)

  17. Model abstraction addressing long-term simulations of chemical degradation of large-scale concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology to assess the spatial-temporal evolution of chemical degradation fronts in real-size concrete structures typical of a near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. The methodology consists of the abstraction of a so-called full (complicated) model accounting for the multicomponent - multi-scale nature of concrete to an abstracted (simplified) model which simulates chemical concrete degradation based on a single component in the aqueous and solid phase. The abstracted model is verified against chemical degradation fronts simulated with the full model under both diffusive and advective transport conditions. Implementation in the multi-physics simulation tool COMSOL allows simulation of the spatial-temporal evolution of chemical degradation fronts in large-scale concrete structures. (authors)

  18. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  19. Science and the Nonscience Major: Addressing the Fear Factor in the Chemical Arena Using Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an approach to minimizing the "fear factor" in a chemistry course for the nonscience major, and also addresses relevant applications to other science courses, including biology, geology, and physics. The approach emphasizes forensic science and affords students the opportunity to hone their analytical skills in an…

  20. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  1. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  2. Innovative patient-centered skills training addressing challenging issues in cancer communications: Using patient's stories that teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Thomas W; Gorniewicz, James; Floyd, Michael; Tudiver, Fred; Odom, Amy; Zoppi, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    This workshop demonstrated the utility of a patient-centered web-based/digital Breaking Bad News communication training module designed to educate learners of various levels and disciplines. This training module is designed for independent, self-directed learning as well as group instruction. These interactive educational interventions are based upon video-recorded patient stories. Curriculum development was the result of an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort involving faculty from the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Graduate Storytelling Program and the departments of Family and Internal Medicine at the James H. Quillen College of Medicine. The specific goals of the BBN training module are to assist learners in: (1) understanding a five-step patient-centered model that is based upon needs, preferences, and expectations of patients with cancer and (2) individualizing communication that is consistent with patient preferences in discussing emotions, informational detail, prognosis and timeline, and whether or not to discuss end-of-life issues. The pedagogical approach to the training module is to cycle through Emotional Engagement, Data, Modeled Practices, Adaptation Opportunities, and Feedback. The communication skills addressed are rooted in concepts found within the Reaching Common Ground communication training. A randomized control study investigating the effectiveness of the Breaking Bad News module found that medical students as well as resident physicians improved their communication skills as measured by an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Four other similarly designed modules were also created: Living Through Treatment, Transitions: From Curable to Treatable/From Treatable to End-of-Life, Spirituality, and Family. PMID:27497456

  3. What Educators in Catholic Schools Might Expect when Addressing Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Study of Needs and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michael J.; Sever, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicated that Catholic high schools in the United States were not addressing the topic of homosexuality in any significant and systematic way prior to the mid-1990s, though practitioners in Catholic high schools have begun to address the topic in recent years. This study, in sampling seven Catholic schools in the greater Chicago…

  4. Development of Novel In Vivo Chemical Probes to Address CNS Protein Kinase Involvement in Synaptic Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Martin Watterson

    Full Text Available Serine-threonine protein kinases are critical to CNS function, yet there is a dearth of highly selective, CNS-active kinase inhibitors for in vivo investigations. Further, prevailing assumptions raise concerns about whether single kinase inhibitors can show in vivo efficacy for CNS pathologies, and debates over viable approaches to the development of safe and efficacious kinase inhibitors are unsettled. It is critical, therefore, that these scientific challenges be addressed in order to test hypotheses about protein kinases in neuropathology progression and the potential for in vivo modulation of their catalytic activity. Identification of molecular targets whose in vivo modulation can attenuate synaptic dysfunction would provide a foundation for future disease-modifying therapeutic development as well as insight into cellular mechanisms. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a critical link between synaptic dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and the activation of p38αMAPK mediated signaling cascades. Activation in both neurons and glia also offers the unusual potential to generate enhanced responses through targeting a single kinase in two distinct cell types involved in pathology progression. However, target validation has been limited by lack of highly selective inhibitors amenable to in vivo use in the CNS. Therefore, we employed high-resolution co-crystallography and pharmacoinformatics to design and develop a novel synthetic, active site targeted, CNS-active, p38αMAPK inhibitor (MW108. Selectivity was demonstrated by large-scale kinome screens, functional GPCR agonist and antagonist analyses of off-target potential, and evaluation of cellular target engagement. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that MW108 ameliorates beta-amyloid induced synaptic and cognitive dysfunction. A serendipitous discovery during co-crystallographic analyses revised prevailing models about active site targeting of inhibitors, providing insights

  5. Bulk Chemical Composition of the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite:An Issue of Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guiqin; LIN Yangting

    2007-01-01

    The Ningqiang meteorite is a fall carbonaceous chondrite, containing various Ca-, Al-rich inclusions that usually escaped from secondary events such as high-temperature heating and lowtemperature alteration. However, it has not yet been classified into any known chemical group. In order to address this issue, 41 elements of the bulk Ningqiang meteorite were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in this study. The Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite and the Jilin (H5)ordinary chondrite were also measured as references, and our analyses are consistent with the previous results. Rare earth and other refractory lithophile elements are depleted in Ningqiang relative to both Allende and mean CK chondrites. In addition, the REE pattern of Ningqiang is nearly flat, while that of Allende shows slight enrichment of LREE relative to HREE. Siderophile elements of Ningqiang are close to those of mean CK chondrites, but lower than those of Allende. Our new analyses indicate that Ningqiang cannot be classified into any known group of carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with previous reports.

  6. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

  7. Can Social Theory Adequately Address Nature-Society Issues? Do political ecology and science studies in Geography incorporate ecological change?

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, Andrea J.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an expansion of interest in nature-society issues within human geography spurred by the rich, sophisticated analyses of environment-development issues within the Third World. This latter work emerged out of the fusion of cultural ecology and the political economy of resource use, but scholars are increasingly turning towards post-structuralism to engage with the complex, mutual constitution of symbolic and material struggles over land and resources. Yet to some e...

  8. From Confrontation to Partnerships: The Role of a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization in Co-Creating a Market to Address the Issue of Animal Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.M.; Blok, V.; Tulder, van R.

    2013-01-01

    Firms can play an important role in addressing the issue of animal welfare by creating markets for animal friendly products. This essay analyses th e co-creation of a market for animal friendly meat products by the joint effort of a Dutch NGO and the meat industry. The different stages of the proces

  9. A Task-Based Needs Analysis for Australian Aboriginal Students: Going beyond the Target Situation to Address Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Grote, Ellen; Rochecouste, Judith; Exell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While needs analyses underpin the design of second language analytic syllabi, the methodologies undertaken are rarely examined. This paper explores the value of multiple data sources and collection methods for developing a needs analysis model to enable vocational education and training teachers to address the needs of Australian Aboriginal…

  10. Women Reaching Women: Change in Action--Using Action Learning to Help Address Seemingly Intractable and Large Scale Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Dawn; Watts, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 28 women from the Women's Institute volunteered to join us in a project exploring the issue of world poverty and gender inequality, specifically highlighting the disproportionate effects of climate change on women. Collectively we were asking a big question about how we as individuals, based in England, make a difference on a global…

  11. Review on technical issues influencing the performance of chemical barriers of TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of technical issues influencing the performance assessment of TRU waste disposal which is occurred from the nuclear fuel reprocessing were reviewed in related to the development of safety analysis method. Especially, the chemical containment was investigated as a key barrier to radionuclide migration. TRU waste including long-lived radionuclides need long-term performance assessment which could be assumed only by the chemical barrier. The description of technical issues concerned with the performance of TRU waste repository has been divided into the following categories: long-term degradation of cementitious materials as engineered barrier for radionuclide migration, effect of colloids, organic macromolecules and organic degradation products on chemical behavior of radionuclides, gas generation by corrosion of metallic wastes, and effects of microbial activity. Preliminary performance assessment indicated that important factors affecting performance of chemical barriers in near-field were the distribution coefficient and the solubility of radionuclides in near-field groundwater. Therefore, it was identified that key issues associated with performance of chemical barrier were evaluation of (a) the long-term change of distribution coefficient of cementitious material through the degradation under repository condition and (b) chemical speciation change of radionuclides such as increase of solubility by the presence of colloidal-size materials. (author)

  12. The role of satellite earth observation in addressing climate change and sustainable development issues : a Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Satellites allow for the frequent, consistent and cost effective coverage of large areas. It was determined that satellite earth observations could be of great assistance in addressing environmental, sustainable development and natural resource management problems on a large scale. This paper described the Canadian experience in applying satellite earth observations to these problems. In the past several years, Natural Resources Canada has made use of satellite earth observations for national forest cover extent maps, wildfire detection, and estimating the national terrestrial ecosystem carbon budget. 2 figs.

  13. International conference 'Addressing the issues of potential terrorism and guarding against weapons of mass destruction in Central Asia' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 20 century, starting from First World War, the weapons of mass destruction (W D M) arouse serious concern in world community. Geneva's protocol of 1925 prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons. Once nuclear weapon was created, the W D M proliferation becomes the subject of high concern. Nowadays, trans national organized criminal groups and international terrorist networks are appeared in the world scene, which show their interest in obtaining an access to sensitive materials, technologies, weapons and their distribution

  14. Piracy : a critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy and the issues arising therefrom that affect : the legal address of the crime globally.

    OpenAIRE

    Neakoh, Raissa Timben

    2011-01-01

    Piracy: A critical examination of the definition and scope of piracy, and the legal issues arising there-from that affect the successful address of piracy globally. This thesis looks into the effectiveness of the existing legal maritime regime in fighting piracy worldwide. It goes to determine the extent to which the problem of modern day maritime piracy is related to the inadequacies brought about by the limitations in the definition of piracy as given by the United Nations Convention on the...

  15. Does the class cleavage still matter? The social composition of participants in demonstrations addressing redistributive and cultural issues in three countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Nina; Giugni, Marco Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of social class for individual participation in social movements, more specifically in street demonstrations. The authors use protest survey data in order to avoid the limitations of previous research by contextualizing the effect of social class on participation in protest. The analysis focuses on demonstrations addressing redistributive and cultural issues, reflecting a well-known distinction between old and new social movements. The authors show that particip...

  16. From Confrontation to Partnerships: The Role of a Dutch Non-Governmental Organization in Co-Creating a Market to Address the Issue of Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Bos; Blok, V.; Tulder, van, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Firms can play an important role in addressing the issue of animal welfare by creating markets for animal friendly products. This essay analyses th e co-creation of a market for animal friendly meat products by the joint effort of a Dutch NGO and the meat industry. The different stages of the process, from opposition to alignment, are analyzed and general implications are derived. The process follows four stages: (1) adopting a strategy to cooperate in order to overcome a legitimacy crisis, (...

  17. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  18. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); English, M.; Altman, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Yourstone, E. (Consultant, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a cooperative arrangement,'' whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs' attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  19. Interactive efforts to address DSM and IRP issues: Findings from the first year of a two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Yourstone, E. [Consultant, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This report presents findings from the first year of a two-year study of interactive efforts involving utilities and non-utility parties (NUPS) working together to prepare plans, develop Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs, or otherwise promote integrated planning and the use of cost-effective DSM measures. Of the ten cases covered in the current study, seven involved the collaborative approach to NUP involvement, which generally is marked by intensive utility-NUP interactions designed to reach consensus on a broad range of important issues; in collaboratives, outside consultants often are provided to enhance the technical capabilities of the NUPS. Another of the cases in this study involved a ``cooperative arrangement,`` whereby a utility and a NLT worked together in a focused short-term effort to develop a single DSM program. The intense interaction involved in this approach makes it very similar to a collaborative, except that both the scope and the duration of the effort were much more limited than in a normal collaborative. The ninth case concerned a task force run by state regulatory staff that was charged with the limited job of studying various cost-effectiveness tests available for assessing prospective DSM measures. All of these approaches (collaborative, cooperative arrangement, and task force) are types of interactive effort, as that term is used in this report. The final case concerned NUPs` attempts to encourage greater utility use of DSM in Florida but, to date, no interactive effort has been initiated there. Three main features of interactive efforts are described in this report: (1) the participants involved; (2) the context in which the efforts took place; and (3) key characteristics of the interactive process. This report also examines the outcomes achieved by the interactive efforts. These outcomes can be divided into two general categories: Product-related and participant-related.

  20. Toward a CFD-quality (CFD-grade) database addressing LWR containment phenomena Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenomena such as gas stratification in an LWR containment, gas transport between containment compartments, wall condensation and hydrogen accumulation have been identified as high-ranking phenomena playing an important role in issues directly related to the safety of current LWRs and also future reactors. These phenomena are driven by buoyant high momentum injection (jets) and/or low momentum injection (plumes). For instance, mixing in the immediate vicinity of the postulated line break is mainly dominated by very high velocity efflux, while low-momentum flows are responsible for most of the transport processes within the containment. Codes with 3D capabilities, e.g. CFD codes offer the possibility of using accurate simulation models, which properly account for gas (steam, air, hydrogen, etc.) in-homogeneity and to characterize the evolution of such phenomena in complex geometries such as the LWR containment. Code assessment and validation against experimental data are needed activities for increasing the confidence in the use of the computational tools and for revealing strengths and drawbacks with respect to particular geometries, phenomena or conditions. The use of experimental data obtained in large-scale facilities, under prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions, allows for minimizing distortion effects arising from geometrical scaling. Multi-compartments facilities allow flow transport between compartments (e.g. due to density differences induced by condensation) to be studied. Nevertheless the use of large scale facilities for generating a CFD-quality database requires from an experimental point of view a huge effort toward the upgrading of instrumentation and the use of computational tools already in the preparatory phase of the experimental program, e.g. for defining test conditions, test procedures, instrumentation needs and location of key instrumentation. The large-scale, multi-compartments PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the

  1. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  2. Design issues and performance of a chemically recuperated aeroderivative gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of innovative gas turbine cycles have been proposed lately, including the humid air turbine (HAT) and the chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT). The potential of the CRGT cycle lies in the ability to generate power with a high efficiency and ultra-low NOx emission. Much of the research work published on the CRGT cycle is restricted to an analysis of the thermodynamic potential of the cycle. However, little work has been devoted to discussion of some of the relevant design and operation issues of such cycles. In this paper, part-load performance characteristics are presented for a CRGT cycle based on an aeroderivative gas turbine engine adapted for chemical recuperation. The paper also includes discussion of some of the design issues for the methane-steam reformer component of the cycle. The results of this study show that large heat exchange surface areas and catalyst volumes are necessary to ensure sufficient methane conversion in the methane steam reformer section of the cycle. The paper also shows that a chemically recuperated aeroderivative gas turbine has similar part-load performance characteristics compared with the corresponding steam-injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle. (Author)

  3. Application of synchrotron radiation techniques to chemical issues in the environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of third generation synchrotron radiation (SR) light sources presents new opportunities for the application of SR techniques in chemical research that address the fundamental and technological aspects of environmental science. The maturation of SR-based techniques, both the X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet regimes, provides a unique means to investigate the electronic structure and short range atomic arrangements in environmentally-relevant chemical systems. X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been exploited for many of the initial investigations since systems of primary environmental interest are often hazardous and in an aqueous medium. Examples of current environmental chemistry applications of SR germane to waste remediation and other areas are highlighted. The future prospects of SR techniques in environmental research are presented with emphasis on new areas of impact and development

  4. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  5. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Tasnim [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Lissenden, Cliff [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  6. Lake Orta chemical status 25 years after liming: problems solved and emerging critical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rogora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta, located in Piedmont, northwestern Italy, has been severely affected by industrial pollution since the 1930s. A successful liming intervention, performed in 1988-1990, returned pH levels in the lake to neutrality, and accelerated the reduction of aqueous trace metal concentrations. In this paper, we present an update knowledge of the chemical status of Lake Orta, focusing on the data collected from 1990 to 2014. In this period we sampled the lake at its deepest point (Qualba station, on a monthly (1990-2000 or seasonal (since 2001 basis. Samples were collected at nine depths through the water column, and analyzed for pH, conductivity, alkalinity, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals. Collectively, these data allowed us to evaluate the long-term response of the lake to the restoration treatment, with particular regard to its acid-base status; they also provided insights into emerging or potential critical issues, including eutrophication and re-suspension of trace metals that still linger in the lake. Furthermore, the evaluation of the present chemical condition of the lake is a precondition for any successive restoration measure, such as fish introduction. The recent data confirmed the lake’s water quality has recovered, i.e. returned to a pre-pollution chemical state. Lake water values of pH and concentrations of ammonium, sulphate and base cations have stabilized. Alkalinity and nitrate concentrations are also expected to reach stable level in the next few years. Levels of nitrate, reactive silica, and phosphorus compounds are now regulated by algal uptake, providing indirect evidence of a partial biological recovery. For instance, both the inter-annual average decline and the reappearance of a seasonal signal in silica confirmed the presence of a stable diatom community. The lake is presently oligotrophic, and concentrations of both N and P compounds are steady and low throughout the year. However, a monthly check of nutrient

