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  1. INCORPORATING MARKET ORIENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the main issues surrounding the concept of market orientation applied in the context of higher education. Considering the important changes taking place in this sector, a strong willingness of universities to adopt marketing concepts can be noticed. The paper seeks to provide a retrospect on this process, starting with the incorporation of marketing in higher education, and moving on to its implementation, which has come to be known as market orientation. Following a stream of the most relevant literature in the field, we present definitions of the main concepts, and integrate them in the education context, with the purpose of establishing the relevance and importance of market orientation for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage and higher institutional performance. The paper does not aim at providing an exhaustive literature review, but rather at presenting the main elements that define a market orientation, and at supporting its implementation, by outlining the significant benefits that could follow. While theoretical by nature, this research contributes to the body of literature in the field, through closely examining the conceptualization and operationalization of market orientation, and also providing the fundamental components that define the concept and help its implementation. Furthermore, the paper provides practitioners with a number of suggested research directions, which could potentially help improve educational institutions’ activity, while also contributing to a better understanding of the concept, and to building richer theories in the field of marketing education. Given that the marketing literature in Romania has mostly overlooked market orientation, both this paper, and all following research in this area will prove to be significant for education managers and researchers alike, promoting the importance and significance of relevant knowledge, and encouraging a

  2. INCORPORATING MARKET ORIENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordan Camelia; Pop Marius Dorel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the main issues surrounding the concept of market orientation applied in the context of higher education. Considering the important changes taking place in this sector, a strong willingness of universities to adopt marketing concepts can be noticed. The paper seeks to provide a retrospect on this process, starting with the incorporation of marketing in higher education, and moving on to its implementation, which has come to be known as marke...

  3. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  4. 77 FR 20847 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to... the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating... sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices...

  5. Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A graduate-level computational chemistry course was designed and developed and carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the Fall of 2005. The thrust of the course was a reaction assignment that led students through a series of steps, beginning with energetic predictions based upon fundamental…

  6. A Constrained CA Model for Planning Simulation Incorporating Institutional Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,it is prevailing to simulate urban growth by means of cellular automata (CA in short) modeling,which is based on selforganizing theories and different from the system dynamic modeling.Since the urban system is definitely complex,the CA models applied in urban growth simulation should take into consideration not only the neighborhood influence,but also other factors influencing urban development.We bring forward the term of complex constrained CA (CC-CA in short) model,which integrates the constrained conditions of neighborhood,macro socio-economy,space and institution.Particularly,the constrained construction zoning,as one institutional constraint,is considered in the CC-CA modeling.In the paper,the conceptual CC-CA model is introduced together with the transition rules.Based on the CC-CA model for Beijing,we discuss the complex constraints to the urban development of,and we show how to set institutional constraints in planning scenario to control the urban growth pattern of Beijing.

  7. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tumour modelling has the potential to assist in cancer treatment planning, by providing clinicians with patient specific predictions of treatment outcome. By implementing different radiotherapy (RT) schedules on a model, differential treatment outcome in terms of cell kill may be predicted. With the ability to assign a cell as either oxic, transiently hypoxic (temporal oxygen variations) or chronically hypoxic, the current model uniquely integrates the phenomenon of radiobiological hypoxia, which has been proven to a macroscopic tumour parameters with prognostic value, as seen in multiple HNSCC clinical trials. Features of the tumour growth model will be presented, along with a sensitivity analysis of the growth rate versus interchangeable parameters such as the random seed number, proportion of cells types etc. This will be followed by a justification and description of the hypoxia modelling technique. The in-silico model is programmed in the FORTRAN 95 language and is dedicated to squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) region. Each cell is declared as an object and possesses attributes which are stored as integers. The five attribute values are randomly selected from various distributions and stored for each cell. The attributes include; cell cycle time, the time of division, cell type, number of generations and pO2, which are condensed in to 6 bytes of memory space. In addition, the algorithm has been designed to incorporate a partial oxygen pressure (pO2) to mimic the microenvironment of each cell. The temporal characteristics of transient hypoxia considered have been taken from published literature. Cells are processed at a rate of 50,000 cells per second and using a symmetrical stem cell division probability of 2.5 %, tumour is developed with a doubling time of 45 days and a stem cell population of 1.6 % (values reported in the literature). A sensitivity analysis shows that the percentage probability of stem cell creation is the

  8. Incorporation of chemical kinetic models into process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important consideration in chemical process control is to determine the precise rationing of reactant streams, particularly when a large time delay exists between the mixing of the reactants and the measurement of the product. In this paper, a method is described for incorporating chemical kinetic models into the control strategy in order to achieve optimum operating conditions. The system is first characterized by determining a reaction rate surface as a function of all input reactant concentrations over a feasible range. A nonlinear constrained optimization program is then used to determine the combination of reactants which produces the specified yield at minimum cost. This operating condition is then used to establish the nominal concentrations of the reactants. The actual operation is determined through a feedback control system employing a Smith predictor. The method is demonstrated on a laboratory bench scale enzyme reactor

  9. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALS INCORPORATED WOOD FIBRE CEMENT MATRIX PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MST. SADIA MAHZABIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood fibre cement (WFC boards are well established commercially and widely used in many developed countries. The combination of the properties of two important materials, i.e., cement, and previously treated fibrous materials like wood or agricultural residues; which made up the board, contributed in the performance of the board as building material. In this work, the WFC matrix (WFCM samples are produced to determine the physical properties of WFCM such as the density and water absorption. The wood fibres are incorporated/treated with three different chemical additives; calcium formate (Ca(HCOO2, sodium silicate (Na2.SiO3 and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 prior to mixing with cement. The mechanical properties of the WFCM, with or without chemicals treatment of fibres, such as the compressive strength and flexural strength are evaluated. Three wood/cement ratios (50:50, 40:60, 30:70 are used and the percentages of water and accelerator were 80% and 3% based on the cement weight, respectively. Three moisture-conditioned samples; accelerated aging, dry and wet conditions are used for flexural test. The results reveal that the wood/cement ratio, chemical additives and moisture content had a marked influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix. Finally, it has been shown that the 40:60 wood/cement ratio samples with prior chemicals treatment of the fibres that undergo accelerated aging conditioning achieve higher strength then dry and wet-conditioned boards.

  10. Developing an institutional framework to incorporate ecosystem services into decision making-Proceedings of a workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna; Arthaud, Greg; Brookshire, David; Gunther, Tom; Pincetl, Stephanie; Shapiro, Carl; Van Horne, Bea

    2011-01-01

    The routine and effective incorporation of ecosystem services information into resource management decisions requires a careful consideration of the value of goods and services provided by natural systems. A multidisciplinary workshop was held in October 2008 on "Developing an Institutional Framework to Incorporate Ecosystem Services into Decision Making." This report summarizes that workshop, which focused on examining the relationship between an institutional framework and consideration of ecosystem services in resource management decision making.

  11. A New Model Incorporating Leadership and Institutional Factors as Mediating Variables in Regional Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Robert J; Stough, Roger R.

    2004-01-01

    Theories and approaches to endogenous growth and regional development tend to neglect or at best underplay the role of leadership and the way institutional factors are considered is usually simplistic. This paper builds on work the authors have been developing over the last year or so to develop a model framework of regional economic development that explicitly incorporates leadership and institutional factors along with the consideration of resource endowments and market fit and of entrepren...

  12. Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR: Expectation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, 5-6 (2013), s. 214-215. ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laboratory investigation * large-scale applications * novel instrumentation and technology . Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  14. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  15. Incorporation of 14C in chemical constituents of algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two marine algal species Dunaliella premodecta, Chlamydemonas sp. and one fresh water species Scenedesmus obliquus were studied for 14C incorporation under laboratory conditions. The uptake of 14C in dry marine algal species was found to be more compared to that in fresh water species for the same initial concentration in the respective media. A sequential extraction technique was employed to study the distribution of 14C in different organic constituents. 14C fixation was found to be more in fatty acid fractions followed by protein and nucleoprotein fraction. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2004-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its first annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2004. During this period, fourteen PNNL scientists hosted sixteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the sixteen participants, fourteen were graduate students; one was transitioning to graduate school; and one was a university faculty member.

  17. The incorporation of women to the secondary school Institutes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo FLECHA GARCÍA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of incorporation of women to the secondary school Institutes in Spain is entered upon in this article. To some studies thought as a preparation for University, because of what the presence of women in them wasn't for seen. Since the examinations taken by the first girl in the 1870-71 season in the Huelva's Institute, till the hundreds of the 1909-10 where in those Institutes, in almost all the provinces, in the 1909-10 season, he have distinguished three stages; in its case, marked by the font used, the one that last from 1870 to 1881; the second one, because of the new century, the one that goes from 1882 to 1899; a nd the third one, that ends in 1910, having in mind a change of law en relation to the women's access to the University. From now on a significant and constant increase of girls in the baccalaureate studies would be produced.

  18. Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Edition contains information about the history of Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, contact data and institute`s structure. The main developments of the institute are described also.Edition contains information about the history of Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, contact data and institute`s structure. The main developments of the institute are described also.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellos, Christos

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys­ tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...

  20. Incorporating domain knowledge in chemical and biomedical named entity recognition with word representations

    OpenAIRE

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Li, Meijing; Batsuren, Khuyagbaatar; Park, Hyeon Ah; Choi, Nak Hyeon; Ryu, Keun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical and biomedical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an essential prerequisite task before effective text mining can begin for biochemical-text data. Exploiting unlabeled text data to leverage system performance has been an active and challenging research topic in text mining due to the recent growth in the amount of biomedical literature. We present a semi-supervised learning method that efficiently exploits unlabeled data in order to incorporate domain knowledge into a named...

  1. 76 FR 63304 - Guidance for Industry on Incorporation of Physical-Chemical Identifiers Into Solid Oral Dosage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Incorporation of Physical-Chemical Identifiers... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Incorporation of Physical-Chemical... labeling in a future guidance. In the Federal Register of July 14, 2009 (74 FR 34021), FDA announced...

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  3. Characterization of chemical vapour deposited diamond films: correlation between hydrogen incorporation and film morphology and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to tailor diamond synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) for different applications, many diamond films of different colours and variable quality were deposited by a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD reactor under different growth conditions. The morphology, quality and hydrogen incorporation of these films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. From this study, a general trend between hydrogen incorporation and film colour, morphology and quality was found. That is, as the films sorted by colour gradually become darker, ranging from white through grey to black, high magnification SEM images illustrate that the smoothness of the well defined crystalline facet gradually decreases and second nucleation starts to appear on it, indicating gradual degradation of the crystalline quality. Correspondingly, Raman spectra evidence that the diamond Raman peak at 1332 cm-1 becomes broader and the non-diamond carbon band around 1500 cm-1 starts to appear and becomes stronger, confirming increase of the non-diamond component and decrease of the phase purity of the film, while FTIR spectra show that the CH stretching band and the two CVD diamond specific peaks around 2830 cm-1 rise rapidly, and this indicates that the total amount of hydrogen incorporated into the film increases significantly

  4. Large improvement of phosphorus incorporation efficiency in n-type chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a promising way to generate n-type, e.g., phosphorus-doped, diamond layers for the fabrication of electronic components, which can operate at extreme conditions. However, a deeper understanding of the doping process is lacking and low phosphorus incorporation efficiencies are generally observed. In this work, it is shown that systematically changing the internal design of a non-commercial chemical vapor deposition chamber, used to grow diamond layers, leads to a large increase of the phosphorus doping efficiency in diamond, produced in this device, without compromising its electronic properties. Compared to the initial reactor design, the doping efficiency is about 100 times higher, reaching 10%, and for a very broad doping range, the doping efficiency remains highly constant. It is hypothesized that redesigning the deposition chamber generates a higher flow of active phosphorus species towards the substrate, thereby increasing phosphorus incorporation in diamond and reducing deposition of phosphorus species at reactor walls, which additionally reduces undesirable memory effects

  5. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

  6. Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasdhari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and β-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8x104 to 1.85x107 cfu mL-1. Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis. Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  7. Incorporation of medium chain fatty acids into fish oil triglycerides by chemical and enzymatic inter esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltes, M. M. C.; Oliveira de Pilot, L.; Gomes Correira, F.; Grimaldi, R.; Mara Block, J.; Ninow, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Structured triglycerides (STs) containing both medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs), while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM) and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic) on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after inter esterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermo grams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that inter esterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced. (Author) 70 refs.