  7. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  8. Update: Health Status of Iranian Victims of Chemical Weapons / Ongoing Research Projects Addressing CW Health Effects in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of chemical weapons against Iran during the 1980s was a horrifying epic in the annals of modern warfare, inflicting enormous suffering during the conflict that continues to the present day in the form of latent illness among survivors. Surviving victims suffer from a diverse range of chronic illnesses placing an enormous strain on the nation's medical infrastructure. To define the scope of this problem, the National Organization for Veteran's Affairs (Janbazan) established a subsidiary research department called Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC). Beginning in 2000 JMERC has conducted epidemiological, clinical and basic scientific studies to characterize disease among chemical attack survivors and develop new therapeutic strategies. The primary JMERC mission has been to identify where resources may be allocated so as to most effectively treat patients with the greatest need - requiring a comprehensive picture of the major medical problems among this population. Accordingly, JMERC's initial task was to define the nature and distribution of serious chronic illness among CW survivors. Therefore epidemiological studies in CW-exposed Iranian populations are currently underway. Ultimately these studies will allow management of illness among CW-exposed populations that is both compassionate and cost-effective. A summary of the above mentioned research projects will be reported in this article. (author)

  9. Toward improving hurricane forecasts using the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS): A framework to address the issues of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Boothe, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; montgomery, M. T.; Niamsuwan, N.; Tallapragada, V. S.; Tanelli, S.; Turk, J.; Vukicevic, T.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forecasting of extreme weather requires the use of both regional models as well as global General Circulation Models (GCMs). The regional models have higher resolution and more accurate physics - two critical components needed for properly representing the key convective processes. GCMs, on the other hand, have better depiction of the large-scale environment and, thus, are necessary for properly capturing the important scale interactions. But how to evaluate the models, understand their shortcomings and improve them? Satellite observations can provide invaluable information. And this is where the issues of Big Data come: satellite observations are very complex and have large variety while model forecast are very voluminous. We are developing a system - TCIS - that addresses the issues of model evaluation and process understanding with the goal of improving the accuracy of hurricane forecasts. This NASA/ESTO/AIST-funded project aims at bringing satellite/airborne observations and model forecasts into a common system and developing on-line tools for joint analysis. To properly evaluate the models we go beyond the comparison of the geophysical fields. We input the model fields into instrument simulators (NEOS3, CRTM, etc.) and compute synthetic observations for a more direct comparison to the observed parameters. In this presentation we will start by describing the scientific questions. We will then outline our current framework to provide fusion of models and observations. Next, we will illustrate how the system can be used to evaluate several models (HWRF, GFS, ECMWF) by applying a couple of our analysis tools to several hurricanes observed during the 2013 season. Finally, we will outline our future plans. Our goal is to go beyond the image comparison and point-by-point statistics, by focusing instead on understanding multi-parameter correlations and providing robust statistics. By developing on-line analysis tools, our framework will allow for consistent

  10. The science conceptions of chemical textbooks addressed to the high school, in treatment of chemical kinetics during the period from 1929 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eunice Ribeiro Marcondes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This text is a part of the work that was developed based on the chemical kinetic theme and the target was how the scientific knowledge in this subject was used for high school textbooks, identifying the possible ideas about science related to these books. For that, based on the research developed by Níaz (1994 that used categories to represent the philosophical perspectives: the empirical/inductive and the rationalist, verifying which and how the concepts of science was inserted in the 20 Brazilians textbooks, edited in the period from 1929 to 2004.

  11. The science conceptions of chemical textbooks addressed to the high school, in treatment of chemical kinetics during the period from 1929 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eunice Ribeiro Marcondes; Simone Alves de Assis Martorano

    2009-01-01

    This text is a part of the work that was developed based on the chemical kinetic theme and the target was how the scientific knowledge in this subject was used for high school textbooks, identifying the possible ideas about science related to these books. For that, based on the research developed by Níaz (1994) that used categories to represent the philosophical perspectives: the empirical/inductive and the rationalist, verifying which and how the concepts of science was inserted in the 20 Br...

  12. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  13. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, J. Daniel [Arthur Langhus Layne, LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  14. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko;

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on...... how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main...

  15. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  16. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  17. Biogeochemical Cycles for Combining Chemical Knowledge and ESD Issues in Greek Secondary Schools Part I: Designing the Didactic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalidi, Sophia; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical cycles support all anthropogenic activities and are affected by them, therefore they are intricately interlinked with global environmental and socioeconomic issues. Elements of these cycles that are already included in the science/chemical curriculum and textbooks intended for formal education in Greek secondary schools were…

  18. Incorporating Chemical Hazards into an Emergency Management Plan. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on a chemical spill that went unreported for approximately seven years, setting off a series of responses from the school district's Environmental Health and Safety Department (EHS) and the state…

  19. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  20. Chemical and nutritional features of the meat issued from two chicken broiler genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nutrition quality, consequently the nutrients level and quality in food, is a main factor influencing the consumers' health status. The food industry should consider all possible ways to improve nutritional value of aliments. Despite this, the data related to some quality indexes of the poultry meat, that could contribute to establish an overall image of the nutritional and dietetic facts of this product are poorly represented in the scientific literature, mainly when the consumer might be interested by the meat produced and commercialised nowadays in Romania. It imposed to organise some studies related to certain qualitative features of the skeletal muscles issued from chicken broilers, knowing that the technical specifications of the companies producing hybrids do not issue about them, mainly focusing on the meat yield parameters. The original researches have been organised in two experimental series, which had as main goal the analysis of the qualitative meat production at two of the most used commercial chicken hybrids in our country - 'COBB-500' (60 chickens, sex ratio 1:1) and 'ROSS-308' (60 chickens, sex ratio 1:1), reared in similar technological conditions. This paper emphasises on those results dealing with meat chemical composition and caloricity. There has been sampled five pair of skeletal muscles, from those carcass areas with market importance: Pectoralis superficialis (PS) and Pectoralis profundis (PP) - breast, Biceps brachialis (BB) - wings, Semimembranosu (SM) - thighs and Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) - drumsticks. They were processed in accordance with the analytical chemistry laboratory methods in order to assess dry mater and water content, proteins and amino acids content, lipids and fatty acids content, these values leading to caloricity computation. The achieved results are briefly listed below: - for both studied hybrids, it was observed that the males pectoral muscles comprise a higher quantity of dry matter, compared to the

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged

  2. Recommended Changes to the No Child Left Behind Act to Address Workforce Issues. Submitted to the House Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Center for Law and Social Policy's (CLASP's) recommendations on how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) could better address the workforce challenges faced by this country. CLASP is a nonprofit organization engaged in research, analysis, technical assistance, and advocacy on a range of issues affecting low-income families. The…

  3. Religion, Spirituality, and Marriage and Family Therapy: A Study of Family Therapists' Beliefs about the Appropriateness of Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Thomas D.; Kirkpatrick, Dwight; Hecker, Lorna; Killmer, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Although increasing attention has been given to spirituality, to date, no published studies in marriage and family therapy journals have explored marriage and family therapists' beliefs about the appropriateness of addressing spirituality in therapy. This study fills this gap by examining the beliefs of a sample of clinical members of AAMFT about…

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  5. Overview of activities of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan: Key safety issues for responding to nuclear power plant ageing [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) of Japan agreed on basic political measures to be taken in January 2002, just after the critical accident at the uranium reprocessing plant of JCO. The NSC, based on this decision, has been implementing various measures concerned and taking prompt measures to cope with the related problems, so that it will henceforth improve safety assurance activities in Japan . It can be said that almost all the planned measures have already been carried out, including emergency preparedness for nuclear disasters. In consideration of the recent safety assurance situation in Japan, the NSC decided to settle the basic political measures to be taken for coming years. In the course of discussion of the new basic political measures, a regrettable accident has happened at Mihama Unit 3 of the Kansai Electric Company. After investigation and consideration of the Mihama Unit 3 accident, the NSC has decided on the basic political measures to be taken from 13 September 2004 onwards. As part of the new basic political measures, the NSC emphasizes the following priority issues involving nuclear safety activities in Japan: (1) Establishment of safety goals; (2) Introduction of risk informed nuclear safety regulation; (3) Investigation of the root cause of accidents; (4) Review of the effectiveness of regulation; (5) Fostering a safety culture in the organization of nuclear facilities; (6) Enhancement of regulatory transparency and openness in the NSC's activities. Looking at the present situation of nuclear power plants in Japan, one of the most urgent and common issues deals with the measures in place to respond to ageing problems, in connection with the investigation of the root causes of accidents. Here, key issues for responding to ageing are discussed through the observation of recent cases of accidents

  6. Addressing the fundamental issues in reliability evaluation of passive safety of AP1000 for a comparison with active safety of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive safety systems adopted in advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), such as AP1000 and EPR, should attain higher reliability than the existing active safety systems of the conventional PWR. The objective of this study is to discuss the fundamental issues relating to the reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems for a comparison with the active safety systems of conventional PWR, based on several aspects. First, comparisons between conventional PWR and AP1000 are made from the both aspects of safety design and cost reduction. The main differences between these PWR plants exist in the configurations of safety systems: AP1000 employs the passive safety system while reducing the number of active systems. Second, the safety of AP1000 is discussed from the aspect of severe accident prevention in the event of large break loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Third, detailed fundamental issues on reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems are discussed qualitatively by using single loop models of safety systems of both PWRs plants. Lastly, methodology to conduct quantitative estimation of dynamic reliability for AP1000 passive safety systems in LOCA condition is discussed, in order to evaluate the reliability of AP1000 in future by a success-path-based reliability analysis method (i.e., GO-FLOW). (author)

  7. Presidential address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews events of the past year in the nuclear power, uranium mining, reactor manufacturing and heavy water segments of the Canadian nuclear industry. The industry has a very strong base in uranium production and electricity generation. The issue of greatest concern is the lack of manufacturing opportunities

  8. Current issues involving screening and identification of chemical contaminants in foods by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although quantitative analytical methods must be empirically validated prior to their actual use in a variety of applications, including regulatory monitoring of chemical adulterants in foods, validation of qualitative method performance for the analytes and matrices of interest is frequently ignore...

  9. Current issues involving screening and identification of chemical contaminants in foods by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehotay, S.J.; Sapozhnikova, Y.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative analytical methods must be empirically validated prior to their use in a variety of applications, including regulatory monitoring of chemical adulterants in foods, validation of qualitative method performance for the analytes and matrices of interest is frequently ignored, or g

  10. Stakeholder and societal consultation about emerging issues in the chemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Executive summary There is increasing investment in the private and public sectors in technologically driven innovations such as nanotechnology. The increased requirement for sustainable use of resources has resulted in “sustainable chemistry” being high on the Agenda of the chemical sector. Thus th

  11. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  12. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  13. Analytical Study of Values of Business Process Outsourcing Employees to Address Issue of Attrition and Suggestion of Work life Balance Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Santhanalakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Business process outsourcing sector (BPO offered opportunities for employment to a large number of persons with diverse skill sets in India. However, the industry is plagued by attrition of employees due to technological intensity, work intensity at the intersection of globalization and liberalization made organizations to adopt high performance work practices and higher working hours. Values and changes in value priorities are considered as axial principle and are posited to impact attrition. Values priorities are measured using factor analysis and thirteen of them are identified in the context of BPO sector is identified, measured and ordered. The value priorities provided insights to design human resource interventions to discourage hedonistic practices and encourage work life balance which may help organizations to tide over the issue of attrition.

  14. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  15. Morphological and physical - chemical issues of metal nanostructures used in medical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceac, L. D.; Velenciuc, N.; Dobre, E. C.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years applications of nanotechnology integrated into nanomedicine and bio-nanotechnology have attracted the attention of many researchers from different fields. Processes from chemical engineering especially nanostructured materials play an important role in medical and pharmaceutical development. Fundamental researches focused on finding simple, easily accomplished synthesis methods, morphological aspects and physico-chemical advanced characterization of nanomaterials. More over, by controlling synthesis conditions textural characteristics and physicochemical properties such as particle size, shape, surface, porosity, aggregation degree and composition can be tailored. Low cytotoxicity and antimicrobial effects of these nanostructured materials makes them be applied in medicine field. The major advantage of metal based nanoparticles is the use either for their antimicrobial properties or as drug-carriers having the potential to be active at low concentrations against infectious agents.

  16. International issues on human health effects of exposure to chemical mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Feron, Victor J; Cassee, Flemming R; Groten, John P.; van Vliet, Petronella W; van Zorge, Job A

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we highlight new developments and recent studies concerning adverse human health effects related to chemical mixtures. One group of activities comprises the development of a new computer program for analyzing mixture studies and a mathematical model as a basis for combination rules that predict the toxicity of mixtures. Other new activities in the area of experimental studies are the application of gene expression technologies in mixture research, and pattern recognition as a...

  17. Preface to the Issue: Transformations of Biomass and its Derivatives to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongfei; Biddinger, Elizabeth J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Nimlos, Mark; Liu, Haichao

    2016-07-01

    The research activities on biofuels and bio-products have been growing steadily regardless the volatility of the crude oil price in the past decade. The major driver is the imperative need of tackling the challenge of climate change. With the low carbon footprints, fuels and chemicals produced from renewable biomass resources, as the replacement of their petroleum counterparts, can contribute significantly on carbon emission reduction.

  18. Editorial : special Issue contributed by the 10th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference - CHEMPOR 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, E. C.; Mota, M.

    2009-01-01

    The 10th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference - CHEMPOR 2008, was held in Braga, Portugal, from the 4th to the 6th of September, 2008. The conference was jointly organized by the University of Minho, the “Ordem dos Engenheiros,” and the Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineeing, with the support of “Sociedade Portuguesa de Qu´ımica” and “Sociedade Portuguesa de Biotecnologia”. The CHEMPOR series traditionally brings together both young and establishe...

  19. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  20. Addressing the Issue of Domestic Violence at the Workplace: A Review of the Implementation of the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim koodoruth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.

  1. Human health issues for combined exposures to plutonium and chemicals - an experimental toxicology approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex may be exposed to combinations of various agents. The possibility that chemicals and/or radiation may interact in producing deleterious effects in exposed individuals has been recognized for some time. Although there is a substantial body of knowledge on how specific interactions influence various biological endpoints, no comprehensive framework exists that allows one to reliably predict health effect outcomes from combined exposures. As a result, regulators have relied on simple additive models for setting exposure standards

  2. Chairperson's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power industry responsibilities for generation, transmission and retailing have been split and many nuclear power stations have been transferred to private companies. This has produced a clear focus on good management and the need for a top class safety culture if nuclear stations are to be run successfully. There are, however, two specific aspects of nuclear power generation which appear to cause private companies considerable concern: the unique health and safety issue related to ionizing radiation in normal operation and potential accidents; and the technical, economic and socio-political problems attached to disposing of radioactive waste

  3. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  4. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  5. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  6. Chemical compatibility issues associated with use of SiC/SiC in advanced reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are of interest for components that will experience high radiation fields in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), or the Fluoride-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR). In all of the reactor systems considered, reactions of SiC/SiC composites with the constituents of the coolant determine suitability of materials of construction. The material of interest is nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites, which consist of a SiC matrix [high-purity, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC or liquid phase-sintered SiC that is crystalline beta-phase SiC containing small amounts of alumina-yttria impurity], a pyrolytic carbon interphase, and somewhat impure yet crystalline beta-phase SiC fibers. The interphase and fiber components may or may not be exposed, at least initially, to the reactor coolant. The chemical compatibility of SiC/SiC composites in the three reactor environments is highly dependent on thermodynamic stability with the pure coolant, and on reactions with impurities present in the environment including any ingress of oxygen and moisture. In general, there is a dearth of information on the performance of SiC in these environments. While there is little to no excess Si present in the new SiC/SiC composites, the reaction of Si with O2 cannot be ignored, especially for the FHR, in which environment the product, SiO2, can be readily removed by the fluoride salt. In all systems, reaction of the carbon interphase layer with oxygen is possible especially under abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant (resulting in increased temperature), and air and/ or steam ingress. A global outline of an approach to resolving SiC/SiC chemical compatibility concerns with the environments of the three reactors is presented along with ideas to quickly determine the baseline compatibility performance of SiC/SiC.

  7. Chemical effects head-loss research in support of generic safety issue 191.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Kasza, K.; Fisher, B.; Oras, J.; Natesan, K.; Shack, W. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-10-31

    This summary report describes studies conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the potential for chemical effects on head loss across sump screens. Three different buffering solutions were used for these tests: trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hydroxide, and sodium tetraborate. These pH control agents used following a LOCA at a nuclear power plant show various degrees of interaction with the insulating materials Cal-Sil and NUKON. Results for Cal-Sil dissolution tests in TSP solutions, settling rate tests of calcium phosphate precipitates, and benchmark tests in chemically inactive environments are also presented. The dissolution tests were intended to identify important environmental variables governing both calcium dissolution and subsequent calcium phosphate formation over a range of simulated sump pool conditions. The results from the dissolution testing were used to inform both the head loss and settling test series. The objective of the head loss tests was to assess the head loss produced by debris beds created by Cal-Sil, fibrous debris, and calcium phosphate precipitates. The effects of both the relative arrival time of the precipitates and insulation debris and the calcium phosphate formation process were specifically evaluated. The debris loadings, test loop flow rates, and test temperature were chosen to be reasonably representative of those expected in plants with updated sump screen configurations, although the approach velocity of 0.1 ft/s used for most of the tests is 3-10 times that expected in plants with large screens . Other variables were selected with the intent to reasonably bound the head loss variability due to arrival time and calcium phosphate formation uncertainty. Settling tests were conducted to measure the settling rates of calcium phosphate precipitates (formed by adding dissolved Ca to boric acid and TSP solutions) in water columns having no bulk directional flow. For PWRs where NaOH and sodium tetraborate are used to control

  8. Chemical countermeasures: Dispersants overview of dispersant use (including application) and research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I will attempt in twenty minutes to summarize the state of research on oil spill dispersants as I perceive it. The expertise I bring to this task includes 20 years of experience with the fate and effects of petroleum in the marine environment, including participation in the 1973 and 1981 NRC studies and three years as chairman of the NRC committee on oil spill dispersants. I More recently I served on a committee of the International Maritime Organization which reviewed the open-quotes Impact of oil and related chemicals and wastes on the marine environment.close quotes That report will be published this year. However, my statements in this paper are not made as a representative of either NRC or IMO. They are my own interpretation of scientific literature cited in the above reviews. Dispersants are chemical formulations, which include surface active agents, designed to decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water. Because the first attempts to disperse oil on a large scale, at the Torrey Canyon spill of 1967, used highly toxic degreasing agents, dispersants have an undeserved reputation for toxicity. In fact, for twenty years dispersant formulations have been developed with an emphasis on reducing their toxicity to marine life. The dispersal of oil in water has been documented in the laboratory by dozens of papers (see references in NRC 1989, pp 70-79), and in the field by dozens of studies (NRC 1989, pp 165- 193). The toxicity of commercial dispersant formulations (NRC 1989, pp 81-123) and dispersed oil (NRC 1989, pp 123-147) has been tested on a wide variety of marine organisms ranging from algae to salmonid fishes. The NRC review has been updated by the IMO/GESAMP (1992) study, but the conclusions remain unchanged

  9. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I have the pleasure to welcome you, on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to this important International Conference on National infrastructures for Radiation Safety. Let me congratulate the organizers of this conference for their decision to approach the Government of Morocco to host this meeting in the beautiful city of Rabat but, first of all, let me thank our host, His Majesty King Mohammed VI and the Government of Morocco, and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for the kind hospitality and the beautiful setting here in Rabat, and for making this dream become a pleasant reality. We are convening here to discuss 'radiation safety infrastructure', a term which for outsiders - and probably also many of us - seems to be a bit fuzzy. Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in radiation safety techniques, in measurement, monitoring, exposure prevention, and intervention techniques. In general, occupational exposure for workers has dropped continuously, as data from the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) system can demonstrate. Today, it is becoming clear that further progress cannot rely on improving hard techniques alone, but also has to focus on the soft issues: on institutional aspects, on aspects of information, organization, and finally, a safety culture - in a word, on infrastructure. On one side, sustainable infrastructures - at both the international and the national level - are essential in order to maintain the positive trend in radiation safety, in occupational exposure and, thus, to support the safe use of nuclear energy and radiation. On the other hand, effective national and international infrastructures are required to ensure the radiation safety and security of radioactive sources, and to avoid incidents and accidents with 'orphan' sources, which have become a major concern in recent years. The OECD/NEA is happy to provide the experience of its 28 member countries from Europe, North America and the

  11. Addressing Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  12. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  14. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  15. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  16. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  17. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  18. Testicular cancer: addressing the psychosexual issues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Annamarie

    2012-01-31

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-35 years and predominantly occurs at a time in a man\\'s life when important decisions about marriage, starting a family and a professional career are being made. While treatments for testicular cancer are very successful, they can have a major impact on the person\\'s sexuality and sense of self. The focus of this article is on exploring the impact of cancer treatments for testicular cancer on men\\'s sexuality and how nurses can respond to their concerns in a sensitive and informed manner.

  19. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is encouraging to see so many experts gathered here today to discuss the important issue of environmental protection from ionizing radiation. The International Union of Radioecology (IUR) has collaborated constructively with other international organizations, notably the ICRP, the IAEA, UNSCEAR and the EU, and hope that these close links may be strengthened and developed in the future. Such international cooperation has been conducive to rapid progress on the theme of radiological protection of the environment in recent years. The IUR, as an independent scientific association, has been fighting to put environmental radioactivity in the same context as other environmental problems within regulatory and political agendas. In the early years, it could be quite embarrassing because there was little support for this initiative, but now it can give us great satisfaction that the topic appears to be receiving the international attention it deserves. However, it is imperative that any advances are built on a foundation of scientific knowledge. The IUR task group, formed in 1997, took note of a number of initiatives and ideas being developed within the radiological protection community. The IUR was the first international organization to conclude that a systematic approach was required in order to develop a framework within which various initiatives could be accommodated and, in 2000, such a system was presented and promoted. The IUR also highlighted the need to consider the broader socioeconomic context within which these ideas were beginning to evolve. I would now like to spend a few moments of your time to update you on the IUR's views and activities. A consensus conference was held in Oslo in 2001, supported by a number of representatives from NGOs, industry, academia and regulators. A surprising degree of agreement was achieved, enabling the drafting of a consensus statement - stating that the environment should receive radiological protection. Members of

  1. Report of the international workshop on safety measures to address the year 2000 issue at medical facilities which use radiation generators and radioactive materials. (Supplement to IAEA-TECDOC-1074)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In resolution GC(42)/RES/11 on 'Measures to Address the Year 2000 (Y2K) Issue', adopted on 25 September 1998, the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - inter alia - urged Member States 'to share information with the Secretariat regarding diagnostic and corrective actions being planned or implemented by operating and regulatory organizations at their ... medical facilities which use radioactive materials to make those facilities Year 2000 ready', encouraged the Secretariat 'within existing resources to act as a clearing-house and central point of contact for Member States to exchange information regarding diagnostic and remediation actions being taken at ... medical facilities which use radioactive materials to make these facilities Year 2000 ready', urged the Secretariat 'to handle the information provided by Member States carefully' and requested the Director General to report to it at its next (1999) regular session on the implementation of that resolution. To foster exchange of information and experience and to develop more specific advice based on this experience, the IAEA, in co-operation with the World Health Organization, conducted an International Workshop on Safety Measures to Address the Year 2000 Issue at Medical Facilities Which Use Radiation Generators and Radioactive Materials, held in Vienna, 28-30 June 1999. Whereas the focus in IAEA-TECDOC-1074 had been on identifying what might go wrong as a result of Y2K problems and on proposing methods to address them, the focus of the International Workshop was on sharing the experience gained in implementing the proposed methods - an approach consistent with the role of the Secretariat as 'a clearing-house and central point of contact for Member States to exchange information regarding diagnostic and remediation actions'

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  4. 解决食品安全问题的市场化路径探析%Analysis of the market-oriented approaches to addressing food security issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁国杰

    2011-01-01

    传统理论认为食品安全作为重要的民生领域,应是政府的主要职责,属于市场失灵的领域。但实践证明,单一的政府公共治理模式并不能有效解决食品安全问题。相反,如果能在食品安全管理的环节中更多地引入市场经济的理念,让市场机制发挥作用,探索符合市场经济规律要求的路径和手段,却可能在新形势下为解决食品安全问题寻找到一条有效的创新思路。%Traditional theory holds that the food security as an integral part of people's livelihood should be the main responsibility of the Government and belongs to the traditional realm of market failure. However, practice shows that a single governmental public administration model can not effectively address food safety issues. On the contrary, if the market-directed economy principles were introduced more into the food safety management and encourage the market mechanism to work, effective and innovative ideas would be formed in the process of exploring solutions consistent with the requirements of the socialist market economic laws to address food safety issues.

  5. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part I: Context, chemical properties, environmental and health and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochar is a carbon- and energy-rich porous material produced through slow pyrolysis of biomass, which has been proposed as a way of storing carbon in soils for the long-term (centurial to millennial timescales) but its production incurs an energy penalty. Gasification of rice husks at paddy mills combines the benefits of reasonably efficient delivery of energy with a reasonably high carbon char and ash mixture. The ca. 35% carbon content of the rice husk char is possibly a consequence of the protective shield of silica, preventing full exposure of the biomass to oxidation in the gasifier. In this paper we undertake an evaluation of the sustainability of this ‘gasification–biochar system’ (GBS) in Cambodia, where a rapid deployment of gasifiers is underway. In Part I, we describe the context and analyse (some of) the physical and chemical properties of the biochar. While there are some potential health, safety and environmental issues that require further analysis, they are problems that could be readily addressed in further research and appear to be resolvable. In Part II, we present results from field trials, summarise the data on the carbon abatement of the gasification–biochar system and present some preliminary economic data. - Highlights: ▶ Rice husk char (RHC) is a biochar produced from gasification of rice husk for power production. ▶ RHC contains ca. 33% stable carbon and overall conservation of carbon in feedstock of ca. 32%. ▶ Gasification combines benefits of renewable energy generation and carbon abatement via biochar. ▶ Pollution and contamination from adding RHC to agricultural soils can be avoided. ▶ Avoiding contamination requires dry discharge or careful separation of RHC from waste water.

  6. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  7. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  8. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  9. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  10. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  11. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  12. Conference President's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  13. Nutrition in emergencies: Issues involved in ensuring proper nutrition in post-chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or deliberate exposure to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN agents poses considerable threat throughout the world. Under such conditions, ensuring proper nutrition is a difficult task due to contamination of food available in the affected area. Generally, food is not prepared or served in an environment contaminated by CBRN agents. Foods that are properly packed need to be decontaminated from outside before use. These agents get incorporated in to food chain. Therefore, especially the foliage vegetables, milk and meat products from affected area are not fit for consumption. Potassium iodide has protective role, as radioiodine uptake into the thyroid can be blocked by its pharmacological doses. This is most effective when taken before exposure, but still has significant effects up to five to six hours postexposure. The antioxidant vitamins and minerals may be included in therapeutic feeding programs, as they are known to protect against oxidative stress. Minimum requirement of calories and nutrients are similar to other disasters and are discussed in the present review.

  14. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  15. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAlx, UAlx-Al and U3O8-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrHx, UErZrH, UO2-stainless steel cermet, and U3O8-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  16. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  17. Issues associated with the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ScGaN and YGaN alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Knapp, James Arthur; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Creighton, James Randall; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    The most energy efficient solid state white light source will likely be a combination of individually efficient red, green, and blue LED. For any multi-color approach to be successful the efficiency of deep green LEDs must be significantly improved. While traditional approaches to improve InGaN materials have yielded incremental success, we proposed a novel approach using group IIIA and IIIB nitride semiconductors to produce efficient green and high wavelength LEDs. To obtain longer wavelength LEDs in the nitrides, we attempted to combine scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) with gallium (Ga) to produce ScGaN and YGaN for the quantum well (QW) active regions. Based on linear extrapolation of the proposed bandgaps of ScN (2.15 eV), YN (0.8 eV) and GaN (3.4 eV), we expected that LEDs could be fabricated from the UV (410 nm) to the IR (1600 nm), and therefore cover all visible wavelengths. The growth of these novel alloys potentially provided several advantages over the more traditional InGaN QW regions including: higher growth temperatures more compatible with GaN growth, closer lattice matching to GaN, and reduced phase separation than is commonly observed in InGaN growth. One drawback to using ScGaN and YGaN films as the active regions in LEDs is that little research has been conducted on their growth, specifically, are there metalorganic precursors that are suitable for growth, are the bandgaps direct or indirect, can the materials be grown directly on GaN with a minimal defect formation, as well as other issues related to growth. The major impediment to the growth of ScGaN and YGaN alloys was the low volatility of metalorganic precursors. Despite this impediment some progress was made in incorporation of Sc and Y into GaN which is detailed in this report. Primarily, we were able to incorporate up to 5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} Y atoms into a GaN film, which are far below the alloy concentrations needed to evaluate the YGaN optical properties. After a no-cost extension was

  18. A abordagem de questões ambientais: contribuições de formadores de professores de componentes curriculares da área de ensino de química Addressing environmental issues: the contribution of teacher-trainers of chemistry teaching curricular components

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Marques; Rejane Maria Ghisolfi da Silva; Fábio Peres Gonçalves; Carolina dos Santos Fernandes; Fábio André Sangiogo; Anelise Maria Regiani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study involving current teachers of the chemistry teaching curricular components of twelve Chemistry licentiate courses at state universities in the South and South-east of Brazil. The aim was to analyse how these curricular components can work together to address environmental issues in Chemistry teacher-training. From analysis of the interviews, it can be ascertained for example that environmental themes in the curricular components analysed are treated ...

  19. Opening Address [URAM-2009: 3. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues, Vienna (Austria), 22-26 June 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the IAEA’s programme on nuclear power and related nuclear fuel cycle activities is to promote the development of nuclear power and fuel cycle technologies that are economically viable, safe, environmentally friendly, proliferation–resistant and sustainable. Natural uranium is one of the basic raw materials for nuclear fuel. And so with this in mind we have come together here to participate in the 2009 International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, URAM- 2009. This is the latest in a series of symposia devoted to issues relating to the Uranium Production Cycle (UPC) and many of you will have been at the two previous meetings in 2000 and 2005. Looking back on those meetings we should remember how the intensity and scale of activity in the uranium production cycle has changed since 2000. At that symposium we were looking at how to keep the industry going whilst cleaning up the legacies of the past, ensuring minimal environmental problems for operating mines then and into the future and working out how the long term future of the industry would look. In addition we also considered the issues of maintaining our skills base and ensuring that exploration would continue so we might be prepared for the future

  20. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's. Advice on issues which need to be addressed in the Guidance to be given to the Environment Agencies on the Principles for determining Radioactive Waste Discharge Authorisations - the 'Principles Document'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1998, the Minister for the Environment, Mr Michael Meacher, informed the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) that, during the coming year, he would welcome the Committee's advice on proposals for guidance from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) to the Environment Agencies on assessment principles for determining radioactive waste discharge authorisations. This will hereafter be referred to as the Principles Document. The RWMAC has provided advice on the process of regulating radioactive waste discharges for many years. A summary of some of this activity is given in Annex 1. As a result, it has been pressing for this Principles Document guidance to be made available since its Twelfth Report in 1991. In response to the Minister's request, the RWMAC offered to assemble and submit early advice on what it believes the guidance needs to cover: this document fulfils that offer. The fundamental purpose of the advice is to help promote clarity of the regulatory regime for the benefit of the regulators themselves who must apply it, the industry to whom it is applied and, most importantly, the public whose safety it is designed to protect. Clarification of a number of aspects of the process is also likely to provide opportunity for efficiency gains. At a subsequent stage, the RWMAC will be happy to provide comment on any draft principles documentation prepared by the DETR. The RWMAC acknowledges that some of the issues it raises in this advice could be taken by others to be either outside the scope of the Principles Document or, by implying a need for more fundamental consideration of the discharge authorisation process, could potentially preclude its early publication. In the first instance, reference to an alternative source of relevant advice might suffice, providing this advice is itself easily accessible and understandable. In the second, the issue itself might be one to be fed into the Government's planned

  1. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  2. Opening Address [5. International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety: Defence in Depth — Advances and Challenges for Nuclear Installation Safety, Vienna, Austria, 21-24 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We anticipate that the working sessions of this conference will allow us to share experience and enhance our understanding on safety measures on the implementation of DID in siting, design and construction; commissioning and operation; accident management and emergency preparedness and response; as well as the cross cutting organizational, technical and human factors issues that underlie defence in depth. While substantial efforts and resources have been invested to gain an understanding of what happened and why in the Fukushima Daiichi accident and much progress has been made, additional lessons learned will need to be taken forward. Learning and sharing lessons learned, and implementing the activities necessary for progress to be ongoing, is a quest for improvement that must never cease

  3. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  4. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  5. Holographic content addressable storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  6. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  7. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  8. Addressing the Issue of Teaching English as a Lingua Franca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, I-Chun

    2006-01-01

    The status of English as a lingua franca (ELF) has become an increasingly popular discourse in Applied Linguistics and current ELT. It has been suggested that native speakers and their Englishes have become relatively unimportant in international communication and that research interests should now fall on non-native speakers and their use of…

  9. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the technologies to mature enough to make self-sensing materials a reality. Nevertheless, recent advances in the field of nanotechnology demonstrate that nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoparticles of carbon, boron and other materials have remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. This would provide. for a plethora of potential applications including self-sensing materials. Record strength-to-weight ratios, ballistic conductivity, and sensing capabilities (i.e., piezo- resistance and piezoelectricity) have been reported for carbon nanotubes. The first transistors, sensors, and actuators have been made from the carbon nanotubes and other nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to manipulate into useful geometries. Nano-manufacturing processes often produce bundles or random networks of nanostructured materials. Samples of the material are then manipulated with advanced microscopy tools to measure properties or to create a single device. This is a laborious and time consuming process. An often overlooked property of the manufactured nanotube bundles is their similarity to the dendritic structure of neural networks with a great quantity of interconnects that may serve as initiation sites for artificial neurons in a self-sensing material nervous system. To accelerate the development of self-sensing materials, future research should concentrate on naturally occurring dendritic nano-structures. While self-sensing materials with subgrain size sensors (scale of micrometers) remain in the realm of basic research, meso-scale (millimeters to centimeters) sensors and their networks are in the state of mature research and have begun to find their way into commercial applications. Macro-scale (centimeters to decimeters) sensors and their networks are commercially available from various sources. The majority of applications that employ sensor networks are driven by the needs of the Department of Defense. Widespread adaptation of sensor networks has been limited by, on one hand, the sensor's high cost of design, development, and deployment, and on the other hand, a lack of reliable long-term power sources. Solutions to both of these drawbacks require significant investments driven by real-life applications. Possible applications for sensor networks at Sandia National Laboratories include dense data collection techniques for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. For example, an array of distributed wireless macro-scale sensors can record the structural response of soils and reinforced concrete during explosive loading. Another example is an array of surface mounted micro-sensors that can record the modal response of nuclear weapon components. The collected data would be used to validate existing numerical codes and to identify new physical mechanisms to improve Sandia's computational models.