  8. Incorporation of quercetin in lipid microparticles: effect on photo- and chemical-stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Santo; Mezzena, Matteo

    2009-01-15

    Lipid microparticles loaded with the flavonoid, quercetin were developed in order to enhance its stability in topical formulations. The microparticles were produced using tristearin as the lipid material and phosphatidylcholine as the emulsifier. The obtained lipoparticles were characterized by release studies, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry. The quercetin loading was 12.1% (w/w). Free or microencapsulated quercetin was introduced in a model cream formulation (oil-in-water emulsion) and irradiated with a solar simulator. The extent of photodegradation was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The light-induced decomposition of quercetin in the cream vehicle was markedly decreased by incorporation into the lipid microparticles (the extent of degradation was 23.1+/-3.6% for non-encapsulated quercetin compared to 11.9+/-2.5% for the quercetin-loaded microparticles) and this photostabilization effect was maintained over time. Moreover, the chemical instability of quercetin, during 3-month storage of the formulations at room temperature and in the dark, was almost completely suppressed by the lipid microparticle system. Therefore incorporation of quercetin in lipoparticles represents an effective strategy to enhance its stability in dermatological products. PMID:19042102

  9. Incorporating local institutions in irrigation experiments: evidence from rural communities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneeque Javaid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many irrigation systems are special cases of common-pool resources (CPRs in which some users have preferential access to the resource, which in theory aggravates collective action challenges such as the under-provision of necessary infrastructure as a result of unequal appropriation of water resources. We present experimental evidence based on an irrigation game played in communities that are dependent on one of the largest contiguous irrigation network: the Indus basin irrigation system in Punjab, Pakistan. Furthermore, we simulate two institutional mechanisms that are neglected in experimental studies, despite their importance in many CPR governance systems: traditional authorities and legal pluralism. In our experiments, Punjabi farmers (N = 160 managed to provide the CPR at a level close to the social optimum, even without communication or enforcement opportunities. The equal investment in water infrastructure seems to be a strong social norm, even though those in disadvantageous positions (tail-users earn less than those who have preferential access (head-users. At the same time, head-users restrain themselves from maximum resource extraction, which could be interpreted either as a norm or a stationary bandit strategy. In contrast to one of the most consistent findings of previous experimental studies, the participants in our experiment increased their earnings over the experimental rounds by using the available resources in a more efficient manner. One explanation for this behavior could be the availability of social information in our game. Starting from a high level of cooperation during baseline rounds, the treatments did not change the group investment significantly. The introduction of external sanctions created additional coordination problems, which led to a decrease in the level of group welfare. More specifically, head-users reduced their water extraction in the face of possible external sanctions to a level that the remaining

  10. Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR: State of the Art

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, 5-6 (2013), s. 210-241. ISSN 0022-9830 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fundamental research * multi-disciplinary character * external cooperation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Large Scale Manufacture of Catalyst for Making DME Developed by Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Southwest Chemical Research and Design Institute (SCRDI) after tackling the key technology related with the catalyst for manufacture of DME through gas phase dehydration of methanol has made great breakthroughs in large scale preparation of catalyst for DME production.

  12. Incorporation of nitrogen into amorphous carbon films produced by surface-wave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of nitrogen incorporated into amorphous carbon films, nitrogenated amorphous carbon films have been deposited by using surface wave plasma chemical vapor deposition under various ratios of N2/CH4 gas flow. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to monitor plasma features near the deposition zone. After deposition, the samples are checked by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS). Optical emission intensities of CH and N atom in the plasma are found to be enhanced with the increase in the N2/CH4 gas flow ratio, and then reach their maximums when the N2/CH4 gas flow ratio is 5%. A contrary variation is found in Raman spectra of deposited films. The intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (ID/IG) and the peak positions of the G and D bands all reach their minimums when the N2/CH4 gas flow ratio is 5%. These show that the structure of amorphous carbon films has been significantly modified by introduction of nitrogen

  13. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  14. Advances in Methane Activation Studies at Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following successful implementation of selective oxida-tion of methane into methanol at low temperature (80℃) through setting up a circulating system of multiple electron pairs the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) has made new stride in the fundamental research on direct acti-vation of methane. This institute by means of collaboration with the US West Pacific National Laboratory has acquired the complete information on the structure of active centers of solid catalysts with the relevant results published in the latest issue of Journal of American Chemical Society.

  15. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  16. 2005 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stephan E.

    2005-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its second annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2005. During this period, sixteen PNNL scientists hosted fourteen young scientists from eleven different universities. Of the fourteen participants, twelve were graduate students; one was a postdoctoral fellow; and one was a university faculty member.

  17. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  18. Incorporating Health Impacts from Exposure to Chemicals in Food Packaging in LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Trier, Xenia; Jolliet, Oliver; Fantke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) on the environmental and public health impacts of food and beverage packaging materials have found some advantages to plastic over glass. Entirely missing from these evaluations are the health impacts of possible chemical, e.g. endocrine dis-ruptor, exposure through migration of chemicals from the packaging into the food product. We build a framework based on a life cycle perspective to predict which chemicals may be in a package that are not intentionally added i...

  19. Incorporating Health Impacts from Exposure to Chemicals in Food Packaging in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Trier, Xenia; Jolliet, Oliver;

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) on the environmental and public health impacts of food and beverage packaging materials have found some advantages to plastic over glass. Entirely missing from these evaluations are the health impacts of possible chemical, e.g. endocrine dis-ruptor, exposure through...... migration of chemicals from the packaging into the food product. We build a framework based on a life cycle perspective to predict which chemicals may be in a package that are not intentionally added ingredients, and we apply this approach to the US EPA’s CPCAT database. In total we find 1,154 chemicals...... within the CPCAT database related to food-contact materials; out of these 107 are potential endocrine disruptors according to the TEDX list of endocrine disruptors. We also build a framework in an effort to begin harmonizing LCA to include health impacts of chemical exposure related to food packaging in...

  20. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  1. Annual report of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, for fiscal 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the abstracts of researches and oral presentations and papers reported as the results for fiscal 1998 in each laboratory of RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research). Moreover, the themes of special project funding for basic science, grant research, contract research, industrial properties, research subjects of special postdoctoral researchers and junior research associate and technology research subjects of technology research fellow are inserted. The abstract of researches, oral presentations and publications reported by Frontier Research Program, Brain Science Institute, Riken and Riken Genomic Science Center are contained. Riken Symposia and Symposia Sponsored by Riken are explained. (S.Y.)

  2. Incorporation and chemical effect of Sn-POSS cages in poly(ethyl methacrylate)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Rodzen, Krzysztof; Raus, Vladimír; Ribot, F.; Janata, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, July (2015), s. 366-378. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151; GA ČR GAP106/12/0844 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : POSS * stannoxane * organic–inorganic hybrid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  3. Effect of Nd3+ incorporation on the microstructure and chemical structure of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effects of Nd incorporation on ZnO thin films chemical and structural properties. ► Very low Nd concentrations were quantified by combining XRF and AES data. ► At low Nd concentration, Nd ions were successfully incorporated in the ZnO lattice. ► Structural changes turns up with increasing Nd doping level. ► At high Nd concentration, precipitation of a Nd2O3 separate phase occurs. -- Abstract: The present work aims at investigating the effects that different levels of Nd atoms incorporation can have on the microstructure and chemical structure of ZnO thin films. Undoped and Nd-doped ZnO films were deposited by RF co-sputtering from pure ZnO and metallic Nd targets in Ar plasma onto Si, quartz and glass substrates. The Nd concentration in the ZnO host matrix was varied in the range 0–26 at.% by varying the bias applied to the Nd target. A comprehensive characterization of the films properties was performed by X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. At low Nd atomic concentration (Nd/Zn 2O3

  4. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  5. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  6. Tracing chemical genealogy through the archives of the institute of organic chemistry at the University of Zurich

    OpenAIRE

    Finney, N

    2008-01-01

    Aspects of the history of chemists and chemistry in the Institute of Organic Chemistry at the University of Zurich are traced through chemical genealogy and retained samples from the chemical archives. The work of three OCI faculty members (Werner, Karrer and Eugster) who completed their graduate studies in the Institute is highlighted.

  7. 2007 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its fourth annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from April through September 2007. During this time, 21 PNNL scientists hosted 23 participants from 20 different universities. Of the 23 participants, 20 were graduate students, 1 was a postdoctoral fellow, and 2 were university faculty members. This report covers the essense of the program and the research the participants performed.

  8. 2006 Annual Report Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Nikki B.; Barlow, Stephan E.

    2006-11-10

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted its third annual Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics from May through September 2006. During this period, twenty PNNL scientists hosted twenty-seven scientists from twenty-five different universities. Of the twenty-seven participants, one was a graduating senior; twenty-one were graduate students; one was a postdoctoral fellow; and four were university faculty members.

  9. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  10. Research of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal on hot briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczyk, R.; Rychly, J.; Sekula, M.; Zakrzewski, Z. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze (Poland))

    1992-04-01

    Reviews research work carried out for the past 40 years by the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal in Zabrze, Poland in the field of coal briquetting. The first task faced by the Institute in the mid 1950s was briquetting of semicoke. General briquetting parameters for semicoke are discussed. The history and achievements of the Institute's research and development from the early 60s up to today is outlined. In addition to economic aspects, environmental problems became more and more the focus of study. Production of smokeless fuel is the subject of recent studies. Future activities to be performed in this field and perspectives for their implementation in industry are pointed out. 26 refs.

  11. Chemical characterization and bioactive effects of decocted Melissa officinalis L. and the possibility of food incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) has been consumed as infusions and decoctions for hundreds of years. Its consumption is linked with various health benefits like the relief of headaches, rheumatism, digestion, neurodegenerative disorders and also antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects [1]. Herein, the chemical characterization (polyphenols, free sugars, tocopherols and organic acids) of its decoctions is presented, along with the reports of its antimicrobial, a...

  12. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water. PMID:16987603

  13. Chemical characterization of Citrus limon var. pompia and incorporation in phospholipid vesicles for skin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Maria; Manca, Maria Letizia; Marongiu, Francesca; Caddeo, Carla; Castangia, Ines; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Pintore, Giorgio; Sarais, Giorgia; D'hallewin, Guy; Zaru, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2016-06-15

    The components of pompia, a hybrid Citrus species cultivated only in Sardinia (Italy), were extracted using an environmentally-friendly method and food-grade solvents. Taking into account that only few data are available on pompia composition, the phytochemical fingerprint of its rind extract was obtained by accurate component separation and identification, combining HPLC and mass spectrometry. Different flavones such as naringin (23.77μg/mg), neoeriocitrin (46.53μg/mg) and neohesperidin (44.57μg/mg) were identified. Additionally, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content were confirmed by DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. The whole extract was incorporated in innovative phospholipid vesicles, namely glycerosomes, hyalurosomes and glycerol containing hyalurosomes, which were prepared using a high ratio of extract/phospholipid (1/3.5w/w). The in vitro biocompatibility of the nanoincorporated extract and its ability to potentiate the aptitude of the extract to counteract oxidative stress in skin cells were evaluated. The vesicles, especially glycerol containing hyalurosomes, were able to prevent oxidative damage and death of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, promoting their viability. PMID:27084291

  14. 2008 Summer Research Institute Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Avery, Nachael B.

    2008-11-01

    For the fifth year, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, invited graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, university faculty, and students entering graduate students from around the world to participate in the Summer Research Institute in Interfacial and Condensed Phase Chemical Physics. The institute offers participants the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in top-notch research laboratories while working along internationally respected mentors. Of the 38 applicants, 20 were accepted for the 8- to 10-week program. The participants came from universities as close as Seattle and Portland and as far away as Germany and Singapore. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the 20 participants were mentored by 13 scientists. These mentors help tailor the participant’s experience to the needs of that person. Further, the mentors provide guidance on experimental and theoretical techniques, research design and completion, and other aspects of scientific careers in interfacial and condensed phase chemical physics. The research conducted at the institute can result in tangible benefits for the participants. For example, many have co-authored papers that have been published in peer-reviewed journals, including top-rated journals such as Science. Also, they have presented their research at conferences, such as the Gordon Research Conference on Dynamics at Surfaces and the AVS national meeting. Beyond that, many of the participants have started building professional connections with researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, connections that will serve them well during their careers.

  15. Incorporation of environmental impact criteria in the design and operation of chemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Bauer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessment is becoming indispensable for the design and operation of chemical plants. Structured and consistent methods for this purpose have experienced a rapid development. The more rigorous and sophisticated these methods become, the greater is the demand for convenient tools. On the other hand, despite the incredible advances in process simulators, some aspects have still not been sufficiently covered. To date, applications of these programs to quantify environmental impacts have been restricted to straightforward examples of steady-state processes. In this work, a life-cycle assessment implementation with the aim of process design will be described, with a brief discussion of a dynamic simulation for analysis of transient state operations, such as process start-up. A case study shows the importance of this analysis in making possible operation at a high performance level with reduced risks to the environment.

  16. Behavior of incorporated nitrogen in plasma-nitrided silicon oxide formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Nao; Itokawa, Hiroshi; Fujitsuka, Ryota; Sekine, Katsuyuki; Onoue, Seiji; Tonotani, Junichi

    2016-04-01

    The behavior of nitrogen (N) atoms in plasma-nitrided silicon oxide (SiO2) formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was characterized by physical analysis and from electrical properties. The changes in the chemical bonding and distribution of N in plasma-nitrided SiO2 were investigated for different subsequent processes. N-Si3, N-Si2O, and N2 are formed in a SiO2 film by plasma nitridation. N2 molecules diffuse out during annealing at temperatures higher than 900 °C. NH species are generated from N2 molecules and H in the SiO2 film with subsequent oxide deposition using O3 as an oxidant. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are obtained. The negative shift of the C-V curve is caused by the increase in the density of positive fix charge traps in CVD-SiO2 induced by plasma nitridation. The C-V curve of plasma-nitrided SiO2 subjected to annealing shifts to the positive direction and that subjected to the subsequent oxide deposition shifts markedly to the negative direction. It is clarified that the density of positive charge fixed traps in plasma-nitrided SiO2 films decrease because the amount of N2 molecules is decreased by annealing, and that the density of traps increases because NH species are generated and move to the interface between SiO2 and the Si substrate with the subsequent oxide deposition.

  17. Incorporating Detailed Chemical Characterization of Biomass Burning Emissions into Air Quality Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, K.; Hatch, L. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Orlando, J. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Knote, C. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 500 Tg/yr of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) are emitted by biomass burning (BB) to the global atmosphere, leading to the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary particulate matter (PM). Until recently, in studies of BB emissions, a significant mass fraction of NMOCs (up to 80%) remained uncharacterized or unidentified. Models used to simulate the air quality impacts of BB thus have relied on very limited chemical characterization of the emitted compounds. During the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-IV), an unprecedented fraction of emitted NMOCs were identified and quantified through the application of advanced analytical techniques. Here we use FLAME-IV data to improve BB emissions speciation profiles for individual fuel types. From box model simulations we evaluate the sensitivity of predicted precursor and pollutant concentrations (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and terpene oxidation products) to differences in the emission speciation profiles, for a range of ambient conditions (e.g., high vs. low NOx). Appropriate representation of emitted NMOCs in models is critical for the accurate prediction of downwind air quality. Explicit simulation of hundreds of NMOCs is not feasible; therefore we also investigate the consequences of using existing assumptions and lumping schemes to map individual NMOCs to model surrogates and we consider alternative strategies. The updated BB emissions speciation profiles lead to markedly different surrogate compound distributions than the default speciation profiles, and box model results suggest that these differences are likely to affect predictions of PM and important gas-phase species in chemical transport models. This study highlights the potential for further BB emissions characterization studies, with concerted model development efforts, to improve the accuracy of BB predictions using necessarily simplified mechanisms.

  18. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  19. A method for incorporating equilibrium chemical reactions into multiphase flow models for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Maarten W.; Vilarrasa, Victor; De Gaspari, Francesca; Silva, Orlando; Carrera, Jesús; Rötting, Tobias S.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers involves many coupled processes, including multiphase flow, heat and mass transport, rock deformation and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Coupling is especially critical in carbonate aquifers, where minerals will tend to dissolve in response to the dissolution of CO2 into the brine. The resulting neutralization will drive further dissolution of both CO2 and calcite. This suggests that large cavities may be formed and that proper simulation may require full coupling of reactive transport and multiphase flow. We show that solving the latter may suffice whenever two requirements are met: (1) all reactions can be assumed to occur in equilibrium and (2) the chemical system can be calculated as a function of the state variables of the multiphase flow model (i.e., liquid and gas pressure, and temperature). We redefine the components of multiphase flow codes (traditionally, water and CO2), so that they are conservative for all reactions of the chemical system. This requires modifying the traditional constitutive relationships of the multiphase flow codes, but yields the concentrations of all species and all reaction rates by simply performing speciation and mass balance calculations at the end of each time step. We applied this method to the H2O-CO2-Na-Cl-CaCO3 system, so as to model CO2 injection into a carbonate aquifer containing brine. Results were very similar to those obtained with traditional formulations, which implies that full coupling of reactive transport and multi-phase flow is not really needed for this kind of systems, but the resulting simplifications may make it advisable even for cases where the above requirements are not met. Regarding the behavior of carbonate rocks, we find that porosity development near the injection well is small because of the low solubility of calcite. Moreover, dissolution concentrates at the front of the advancing CO2 plume because the brine below the plume tends to reach

  20. Chemical treatment of liquid radioactive waste at the Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of lab-scale experiments on the chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste collected at the Boris Kidric Institute are presented. The radioactive waste was treated by cobalt hexacyanoferrate precipitation followed by flocculation with polyelectrolyte flocculating agents. The main parameters investigated were standing time, pH and ratio of reagents. The flocculating agents were tested by filtration test and floccule stability test. Satisfactory decontamination factors by precipitation at pH 10 and good separation of solid and liquid phase by applying Praestol polyelectrolytes were obtained (author)

  1. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  2. Effect of incorporation of antioxidants on the chemical, rheological, and sensory properties of probiotic petit suisse cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E P R; Cavalcanti, R N; Esmerino, E A; Silva, R; Guerreiro, L R M; Cunha, R L; Bolini, H M A; Meireles, M A; Faria, J A F; Cruz, A G

    2016-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of the addition of different antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glucose oxidase, cysteine, and jabuticaba extract) on the rheological and sensorial properties of the probiotic petit suisse cheese. Absence of influence of the antioxidants at the physico-chemical characteristics of the petit suisse cheese was observed. Overall, the petit suisse cheeses presented weak gel characteristics and behaved as pseudoplastic material, except for control. All treatments exhibited a thixotropic non-Newtonian behavior; however, higher hysteresis area was obtained for control sample, which indicates that antioxidants incorporated to petit suisse had a protective effect on the typical thixotropic behavior of the Quark gel. The commercial sample presented higher scores for all aspects by consumers, whereas the probiotic petit suisse samples presented opposite behavior. Projective mapping was able to generate a vocabulary where the sample containing jabuticaba skin extract obtained by supercritical extraction was characterized by the panelists as presenting grape flavor and purple color. PMID:26805976

  3. Economic Rents and Legitimacy: Incorporating Elements of Organizational Analysis Institutional Theory to the Field of Business Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lima de Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Are sources of economic rent, as defined by the prevalent business strategy paradigm, sufficient to attain and maintain superior returns? The perspective developed within the conceptual framework of the Institutional Theory may offer managers a contribution towards understanding the strategy process and its potentialities,particularly by stressing the leading role played by legitimacy, the influence of many institutional spheres, the isomorphic pressures, ceremonial behavior and decoupling, among other elements, that mainstream business strategy fails to address directly, but which may have a significant effect on firm performance. We advance thatthese elements must be accounted for in the pursuit and acquisition of economic rents, even if the ability to articulate them purposefully is constrained by rationality, agency conditions and the manager's social embeddedness.

  4. Relationship between the growth rate and Al incorporation of AlGaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Le, L.C.; Jiang, D.S.; Wu, L.L.; Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Liu, Z.S.; Zhang, S.M. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Hui [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Liang, J.W. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: The growth rate and its relationship with Al content of MOCVD-grown AlGaN alloy films are investigated. It is found that both parasitic reaction and competitive adsorption play important roles in determining the growth rate and Al incorporation in AlGaN. Low reactor pressure and a decrease of absolute amount of Ga atoms arriving on the substrate may lead to a higher Al content in AlGaN film. The research results are helpful to control the Al content of AlGaN during the materials growth. - Abstract: The growth rate and its relationship with growth conditions of AlGaN alloy films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated. It is found that both parasitic reaction and competitive adsorption play important roles in determining the growth rate and Al incorporation in AlGaN. Low reactor pressure can weaken parasitic reactions, thus increasing the Al composition. In addition, a decrease of absolute amount of Ga atoms arriving on the substrate may lead to a lower Ga competitive power, and then a higher Al content in AlGaN film.

  5. A study of chemical modifications of a Nafion membrane by incorporation of different room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de Yuso, M.V.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain); Neves, L.A.; Coelhoso, I.M.; Crespo, J.G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Benavente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Surface and bulk chemical changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) incorporation were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elemental analysis, respectively. RTILs with different physicochemical properties were selected. Two imidazolium based RTIL-cations (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) were used to detect the effect of cation size on membrane modification, while the effect of the RTIL hydrophilic/hydrophobic character was also considered by choosing different anions. Angle resolved XPS measurements (ARXPS) were carried out varying the angle of analysis between 15 and 75 to get elemental information on the Nafion/RTIL-modified membranes interactions for a deepness of around 10 nm. Moreover, changes in the RTIL-modified membranes associated to thermal effect were also considered by analyzing the samples after their heating at 120 C for 24 h. Agreement between both chemical techniques, bulk and destructive elemental analysis and surface and non-destructive XPS, were obtained. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. O Instituto de Química da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, da pós-graduação à incorporação dos cursos de graduação: uma perspectiva histórica The Chemistry Institute of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, from postgraduate to the incorporation of undergraduate courses: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Prestes Massena; Nadja Paraense dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    This work intends to present the history of top-level Chemistry education in Rio de Janeiro. It's important to rescue the history of Chemistry Institute of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro since 1959. It's also important to understand the incorporation of two undergraduate courses: Chemistry and Chemistry bachelor's degree. It covers historical background of Chemistry education in old National Faculty of Philosophy, considering power disputes between Industrial Chemistry Course and Chemic...