  10. Addressing Poverty Issues in Christian Schools: Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of Christian education is to incorporate Biblical values in the curriculum, and one essential message in the Bible is to reach out and liberate the poor. Through interviews, writing protocols, a focus group meeting, and document analysis, this narrative study focuses on the question of how do Christian educators create pedagogical…

  11. Addressing critical business issues through strategic management of human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Boz, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 3 de març de 2014 Con el fin de alcanzar los objetivos de una organización como el aumento de productividad y la rentabilidad, es un hecho bien conocido que las necesidades de los empleados deben ser satisfechas vía prácticas de recursos humanos (RRHH). La literatura muestra que una estrategia eficaz de gestión de RRHH, que se centre en generar y mantener una mano de obra motivada, es un factor clave para su éxito. Por lo tanto, el objetivo principal de esta tesis do...

  12. Obesity in pregnancy: addressing the issues at the booking appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haken, Clara; Fitzsimons, Kate

    2011-03-01

    The recently published Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE) report, Maternal Obesity in the UK: Findings from a National Project, has provided new information on how often we are caring for women who have a body mass index (BMI) of 35 or more, who these women are, the complications and consequences associated with obesity during pregnancy and the preparedness of maternity services to meet these women's needs. Focusing on booking, this article highlights some of the study's key recommendations and discusses the implications for midwives. Accurate calculation of BMI, discussion of dietary advice including supplementation, risk assessment and referral on are all considerations for this consultation. PMID:21473324

  13. Developing Social Marketing Capacity to Address Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, S.; Smart, E.; Kopela, J.; Gibson, T.; King, V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing is increasingly being seen as a potentially effective means of pursuing health education practice generally and within various specific areas such as mental health and wellbeing and more broadly in tackling health inequalities. This paper aims to report and reflect on the authors' experiences of undertaking a health…

  14. Addressing big data issues in Scientific Data Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Demchenko; P. Membrey; P. Grosso; C. de Laat

    2013-01-01

    Big Data are becoming a new technology focus both in science and in industry. This paper discusses the challenges that are imposed by Big Data on the modern and future Scientific Data Infrastructure (SDI). The paper discusses a nature and definition of Big Data that include such features as Volume,

  15. Addressing the reliability issues of intelligent well systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Technology receives its fair share of 'risk aversion' both in good and not so good economic times from oil and gas operators evaluating application opportunities. This paper presents details of a strategy developed and implemented to bring to market an Intelligent Well system designed from day one to maximize system reliability, while offering the customer a high degree of choice in system functionality. A team of engineers and scientists skilled in all aspects of Reliability Analysis and Assessment analyzed the Intelligent Well system under development, gathered reliability performance data from other sources and using various analytical techniques developed matrices of system survival probability estimates for various scenarios. Interaction with the system and design engineers has been an on-going process as designs are modified to maximize reliability predictions and extensive qualification test programs developed from the component to the overall system level. The techniques used in the development project will be presented. A comparative model now exists that facilitates the evaluation of future design alternative considerations and also contains databases that can be readily updated with actual field data etc. (author)

  16. Addressing Fiber-to-Chip Coupling Issues in Silicon Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Galan Conejos, Jose Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis trata de resolver el problema de la interconexión (acoplo) entre un circuito integrado fotónico de silicio (chip) y el mundo exterior, es decir una fibra óptica. Se trata de uno de los temas más importantes a los que hoy en día se enfrenta la comunidad científica en óptica integrada de silicio. A pesar de que pueden realizarse circuitos integrados fotónicos de silicio de muy alta calidad utilizando herramientas estándar de fabricación CMOS, la interfaz con la fibr...

  17. Addressing Cloud Computing in Enterprise Architecture: Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khaled; Gangavarapu, Narendra

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the characteristics of cloud computing affect the enterprise architecture in four domains: business, data, application and technology. The ownership and control of architectural components are shifted from organisational perimeters to cloud providers. It argues that although cloud computing promises numerous benefits to enterprises, the shifting control from enterprises to cloud providers on architectural components introduces several architectural challenges. The d...

  18. Using deliberation to address controversial issues: Developing Holocaust education curriculum.

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS MISCO

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how a cross-cultural project responded to the need for new Holocaust educational materials for the Republic of Latvia through the method of curriculum deliberation. Analysis of interview, observational, and document data drawn from seven curriculum writers and numerous project members suggest that curriculum deliberation helped awaken a controversial and silenced history while attending to a wide range of needs and concerns for a variety of stakeholders. The findings highl...

  19. BWR internal cracking issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues

  20. Issue Brief on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  1. Address delivered in Vilnius

    OpenAIRE

    Piłsudski, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  2. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  3. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  4. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  5. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  6. Backlog guidance 'flaw' addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Melvyn

    2011-09-01

    In a previous article, in the September 2010 edition of Health Estate Journal, "Is multi-million pound backlog a reality", independent consultant to the healthcare sector, Dr Melvyn Langford, highlighted what he claimed was a "fundamental flaw" in the way the established NHS "5 x 5 criticality grid" used to assess the urgency of backlog maintenance had been interpreted for many years by estates personnel, resulting, he said, in one Trust with a reported 12 million pounds sterling backlog in fact only having a 0.5 m pound sterling "backlog issue". Here he describes an alternative methodology, recently successfully tested with several pilot NHS sites, which he says corrects this flaw, and could have "major implications" for estates and facilities personnel under unprecedented pressure to cut costs. PMID:21961390

  7. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  8. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  9. A New Modular Approach to Nanoassembly: Stable and Addressable DNA Nanoconstructs via Orthogonal Click Chemistries

    KAUST Repository

    Gerrard, Simon R.

    2012-10-23

    Thermodynamic instability is a problem when assembling and purifying complex DNA nanostructures formed by hybridization alone. To address this issue, we have used photochemical fixation and orthogonal copper-free, ring-strain-promoted, click chemistry for the synthesis of dimeric, trimeric, and oligomeric modular DNA scaffolds from cyclic, double-stranded, 80-mer DNA nanoconstructs. This particular combination of orthogonal click reactions was more effective for nanoassembly than others explored. The complex nanostructures are stable to heat and denaturation agents and can therefore be purified and characterized. They are addressable in a sequence-specific manner by triplex formation, and they can be reversibly and selectively deconstructed. Nanostructures utilizing this orthogonal, chemical fixation methodology can be used as building blocks for nanomachines and functional DNA nanoarchitectures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  11. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  12. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  13. Vietnam; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1999-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Vietnam reports that the framework for policy lending in Vietnam, in conjunction with the active consideration of proposals to enhance the operational autonomy of policy-lending institutions, poses significant risks. The current framework does not adequately address common governance issues related to state involvement in investment decisions, and is insufficient to ensure the quality of investment. Recommended policy actions include removing residual policy len...

  14. Volume 5, Issue 1

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Nelson; John Clarke; Tracy Creagh

    2014-01-01

    The Feature in this issue is a conversation with Richard James, a highly respected Australian academic with extensive experience in research and policy development on the First Year Experience. Richard discusses the inevitability of universal participation in tertiary education and its impact on the style of participation, student diversity, the shifting focus of decision-making on standards and credentialism; and addresses the challenges posed by these and related issues for universities and...

  15. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna Yevseyeva; James Turland; Charles Morisset; Lynne Coventry; Thomas Groß

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT) consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabili...

  16. Workshop on Key Issues in Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The workshop on key analysis method and largescale facilities application in the project of Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" was held in the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Anhui on January 5th, 2008.

  17. Biogeochemical Cycles for Combining Chemical Knowledge and ESD Issues in Greek Secondary Schools Part II: Assessing the Impact of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalidi, Sophia; Psallidas, Vassilis; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In searching for effective ways to combine science/chemical education with EE/ESD, new didactic materials were designed and produced focussing on biogeochemical cycles and their connection to sustainable development. The materials were experimentally applied in 16 Greek schools under the newly introduced compulsory "school project" which…

  18. Plasma technology for treating hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste: Critical technology issues and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma processing technology is currently being considered for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. The paper reviews the technology and proposes critical issues to be addressed in applying plasma to waste treatment. Preliminary results from a small scale plasma arcjet experiment with acetone were compared with predictions from ASPEN, a chemical equilibrium code. Preliminary results indicate that proper mixing and models describing the high temperature plasma chemical kinetics are needed to adequately predict the composition of the offgases

  19. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  20. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology organizes and provides direction for standing and ad-hoc committees charged with addressing specific issues relevant to the continued health of the chemical sciences and technology community. Studies currently under the oversight of the BCST include a major survey of the chemical sciences, a complementary survey of chemical engineering, an examination of the problems of biohazards in the laboratory, and an analysis of the roots and magnitude of the problem of obsolescent facilities for research and teaching in departments in the chemical sciences and engineering. The Board continues to respond to specific agency requests for program assessments and advice. BCST members are designated to serve as liaison with major federal agencies or departments that support research in order to help identify ways for the Board to assist these organizations. The BCST maintains close contact with professional societies and non-governmental organizations that share the Board's concern for the health of chemical sciences and technology. Individual Board members are assigned responsibility for liaison with the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Society of Biological Chemists, the Council for Chemical Research, the NAS Chemistry and Biochemistry Sections, and the National Academy of Engineering. In the past few years, the Board has served as a focus and a forum for a variety of issues that relate specifically to the health of chemistry

  1. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  2. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  3. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  4. Forensic or archaeological issue: is chemical analysis of dental restorations helpful in assessing time since death and identification of skeletonized human remains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelic, Ksenija; Djonic, Danijela; Neskovic, Olivera; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, small mass grave with completely skeletonized remains was discovered in Belgrade suburb. An eyewitness claimed that skeletons belonged to German soldiers killed in WWII. Anthropologists were engaged to investigate whether the skeletal remains correspond to the indicated German group or represent more recent case requiring court trial. Numerous dental restorations were noticed. Owing to the fact that different dental materials were used in dental practice at certain times, the aim of this study was to explore whether analysis of dental restorations could help in identification and estimation of time since death. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed that dental fillings corresponded to copper amalgam, conventional silver amalgam, silicophosphate cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Chemical results combined with anthropological and historical facts suggest that the individuals lived before the 1960s in country with well-developed dental service at that time. Therefore, chemical analysis of dental fillings was useful to distinguish between skeletal remains that are too old to be of forensic interest and the remains relevant to legal investigations. PMID:23866008

  5. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  6. WHICH CHEMISTRY TEACH? REFLECTIONS ABOUT THE CHEMICAL EDUCATION AND FORMATION OF READERS IN CLASSES OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Cunha Flôr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses issues related to some approaches given to chemical education in high school. This is a theoretical reflection that adresses aspects to be considered when working with readings in this context, as the question of the specificity of chemical language, approaches related to the daily lives of students and training of readers in chemistry classes.

  7. An address by AECL's president

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy

  8. Addressing Stereotypes by Moving along the Continuum of Cultural Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cheryl James

    2013-01-01

    Programs to help middle school students deal with racism and hate have been in place for some years, yet almost monthly we hear of students committing suicide or killing other students due to issues of isolation or harassment. Within the confines of a safe classroom, doctoral students in Educational Leadership addressed issues of stereotypes and…

  9. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  10. Environmental issues (Global safety and nuclear energy?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergast, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper gives an overview nuclear environmental issues. In particular it addresses the issue of sustainable energy development and climate change, environmental assessment and operation of individual nuclear power plants, waste disposal and decommissioning.

  11. Concrete Masonry Designs: Educational Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Randi, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This special journal issue addresses concrete masonry in educational facilities construction. The issue's feature articles are: (1) "It Takes a Village To Construct a Massachusetts Middle School," describing a middle school constructed almost entirely of concrete masonry and modeled after a typical small New England village; (2) "Lessons Learned,"…

  12. Integration of Biological, Physical/Chemical and Energy Efficient Systems in the CELSS Antarctic Analog: Performance of Prototype Systems and Issues for Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Lamparter, Richard; Bates, Maynard; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle, and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for waste treatment, water recycle, resource recovery and crop production are being evaluated in a testbed at Ames Research Center. The combined performance of these biological and physical/chemical systems as an integrated function in support of the human habitat will be discussed. Overall system performance will be emphasized. The effectiveness and efficiency of component technologies will be discussed in the context of energy and mass flow within the system and contribution to achieving a mass and energy conservative system. Critical to the discussion are interfaces with habitat functions outside of the closed-loop life support: the ability of the system to satisfy the life support requirements of the habitat and the ability to define input requirements. The significance of analog functions in relation to future Mars habitats will be discussed.

  13. Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Feature in this issue is a conversation with Richard James, a highly respected Australian academic with extensive experience in research and policy development on the First Year Experience. Richard discusses the inevitability of universal participation in tertiary education and its impact on the style of participation, student diversity, the shifting focus of decision-making on standards and credentialism; and addresses the challenges posed by these and related issues for universities and the First Year Experience, along with possible solutions.

  14. Mexico; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the impact of Mexico’s energy reform on hydrocarbons production. These reforms aim to increase oil and gas production by eliminating the state oil company’s (PEMEX) monopoly on exploration and production of hydrocarbons, while retaining the prime directive that these resources are the property of the Mexican nation. This paper focuses on the nature of reforms and what problems these reforms are addressing. It presents illustrative production scenarios f...

  15. Governance Issues for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Clarke; Alice Klettner

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Prin...

  16. Nigeria; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses promotion of economic transformation in Nigeria. Nigeria’s long-term potential is keyed on promoting economic transformation. This implies taking stock of initial conditions, assessing long-term financing capacity, and evaluating the policies and reforms to be implemented to meet the long term vision. The recent fall in prices has highlighted the challenging but compelling need to address remaining development challenges. This paper discusses some of the...

  17. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper assesses Indonesia’s trade integration relative to underlying country characteristics. The paper analyzes Indonesia’s vulnerabilities, especially compared with the eve of the crisis in 1997. Various indicators suggest that the underlying fundamentals are significantly stronger. The paper examines key features of the financial safety net (FSN) in view of international standards and concludes that the current system is capable of timely addressing bank problems. I...

  18. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This study estimated Indonesia’s potential growth rate and examined its underlying determinants. Implementing a comprehensive program to address key influencing issues can improve the effectiveness of monetary policy, increase financial stability, and support capital market development. This paper also reviews the level and structure of tax revenues in Indonesia, estimates tax effort and tax efficiency, and discusses potential areas of revenue mobilization. Indonesia’s financial linkages ...

  19. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  20. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  1. HYDRAFLOW : a novel approach in addressing flow assurance problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarinezhad, R.; Chapoy, A.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. for Petroleum Engineering, Centre for Gas hydrate Research

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a new method to prevent hydrate plugs which are particularly problematic for offshore production and flow lines. The current methods of avoiding hydrate blockages are based on preventing solid formation by injecting thermodynamic or kinetic inhibitors outside the hydrate stability zone. However, these techniques are neither economical nor practical. The newly patented HYDRAFLOW cold flow assurance technology is based on allowing hydrates to form, but preventing their agglomeration and pipeline blockage. It is based on the concept of converting most or all of the gas phase into hydrates in the presence of excess water, and then transferring them in the form of hydrate slurry in the pipeline. In HYDRAFLOW, anti-agglomerants prevent hydrate crystals from agglomerating, thus eliminating the need for expensive thermal or chemical inhibition strategies. The technology involves a loop concept whereby the liquid phase plays a role of carrier fluid, collecting produced fluids from various wells and delivering them to the production unit prior to being recycled. This study addressed the issue of recycling the anti-agglomerants in the context of the loop concept. The distribution of anti-agglomerant components between different phases were measured. The performance of the residual anti-agglomerants in the free water phase and of its components absorbed in the oil or hydrate phase were also evaluated. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  3. Agenda to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  4. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  5. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  6. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  7. Disability Issues are Women's Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mijoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    Mijoo Kim from Women with Disabilities Arts and Culture Network, Korea, speaks on behalf of women with disabilities when she underlines that disability issues are women's issues. She asks why women with disabilities have been invisible in the women's movement, based on her work over the past 15 years in the movement of women with disabilities in Korea and internationally. Development (2009) 52, 230–232. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.10

  8. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  9. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  10. A Multi-scale, Multi-disciplinary Approach for Assessing the Technological, Economic, and Environmental Performance of Bio-based Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus; Sukumara, Sumesh; Angel Campodonico Alt, Miguel;

    2015-01-01

    , the Multi-scale framework for Sustainable Industrial Chemicals (MuSIC) was introduced to address this issue by integrating modelling approaches at different scales ranging from cellular to ecological scales. This framework can be further extended by incorporating modelling of the petrochemical value...... we progress towards a sustainable chemical industry....

  11. Addressing violence against older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate, causing health-related concerns and mental health issues in older women. Research suggests their needs are not met by existing services. This article examines physical and mental health issues faced by older women as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers that exist to seeking help. Healthcare professionals can facilitate therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited, but developing a stepped approach, tailored to older women's needs, could help. PMID:27369732

  12. Emerging issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  13. Addressing Public Concerns about GMOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of genetic engineering technology to agriculture has raised concerns in the public sector regarding the safety of applying this technology to the food supply. Concerns focus on two major issues: human/animal health and environmental risks. Such concerns have arisen in part because...

  14. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the 'Rgveda,'""Vedic and Epic…

  15. Chemical and biological weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the prospects of the multilateral negotiations aimed at achieving a complete and total ban on chemical weapons the Chemical Weapons convention (CWC). The control of the proliferation of chemical weapons is no longer just on East-West issue; it is also an issue of concern in Third World Countries, and in some of the wealthier middle eastern nations, such as Kuwait

  16. Space systems requirements and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some of the more important space power technology issues, requirements and challenges as we enter the decade of the 1990's and provided an assessment of the impact of new component technology on the overall performance of space power systems. The paper emphasizes advanced component, subsystem and system technologies which will make a difference for the future in terms of the performance, reliability and survivability of next generation baseload and burst mode space power systems. The paper primarily addresses technology disciplines related to power sources (solar/nuclear and chemical), power conversion, energy storage, power conditioning/distribution and control and waste heat acquisition, transport and rejection. For some of these technology disciplines, performance trends are developed which can be used as the basis for projecting future, advanced power system performance. Performance capabilities for several different types of space power systems for both baseload and burst mode applications are postulated based on evolving technology and point designs which incorporate projections of advanced component capabilities

  17. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Yevseyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabilities and threats to corporate data and devices, combined with a strategy of influencing security behavior by nudging. We argue that nudging, by taking into account the context of the decision-making environment, and the fact that the employee may be in better position to make a more appropriate decision, may be more suitable than strict policies in situations of uncertainty of security-related decisions. Several examples of nudging are considered for different tested and potential scenarios in security context.

  18. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed....

  19. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  20. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  1. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  2. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  3. Undergrounding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a general review of British Columbia Hydro's rights-of-way policies, a task group was formed to explore and assess the technical, social, environmental, and economic issues related to the provision of suitable underground rights-of-way for distribution and transmission lines. Issues considered were: evaluations of undergrounding; designation of service areas as underground areas; the BC Hydro fund to assist municipalities in beautifying selected areas by placing existing overhead lines underground; community funding of undergrounding; underground options to transmission and distribution requirements; and long-range underground row planning. Key findings are as follows. Undergrounding is technically feasible and available for all BC Hydro operating voltages, but initial construction costs of undergrounding continue to exceed equivalent overhead by a significant margin. Undergrounding can contribute to the optimization of existing rights-of-way. Public safety is improved with undergrounding and long-term benefits to BC Hydro and society are provided by undergrounding, compared to overhead options. Customers have shown some willingness to contribute to the cost of undergrounding, and it is generally agreed that those communities that want undergrounding should pay for it. Policy recommendations are made under each of the issue areas, and justifications for the recommendations are given along with implementation costs and alternative options

  4. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  6. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  7. Addressing concrete cracking in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of concrete cracking is one of the most frequently encountered deterioration at NPPs as it has been shown by a wide Survey of NPPs performed by IAEA in 1994-95 It can be due to a multitude of causes such as the normal ageing process (shrinkage, creep, prestressing force loss) as well as exposure to the environment (temperature variation, moisture, freeze/thaw, etc) The above mentioned Survey has also shown that in 64% of cases, no action was taken or required. It became also obvious that there is a lack of guidance as when remedial actions are needed. The paper describes, with the help of a Flow Chart, the various stages to be considered, from the first step of identification of cracks, to the definition of causes, evaluation of extent of damage, evaluation of effect/implications (safety, reliability), to the final step of deciding if repair action is required. Finally, based upon a wide literature survey the paper proposes in a Chart format, Criteria for addressing concrete cracks in NPPs., when taking in considerations all these factors. This paper discusses the process which should lead to the selection of an effective repair method and proposes, based upon worldwide standards and literature, criteria which should lead to the decision whether to repair or not concrete cracks, after the cracks have been identified and evaluated, addressing the entire range of aspects involved. (author)

  8. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  9. Commentary: Cultural Issues in Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muaygil, Ruaim

    2016-04-01

    This case presents several fundamental ethical issues. The first issue is the patient's refusal of treatment (a nasogastric tube [NGT] insertion). Second, the patient's refusal of a seemingly beneficial treatment, combined with her medical history, ultimately necessitates an assessment of her decisionmaking capacity. Third, the sister's reluctance to participate in decisionmaking requires a discussion of appropriate surrogate decisionmakers. Finally, the main ethical component to this case is a cultural one, which should be addressed appropriately. PMID:26957460

  10. Contemporary Issues In International Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, M T

    1984-01-01

    The proposition is made that a fundamental issue for many marketing-oriented companies is to formulate competitive strategies for entering and consolidating their foothold in international markets. This poses a challenge for academic researchers to also address themselves to strategic issues, if necessary by collaborative research programmes. The concept of marketing as a customer oriented, integrative and forward looking activity at the interface with the environment is applied to the design...

  11. General Issue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ORDERING INFORMATION The issue can be ordered by contacting at the Presses Universitaires d'Angers. It will be online in Spring 2015. CONTENTS Linda Collinge-Germain Foreword Mathilde La Cassagnère Heavy nothings in Virginia Woolf’s “Kew Gardens" Daniel Thomières Being and Time in Ernest Hemingway’s “Cat in the Rain” Stella Deen E.H. Young’s “The Stream,” Good Housekeeping, and the Cultivation of Active Readers Alice Clark-Wehinger The p...

  12. 78 FR 44438 - Notice of Organization Name and Address Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... 501 Notice of Organization Name and Address Change AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule... successor organization. All submissions to the Postal Service required or invited by this part are to be... results, PT will issue a written acknowledgement and/or approval of the change to the provider. 0 7....

  13. Using Applied Theatre as a Tool to Address Netizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeiker, Fadi Fayad

    2015-01-01

    This paper charts the ways in which a researcher uses applied theatre practice as a tool to address netizenship issues in the advancement of digital age by documenting a workshop he co-facilitated with graduate students at the University of Porto during the Future Places conference in 2013. The workshop used applied theatre both to catalyze…

  14. Sri Lanka: Addressing the Needs of an Aging Population

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the key issues that will have to be addressed in order to successfully avert serious problems, or even crisis, as Sri Lanka's inevitable population aging unfolds. The four main chapters of this report focus on these four critical areas in turn. The second chapter examines living arrangements, intergenerational transfers as well as the respect and authority old people en...

  15. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  16. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  17. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  18. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  19. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  20. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper takes stock of the progress made in meeting the objectives under Indonesia’s Extended Arrangements (1998–2003) program. The paper addresses progress in achieving the programs’ core macroeconomic objectives, with an emphasis on how Indonesia’s economic recovery compares with those of the other major Asian “crisis†countries. A major conclusion of the paper is that, while significant progress has been made against many of the key objectives of the arrangeme...

  1. Governance Issues for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clarke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on research into the corporate governance practices of small and medium enterprises (SMEs listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Interviews were conducted with the directors and/or company secretaries of 19 SMEs. The aim of the research was to explore not only SME corporate governance structures and processes but how SMEs had chosen to implement the Principles and the reasons for their choices. The paper addresses the issue of whether the ASX Corporate Governance Principles and Recommendations were appropriate for SMEs. It describes the SME responses to the requirements, how these differ from those of larger companies, and how these differences impact on small companies.

  2. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology organizes and provides direction for standing and ad hoc committees charged with addressing specific issues relevant to the continued health of the chemical sciences and technology community. Studies currently under the oversight of the BCST include a major survey of chemical engineering, an examination of the problems of biohazards in the laboratory, and an analysis of the roots and magnitude of the problem of obsolescent facilities for research and teaching in departments in the chemical sciences and engineering. The Board continues to respond to specific agency requests for program assessments and advice. BCST members are designated to serve as liaison with major federal agencies or departments that support research in order to help identify ways for the board to assist the these organizations. The BCST also maintains close contact with professional societies and nongovernmental organizations that share the Board's concern for the health of chemical sciences and technology. Individual Board members are assigned responsibility for liaison with the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Society of Biological Chemists, the Council for Chemical Research, the Chemistry and Biochemistry Sections of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). In the past few years, the Board has served as a focus and a forum for a variety of issues that relate specifically to the health of chemistry. A sampling of these concerns include: industry-university cooperation; basic research funding in DOD, DOE, NIH, and NSF; basic research in the chemistry of life processes; basic research in biochemical engineering; basic research in the science and technology of new materials; and undergraduate education in chemistry and chemical engineering

  3. Quality costs and robustness criteria in chemical process design optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Fernando P.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Pedro M. Saraiva

    2001-01-01

    The identification and incorporation of quality costs and robustness criteria is becoming a critical issue while addressing chemical process design problems under uncertainty. This article presents a systematic design framework that includes Taguchi loss functions and other robustness criteria within a single-level stochastic optimization formulation, with expected values in the presence of uncertainty being estimated by an efficient cubature technique. The solution obtained defines an optima...

  4. Multiscale Investigation of Chemical Interference in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Samiotakis, Antonios; Cheung, Margaret S

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multiscale approach (MultiSCAAL) that integrates the potential of mean force (PMF) obtained from all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with a knowledge-based energy function for coarse-grained molecular simulations in better exploring the energy landscape of a small protein under chemical interference such as chemical denaturation. An excessive amount of water molecules in all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations often negatively impacts the sampling efficiency of some advanced sampling techniques such as the replica exchange method and it makes the investigation of chemical interferences on protein dynamics difficult. Thus, there is a need to develop an effective strategy that focuses on sampling structural changes in protein conformations rather than solvent molecule fluctuations. In this work, we address this issue by devising a multiscale simulation scheme (MultiSCAAL) that bridges the gap between all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulation and coarse-grained molecular simulation...

  5. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  6. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  7. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  8. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

  9. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues

  10. Chemical and radiation environmental risk management at the crossroads: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although many of the major environmental risk management decisions we face today require the simultaneous evaluation and control of both radiological and chemical risks, the separation of radiation and chemical risk management persists along legal, regulatory, programmatic, training and professional practice levels. In June 1998, a panel of 40 chemical and radiation risk experts met at an interactive workshop entitled 'Addressing the Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Environmental Risk Management,' in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss several perspectives on harmonizing chemical and radiation risk management approaches. At the conclusion of the meeting, workshop participants recommended that case studies of clean-up sites at which radioactive materials and hazardous chemical risks were addressed, be developed to help educate participants in the harmonization dialogue about their counterpart's issues, stimulate discussion and sharpen issues in a way that they can be resolved. Several key risk management issues that were highlighted from the discussion at the Annapolis meeting are being evaluated in the case studies. They include: decision criteria, costs and public/stakeholder input. This paper presents these key issues and the approach taken in the case studies. (author)

  11. Health Issues at Work: Opportunities for Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Daniel R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses why health issues should be addressed, and why industrial/organizational psychologists should address these issues in the workplace. Presents five models for addressing health at work. Explores health-related criteria as sources for studying and developing programs concerning health. Discusses responses to health at work on an individual…

  12. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  13. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  14. Policy issues in space analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  15. Keynote Address from K. Mendelsohn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States believes it is critically important for Member States to support the Secretariat's efforts to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system. We should continue to work with the Agency to provide resources, technology, expertise, and training to strengthen the Secretariat's capabilities to implement safeguards agreements effectively and efficiently. The Secretariat went to extraordinary lengths over the last year to explain how safeguards implementation has evolved, particularly at the level of the state as a whole. The United States, like other member states, found the Secretariat's thorough technical briefings and the Director General's Supplementary Document to be extremely valuable. Now, after discussion of the issue at the September meetings of the Board of Governors and the General Conference, it really is time to let the Secretariat get on with its work. Our task now, especially for the assembled experts here at this Symposium, is to identify options for helping the IAEA as appropriate to find the best possible technologies, procedures, and practices for safeguards implementation. And like all of you, we look forward to further updates from the Secretariat on future lessons learned in implementing strengthened safeguards. I urge you to work together at this Symposium to make real progress on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy, strengthening safeguards, and preventing proliferation

  16. Review on current advances, future challenges and consideration issues for post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based absorbents☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Liang; Kaiyun Fu; Raphael Idem; Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul

    2016-01-01

    Among the current technologies for post-combustion CO2 capture, amine-based chemical absorption appears to be the most technologically mature and commercial y viable method. This review highlights the opportunities and challenges in post-combustion CO2 capture using amine-based chemical absorption technologies. In addi-tion, this review provides current types and emerging trends for chemical solvents. The issues and performance of amine solvents are reviewed and addressed in terms of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, regeneration and solvent management. This review also looks at emerging and future trends in post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents in the near to mid-term.

  17. Opening Address [Presented by D. Magliani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I am very pleased to address you this morning on behalf of A.-M. Cetto, Head of the Department of Technical Cooperation, as we open this important international symposium. Interest in the symposium has been very high, with the number of registered participants greatly exceeding the number initially expected. Every region is represented in significant number, particularly Europe. The symposium's aim, to provide a forum to discuss and exchange information on advances over the past decade in radiation dosimetry and its supportive role in radiation medicine and radiation protection, is of high importance to the technical cooperation programme, which has a long standing, well-established focus on health. Accurate measurements in radiation dosimetry are critical in decisions making related to human health and to the safety of radiation workers and the general public, and the focus of this symposium strengthens technical cooperation activities in this sector. In each programme cycle, the IAEA receives large numbers of requests for technical cooperation support in the fields of dosimetry and medical radiation physics. Currently, we have 144 active projects that include these fields of activity. Under the scope of our interregional technical cooperation project on medical physics in radiation medicine (INT/6/054), the IAEA is working with Member States, international physics societies and the World Health Organization to promote the recognition of medical physics in radiation medicine, and to harmonize educational material in order to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. We are very pleased to support the attendance of 36 participants at the symposium under this project. Participants can expect to return home with a fresh overview of the latest developments and trends in radiation dosimetry, and a better understanding of the issues. This will contribute to standardization in the field, leading to improved diagnosis and treatment of

  18. Current international issues in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the Italian Environmental Protection authorities (ANPA at that time) hosted in Rome a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) meeting on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning. This 'stock-taking' conference heard views from regulatory authorities, the decommissioning industry, waste management organisations and other relevant industrial sectors (e.g. the scrap metal industry) regarding the issues and aspects of decommissioning that should be further addressed, particularly at an international level. From this conference, six issues of relevance were identified which, since that time, have been addressed within the framework of the NEA. These issues are: - Decommissioning policies and strategies; - Waste management and materials reuse considerations; - Authorised release of sites and facilities; - Securing long-term funding and responsibility; - Framework for safety regulation of decommissioning; - Research and development in decommissioning. The NEA has focused on the international aspects of these issues, and on the roles of national governments in addressing the national and international aspects of these issues. This paper will present an overview of the NEA's findings in these areas. Realizing that these issues are important to the work of other international organisations, the NEA has tried to assess and use as appropriate the work of others in discussing these issues. As such, a brief review of relevant work at other international organisations will be presented. Based on its work, and in order to further advance these issues, the NEA is planning a second workshop on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning, which will again be hosted by the Italian authorities in Rome, and will be held during the second half of 2004. (author)

  19. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  20. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects of these...

  1. Islamic State and Chemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rafay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topic of Islamic State and chemical weapons. The issue is analysed in three dimensions: origin of used chemical weapons and possibility of independent production; known chemical attacks and tactical regularities in their execution; and traits of future chemical terrorist attacks. By providing a thorough examination of the problem, the article aims at predicting the future development of the group’s chemical program as well as describing any prospective chemical terrorist attacks in Europe

  2. Feminist issues in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, P

    1987-01-01

    The United Nations Decade for the Advancement of Women, from 1975 to 1985, leaves a legacy of a deeper understanding of the issues, and the emergence of new networks with the experience and commitment to work for further changes. However, the role and status of women did not improve. There is a new commitment to struggle for the ending of all oppression, injustice and violence of all kinds at all levels. Feminism is a consciousness of all forms of women's oppression and a commitment to work against them. Feminist critiques illuminate the larger structures that oppress both women and men. New development theories embracing feminism are necessary to understand how patriarchy and economic systems propogate oppression. The production-oriented approach to rural development is flawed n failing to address women's lack of access to land, credit, training and new technologies. Overwhelming household tasks, cultural norms, and traditional attitudes limit women's involvement in training programs and other development activities. The basic needs approach to rural development provides access to vital services to meet a family's basic needs for nutrition, housing and clothing, and allows people's participation in decision making. However, women have little actual role in decision making so their needs, concerns and perspectives are not taken into account. Women are treated as instruments to achieve goals without appreciating their perspective. Project-based approached emphasize short term goals rather than laying the foundation for longterm changes. Few projects address structural issues or empower women. Projects must include education to increase personal growth and self reliance. Development planning can be enormously enhanced by taking gender differences into account and recognizing that people, specially poor women, can promote their own devleopment. Longterm strategies that challenge existing structures, address the existing economic order, and, most of all, recognize

  3. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  4. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  5. Strengthening High School Chemistry Education through Teacher Outreach Programs: A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A strong chemical workforce in the United States will be essential to the ability to address many issues of societal concern in the future, including demand for renewable energy, more advanced materials, and more sophisticated pharmaceuticals. High school chemistry teachers have a critical role to play in engaging and supporting the chemical…

  6. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  7. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions

  8. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  9. Ecuador's Presidential Election: Background on Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Luis Sandoval; Belén Cadena

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at the biggest economic challenges that Ecuador's new president will need to address, and examines its recent economic history, including the issues of growth, dollarization, and international trade and finance.