  7. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota. PMID:27313139

  8. Improvement of physical, chemical, and biological properties of aridisol from Botswana by the incorporation of torrefied biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Masukujane, Masego; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Effective use of agricultural residual biomass may be beneficial for both local and global ecosystems. Recently, biochar has received attention as a soil enhancer, and its effects on plant growth and soil microbiota have been investigated. However, there is little information on how the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil amended with biochar are affected. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the incorporation of torrefied plant biomass on physical and structural properties, elemental profiles, initial plant growth, and metabolic and microbial dynamics in aridisol from Botswana. Hemicellulose in the biomass was degraded while cellulose and lignin were not, owing to the relatively low-temperature treatment in the torrefaction preparation. Water retentivity and mineral availability for plants were improved in soils with torrefied biomass. Furthermore, fertilization with 3% and 5% of torrefied biomass enhanced initial plant growth and elemental uptake. Although the metabolic and microbial dynamics of the control soil were dominantly associated with a C1 metabolism, those of the 3% and 5% torrefied biomass soils were dominantly associated with an organic acid metabolism. Torrefied biomass was shown to be an effective soil amendment by enhancing water retentivity, structural stability, and plant growth and controlling soil metabolites and microbiota.

  9. Is an "ideal" service institution image the same for all referral sources? The case of chemical dependency treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K; LaTour, M S

    1993-01-01

    In a competitive market like chemical dependency treatment, segmenting the professional referral market according to an "ideal" service image may offer a service institution a strategic advantage. Results of this study suggest that while different professionals in a referral market may attach differential importance to the same service feature, a favorable or unfavorable "image" seems to encompass how well both the professional and the professionals' client are treated by the service institution. PMID:10129241

  10. Implementation of 5E Inquiry Incorporated with Analogy Learning Approach to Enhance Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Reaction Rate for Grade 11 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supasorn, Saksri; Promarak, Vinich

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to enhance student understanding of the scientific concepts of chemical reaction rate. Forty-four grade 11 students were the target group. The treatment tools were seven learning plans of 5E inquiry incorporated with an analogy learning approach during 15 hours of class time. In each learning plan, the students…

  11. Changes in soil chemical properties and lettuce yield response following incorporation of biochar and cow dung to highly weathered acidic soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyei Frimpong, Kwame; Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Osei, Benjamin;

    2016-01-01

    imposed on two highly weathered, acidic soils from the coastal savanna and tropical rainforest agroecological zones of Ghana, respectively, to elucidate their effect on yield of lettuce. The study showed that application of biochar solely or in combination with cow dung increased soil pH, total organic...... carbon, and cation exchange capacity, and temporarily increased soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon. Further, incorporation of combined application of cow dung and biochar increased lettuce yield more than sole incorporation of either amendment. The study demonstrated that corn cob biochar can...... improve soil chemical properties and lettuce yield if applied solely or in combination with cow dung....

  12. Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rasdhari; Parekh, T; Dave, N.; Patel, V.; R. Subhash

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis...

  13. Incorporation of statistical distribution of particle properties in chemical reactor design and operation: the cooled tubular reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Pellet heat and mass transfer coefficients inside packed beds do not have definite deterministic values, but are stochastic quantities with a certain distribution. Here, a method is presented to incorporate the stochastic distribution of pellet properties in reactor design and operation models. The theory presented is illustrated with a number of examples. It is shown that pellet-scale statistics have an impact on cooled tubular reactor design and operation. Cooled tubular reactor design is d...

  14. Effect of Group-III precursors on unintentional gallium incorporation during epitaxial growth of InAlN layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unintentional incorporation of gallium (Ga) in InAlN layers grown with different molar flow rates of Group-III precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition has been experimentally investigated. The Ga mole fraction in the InAl(Ga)N layer was increased significantly with the trimethylindium (TMIn) flow rate, while the trimethylaluminum flow rate controls the Al mole fraction. The evaporation of metallic Ga from the liquid phase eutectic system between the pyrolized In from injected TMIn and pre-deposited metallic Ga was responsible for the Ga auto-incorporation into the InAl(Ga)N layer. The theoretical calculation on the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid phase Ga and the effective partial pressure of Group-III precursors based on growth parameters used in this study confirms the influence of Group-III precursors on Ga auto-incorporation. More Ga atoms can be evaporated from the liquid phase Ga on the surrounding surfaces in the growth chamber and then significant Ga auto-incorporation can occur due to the high equilibrium vapor pressure of Ga comparable to effective partial pressure of input Group-III precursors during the growth of InAl(Ga)N layer

  15. Effect of Group-III precursors on unintentional gallium incorporation during epitaxial growth of InAlN layers by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeomoh, E-mail: jkim610@gatech.edu; Ji, Mi-Hee; Detchprohm, Theeradetch [Center for Compound Semiconductors and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Dupuis, Russell D. [Center for Compound Semiconductors and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Ryou, Jae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, and Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Unintentional incorporation of gallium (Ga) in InAlN layers grown with different molar flow rates of Group-III precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition has been experimentally investigated. The Ga mole fraction in the InAl(Ga)N layer was increased significantly with the trimethylindium (TMIn) flow rate, while the trimethylaluminum flow rate controls the Al mole fraction. The evaporation of metallic Ga from the liquid phase eutectic system between the pyrolized In from injected TMIn and pre-deposited metallic Ga was responsible for the Ga auto-incorporation into the InAl(Ga)N layer. The theoretical calculation on the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid phase Ga and the effective partial pressure of Group-III precursors based on growth parameters used in this study confirms the influence of Group-III precursors on Ga auto-incorporation. More Ga atoms can be evaporated from the liquid phase Ga on the surrounding surfaces in the growth chamber and then significant Ga auto-incorporation can occur due to the high equilibrium vapor pressure of Ga comparable to effective partial pressure of input Group-III precursors during the growth of InAl(Ga)N layer.

  16. Use of Antimicrobial Films and Edible Coatings Incorporating Chemical and Biological Preservatives to Control Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Cold Smoked Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudaa Neetoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold smoked salmon (CSS is of concern as it is a refrigerated processed food of extended durability (REPFED. The objectives of this study were to compare and optimize the antimicrobial effectiveness of films and coatings incorporating nisin (Nis and sodium lactate (SL, sodium diacetate (SD, potassium sorbate (PS, and/or sodium benzoate (SB in binary or ternary combinations on CSS. Surface treatments incorporating Nis (25000 IU/mL in combination with PS (0.3% and SB (0.1% had the highest inhibitory activity, reducing the population of L. monocytogenes by a maximum of 3.3 log CFU/cm2 (films and 2.9 log CFU/cm2 (coatings relative to control samples after 10 days of storage at 21°C. During refrigerated storage, coatings were more effective in inhibiting growth of L. monocytogenes than their film counterparts. Cellulose-based coatings incorporating Nis, PS, and SB reduced the population of L. monocytogenes, and anaerobic and aerobic spoilage flora by a maximum of 4.2, 4.8, and 4.9 log CFU/cm2, respectively, after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. This study highlights the effectiveness of cellulose-based edible coatings incorporating generally regarded as safe (GRAS natural and chemical antimicrobials to inhibit the development of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microflora thus enhancing the safety and quality of CSS.

  17. Incorporating Chemical Hazards into an Emergency Management Plan. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on a chemical spill that went unreported for approximately seven years, setting off a series of responses from the school district's Environmental Health and Safety Department (EHS) and the state…

  18. Effect of Nd{sup 3+} incorporation on the microstructure and chemical structure of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardi, Gloria, E-mail: ggottard@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Center for Materials and Microsystems, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pandiyan, Rajesh [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Center for Materials and Microsystems, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); University of Trento, Physics Department, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); LGPPTS, ENSCP, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Micheli, Victor; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Gennaro, Salvatore; Bartali, Ruben; Laidani, Nadhira [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Center for Materials and Microsystems, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of Nd incorporation on ZnO thin films chemical and structural properties. ► Very low Nd concentrations were quantified by combining XRF and AES data. ► At low Nd concentration, Nd ions were successfully incorporated in the ZnO lattice. ► Structural changes turns up with increasing Nd doping level. ► At high Nd concentration, precipitation of a Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} separate phase occurs. -- Abstract: The present work aims at investigating the effects that different levels of Nd atoms incorporation can have on the microstructure and chemical structure of ZnO thin films. Undoped and Nd-doped ZnO films were deposited by RF co-sputtering from pure ZnO and metallic Nd targets in Ar plasma onto Si, quartz and glass substrates. The Nd concentration in the ZnO host matrix was varied in the range 0–26 at.% by varying the bias applied to the Nd target. A comprehensive characterization of the films properties was performed by X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies, X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. At low Nd atomic concentration (Nd/Zn < 0.07) Nd atoms were successfully incorporated into the ZnO matrix, whose crystalline structure was preserved. A deterioration of the ZnO würtzite phase was observed on the contrary with increasing Nd content in the films together with the precipitation of a second phase, identified as Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  19. Chemical and biological properties of wheat soil in response to paddy straw incorporation and its biodegradation by fungal inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata

    2007-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative contribution of organic fertilizers (paddy straw, microbial inoculants and vermicompost) and inorganic fertilizers (urea and superphosphate) in improving pH, C, N, humus, microbial biomass, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities of soil under wheat crop. Vermicompost fertilization resulted in highest microbial biomass, available phosphorus, and nitrogen content of wheat soil. It was also found effective in minimizing the alkalinity of soil compared to other treatments as indicated by pH change. However incorporation of paddy straw in conjunction with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation resulted in maximum dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and highest humus content of soil. Mixed inoculation of A. awamori and T. reesei did not prove effective in improving the soil biochemical properties in comparison to single inoculation of T. reesei. Results showed that in situ incorporation of paddy straw in combination with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation can be used as an effective measure for valuable disposal of paddy straw and to improve the soil health by reducing mineral fertilization. PMID:17106757

  20. The Chemical Sector al System. Firms, markets, institutions and the processes of knowledge creation and diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Cesaroni; Alfonso Gambardella; Walter Garcia-Fontes; Myriam Mariani

    2001-01-01

    According to the Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Production approach, the analysis of a specific sector has to describe its knowledge and technological base, existing complementarities among knowledge, technologies and products, the heterogeneity of agents, their learning processes and competencies, the role of non-firm organisations, and the presence of (co)evolutionary processes. This study applies this theoretical framework to the chemical industry, and examines evolution and co-evoluti...

  1. Career, Family, and Institutional Variables in the Work Lives of Academic Women in the Chemical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Richmond, Geraldine

    This article presents quantitative results of a study of 139 academic women in the chemical sciences who participated in a professional development program sponsored by the Committee on the Advancement of Women Chemists. The study investigated variables frequently examined in the vocational psychology of women: approaches to achievement, coping strategies, career advancement, the home-work interface, workplace climate, and mentoring. The article presents and discusses results in the context of unique issues faced by women in scientific careers.