  10. Board on chemical sciences and technology. Progress report, May 15, 1982-May 14, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST) is one of the principal vehicles in Washington for addressing issues specific to chemistry and related disciplines. It calls attention to fields of chemical science that can contribute to the solution of national problems, considers issues of importance to the community - whether in academia, industry, or government on which federal interagency cooperation would be productive, and identifies gaps in support for the chemical sciences, including biochemistry and chemical engineering. The Board consists of individuals of national stature, drawn from universities, industry, and government laboratories, who are experts in the chemical sciences and research management. The Board develops projects, and organizes and oversees standing and ad hoc panels of the National Research Council which address specific issues relevant to chemical sciences and technology. In this way the Board responds to needs it identifies without losing sight of its broad responsibilities. BCST members provide liaison with major federal agencies that support chemical research (DOD, DOE, NIH, NSF) in order to help identify ways to assist these organizations. Individual Board members also maintain liaison with non-governmental organizations such as the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the Council on Chemical Research, the Chemistry and Biochemistry Sections of the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Academy of Engineering. The following BCST committees and subcommittees are described: committee to survey opportunities in the chemical sciences; committee on hazardous substances in the laboratory; committee on nuclear and radiochemistry; committee on separation science and technology; subcommittee on basic chemical research related to energy resources; subcommittee on the public perception of chemistry. A current roster of members of the BCST is included

  11. High-capacity content-addressable memory architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Philip D.; Lis, Steven A.

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes a new hardware architecture for searching and accessing data. This Content Addressable Memory (CAM) can be implemented using holographic storage in spectral hole burning media. The use of laser wavelength as a fourth dimension for volume holographic recording provides an additional addressing variable which can be used to advantage in a CAM architecture. This paper consists of three parts: definition of a CAM, presentation of two CAM concepts for digital data string and analog function search, and a discussion of architecture issues.

  12. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  13. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  14. Ethics of Chemical Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Schummer

    2001-01-01

    Unlike other branches of science, the scientific products of synthetic chemistry are not only ideas but also new substances that change our material world, for the benefit or harm of living beings. This paper provides for the first time a systematical analysis of moral issues arising from chemical synthesis, based on concepts of responsibility and general morality. Topics include the questioning of moral neutrality of chemical synthesis as an end in itself, chemical weapons research, moral ob...

  15. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  16. Border carbon adjustments: Addressing emissions embodied in trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, M; Barrett, J

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one fourth of global emissions are embodied in international trade and a significant portion flows from non-carbon-priced to carbon-priced economies. Border carbon adjustments (BCAs) figure prominently as instruments to address concerns arising from unilateral climate policy. Estimating the volume of emissions that could be potentially taxed under a BCA scheme has received little attention until now. This paper examines how a number of issues involved in the implementation of BC...

  17. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  18. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  19. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  20. Sump clogging issue: Viktoria loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'sump clogging issue' is one of the most important nuclear safety issues identified during the last decade. It concerns the operational characteristics of the filtration function used on a reactor during the recirculation phase of the safety injection system (SIS) and containment spray system (SS), in the event of a primary loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Certain questions remain still open; in particular the LOCA induced long-term debris effects increasing the head loss of the filter by chemical precipitation or 'downstream effects' on safety equipment and fuel assemblies, as a combined action of the temperature and the chemical composition of the solution in the sumps. The need to consider these more complex effects led to the design of a new and more flexible loop. The main objectives of the new test loop Viktoria are to study a filter module taking into account: head loss, chemical effects, gas effects and downstream effects. This loop is being built at Levice (Slovakia)

  1. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  2. Nuclear Education and training: addressing a global need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing concern about the difficulties nuclear institutions in many OECD/NEA member countries are experiencing in recruiting qualified specialists. Recent studies have also shown that nuclear education and training have been suffering declines of various degrees. If no action is taken on this issue, the nuclear sector risks facing a shortage of qualified human resources to ensure the appropriate regulation and operation of existing nuclear facilities as well as the construction of new ones in those countries wishing to do so. The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy issued a statement on this subject in October 2007, the complete text of which is available at: www.nea.fr/html/general/press/2007/2007-05.html. The NEA has for many years been involved in efforts to define and address the need for qualified human resources. In this regard, the Agency: 1- carries out assessments of requirements and availability of qualified human resources in the nuclear field, 2- enhances nuclear education programmes, such as the International School of Nuclear Law, and 3- encourages large, high-profile international research and development programmes. These areas are addressed in the NEA Strategic Plan as well as in the specific NEA programmes discussed below. The presentation will focus on ways to address the issue of qualified human resources, share information about what others are doing, and discuss what we might do collectively. (author)

  3. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    the one for oceans. Encouragingly, while they argue that we've already crossed one key boundary in the P cycle, they also suggest it's not a Rubicon moment. The inefficiencies in P use that motivate these boundary debates are also clear targets for improvement, and some world regions may be on a trajectory towards greater P use efficiency (Vitousek et al 2009). This is a critical step for society, because even absent concerns over freshwater eutrophication or marine anoxic events, accelerating rates of P mining and inefficiencies in agricultural P use would still pose very real threats. There is legitimate debate over when readily accessible P reserves may run out (Cordell et al 2009, Van Kauenbergh 2010), but nobody argues with their finite nature. Sooner or later, we will be forced to keep P out of our waterways, if only because we will have to keep it on our farms. Without such a shift, we may face severe P constraints to food security within just a few human generations. As current P reserves decline, rising economic values of low concentration P stores may catalyze their harvest, but without considerable policy interventions, that price hike would exacerbate already strong global inequities in the distribution and use of chemical fertilizers (Sanchez and Swaminathan 2005). The harvest of low concentration P reserves would also create substantial collateral damage to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, even without exhaustion of high-concentration P reserves, their location in only a few countries creates geopolitical risks from the demand for an increasingly valuable resource (Cordell et al 2009). Policies aimed at lowering P inputs to aquatic environments will not only reduce the eutrophication risks explored by Carpenter and Bennett, they will increase P retention in agricultural landscapes and slow the decline of finite P reserves. Shifts in human diets can also make a profound difference in the amount of P (and N) required to meet caloric needs. Society

  4. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  5. Intertextuality for Handling Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhring, Anne Kristine; Knain, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere is the need for handling complexity more pertinent than in addressing environmental issues. Our study explores students' situated constructs of complexity in unfolding discourses on socio-scientific issues. Students' dialogues in two group-work episodes are analysed in detail, with tools from Systemic Functional Linguistics. We identify…

  6. Major Health Issues for States: 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, David

    Health care will continue to occupy a prominent place in state legislative deliberations, as indicated by the National Conference of State Legislatures' 1987 State Issues Survey. The survey addressed state actions in these health issue areas: (1) health care for the medically indigent; (2) medical malpractice; (3) certificate of need and health…

  7. Education Issues in Rural Schools of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    To have an impact on rural schools and communities, education researchers and reformers must stop approaching rural issues from an urban perspective, adopt a perspective that values rurality, and address issues specific to the rural context. Rural schools have contributed to the depletion of rural communities by focusing on individual mobility and…

  8. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  9. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

    2005-12-01

    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  10. Issues in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focussing on the standard electroweak model, we examine physics issues which may be addressed with the help of intense beams of strange particles. I have collected miscellany of issues, starting with some philosophical remarks on how things stand and where we should go from here. I will then focus on a case study: the decay K+ → π+ + nothing observable, which provides a nice illustration of the type of physics that can be probed through rare decays. Other topics I will mention are CP violation in K-decays, hyperon and anti-hyperon physics, and a few random comments on other relevant phenomena

  11. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  12. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  13. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  14. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: A review of technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information gathered and analyzed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) efforts to develop a rule that will ensure that workers with unescorted access to protected areas of nuclear power plants are fit for duty. This report supplements information previously published in NUREG/CR-5227, Fitness for Duty in the Nuclear Power Industry: A Review of Technical Issues (Barnes et al., 1988). The primary potential fitness-for-duty concern addressed in both of these reports is impairment caused by substance abuse, although other fitness concerns are discussed. This report addresses issues pertaining to workers' use and misuse of alcohol, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs as fitness-for-duty concerns; responds to several questions raised by NRC Commissioners; discusses subversion of the chemical testing process and methods of preventing such subversion; and examines concerns about the urinalysis cutoff levels used when testing for marijuana metabolites, amphetamines, and phencyclidine

  15. Radiation and occupational health: keynote address: the impact of radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of address discusses the following issue: sources of exposure, effects of ionizing radiations, deterministic effects, stochastic effects, in utero exposure, recommendations of radiation protection: principles, practices, intervention, radiation protection in practices

  16. Republic of Congo; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes poverty and inequalities in Congo and the public expenditure priorities for inclusive growth. Congo’s outlook of more limited fiscal space, in view of the need for fiscal consolidation, makes it all the more important that public expenditure programs maximize their impact. This paper highlights the scope to reorient public expenditure policies to better address poverty and inequality. Based on the recent World Bank Public Expenditure Management and Financ...

  17. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants.

  18. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Sonia Malik

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  19. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  20. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  1. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  2. Addressing the assessment of the ecological status of temporary streams; The "MIRAGE Tool-Box"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, N.; Gallart, F.; Rieradevall, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of the "ecological status" of water bodies, as requested by the European Water Framework Directive, is a cumbersome issue when it has to be applied to temporary streams. At the moment of sampling, the stream may be at the process of drying or, at worst, stream water may be even absent. In these conditions, the reference quality standards developed for permanent water bodies may not be applicable. Work conducted within the Collaborative MIRAGE EU-funded project (grant FP7 n° 211732) addressed most of these difficulties, and the diverse approaches used to solve them are brought together in the so-called 'MIRAGE tool-box'. This box consists of a general scheme based on the concept that qualitative states of the stream (such as the presence or absence of flowing water) are more relevant than the quantitative measures of water flow, along with a set of tools based on the project deliverables and published papers. The 'tools' included in this box deal with several issues, to know: the determination of the hydrological regime of the stream in terms of the relevance for aquatic life, the design of calendars for biological and chemical sampling, the fulfilment of criteria for reference conditions, the analysis of hydrological modifications of the stream regime, the representativeness of samples taken at different moments, and the development of new standards when stream hydrological conditions are far from those in permanent streams.

  3. New European policy on chemical products. REACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fernández Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2001 the European Commission issued a White Paper on a “Strategy for a future Chemicals Policy” based on a review of the current European Union system for regulating the dangerous substances and preparations. As a result, on 29 October 2003, the Commission endorsed a Proposal for a Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH. This proposal creates a European Chemicals Agency and establishes the REACH system with the following elements:Registration requires industry to obtain relevant information on their substances and to use data to manage them safely.Evaluation provides confidence that industry is meeting its obligations and prevents unnecessary testing.Authorisation of substances with properties of very high concern (CMRs, PBTs, endocrine disrupters for particular uses.Restriction as a safety net to manage risks that have not been addressed previously in the system.This system will provide information in several phases in order to know and reduce the risks derived from use of around 30,000 chemical substances that are manufactured/imported in the European Union in quantities over one ton per year. The information will be saved in a database after validation and may be used to establish a causal relationship between the environmental factors and the negative effects on health associated to the production and use of chemical products.

  4. IP MASQUERADING: A Network Address Translation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranji Lal Chowdhary; Prashant P.J.

    2010-01-01

    IP Masquerade, called "IPMASQ" or "MASQ" for short, is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers that do not have one or more registered Internet IP addresses to communicate to the Internet via the server's Internet IP address. Since IPMASQ is a generic technology, you can connect the server's internal and external to other computers through LAN technologies like Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI, as well as dialup connections line PPP or SLIP links....

  5. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  6. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. 16 CFR 681.2 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applies to a person described in § 681.1(a) that issues a debit or credit card (card issuer). (b... debit card. (2) Clear and conspicuous means reasonably understandable and designed to call attention to... of address if it receives notification of a change of address for a consumer's debit or credit...

  9. BERA Presidential Address 2013: Educational Research--What's to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In his inaugural Presidential Address, given to the BERA Conference 2013 at the University of Sussex, Ian Menter addresses a number of issues concerning educational policy and the contributions that educational research might make to policy development. As BERA approaches its fortieth anniversary, he also sets out some of the responsibilities that…

  10. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  11. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  12. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  13. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  14. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  15. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  16. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  17. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  18. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  19. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  20. Forest Law and Sustainable Development : Addressing Contemporary Challenges Through Legal Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence C. Christy; Di Leva, Charles E.; Lindsay, Jonathan M.; Takoukam, Patrice Talla

    2007-01-01

    This study is intended to be a systematic and practical guide to the basic features of modern forestry legislation. It identifies a range of issues that should be considered in assessing the adequacy of forest laws and presents options for addressing those issues in ways that may improve the effectiveness of law as a foundation for sustainable forest management. Part One locates forestry l...

  1. 12 CFR 222.91 - Duties of card issuers regarding changes of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... described in § 222.90(a) that issues a debit or credit card (card issuer). (b) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Cardholder means a consumer who has been issued a credit or debit card. (2) Clear and... notification of a change of address for a consumer's debit or credit card account and, within a short period...

  2. The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: Addressing the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John A.

    2006-10-01

    It is rapidly becoming apparent that energy is one of the most important issues facing our world today; in fact, in today's society energy is as important as food and water. Humankind finds itself faced the challenge of how to continue to power society, particularly in the face of the rapidly growing economies of emerging nations like India and China, and yet answer questions of sustainability, energy security, geopolitics and global environment. One of the major issues facing America and most other countries in the world is how to supply a transportation fuel, an energy carrier to replace gasoline. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The ``Hydrogen Economy'' then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. While the vision of a hydrogen economy has been around for over 130 years, the most recent push to use hydrogen as an energy carrier came as part of a US Presidential Initiative, announced in the 2003 State of the Union Address. It is important that we consider hydrogen in tandem with other technologies as an alternative to the once-abundant hydrocarbon resources on which our society depends. This talk will introduce sustainable energy systems, including fuel cell technology and discuss the vision, the barriers and possible pathways for the production and implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure.

  3. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    OpenAIRE

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  4. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  5. Use of multicriteria decision analysis to address conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A L; Bryce, R; Redpath, S M

    2013-10-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing on a global scale and instruments for reconciling competing interests are urgently needed. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured, decision-support process that can facilitate dialogue between groups with differing interests and incorporate human and environmental dimensions of conflict. MCDA is a structured and transparent method of breaking down complex problems and incorporating multiple objectives. The value of this process for addressing major challenges in conservation conflict management is that MCDA helps in setting realistic goals; entails a transparent decision-making process; and addresses mistrust, differing world views, cross-scale issues, patchy or contested information, and inflexible legislative tools. Overall we believe MCDA provides a valuable decision-support tool, particularly for increasing awareness of the effects of particular values and choices for working toward negotiated compromise, although an awareness of the effect of methodological choices and the limitations of the method is vital before applying it in conflict situations. PMID:23869557

  6. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  7. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13) item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70) companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and anal...

  8. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  9. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Addressing bias in the forensic assessment of sexual harassment claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, L H

    1998-01-01

    This article addresses unique biases that arise in the assessment of sexual harassment claims by forensic psychiatrists. These include gender biases, diagnostic biases, sociopolitical biases, and bias that arises from lack of knowledge regarding sexual harassment or lack of formal psychiatric training. Forensic psychiatrists are ethically obligated to strive for objectivity and honesty in their assessments. By becoming aware of these biases and attempting to minimize them, we can meet our ethical obligations as forensic psychiatrists. In addition, we can provide more credible and valuable assessments to the courts in this increasingly litigated and partisan issue. PMID:9894213

  11. A Case Study on Science Teacher Leadership to Address Diversity and Equity Through Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Nithya

    This qualitative case study focused on the multifaceted issue of exploring science teacher leaders understanding and addressing of issues of diversity and equity with peers through professional development. The purpose of the study was to highlight the opportunities and barriers to the addressing of issues of diversity and equity through the work of a community of teachers leaders in science professional development. To frame this study, the researcher drew from the interdisciplinary field of multicultural education, transformative learning, and teacher leadership. In drawing out the connections from these vast bodies of literature, the study speaks to the need of both, creating teacher leaders in science education who are capable of meeting the twin demands of excellence and equity, and also attending to the challenges in the professional learning continuums of teachers leaders and their peers towards addressing issues of diversity and equity in science education.