  2. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  3. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products o f the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions

  4. Proceedings of the sixty third annual session of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotechnology is on a wide range of industrial agenda covering fine chemicals, bulk chemicals, pharmaceuticals food, textiles, pulps, paper, mineral and energy areas paving the way of an industrial revolution in the 21st century. Broadly, industrial applications face different economic pressures as 'green', 'red' and 'white'. While 'green' biotechnology's agricultural applications emerge from millennia of human selective breeding of animals and plants, 'red' applications draw their lineage back to the healing arts 'white' include new and emerging non-medical and non-agricultural applications. Fuels produced using bio-technology such as bioethanol and bio-diesel are all potential oil replacement. Thus bio-technology is proving its worth as a technology that can contribute to sustainable industrial development. Many bio-catalytic tools are rapidly becoming available for industrial applications because of the recent advances in this technique. The present conference will enable the researchers and industrialists to exchange their ideas and rejuvenate their bio-technological skills aiming towards industrial sustainability. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Crystallography with Pulsed Neutrons and Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, George

    1988-01-01

    X-ray and neutron crystallography have played an increasingly impor­ tant role in the chemical and biochemical sciences over the past fifty years. The principal obstacles in this methodology, the phase problem and com­ puting, have been overcome. The former by the methods developed in the 1960's and just recognised by the 1985 Chemistry Nobel Prize award to Karle and Hauptman, the latter by the dramatic advances that have taken place in computer technology in the past twenty years. Within the last decade, two new radiation sources have been added to the crystallographer's tools. One is synchrotron X-rays and the other is spallation neutrons. Both have much more powerful fluxes than the pre­ vious sources and they are pulsed rather than continuos. New techniques are necessary to fully exploit the intense continuos radiation spectrum and its pulsed property. Both radiations are only available from particular National Laboratories on a guest-user basis for scientists outside these Na­ tional Laboratories. Hi...

  6. Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, D.S.; Le, L.C.; Wu, L.L.; Li, L. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Liu, Z.S. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S.M. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Jia, Q.J. [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yang Hui [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2012-11-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interface roughness of InGaN/GaN MQWs are characterized by XRD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth interface is very important for the blue-violet InGaN/GaN MQWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EL of InGaN MQWs could be improved by controlling In incorporation parameters. - Abstract: The growth parameters which can modify In incorporation and affect electroluminescence (EL) properties of blue-violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated. It is found that a suitable increase of trimethylindium (TMIn) flux during the growth of InGaN well can increase both EL intensity and EL peak wavelength. However, when the growth temperature of well decreases from 810 to 800 Degree-Sign C, the EL intensity decreases although the EL peak wavelength increases. X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the interface roughness plays an important role in determining the EL intensity of InGaN/GaN MQWs. It is suggested to grow blue-violet MQWs with high structural quality by suitably increasing the TMIn flux and at a relatively high growth temperature.

  7. Effect of In incorporation parameters on the electroluminescence of blue–violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The interface roughness of InGaN/GaN MQWs are characterized by XRD. ► Smooth interface is very important for the blue–violet InGaN/GaN MQWs. ► EL of InGaN MQWs could be improved by controlling In incorporation parameters. - Abstract: The growth parameters which can modify In incorporation and affect electroluminescence (EL) properties of blue–violet InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated. It is found that a suitable increase of trimethylindium (TMIn) flux during the growth of InGaN well can increase both EL intensity and EL peak wavelength. However, when the growth temperature of well decreases from 810 to 800 °C, the EL intensity decreases although the EL peak wavelength increases. X-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the interface roughness plays an important role in determining the EL intensity of InGaN/GaN MQWs. It is suggested to grow blue–violet MQWs with high structural quality by suitably increasing the TMIn flux and at a relatively high growth temperature.

  8. Diffusion trajectory of self-propagating innovations interacting with institutions-incorporation of multi-factors learning function to model PV diffusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first proposes a modeling framework to study diffusion of innovations which exhibit strong interaction with the institution systems across which they diffuse. A unique character of such generic innovation is that specific applications are continually developed during its diffusion. This self-propagation in continual applications generation, which is dependent upon the cumulative installed base of the technological innovation, can be modeled to lead to a dynamic changing carrying capacity in an otherwise simple logistic diffusion curve. The cumulative installed base is dependent upon the price of technology and the cost learning dynamics. This paper utilizes a multi-factors learning function to represent such learning dynamics. Empirical estimates from our model are compared with those from other logistics curve formulations and are shown to better fit the annual PV production data during the past quarter century in the case of Japan. The very fact that the potential of this class of innovation can be leveraged only if it interacts closely with the institution highlights the importance of institutional determinants of adoption and diffusion of such innovations like PV. We therefore attempt to put forward an institutional framework, based on viewing PV as a technology platform, to consider PV diffusion beyond mathematical and empirical modeling. Some future research directions are also proposed. (author)

  9. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Elsevier Signed a Publishing Agreement of the Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP)/Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Elsevier have concluded a publishing agreement for the Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry (JNGC) on June 07, 2005. Beginning from 2006, Elsevier will publish JNGC on ScienceDirect, the online full text and bibliographic information resource, and take care of JNGC's international institutional print subscriptions. JNGC will also be covered in Elsevier's EI Compendex.

  10. Chemical Incorporation of Chain-Terminating Nucleoside Analogs as 3'-Blocking DNA Damage and Their Removal by Human ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Takahata, Chiaki; Kuraoka, Isao; Hirota, Kouji; Iwai, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Nucleoside/nucleotide analogs that lack the 3'-hydroxy group are widely utilized for HIV therapy. These chain-terminating nucleoside analogs (CTNAs) block DNA synthesis after their incorporation into growing DNA, leading to the antiviral effects. However, they are also considered to be DNA damaging agents, and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a DNA repair enzyme, is reportedly able to remove such CTNA-modifications of DNA. Here, we have synthesized phosphoramidite building blocks of representative CTNAs, such as acyclovir, abacavir, carbovir, and lamivudine, and oligonucleotides with the 3'-CTNAs were successfully synthesized on solid supports. Using the chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, we investigated the excision of the 3'-CTNAs in DNA by the human excision repair cross complementing protein 1-xeroderma pigmentosum group F (ERCC1-XPF) endonuclease, which is one of the main components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. A biochemical analysis demonstrated that the ERCC1-XPF endonuclease cleaved 2-7 nt upstream from the 3'-blocking CTNAs, and that DNA synthesis by the Klenow fragment was resumed after the removal of the CTNAs, suggesting that ERCC1-XPF participates in the repair of the CTNA-induced DNA damage. PMID:27294910

  11. Computational model of the fathead minnow hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: Incorporating protein synthesis in improving predictability of responses to endocrine active chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Miyuki; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Bencic, David; Breen, Michael S; Watanabe, Karen H; Lloyd, Alun L; Conolly, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There is international concern about chemicals that alter endocrine system function in humans and/or wildlife and subsequently cause adverse effects. We previously developed a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows exposed to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (FAD), to predict dose-response and time-course behaviors for apical reproductive endpoints. Initial efforts to develop a computational model describing adaptive responses to endocrine stress providing good fits to empirical plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) data in exposed fish were only partially successful, which suggests that additional regulatory biology processes need to be considered. In this study, we addressed short-comings of the previous model by incorporating additional details concerning CYP19A (aromatase) protein synthesis. Predictions based on the revised model were evaluated using plasma E2 concentrations and ovarian cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A aromatase mRNA data from two fathead minnow time-course experiments with FAD, as well as from a third 4-day study. The extended model provides better fits to measured E2 time-course concentrations, and the model accurately predicts CYP19A mRNA fold changes and plasma E2 dose-response from the 4-d concentration-response study. This study suggests that aromatase protein synthesis is an important process in the biological system to model the effects of FAD exposure. PMID:26875912

  12. Data Mining Technology Adoption in Institutions of Higher Learning: A Conceptual Framework Incorporating Technology Readiness Index Model and Technology Acceptance Model 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslihah Wook

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Data Mining Technology (DMT is on the rise due to its ability to discover hidden knowledge amongst large amounts of data. This technology is particularly important to organisations for making well-informed decisions and formulating strategic plans. However, previous studies on DMT have focused more on evaluating methods and techniques-rather than focusing on end-user perspectives. Moreover, studies on the adoption of DMT have been successfully conducted in various fields except for education, in particular, regarding the utilisation of DMT at an individual-level. Motivated by these problems, this study seeks to integrate the Technology Readiness Index (TRI and the Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3 into a model that will investigate end-user (individual-level determinants of DMT adoption, specifically in the context of Institutions of Higher Learning (IHLs in Malaysia. Several determinants from past literature were adopted and adapted in proposing the newly integrated TRI and TAM3 model. Ultimately, this model could aid management personal, particularly decision makers, to predict the acceptance or rejection of DMT in IHLs.

  13. Development and application of characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy in the library of Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (BRICEM) is a multi disciplinary comprehensive research institute engaged in uranium mining, engineering design and related material researches. After 53 years of researches and development, BRICEM has accumulated a plenty of valuable data and resources. By analyzing the actual conditions of BRICEM's technological database, this thesis aims to propose the idea of building a characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy. It gives an in-depth analysis on content design, development status and problems of database development, in order to come up with solutions to these problems, as well as suggestions on the future development plans of the characteristic database. (author)

  14. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL METHODS OF RESEARCHING ROCKS AND MINERALS IN THE ANALYTICAL CENTRE OF THE INSTITUTE OF THE EARTH'S CRUST, SB RAS

    OpenAIRE

    А. G. Revenko

    2015-01-01

     The article presents the information on organizing the studies of chemical and mineral compositions of rocks at the Analytical Centre of the Institute of the Earth's Crust, SB. It describes its main scientific fields and capabilities of laboratory equipment available in the Centre to study rock samples. The past major scientific achievements are given in brief. Scientific results from 2009 to 2013 are presented in a more detail, and a corresponding list of publications is included. 

  15. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of quantitative hepatic biotransformation data for fish - I. A review of methods, and strategies for incorporating intrinsic clearance estimates into chemical kinetic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, John W.; Schultz, Irv R.; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N..

    2006-06-10

    Mammalian researchers have developed a stepwise approach to predict in vivo hepatic clearance from measurements of in vitro hepatic metabolism. The resulting clearance estimates have been used to screen drug candidates, identify potential drug-drug interactions, investigate idiosyncratic drug responses, and support toxicology risk assessments. In this report we review these methods, discuss their potential application to studies with fish, and describe how extrapolated values could be incorporated into well-known compartmental kinetic models. Empirical equations that relate extrapolation factors to chemical log Kow are given to facilitate the incorporation of metabolism data into bioconcentration and bioaccumulation models. Because they explicitly incorporate the concept of clearance, compartmental clearance volume models are particularly well suited for incorporating hepatic clearance estimates. The manner in which these clearance values are incorporated into a given model depends, however, on the measurement frame of reference. Procedures for the incorporation of in vitro metabolism data into physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models are also described. Unlike most compartmental models, PBTK models are developed to describe the effects of metabolism in the tissue where it occurs. In addition, PBTK models are well suited to modeling metabolism in more than one tissue.

  16. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  17. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together.