  12. Chemical Effects on PWR Sump Strainer Blockage After A Loss-Of-Coolant Accident: Review On U. S. Research Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industry- or regulatory-sponsored research activities on the resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-191 were reviewed, especially on the chemical effects. Potential chemical effects on the head loss across the debris-loaded sump strainer under a post-accident condition were experimentally evidenced by small-scale bench tests, integrated chemical effects test (ICET), and vertical loop head loss tests. Three main chemical precipitates were identified by WCAP-16530-NP: calcium phosphate, aluminum oxyhydroxide, and sodium aluminum silicate. The former two precipitates were also identified as major chemical precipitates by the ICETs. The assumption that all released calcium would form precipitates is reasonable. CalSil insulation needs to be minimized especially in a plant using trisodium phosphate buffer. The assumption that all released aluminum would form precipitates appears highly conservative because ICETs and other studies suggest substantial solubility of aluminum at high temperature and inhibition of aluminum corrosion by silicate or phosphate. The industry-proposed chemical surrogates are quite effective in increasing the head loss across the debris-loaded bed and more effective than the prototypical aluminum hydroxide precipitates generated by in-situ aluminum corrosion. There appears to be some unresolved potential issues related to GSI-191 chemical effects as identified in NUREG/CR-6988. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, however, concluded that the implications of these issues are either not generically significant or are appropriately addressed, although several issues associated with downstream in-vessel effects remain

  13. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  14. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  15. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain oral health. The research is evaluating motivational interviewing, counseling, and oral hygiene skills-building to establish which approach(es) is most effective. We are also in active discussions with NIH ...

  16. Addressing environmental issues through foraminifera – Case studies from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    The present global scenario poses multiple environmental problems such as the green house effect, ozone holes, global warming and consequential sea level rise, all being attributed to anthropogenic contributions. Obviously, there is an increased...

  17. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production including laying hens are continusly changing based on ethical and scientific results. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions (social stress) between animals. Selective...

  18. A systems engineering approach to address human capital management issues in the shipbuilding industry

    OpenAIRE

    Parten, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent human capital trends within the Department of Defense (DoD) and its contractors have shown a dramatic decrease in science and engineering skill levels due to retirement and attrition. This has caused major concern for leaders, especially regarding engineering talent necessary for shipbuilding. This study investigated current DoD Human Capital Management (HCM) strategies for attracting, developing, retaining and managing competencies and intellectual resources for science and enginee...

  19. Addressing Return-to-Work Issues in the Federal Employees' Compensation Act with Administrative Data.

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Maxwell; Albert Liu; Nathan Wozny; Caroline Massad Francis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of workers' compensation claims, case management indicators, and work outcomes using administrative data on the cases reported under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act from 2005 to 2010.

  20. Gender, sex and HIV: how to address issues that no-one wants to hear about

    OpenAIRE

    Welbourn, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the limitations of conventional Information, Education and Communication (IEC) approaches to HIV prevention and describes Stepping Stones, one approach which 1) is more holistic in recognising the location of HIV in a broader sexual and reproductive health (SRH) context; 2) emphasises the importance of a gendered perspective throughout; and 3) works on the basis that, with good facilitation, ordinary community members are those most able to develop the best solutions for ...

  1. End of Life and Life After Death - Issues to be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Poojar Sridhar; Pramod Kallur Parameshwar Renuka; Ravikiran Bonanthaya

    2012-01-01

    Being an Oncologist, I have seen many patients suffering from cancer. It pains a lot looking at them fighting the battle of life, though knowing that they would lose miserably and surrender meekly as majority of the patients report to the hospital at an advanced stage of disease and only palliative care may be the option. There is an urgent need to create - Cancer Awareness in the villages and also about the end of life care in all terminally ill patients. 20 patients in the terminal phase we...

  2. Auroral physics at Jupiter: Outstanding issues to be addressed by Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; McComas, D. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Gladstone, R.; Adriani, A.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S. J.

    2015-10-01

    Juno is on course to enter polar orbit at Jupiter on July 4, 2016. After a small number of preliminary orbits during which the orbital period is reduced, approximately 30 science orbits will be executed to explore the interior of Jupiter, hence, its origin. A second primary objective of the mission, and the subject of this talk, is to carry out the first exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere with an emphasis on the physics of the Jovian aurora. All previous missions to Jupiter, including Ulysses, remained at low Jovian latitudes at close range, hence, our knowledge of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere and, in particular auroral processes, is a composite of remote sensing (such as radio emissions in the hectometric and decametric bands as well as IR and UV images); application of observations of Earth's auroral and polar cap particles, fields, and auroral emissions; and modeling. While these likely inform our expectations of what Juno will actually measure qualitatively, Juno will provide the first in depth exploration of auroral processes at another planet, other than a small number of very brief encounters of Saturn's kilometric radio source region by Cassini. With a reasonably complete suite of in situ magnetospheric measurements coupled with remote sensing, Juno will enable us to compare the physics of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere with those expectations. Certainly, understanding the nature of auroral currents and mechanisms for particle acceleration are high on the list of priorities for these studies. In addition, it is expected that Juno will greatly improve our understanding of the mapping of auroral processes from high latitudes and low altitudes to the middle and outer magnetosphere.

  3. 2009 Virginia Forage-Beef Summit to address key issues facing livestock industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    On Jan. 12-15, Virginia Cooperative Extension, the Virginia Forage and Grassland Council, and the Virginia Cattleman's Association are joining forces to host educational workshops on optimizing livestock and forage efficiencies in times of change.

  4. Improvements to address issues leading to cancellation of the July 2014 Plutonium shot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benage, John F.,

    2015-02-01

    Overview: A Pu shot scheduled for July 17 on the Z machine at SNL was cancelled this past summer. The LiF windows on the Pu targets were cracked during assembly because of configuration changes. Sandia management concluded that continuing with this experiment would present an unacceptable level of risk to the facility and possibly to the workers. In this report, we document the events that occurred which led to this decision and also present some lessons learned and plans and procedures put in place to reduce the likelihood of another such occurrence. The changes and this memorandum reflect the thinking of subject matter experts at both LANL and SNL. These changes represent significant improvements in both communication protocols and quality of the hardware assemblies.

  5. Improvement of GVSRM with Addressing the Interoperability Issues in Global Village

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mollahoseini Ardakani; Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    In today's globally networked environment, enterprises need collaborating using Information Technology (IT) and other tools to succeed in this dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. The Global Village Services Reference Model (GVSRM) is a model based on SOSA (Service Oriented Strategies and Architectures) ontology for global village services realization. In this model, three architectural abstraction layers have been considered for global village: ‘infrastructure for global village s...

  6. [Violence in old age: the issue addressed in indexed national journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Anúbes Pereira; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Sousa, Eduardo Sérgio Soares; Marcondes, Willer Baumgarten

    2013-05-01

    One of the consequences of increased life expectancy is the increase in the elderly population in many countries, including Brazil. Considering the vulnerability of this age group and the increasing prevalence of violence against the elderly, there is a pressing need for research and control interventions to minimize the phenomenon. This exploratory and descriptive article conducts an analysis into this topic in indexed Brazilian studies in SciELO, with special emphasis on the last five years. The themes were categorized into: Social construction and conceptualizations, 37.5%; Elderly Care and Protection Policies, 43.75%; and Typology of violence against the elderly, 18.75%. The results show that the Policy of protection of the elderly permeates the majority of discussions about violence in old age and the focus of the researchers' attention is on domestic violence, which needs to be broadened in field research. PMID:23670456

  7. Stream macroinvertebrate response models for bioassessment metrics: addressing the issue of spatial scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Waite

    Full Text Available We developed independent predictive disturbance models for a full regional data set and four individual ecoregions (Full Region vs. Individual Ecoregion models to evaluate effects of spatial scale on the assessment of human landscape modification, on predicted response of stream biota, and the effect of other possible confounding factors, such as watershed size and elevation, on model performance. We selected macroinvertebrate sampling sites for model development (n = 591 and validation (n = 467 that met strict screening criteria from four proximal ecoregions in the northeastern U.S.: North Central Appalachians, Ridge and Valley, Northeastern Highlands, and Northern Piedmont. Models were developed using boosted regression tree (BRT techniques for four macroinvertebrate metrics; results were compared among ecoregions and metrics. Comparing within a region but across the four macroinvertebrate metrics, the average richness of tolerant taxa (RichTOL had the highest R(2 for BRT models. Across the four metrics, final BRT models had between four and seven explanatory variables and always included a variable related to urbanization (e.g., population density, percent urban, or percent manmade channels, and either a measure of hydrologic runoff (e.g., minimum April, average December, or maximum monthly runoff and(or a natural landscape factor (e.g., riparian slope, precipitation, and elevation, or a measure of riparian disturbance. Contrary to our expectations, Full Region models explained nearly as much variance in the macroinvertebrate data as Individual Ecoregion models, and taking into account watershed size or elevation did not appear to improve model performance. As a result, it may be advantageous for bioassessment programs to develop large regional models as a preliminary assessment of overall disturbance conditions as long as the range in natural landscape variability is not excessive.

  8. Introduction: what are the issues in addressing the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods?

    OpenAIRE

    Dean D. Metcalfe

    2003-01-01

    There is growing concern among the general public and the scientific community regarding the potential toxicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The use of biotechnology to enhance pest resistance or nutritional value has raised a number of fundamental questions including the consequences of insertion of reporter genes, the spread of resistance genes to surrounding plants, and the use of suicide genes to prohibit reuse of seed from engineered plants. Of particular interest is the abi...

  9. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes; Trond Bjornard

    2011-07-01

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  10. The role of high frequency monitoring in understanding nutrient pollution processes to address catchment management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine; Owen, Gareth; Barber, Nick; Adams, Russell; ODonnell, Greg; EdenDTC Team

    2015-04-01

    The process insights afforded to catchment scientists through the availability of high frequency time series of hydrological and nutrient pollution datasets are invaluable. However, the observations reveal both good and bad news for the WFD. Data for flow, N, P and sediment (taken at 30 min intervals) from the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment and several other detailed UK studies, will be used to discuss nutrient fluxes in catchments between 1km2 and 10km2. Monitoring of the seasonal groundwater status and the forensic analysis of numerous storm events have identified dominant flow pathways and nutrient losses. Nonetheless, many of the management questions demanded by the WFD will not be resolved by collecting these datasets alone. Long term trends are unlikely to be determined from these data and even if trends are found they are unlikely to be accurately apportioned to the activities that have caused them. The impacts of where and when an action takes place will not be detected at the catchment scale and the cost effectiveness of any mitigation method is unlikely to be quantifiable. Even in small well instrumented catchments the natural variability in rainfall, antecedent patterns and the variability in farming practices will mask any identifiable catchment scale signal. This does not mean the cost of the data acquisition has been wasted, it just means that the knowledge and expertise gained from these data should be used in new novel ways. It will always be difficult to quantify the actual losses occurring at the farm or field scale, but the positive benefits of any mitigation may still be approximated. The evidence for the rate of nutrient removal from a local sediment trap, wetland and a pond can be shown with high resolution datasets. However, any quantifiable results are still highly localised and the transfer and upscaling of any findings must be done with care. Modelling these datasets is also possible and the nature of models have evolved in the light of improved data, particularly in the representation of storm driven flow pathways. Hence the aggregation and the impact of any management or mitigation will rely on having confidence that local activities are beneficial, that a basket of measures merit pursuing, and are worthy of funding. A novel set of data driven risk-based indices, impact models and new experiments are needed to show the worth of catchment scale management. The high frequency data have been useful to build knowledge but a quantifiable cause and effect remains an elusive goal at the catchment scale.

  11. Data Publication: Addressing the Issues of Provenance, Attribution, Citation, and Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.

    2010-12-01

    Motivated by publisher and funding agency mandates, and a desire to properly attribute data sets to originating investigators, the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and a team of data managers and scientists are collaborating with representatives from the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. The work is inspired by a June 2008 SCOR/IODE Workshop on Data Publishing. The goal is to identify best practices for tracking data provenance and clearly attributing credit to data collectors/providers for data published in journal articles. To improve efficacy of data directly associated with a scientific article those data must be discoverable, citeable and freely available on the Internet. Resources, standards, and workflows must be defined to support publisher and funding agency mandates. For the data to be discoverable, appropriate metadata, defined using community accepted metadata standards, must be associated with the data source. Data will be made citeable by the assignment of a persistent identifier as well as provenance and attribution metadata. The availability of the data will be assured by submission to a data repository that has stability and permanence. In April 2010, project participants were challenged to develop and execute pilot projects related to two use cases in which: (1) data held by data centers are packaged and served in formats that can be cited and (2) data related to traditional journal articles are assigned persistent identifiers referred to in the articles and stored in institutional repositories, such as DSpace. The MBLWHOI Library team chose to focus on data that support published articles, particularly the data used to create the figures and tables. Several published papers were identified and used to test the MBLWHOI Library model based on open archive technology. We will report on the successful implementation of the e-repository model for publication of data associated with the pilot projects and summarize the strategies for meeting the cultural and technical challenges.

  12. Addressing the Bandwidth issue in End-to-End Header Compression over IPv6 Tunneling Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One day IPv6 is going to be the default protocol used over the internet. But till then we are going to have the networks which IPv4, IPv6 or both networks. There are a number of migration technologies which support this transition like dual stack, tunneling & header translation. In this paper we are improving the efficiency of IPv6 tunneling mechanism, by compressing the IPv6 header of the tunneled packet as IPv6 header is of largest length of 40 bytes. Here the tunnel is a multi hop wireless tunnel and results are analyzed on the basis of varying bandwidth of wireless network. Here different network performance parameters like throughput, End-to-End delay, Jitter, and Packet delivery ratio are taken into account and the results are compared with uncompressed network. We have used Qualnet 5.1 Simulator and the simulation results shows that using header compression over multi hop IPv6 tunnel results in better network performance and bandwidth savings than uncompressed network.

  13. Education Policies and Practices to Address Cultural Diversity in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.

    2012-01-01

    The 1969 racial riot in Kuala Lumpur served as a historical landmark in the development of Malaysian education, as it raised concerns about the state of national unity in the country. Subsequently, education was coupled with the socioeconomic restructuring of Malaysian society in line with the New Economic Policy (NEP) that commenced in 1970.…

  14. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  15. Parliamentary role and relationship in effectively addressing climate change issues - Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.

    2011-01-15

    Climate change is defined as any long-term and significant change in the expected patterns of a specific region's average weather for an appropriately significant period of time. It is the result of several factors, including Earth?s dynamic processes, external forces, and more recently, human activity. External factors that shape climate include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in Earth's orbit, and variations in the level of greenhouse gas concentrations. Evidence of climatic change taken from a variety of sources can, in turn, be used to reconstruct past climates. Most climate evidence is inferred from changes in key climate indicators, including vegetation, ice cores, dendrochronology, sea-level change, and glacial geology. Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social, and economic threats facing the planet today. In developing countries, Swaziland included, climate change will likely have a significant impact on the livelihoods and living conditions of the poor. It is a particular threat to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and progress in sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing temperatures and shifting rain patterns across Africa reduce access to food and create effects that impact regions, farming systems, households, and individuals in varying ways. Additional global changes, including changed trade patterns and energy policies, have the potential to exacerbate the negative effects of climate change on some of these systems and groups.

  16. Media Literacy as an Educational Method for Addressing College Women's Body Image Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Karen L.; Alexander, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of media literacy in the college classroom by comparing two modalities of learning, watching a video versus reading a text. The research questions guiding this project are: as teachers can we facilitate critical awareness among our students in order to alter the way women appropriate media images to evaluate…

  17. Land — A Multidisciplinary Journal Addressing Issues at the Land Use and Sustainability Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Millington

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some authorities argue that land is the most fundamental of natural resources. If their arguments fail to convince, we certainly have to cede that land is a limited natural resource. Aside from a few thousand Moken living on the Andaman Sea, humans are tied to the land. Most of us live, eat and sleep on land, even oil rig workers in the Gulf of Mexico, Filipino merchant seamen, Japanese fishermen and British naval ratings divide their lives between sea and land. As the world’s population has grown we have not, with the exception of the industrious Dutch, created land at the expense of the sea. The 29% of the world’s surface that is land, has for many millennia been vitally important in terms of how societies have evolved. Land resources have fed and clothed us, enabled us to build things, and spawned conflicts. [...