  18. Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Chemical Engineering Practice, Brookhaven station: Summary of projects, 1983-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Graduate School of Chemical Engineering Practice stresses engineering problem solving. The Practice School program, as it is commonly called, develops in a unique and particularly effective way the student's ability to apply fundamentals to problems in the chemical industry and thus accelerates one's professional development. The themes of atomization, emthanol production and utilization, hydrogen production and compression, localized electrochemical corrosion and biochemical engineering reflect some of the major programs at the Laboratory. The titles of all the projects are listed in chronological order in the index at the end of this document. Brief summaries are presented for each project with related projects grouped together

  19. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. I. Common molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some aspects of molecular mechanisms common to radiation and chemical carcinogenesis are discussed, particularly the DNA damage done by these agents. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological considerations and on dose-response models used in risk assessment to extrapolate from experimental data obtained at high doses to the effects from long-term, low-level exposures. 3 references, 6 figures. (ACR)

  20. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  1. Carbon incorporation process in GaAsN films grown by chemical beam epitaxy using MMHy or DMHy as the N source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal quality of GaAsN films can be improved by using CBE for low-temperature growth. However, low-temperature growth increases C incorporation in the films, which degrades their electrical properties. Consequently, C incorporation was investigated in view of the surface reaction of N sources on a substrate surface, and MMHy and DMHy were compared. When MMHy was used as an N source, C concentration in GaAsN drastically increases below 380 deg. C than that in GaAs due to insufficient CH x desorption. In the case of DMHy, N(CH3)2 is desorbed more readily than CH x, therefore, the C concentration can then be reduced using DMHy

  2. Incorporation of aqueous reaction kinetics and biodegradation into TOUGHREACT: Application of a multi-region model to hydrobiogeoChemical transport of denitrification and sulfate reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    The need to consider aqueous and sorption kinetics and microbiological processes arises in many subsurface problems. A general-rate expression has been implemented into the TOUGHREACT simulator, which considers multiple mechanisms (pathways) and includes multiple product, Monod, and inhibition terms. This paper presents a formulation for incorporating kinetic rates among primary species into mass-balance equations. The space discretization used is based on a flexible integral finite diff...

  3. Report of National Cancer Institute symposium: comparison of mechanisms of carcinogenesis by radiation and chemical agents. II. Cellular and animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This segment of the report of the proceedings of the National Cancer Institute symposium is devoted to the presentations about studies with in vitro cell systems, in vitro-in vivo systems, and whole animals including humans. The NCI symposium was designed to cover many aspects of carcinogenesis so that the similarities and differences of the manner in which ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens initiate cancer and complete its expression could be examined. The hope was that the identification of both the common and the clearly distinct features would help elucidate mechanisms and indicate areas for new research

  4. Significant Breakthrough in Industrial Test of the "Methanol to Olefins" Process Developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A process of "Methanol or Dimethylether to Olefins" developed by Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), designated as the DMTO process, has attained great success in industrial scaling up testing. DICP, by collaborating with the Xinxing Coal Chemical Co., Ltd. of Shaanxi Province and the Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Co. of the SINOPEC Group, operated successfully a 50t(methanol)/d unit for the conversion of methanol to lower olefins, with a methanol conversion of close to 100%, and a selectivity to lower olefins(ethylene, propylene and butylenes) of higher than 90%. On 23rd August, the industrial test project has passed a state appraisal. The experts of the Appraisal Group, headed by Prof.

  5. Synthesis of C4 and C8 Chemicals from Ethanol on MgO-Incorporated Faujasite Catalysts with Balanced Confinement Effects and Basicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Pham, Tu N; Faria, Jimmy; Santhanaraj, Daniel; Sooknoi, Tawan; Tan, Qiaohua; Zhao, Zheng; Resasco, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    A new type of catalyst has been designed to adjust the basicity and level of molecular confinement of KNaX faujasites by controlled incorporation of Mg through ion exchange and precipitation of extraframework MgO clusters at varying loadings. The catalytic performance of these catalysts was compared in the conversion of C2 and C4 aldehydes to value-added products. The product distribution depends on both the level of acetaldehyde conversion and the fraction of magnesium as extraframework species. These species form rather uniform and highly dispersed nanostructures that resemble nanopetals. Specifically, the sample containing Mg only in the form of exchangeable Mg(2+) ions has much lower activity than those in which a significant fraction of Mg exists as extraframework MgO. Both the (C6 +C8 )/C4 and C8 /C6 ratios increase with additional extraframework Mg at high acetaldehyde conversion levels. These differences in product distribution can be attributed to 1) higher basicity density on the samples with extraframework species, and 2) enhanced confinement inside the zeolite cages in the presence of these species. Additionally, the formation of linear or aromatic C8 aldehyde compounds depends on the position on the crotonaldehyde molecule from which abstraction of a proton occurs. In addition, catalysts with different confinement effects result in different C8 products. PMID:26938793

  6. Controlled, defect-guided, metal-nanoparticle incorporation onto MoS2 via chemical and microwave routes: electrical, thermal, and structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeprasad, T S; Nguyen, Phong; Kim, Namhoon; Berry, Vikas

    2013-09-11

    Ultrathin (0.3-3 nm) metal dichalcogenides exhibit confinement of carriers, evolution of band-structure and photophysical properties with thickness, high on/off rectification (in MoS2, WS2, and so forth) and high thermal absorption. Here, we leverage the stable sulfur/nobel-metal binding to incorporate highly capacitive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) onto MoS2 to raise the effective gate-voltage by an order of magnitude. Functionalization is achieved via both diffusion limited aggregation and instantaneous reaction arresting (using microwaves) with selective deposition on crystallographic edges (with 60° displacement). The electrical, thermal, and Raman studies show a highly capacitive interaction between Au NP and MoS2 flakes (CAu-MoS2 = 2.17 μF/cm(2)), a low Schottky barrier (14.52 meV), a reduced carrier-transport thermal-barrier (253 to 44.18 meV after Au NP functionalization), and increased thermal conductivity (from 15 to 23 W/mK post NP deposition). The process could be employed to attach electrodes to heterostructures of graphene and MoS2, where a gold film could be grown to act as an electron-tunneling gate-electrode connected to MoS2. PMID:23927716

  7. Rhodanese incorporated in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of dimyristoylphosphatidic acid: Physical chemical properties and improvement of the enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Felipe Tejada; Caseli, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    Preserving the catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized in bioelectronics devices is essential for optimal performance in biosensors. Therefore, ultrathin films in which the architecture can be controlled at the molecular level are of interest. In this work, the enzyme rhodanese was adsorbed onto Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid dimyristoylphosphatidic acid and characterized by surface pressure-area isotherms, polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The incorporation of the enzyme (5% in mol) in the lipid monolayer expanded the film, providing small surface domains, as visualized by BAM. Also, amide bands could be identified in the PM-IRRAS spectra, confirming the presence of the enzyme at the air-water interface. Structuring of the enzyme into α-helices was identified in the mixed monolayer and was preserved when the film was transferred from the liquid interface to solids supports as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The enzyme-lipid LB films were then characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, PM-IRRAS, and atomic force microscopy. Measurements of the catalytic activity towards cyanide showed that the enzyme accommodated in the LB films preserved more than 87% of the enzyme activity in relation to the homogeneous medium. After 1 month, the enzyme in the LB film maintained 85% of the activity in contrast to the homogeneous medium, which 24% of the enzyme activity was kept. The method presented in this work not only points to an enhanced catalytic activity toward cyanide, but also may explain why certain film architectures exhibit an improved performance. PMID:26836478

  8. Incorporation of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp.) in Argentinean ovine cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, María; Wolf, Irma; Addis, Margherita; Comunian, Roberta; Paba, Antonio; Meinardi, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The market of cheeses from ewe’s milk has been growing steadily in Argentina. The nutritional benefits of these products can be enhanced by adding probiotic cultures. In the present study, the survival of a mix of probiotic microorganisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) in a semi-hard ovine cheese, manufactured with a technology previously developed in our institute was evaluated. Besides, the effect of its incorporation on the chemical compositi...

  9. One hundred years at the intersection of chemistry and physics the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, 1911-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Steinhauser, Thomas; James, Jeremiah

    2011-01-01

    This volume, occasioned by the centenary of the Fritz Haber Institute, formerly the Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, covers the Institute's scientific and institutional history from its founding in 1911 as one the earliest institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, through its renaming for its founding director in 1952 and incorporation in the Max Planck Society, until the present. The Institute's pace-setting research in physical chemistry and chemical physics has been shaped by dozens of distinguished scientists, among them seven Nobel Laureates.

  10. Gestão integrada de resíduos químicos em instituições de ensino superior Integrated management for chemical residues in academic institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carla Giloni-Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since chemical residues management must be seriously considered at institutions of higher education and due to the relevance of this subject for students, this work proposes the involvement of the scientific community in the establishment of a program for management of chemical residues at universities, starting with a committee, to coordinate the process. The program should integrate the entire scientific community in an organized effort. The program involves legislative, educational and environmental management aspects, with environmental education as an important tool to integrate all the administrative areas of a chemistry department.

  11. Incorporating Safety into a Unit Operations Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Details the incorporation of safety procedures and issues into the curriculum of an undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Includes checklists and sample reporting forms. (DDR)

  12. Commensalistic institutions and value conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botterill, Linda Courtenay; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    of global private standard schemes have been developed that have incorporated values rejected by the SPS Agreement. This paper examines the relationship between the Agreement and the private standards and argues that this case highlights a gap in the institutional literature with respect to parallel...... institutions emerging autonomously from the primary institution to embody values excluded by the latter. We adopt the term commensalism for these previously undescribed relationships....

  13. Institutions and Comparative Regional Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stallmann, Judith I.

    2010-01-01

    This is a personal view of regional science, which draws on my experiences and my training in both institutional economics and regional economics. I will start with some of those experiences and the questions they raised for me about the importance of institutions1 in regional development and some of the difficulties of doing comparative regional research. While I include regions at many levels of aggregation, my particular interest is how to incorporate institutions into the analysis of regi...

  14. Unbundling Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Daron Acemoglu; Simon Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the importance of property rights institutions', which protect citizens against expropriation by the government and powerful elites, and contracting institutions', which enable private contracts between citizens. We exploit exogenous variation in both types of institutions driven by colonial history, and document strong first-stage relationships between property rights institutions and the determinants of European colonization (settler mortality and population density bef...

  15. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  16. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  17. Accuracy of chemical shift MR imaging in diagnosing indeterminate bone marrow lesions in the pelvis: review of a single institution's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, Chad A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Radiology Ltd., Tucson, AZ (United States); Chivers, F.S.; Lorans, Roxanne; Roberts, Catherine C.; Kransdorf, Mark J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To re-assess the accuracy of chemical shift imaging in diagnosing indeterminate bone marrow lesions as benign or malignant. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with MR imaging of the pelvis to assess the accuracy of chemical shift imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant bone lesions. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed all osseous lesions biopsied since 2006, when chemical shift imaging was added to our routine pelvic imaging protocol. Study inclusion criteria required (1) MR imaging of an indeterminate bone marrow lesion about the pelvis and (2) subsequent histologic confirmation. The study group included 50 patients (29 male, 21 female) with an average age of 67 years (range, 41-89 years). MR imaging results were evaluated using biopsy results as the ''gold standard.'' There were 27 malignant and 23 benign lesions. Chemical shift imaging using an opposed-phase signal loss criteria of less than 20 % to indicate a malignant lesion, correctly diagnosed 27/27 malignant lesions and 14/23 benign lesions, yielding a 100 % sensitivity, 61 % specificity, 75 % PPV, 100 % NPV, and 82 % accuracy. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.88. The inter-rater and intra-rater agreement K values were both 1.0. Chemical shift imaging is a useful adjunct MR technique to characterize focal and diffuse marrow abnormalities on routine non-contrast pelvic imaging. It is highly sensitive in identifying malignant disease. Despite its lower specificity, the need for biopsy could be eliminated in more than 60 % of patients with benign disease. (orig.)

  18. Accuracy of chemical shift MR imaging in diagnosing indeterminate bone marrow lesions in the pelvis: review of a single institution's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To re-assess the accuracy of chemical shift imaging in diagnosing indeterminate bone marrow lesions as benign or malignant. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with MR imaging of the pelvis to assess the accuracy of chemical shift imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant bone lesions. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed all osseous lesions biopsied since 2006, when chemical shift imaging was added to our routine pelvic imaging protocol. Study inclusion criteria required (1) MR imaging of an indeterminate bone marrow lesion about the pelvis and (2) subsequent histologic confirmation. The study group included 50 patients (29 male, 21 female) with an average age of 67 years (range, 41-89 years). MR imaging results were evaluated using biopsy results as the ''gold standard.'' There were 27 malignant and 23 benign lesions. Chemical shift imaging using an opposed-phase signal loss criteria of less than 20 % to indicate a malignant lesion, correctly diagnosed 27/27 malignant lesions and 14/23 benign lesions, yielding a 100 % sensitivity, 61 % specificity, 75 % PPV, 100 % NPV, and 82 % accuracy. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.88. The inter-rater and intra-rater agreement K values were both 1.0. Chemical shift imaging is a useful adjunct MR technique to characterize focal and diffuse marrow abnormalities on routine non-contrast pelvic imaging. It is highly sensitive in identifying malignant disease. Despite its lower specificity, the need for biopsy could be eliminated in more than 60 % of patients with benign disease. (orig.)

  19. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Selenium is an environmentally relevant trace metal, recognised not only for its role as an essential trace nutrient in living systems, but also for its devastating impacts at elevated concentrations, including fish deformities and death from selenium-laden waters and sediment. There are escalating concerns that the consumption of selenium-contaminated foods (e.g. fish and bivalves) will have an impact on human health. A comprehensive understanding of organic and inorganic selenium tissue concentrations is required if we are to assess the toxic effects of selenium in marine organisms and the flow-on effects to human consumers. Currently, whole sediment bioassays measuring total metal concentration effects are being used to assess the toxicity of metal contaminated sediments. However, for most sediment-dwelling organisms, sediments particles, pore waters and overlying waters, as well as food sources (e.g. algae) may all contribute to the accumulation of metal contaminants. Furthermore, the species of metal (and not the total metal concentration) in each of these compartments will also modify metal toxicity and uptake rates. For most species routinely used in toxicity tests, the relative importance of the different contaminant exposure pathways (overlying waters, sediment, food) has not been evaluated. If we know which compartment(s) induce toxic responses in the test organisms, we can use that knowledge to more effectively manage contaminated environments. The radiotracer 75Se produced in HIFAR was used to determine the uptake routes and accumulation sites in biological organisms. Comparatively, high sensitivity of gamma counter techniques and minimal sample preparation to ICP-MS and AAS provided for a faster and more efficient method to monitor the uptake of selenium. Biodistribution studies evaluating the bioavailability of Se from water, sediment and algae in the endemic Australian marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is presently under investigation and progress to date be reported

  20. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Methylproamine is the current lead compound of a new class of DNA-binding radioprotectors being developed in the Research Laboratories at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne. The salient features of methylproamine are its radioprotective potency and the generic nature of the apparent radioprotective mechanism. Like the 'classic' aminothiol radioprotectors exemplified by amifostine, methylproamine suppresses the initial radiochemical damage induced in DNA by ionising radiation. However, survival curve studies with cultured cells have demonstrated that methylproamine is 100-fold more potent than WR1065, the active metabolite of amifostine. The radioprotective mechanism seems to involve reduction by the DNA-bound drug of transient radiation-induced oxidising species on DNA. This mechanism implies some electron transfer along DNA, from the DNA-bound drug to the oxidising species. In vivo radioprotection of mouse lung, GI tract and bone marrow has been demonstrated following systemic administration of methylproamine to mice. The commercial potential of radioprotectors resides in two distinct arenas. Until recently, most of our efforts have focused on the use of methylproamine to protect normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy patients, but a quite different opportunity arises from the imperative to develop countermeasures to the threat of radiation terrorism. Our prospects in both arenas have been lifted by the results of synthesis and screening of a pilot library of ∼50 methylproamine analogues, promising the emergence of new lead drugs. In particular, although methylproamine is a potent radioprotector, at higher concentrations it becomes cytotoxic, but one member of the pilot library shows a wider efficacy 'window'. We plan to continue this lead optimisation process by synthesis and screening of a much larger library of analogues, and we are seeking the support of a commercial partner

  1. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian yabby Cherax destructor is tolerant of exposure to many trace metals including Zn and Cd. However it is not known if this tolerance is a result of a low rate of uptake of heavy metals by the yabby, increased excretion, or a combination of both. We now report on the use of radioisotopes of two environmental trace metals 65Zn and 109Cd to monitor the uptake by C. destructor of the essential metal Zn and the non-essential metal Cd, at low metal concentrations exposures. Juvenile C. destructor were exposed to three concentrations of Zn with 65Zn as a tracer for up to 48 hours. Yabbies were sampled at specific time intervals and counted live in tubes with freshwater using a gamma scintillation counter. Water was also sampled and counted at the same time intervals. At the end of the uptake phase, yabbies were dissected into the hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, tail muscle and 'the rest' and each body compartment counted individually. The associated radioactivity was used to calculate the proportional compartmentalization of the trace metals within the body tissues. A similar experiment was repeated with various concentrations of Cd and 109Cd used to monitor its uptake at various time intervals. Unlike Zn, where its accumulation only plateaued at 72 hour the rate of uptake of Cd reached a plateau after 24 hours. A competitive study was also conducted with the yabbies. Here the yabbies were exposed to similar concentrations of Cd and Zn simultaneously and yabbies were counted to determine Zn and Cd at various intervals. The estimated rates for C. destructor are compared to those of other freshwater crustaceans in order to deduce whether its tolerance to trace metal toxicants is based on reduced rates of uptake

  2. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Australia there have been reported more than 200 species of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) including: cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens. Working at the species level of BSC poses particular difficulties for different aspects of environmental management because of the problems caused by in taxonomy, small size, lack of experts for identification and the intermixing of taxa. From the 1970s BSC classification based on the morphology has been utilised for ecological studies. This study explores the possibility of spectral classification of BSC components for ecological studies and considers the use of hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. Although, in some locations the percentage cover of BSC exceeds 70% of land cover, many previous remote sensing studies of land cover have either neglected BSC, or considered it as one group. In this study visible and near-infrared (350-1100 nm) reflectance spectra of BSC were collected with a UniSpec PPSystem spectrometer in the laboratory under a 1000 W Halogen lamp. Biological components varied in chlorophyll, physiological status, colour and other pigment contents. The measured spectra demonstrate considerable variation both within and between species. Factors contributing to spectral variation were identified by principal components analysis. Functional, taxonomic and morphological groups of BSC species were classified using discriminant analysis of the narrow-bands (3.3 nm) spectra. Both principal components and discriminant analysis showed promising results for grouping BSC variation and finally 9 groups from 21 field groups (33 species) were classified

  3. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For accurate dose delivery in modern techniques, accurate positioning of Multileaf Collimator (MLC) leaves is required. The accuracy of MLC positioning has been investigated previously using radiographic films and ionisation chamber. However, faster quantitative methods are required to measure MLC leaf positioning errors. The use of Scanning Liquid filled Ion Chamber EPID (SLIC-EPID) for determination of an actual MLC leaf position during treatment has been investigated in the current work. METHODS: All measurements were performed using the Varian 600CD linear accelerator equipped with a standard 40 leaf pair MLC, and SLIC-EPID. Several Electronic Portal Images (EPIs) of MLC fields were acquired as reference EPIs. The MLC leaves were then shifted from 0.1 to 1.8mm along the direction of MLC leaf movement to decrease the field size defined by the leaves. The reference and shifted EPIs were converted to the relative dose maps using an appropriate calibration method. The shifted transmitted dose maps were subtracted from the reference transmitted dose maps to extract relative dose difference maps. The correlation between MLC leaf displacement from the planned position and the relative transmitted dose difference were assessed. In addition, several standard edge detection techniques were used to find the MLC leaf positioning errors. The reproducibility of MLC positioning was also investigated. RESULTS: A variation of 0.2mm in leaf position leads to ∼ 4% change in the relative transmitted dose measured using a SLIC-EPID. The relationship between the relative dose difference and MLC leaf displacement is well described by a linear fit. From all standard edge detection algorithms, the 'Canny' algorithm was found to be the optimum method to detect MLC leaf displacements of as little as 0.1mm. However, the edge detection techniques are only able to find the position of variation of intensity or gradients. In the reproducibility test, the maximum MLC displacement was found to be ∼0.3mm. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS: The use of transmitted dose maps, instead of EPID raw pixel values, is not only able to detect the slight MLC shifts and uncertainties, but also is able to predict the amount of the variation of the delivered dose to the surrounding tissues that are to be protected during the radiation course. The simplicity, accuracy, efficiency and additional information about delivered dose are the advantages of this technique

  4. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As we move into the new millennium, it is important that we understand the effect which radiation has on biological tissues. An understanding of the importance of these effects is essential in a number of areas including radiation therapy for cancer treatment and space travel as we attempt to proceed further from Earth for longer periods of time. Nanodosimetry enables the energy deposition of ionizing radiation on a DNA scale to be determined. This is extremely important for not only biological applications but also electronic applications, as the effect of radiation on microelectronics needs to be determined before they are deployed or installed. However, further investigation is required to link the output of the gas nanodosimeter to the actual effect of the radiation on a biological system. The purpose of this research is to conduct nanodosimetric measurements of proton radiation fields at the proton accelerator of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) in an attempt to verify a Monte Carlo simulation system. To achieve this, these measurements will be compared to the output from a Monte Carlo simulation system that is being developed to simulate the nanodosimetric spectra of the LLUMC beamline. Once verified, this Monte Carlo system will provide a very powerful tool with which to measure the effect of radiation fields on a nanoscopic level without submitting humans or expensive electronics to such a potentially damaging environment

  5. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, we have developed an ion counting nanodosimeter capable of measuring the distribution of radiation-induced ions in a millimetric, wall-less sensitive volume in a low-pressure gas. The sensitive volume models an equivalent nanometric volume of DNA. At Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC), this device has been equipped with a silicon microstrip telescope that tracks the primary particles, allowing correlation of nanodosimetric data with particle position relative to the sensitive volume. Here we report on the design and performance of this tracking nanodosimeter, tested with a broad 250MeV proton beam. We demonstrate that particle coordinate information in the silicon tracker combined with nanodosimetric data can map the ionization pattern of track segments in three dimensions with a resolution of about 5 tissue-equivalent nanometers. The precision tracking capability also enabled us to perform measurements aimed at verification of the wall-less sensitive volume dimensions, for which only simulated data were available. We have seen that the tracking nanodosimetry data and Monte Carlo simulation results agreed well, thus allowing application of this technique to experimental track-structure studies of charged particles