  18. Postpartum depression in an Indian community: more prevalent less addressed issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Nigam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: There is high prevalence of postpartum depression outskirts of Lucknow. Thus it appears pertinent to screen all women for postpartum depression after child-birth in this area so as to improve maternal and child health. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2691-2695

  19. Fifth Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address: Issues in quantifying the effects of low-level radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhead, Dudley T

    2009-11-01

    Health risks from exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation are well characterized from epidemiological studies. Uncertainty and controversy remain for extension of these risks to the low doses and low dose rates of particular relevance in the workplace, in medical diagnostics and screening, and from background radiations. In order to make such extrapolations, a number of concepts have been developed for radiation protection, partly on the basis of assumed processes in the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Included amongst these are the assumptions of a linear no-threshold dose response and simple scaling factors for dose rate and radiation quality. With a progressive reduction in recommended dose limits over the past half century, these approaches have had considerable success in protecting humans. But do they go far enough or, conversely, are they overprotective? Four selected underlying aspects are considered. It is concluded that (1) even the lowest dose of radiation has the capability to cause complex DNA damage that can lead to a variety of permanent cellular changes; (2) the unique clustered characteristics of radiation damage, even at very low doses, enable it to stand out above the much larger quantity of endogenous DNA damage; (3) although a chromosome aberration may represent the rate-limiting initiating event for carcinogenesis, as is often assumed, direct evidence is still lacking; and (4) the extensive influence that dicentric aberrations have had on guiding extrapolations for radiation protection may be substantially misleading. Finally, some comments are offered on aspects that lie outside the current paradigm. PMID:19820449

  20. Intent, Capability and Opportunity: A Holistic Approach to Addressing Proliferation as a Risk Management Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, proliferation risk assessment models are designed to evaluate only a portion of the overall risk, focusing exclusively on either technological or social factors to determine the extent of a threat. Many of these models are intended to act as a means of predicting proliferation potential rather than assessing the system as a whole, ignoring the ability to enhance mitigating factors and manage, rather just establish the presence of, the threat. While the information garnered through these forms of analysis is necessary, it remains incomplete. By incorporating political, social, economic and technical capabilities as well as human factors such as intent into a single, multi-faceted risk management model, proliferation risk can be evaluated more effectively. Framing this information around how to improve and expand the Regime already in place and establishing where there are gaps in the system allows for a more complete approach to risk management, mitigation and resource allocation. The research conducted here seeks to combine all three elements (intent, capability and opportunity) in a comprehensive evaluation which incorporates an assessment of state-level variables, possible proliferation pathways and technical capability. Each portion of the analysis is carried out independently then combined to illustrate the full scope of a State's nuclear infrastructure while showing areas of weakness in the institutional framework.

  1. Gastric myeloid sarcoma - A report of two cases addressing diagnostic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viijaya Gadage

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented herein are two cases of gastric myeloid sarcoma to highlight the diagnostic conundrum and pointers toward accurate diagnosis in such instances. The first case was a 35-year-old man with an ulceronodular mass in the body of stomach. Multiple biopsies were reported as inconclusive chiefly due to the fact that the lamina propria infiltrate was innocuous and failed to mark with CD20 or CD3. Subsequently the patient had extensive disseminated disease which was recognized as myeloid sarcoma but patient succumbed to the disease soon. The second case was a 25-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction since 6 months. An endoscopy revealed diffuse gastric wall thickening which on biopsy was recognized as myeloid sarcoma but patient developed intestinal obstruction and required ileal resection for symptomatic relief, postoperative patient never recovered and succumbed to the disease. Both patients had marrow involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2 with a normal leukocyte count in peripheral blood. Thus gastric myeloid sarcomas are prone to a delayed diagnosis chiefly due to rarity. Pathologist should think of myeloid sarcoma in a hematolymphoid appearing tumor in stomach that is CD20, CD3 negative, has avid Ki67 and shows an infiltrate chiefly centered in lamina propria.

  2. Stabilising the Capital Market of Bangladesh: Addressing the Structural, Institutional and Operational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Khondaker Golam Moazzem; Md. Tariqur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The capital market of Bangladesh is passing through a period of extreme volatility, uncertainty and grave crisis. This paper provides a brief review of the problems that characterise the capital market in Bangladesh; carries out a critical review of the initiatives taken till December 2011 to rescue the market and examines the implications of such measures for the market (if any); and puts forward a number of concrete recommendations towards restoration of market confidence and stability.

  3. Addressing environmental issues through foraminifera - Case studies from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Workshop_IGCP-514_42.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Workshop_IGCP-514_42.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Nishikawa; Kiyoka Niiya; Masako Okayasu

    2014-01-01

    When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was devel...

  5. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptati...

  6. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  7. Addressing key science and technology issues for IFE chambers, target fabrication and target injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the development of high repetition rate chambers, target fabrication and injection for inertial fusion energy (IFE) for both heavy ion and laser drivers. Research is being conducted in a coordinated manner by national laboratories, universities and industry. This paper provides an overview of U.S. research activities and discusses how interface considerations (such as beam propagation and target survival during injection) impact design choices. (author)

  8. Addressing Waste Management Issues for D and D of Excess Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Manhattan Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been engaged in developing and demonstrating nuclear and radiochemical processes at the laboratory and pilot plant scale. Many of these processes were later implemented in Department of Energy (DOE) production facilities across the U.S. and in producing radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications. These activities have resulted in a large variety of unique remote handled legacy wastes and contaminated hot cell facilities. The DOE has established the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) to dispose of the legacy waste and to deactivate, decontaminate and decommission (D and D) ∼300 facilities no longer needed for the Oak Ridge mission. The IFDP will be required to characterize, treat, package, and dispose of a variety of waste streams, including remote handled solid waste streams for which no treatment capability currently exists at ORNL. In addition, the existing waste management systems at ORNL are thirty plus years old and are reaching the end of their design life. They will require replacement and/or significant upgrades in order to meet the future needs of the IFDP. Difficult-to-handle remote handled solid materials that must be dispositioned include materials that contain approximately 27 million curies (Sr-90 equivalents) with dose rates as high as one million R/hr. The materials that must be handled range from less than inch in all dimensions to extremely large components; the largest identified to date are 9'x9'x9', 34 ton casks. Included in this list are a number of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) containing ∼104-106 curies of cesium or strontium and hazardous components (e.g., mercury and other heat transfer and heat sensing materials) that must be dismantled to allow recovery and segregation of the radioisotope from the hazardous materials and repackaging of the materials to meet waste acceptance criteria. A number of materials will require 'down-blending' followed by solidification to meet disposal site waste acceptance criteria. In addition to these discreet RH solids materials that must be handled as part of the facility deactivation and legacy waste streams, significant quantities of RH waste materials will be generated during the D and D and demolition of excess hot cells and several shutdown nuclear reactors. This paper describes the efforts that have been undertaken to estimate future waste generation, define efficient waste treatment and disposal options, and develop a strategy for implementing them in a cost-effective manner, including waste treatment systems that are being designed to support the IFDP D and D efforts. (authors)

  9. Use of videophone technology to address medication adherence issues in persons with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Skrajner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Skrajner1, Cameron J Camp1, Jessica L Haberman1, Timothy G Heckman2, Arlene Kochman3, Cristina Frentiu11Hearthstone Alzheimer Care, Willoughby, OH, USA; 2Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Northfield, OH, USA; 3Callen-Lorde Community Health Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART medication regimens is vital to maintaining suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, but persons with HIV face many challenges to adhering consistently to HIV medication regimens. This is particularly true for persons who live in geographically-isolated areas or who have significant levels of cognitive compromise. A videophone-based version of Reynolds’ HAART CARE (HC telephone intervention for medication adherence was pilot-tested with 23 persons living with HIV residing in both urban and non-urban communities. The purpose of the pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of an adherence improvement intervention administered via videophones. Furthermore, the feasibility and acceptability of conducting HIV pill counts through videophones were assessed. The videophone version of HC produced significant increases in self-reported rates of medication adherence and was generally well-received by interventionists and participants. Pill counts conducted via videophone were also well-accepted by participants. Self-reported adherence levels were higher than videophone-based pill count adherence levels. Challenges to the use of videophones included the requirement that only analog landlines be used, poor quality of video and audio transmissions, and high cost for equipment. Methods to overcome these challenges are discussed.Keywords: videophone, HIV, HAART, adherence

  10. CRITICAL ISSUES ADDRESSED TO RUNAWAY ELECTRON GENERATION EXPECTED AT MAJOR DISRUPTIONS IN REACTOR-SCALE TOKAMAKS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plyusnin, V.V.; Johnson, M.F.; Alter, B.; Felton, R.; Mlynář, Jan; JET EFDA, Contributors.

    Kloster Seeon, 2007. O-14. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems/10th./. 8.10.2007-10.10.2007, Kloster Seeon] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Runaway electrons * disruptions * fusion reactor s * JET * thermal quench * reconnection * tomography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  11. Chemicals in the oil industry. Recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cookson, L.; Ogden, P.H. [eds.

    1998-05-01

    Increasing water breakthrough in maturing oil-wells and the need to develop less accessible oil deposits has led to steadily growing consumption of well management and production chemicals. This, together with higher performance requirements of chemical formulations and increasing restriction of chemical choice due to environmental constraints, makes this industry a highly challenging one. However, reward for success can be high, and the combined chemical and service value of this market has been estimated to be worth billions. This book covers a wide range of subjects concerned with the application of chemistry in the drilling for, handling, and transportation of crude oil. Aimed at the interface between chemistry and engineering, where cost considerations are of vital importance, the book addresses developments over the past few years, both technical and commercial, with particular reference to the emergence of alliances between oil producers and major supply and service companies. It concentrates on those topics such as environmental issues, reservoir souring and analytical developments, where there is an immediate need for innovation. (author)

  12. Census Bureau Planned Acquisition: Address Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Census Bureau updates and maintains address data to support the correct allocation of population and housing for censuses and surveys. Boundaries, streets,...

  13. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beverage Toolkit Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Updated:Aug 4,2014 The discussion of weight ... tips on how to make talking with your doctor about weight and childhood obesity less daunting: Come ...

  14. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  15. Measuring the Density Matrix by Local Addressing

    CERN Document Server

    Kis, Z

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a procedure to measure the density matrix of a material system. The density matrix is addressed locally in this scheme by applying a sequence of delayed light pulses. The procedure is based on the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. It is shown that a series of population measurements on the target state of the population transfer process yields unambiguous information about the populations and coherences of the addressed states, which therefore can be determined.

  16. Instrument Mixes Addressing Mercury Emissions to Air

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with "instruments used to address mercury emissions to air", by which is meant all legislation, regulation and other measures intended to control or reduce anthropogenic, atmospheric mercury emissions. As the links are complex between actual inputs of mercury to society (consumption for intended use and mobilisation of mercury-impurities via industrial processes) and the final release sources, all types of measures addressing any phase in the life-cycle of mercury which may u...

  17. Addressing non-tariff measures in ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  18. Addressing Non-tariff Measures in ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members‘ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  19. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. V. Pathi; M. Premchand; Ramesh Chandra; B. Prudhvi Raj

    2013-01-01

    Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Althou...

  20. Address Points, address, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'address'....

  1. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee's evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable

  2. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Prowse, J. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoffman, P.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1995-03-24

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee`s evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable.

  3. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  4. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  5. Hepatitis C: education and counseling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, J E

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines issues and dilemmas faced by counselors and other health care providers in addressing the needs of active or recovering alcohol and drug users who test positive for HCV. The ambiguities and changing treatment prospects for these patients require education and counseling interventions, elements of which are described in the paper. Motivational enhancement issues are particularly important, to facilitate the patient's commitment to maintain a healthy life style while effective treatments are being developed. The high proportion of recovering staff in addiction treatment settings adds a level of complexity, as their concerns may mirror those of the patients being served, but are rarely addressed systematically within the program. PMID:11286429

  6. Theoretical issues in Spheromak research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R. H.; Hooper, E. B.; LoDestro, L. L.; Mattor, N.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Ryutov, D. D.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the state of theoretical knowledge of several physics issues important to the spheromak. It was prepared as part of the preparation for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), which addresses these goals: energy confinement and the physics which determines it; the physics of transition from a short-pulsed experiment, in which the equilibrium and stability are determined by a conducting wall (``flux conserver``) to one in which the equilibrium is supported by external coils. Physics is examined in this report in four important areas. The status of present theoretical understanding is reviewed, physics which needs to be addressed more fully is identified, and tools which are available or require more development are described. Specifically, the topics include: MHD equilibrium and design, review of MHD stability, spheromak dynamo, and edge plasma in spheromaks.

  7. Theoretical issues in Spheromak research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the state of theoretical knowledge of several physics issues important to the spheromak. It was prepared as part of the preparation for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), which addresses these goals: energy confinement and the physics which determines it; the physics of transition from a short-pulsed experiment, in which the equilibrium and stability are determined by a conducting wall (''''flux conserver'''') to one in which the equilibrium is supported by external coils. Physics is examined in this report in four important areas. The status of present theoretical understanding is reviewed, physics which needs to be addressed more fully is identified, and tools which are available or require more development are described. Specifically, the topics include: MHD equilibrium and design, review of MHD stability, spheromak dynamo, and edge plasma in spheromaks

  8. ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING INVOLVEMENT IN MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae TODEA; Ionela Cornelia CIOCA

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present some aspects referring to the relationship between environment and accounting, to effectiveness and manner in which environmental issues are monitored through accounting. The main objectives considered, aims at presenting international, European and national accounting standards, addressing environmental issues and the manner in which they are presented in accounting and then in the financial statements of Alba countys entities. The scientific approac...

  9. Global Financial Instability: Framework, Events, Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.

    1999-01-01

    Two of the key questions facing policymakers today are how to reduce the risk of global financial instability and how to cope with it when it occurs. This paper starts by defining financial instability and then showing how it harms economic activity. It then uses this framework to describe what happened during the recent financial crises in Mexico and East Asia. The paper ends by raising several key policy issues; not coincidentally, these issues are addressed in the remaining papers in the s...

  10. Methodological Issues in Negative Symptom Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Stephen R.; Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Awad, A George; Richard S E Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format to discuss important methodological issues in the design of trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the need for a coprimary functional measure for registration trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a proof-of-concept or registration...

  11. Issues for the anti pp SSC workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several outstanding issues related to proton-antiproton interactions with the Superconducting Super Collider are outlined. These include physics considerations such as the sufficiency of proton-antiproton versus proton-proton capability and the necessary maximum energy for the machine. Accelerator design issues are also addressed. Among these are injector, magnet and cooling system designs. A timetable is given for the reference design study and the scope of this study is outlined

  12. Mongolia; Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the main determinants of inflation in Mongolia using empirical tests based on a structural model approach and vector autoregression model, with a view to assessing whether inflation is predominantly affected by commodity prices or by money supply developments. Simulation and impulse response analyses are used to estimate components of the inflation dynamics under various exogenous shocks. The paper also addresses the mineral wealth management issues faced b...

  13. DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

    2010-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL’s test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in

  14. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles) are...... essential. Many life cycle assessments of product systems are performed without the inclusion of toxicity data and indicators. Ecodesign processes for products are often based upon just one, or very few, environmental indicators. Regulatory issues are sometimes addressed in an ad hoc fashion, often late in...... the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain for...

  15. EDITORIAL, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Alimet Sema

    2015-01-01

    It is an honor and privilige to publish the abstracts of the 11th Chemical Physics Congress (CPCXI) in the current issue of the The Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society, Section A: Chemistry (JOTCSA). 11th Chemical Physics Congress was organized by Piri Reis University in Istanbul on October 17-18,  2014.  The  Conference  covered  contributions  from experimental  and  theoretical  chemical physics research areas and will mainly be on the following themes:•  Thermodynamics and statistical...

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Joshua; Fox, William P.; Varazo, Kristofoland

    2007-01-01

    In beginning chemistry classes, students are taught a variety of techniques for balancing chemical equations. The most common method is inspection. This paper addresses using a system of linear mathematical equations to solve for the stoichiometric coefficients. Many linear algebra books carry the standard balancing of chemical equations as an…

  17. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI action plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program was established whereby an annual NUREG report would be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was compiled and reported in three NUREG volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). This annual NUREG report combines these volumes into a single report and provides updated information as of September 30, 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan Requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, and GSIs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  18. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities are...... highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework with the...

  19. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  20. South Africa; Selected Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995–96. The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3½ and 4 percent in 1996. Some aspects of the unemployment problem are addressed in this paper. The paper also focuses on the implications for policy of the steps taken in 1994 and 1995 to establish an outward-oriented economy, af...

  1. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  2. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    - Jacob (“mad cow” disease), and Alzheimer’s which are connected to “protein aggregation.” Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications...... of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer’s and similar diseases....

  3. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications. PMID:25284567

  4. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  5. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  6. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose these......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  7. E-Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Arora

    2012-10-01

    gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000. In this paper, I have covered the e-security issues such as elements of e-security, security threats or cyber crimes, tools for e-security, precautions for secure e-commerce and various studies regarding e-security issues.

  8. Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.

  9. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues. Supplement 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. Supplement 3 gives status as of September 30, 1993. This annual report, Supplement 4, presents updated information as of September 30, 1994. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  10. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements; unresolved safety issues; generic safety issues; other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. This third annual NUREG report, Supplement 3, presents updated information as of September 30, 1993. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  11. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  12. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  13. IP Address Use in Internetworking Routing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    tut quiz present anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: How routers use the elements of the IP address to forward packets of information., How information travels through the Internet.The interactions consists of pop-up definitions of terms, animations and self-check questions. EC3760 Introduction to Information Operations Engineering

  14. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  15. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  16. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  17. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  18. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding...

  19. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  20. Space reactor fuels performance and development issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three compact reactor concepts are now under consideration by the US Space Nuclear Power Program (the SP-100 Program) as candidates for the first 100-kWe-class space reactor. Each of these reactor designs puts unique constraints and requirements on the fuels system, and raises issues of fuel systems feasibility and performance. This paper presents a brief overview of the fuel requirements for the proposed space reactor designs, a delineation of the technical feasibility issues that each raises, and a description of the fuel systems development and testing program that has been established to address key technical issues