  6. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cell survival studies can provide important information on the behaviour of various cell lines when exposed to a wide range of different radiations. Such studies are an important feature of microdosimetry and nanodosimetry projects that are currently being conducted in collaboration between LLUMC and the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) at the University of Wollongong. Irradiation with light ions (protons and helium) of low energies requires very thin samples (10μm or less) in order to limit the energy degradation and the resulting spread of linear energy transfer (LET) within the sample. The problem in such studies is to be able to reproducibly produce thin films of cells for irradiations. If cells are allowed to attach to surfaces, they show a wide range of shapes and sizes. In addition, the thickness of the fluid layer surrounding the cell, needed to keep them viable, may vary from sample to sample and is subject to evaporation if the cells are kept at ambient temperatures. Thus, typical techniques used in radiobiology will are subject to random and systematic errors, and a better approach is needed for reproducible track-segment experiments. A test strip has been designed at LLUMC and is currently being implemented into current radiobiology projects. However, before full integration of this system, GEANT4 Monte Carlo studies were conducted in order to assess the change in energy and LET from a range of particles proceeding though the sample in order to assess its suitability to such studies. The design of this system and the results of the Monte Carlo study will be presented here

  7. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process is a controlled/'living' free radical polymerisation process that was invented in Australia by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSRIO) group led by Ezio Rizzardo. RAFT polymerisation has proven to be a powerful tool for the synthesis of polymers with predetermined molecular weight and low polydispersity. The RAFT process is capable of effecting living free radical polymerisation control over a great variety of monomers (eg (meth)acrylates, styrenes, acrylamides, vinyl acetate). The RAFT technique uses thiocarbonylthio compounds to mediate the polymerisation via a reversible chain transfer process. This leads to the establishment of an equilibrium under which all the propagating chains have approximately the same chain length at the same instant of time. The RAFT agent typically possesses a thiocarbonylthio group (S=C-S) with substituents R (radical leaving group) and Z (activating/stabilising group), which govern the reaction kinetics and the degree of structural control. In 2001, we reported the synthesis of RAFT agents (phenyl dithio acetates) that can be applied at low/ambient temperatures in the polymerization of alkyl acrylates and styrene. Low/ambient temperature RAFT agents allow the application of γ-radiation as source of initiation. The combination of γ-radiation and ambient temperature RAFT agents allows performing living polymerization at ambient temperature up to high conversions. This technique also opens the possibility to graft narrow polydisperse polymers from existing polymer surfaces. We have applied RAFT polymerization in conjunction with γ-radiation to graft various monomers (e.g. styrene, m-isopropenyl-α,α'-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI), N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide) from solid polypropylene phases that can be used for applications in combinatorial chemistry (eg peptide synthesis and scavenger reactions)

  8. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: CT (computer tomography) data can be used to correct for SPECT (single photon emission computer tomography) attenuation when the relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) and CT Hounsfield Unit (HU) of a material, such as bone, is known. This research determined the relationship for a range of tissue equivalent materials using 120 kVp CT scans and six gamma ray producing SPECT radionuclides; Ga-67, I-123, I-131, In-111, Tc-99m and Tl-201. A lead container was modified to produce a narrow-beam of gamma rays with a radionuclide inside. Materials (water, oil, sawdust, wood, Perspex, bone) were positioned between the container and the gamma camera. Linear attenuation coefficients of each material were obtained at each radionuclide energy peak by increasing the thickness of the attenuating material and observing the change in the percentage of transmitted gamma rays reaching the gamma camera. The linear attenuation coefficients were plotted against HU values. A bilinear trend was fitted to the data at 0 HU for each of the peak energies. The relationships were mathematically defined from the two equations produced by the bilinear fit. The relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of each material and the peak gamma-ray energy was also investigated. The resulting series of μ versus HU plots showed that at very low photon energies, the points in the plot were essentially linear. As the photon energy was increased, the slope of the fit for HU > 0 decreased. Equations derived from this research have successfully been used to construct a linear attenuation map for SPECT attenuation correction

  9. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) is a wide band-gap compound semiconductor material used in room temperature radiation detection applications. The relatively high average Z of this material, in comparison to that of silicon or germanium, provides good stopping power for gamma-ray detection with moderate energy resolution characteristics. These properties make the material attractive for use in radiation detection applications where small physical dimensions and reasonable spectral resolution are required. In order to obtain high performing CZT based detectors it is important to select the highest quality CZT material, in terms of the crystallographic purity, for detector fabrication. In this work a variety of characterisation tools were used to analyse substrates of single crystal CZT material for stoichiometry of the crystallographic defects which give rise to deep and shallow energy levels within the bandgap. The energy levels and relative population of the deep levels were characterised showing non-uniformity for the deep levels in single crystal CZT. The charge collection properties of a CZT test structure fabricated from the most defect free material was investigated using the Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) with 3 MeV protons. The results show the charge collection properties below and surrounding the perimeter of the junction which result from a combination of drift collection and charge diffusion. The results of this analysis are to be used for an improved simulation using GEANT4 of the charge transport properties in a CZT based Compton suppression spectrometer. GEANT4 is being used to optimise the configuration and new concepts for improvements to the detector design for particular applications

  10. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ethylene, propylene and their copolymers have a wide range of applications in the manufacture of medical goods. These items generally require sterilization, which can be done by autoclaving or treatment with ethylene oxide gas. However, these methods can lead either to oxidation of the polymers or inclusion of a carcinogenic gas, so radiation sterilization offers a preferable alternative. Radiolysis of polymers can lead to yellowing and loss of tensile properties, so radiation stabilizers are added to the polymers to avoid these undesirable effects. One the types of stabilizer used is a low molecular weight compound that can scavenge radicals. These are referred to as mobilizers. In this paper the effectiveness of dioctylphthalate, DOP, as mobilizer for a copolymer of ethylene and propylene, produced for the manufacture of medical syringes, will be discussed

  11. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The electroreduction of a manganese dioxide (MnO2) electrode in an aqueous lithium hydroxide electrolyte has been studied using slow-scan cyclic voltammetry. The electroreduced MnO2 surface was investigated under the electron beam irradiation by means of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopic (FTIR) techniques. Based on the XPS and FTIR results, the reduced material was found to be covered with a thick film of water (O 1s) which acted as a double layer and hence prevented detection of other elements. The electrode was thus irradiated with Ar+ for 60, 120, 240 and 480 min to remove the overlayer composed of a mixture of LiOH and Li2CO3. After the ion bombardment (4.0kV, 2μA, 500μm spot), the presence of reduced state of manganese (Mn 3s) and lithium (Li 1s) is detected in the electrode. The XPS and FTIR spectra reveal that the formation of an insoluble layer of Li2CO3 precedes the process of reduction. From the evidence based on the various techniques used, it is confirmed that lithium is electrochemically inserted into the host framework structure of MnO2 in aqueous solutions

  12. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring......In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...

  13. 外资研发机构成为大连科技创新体系组成部分的实证研究%Empirical Study of Incorporating Foreign R & D Institutions into Dalian’s Technological Innovation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关伟; 王春明; 高健

    2013-01-01

    Since the system of international division of labor has been established in most traditional indus‐tries after the entry of the 21st century ,the grow th opportunities for future international industry transfer will mainly come from emerging industries .In international transfer of emerging industries ,multinational corporations (MNCs) will become the main driving force .And accompanied with the transfer of manufac‐turing industry ,foreign R&D institutions will also take on an increasingly prominent trend of international transfer .Through analyzing the correlation among international industrial transfer ,emerging industries’ development ,MNCs’ strategies and foreign R&D institutions and the mechanisms of the international transfer of foreign R&D institutions ,this article explores the history and the status quo of Dalian’s accep‐ting international industrial transfer and the accumulation and the application of innovations in emerging industries ;and further elaborates upon the foundations and conditions of incorporating foreign R&D insti‐tutions into Dalian’s technological innovation system .Based on the analysis of the global strategies of MNCs ,the correlation effect between foreign R&D institutions and local companies ’ innovation capabili‐ty ,and the social and economic contributions of the technological innovation system to the city ,the article proposes the path ,policies and promoting measures of incorporating foreign R&D institutions into Dalian ’ s technological innovation .%  进入21世纪以后围绕传统产业的国际分工体系已经基本完成,国际产业转移未来的增长机会主要源于新兴产业,跨国公司将成为新兴产业国际转移的主要推动力量,外资研发机构伴随制造业转移的趋势也将日益凸显。在分析国际产业转移、新兴产业发展、跨国公司战略、外资研发机构转移的关系及其机理的基础上,研究大连市承接国际产业转移的

  14. Institutional Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  15. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation of...

  16. CSCAPES Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  17. Institutional Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    managerial respondents. This leads to another bias in the study of M&As: an managerial one. These critiques are an important step in pinpointing some of the problematic aspects in the field, which we suggest can be part remedied by institutional ethnography developed by Dorothy Smith and her colleagues. In...... institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it, and...... point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  18. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately a....... Practitioner/Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  19. Institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiaud, Sylvain; Locatelli, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of institutional economics has gained increasing prominence in recent years, because standard economic explanations can often not come to grips with major contemporary policy issues, such as economic reform in affluent, but dysfunctional economies, the transformation of the failed socialist command economies and the governance problems of the new industrial economies. Institutional economists point out that rule systems matter greatly to explaining these problems and that insti...

  20. Incorporating Allelic Dropout

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-33. ISSN 1805-8698 Grant ostatní: SVV(CZ) 260034 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : drop-out * peak height * DNA interpretation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ijbh.org/ijbh2014-1.pdf

  1. Institutions and economic growth : summary and synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Szirmai, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, overview and synthesis of the findings of the second phase of the AFD/Maastricht Graduate School of Governance research project on institutions and economic growth. The point of departure for this research project is that the diversity of longrun patterns of economic growth and development can only be fully understood if one incorporates institutions, institutional diversity and institutional change into the analysis of economic development.

  2. Retsmedicinsk Institut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers

    1996-01-01

    Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er statsobd......Retsmedicinsk Institut hører under Aarhus Universitet og har pligt til at undervise og forske, men adskiller sig fra andre institutter ved at have en omfattende virksomhed med rekvireret arbejde, idet Statsobducenturet for Nørrejylland er henlagt til instituttet. Professoren, som også er...... institut. De bygningsmæssige forhold er utidssvarende og medfører arbejdsmæssige og retssikkerhedsmæssige problemer, En snarlig udflytning er derfor nødvendig....

  3. Unimagined Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Mikkel Bruun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that war contains inherent and thus necessary aesthetic traits (ranging from sensory data to narrative features), but that existing research institutions throughout the West have failed to address this issue adequately, in terms of research policy, recruitment and...... methodology. Accordingly, it is suggested that scholars from the humanities in particular aggressively seek to develop new types of research institutions and methods in order to deal with the manifold forms of overlap between warfare and aesthetics. In empirical terms, focus is limited to the current...

  4. Incorporating Information Literacy Skills into Analytical Chemistry: An Evolutionary Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Mary M.; Jackson, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) has recently decided to incorporate various information literacy skills for teaching analytical chemistry to the students. The methodology has been found to be extremely effective, as it provides better understanding to the students.

  5. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  6. [Lectures from the tutorial courses at NATO--Advanced Study Institute pt. "Human biomonitoring after environmental and occupational exposure to chemical and physical agents" (Turkey, 9/23-10/3/1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, M M

    2000-01-01

    The NATO Science Programme joining in the celebration of 50th Anniversary of Founding of the NATO by organisation of NATO Advanced Study Institute "Human Monitoring after Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Chemical and Physical Agents", which was held in Tekirova-Antalya (Turkey), September 23-October 3, 1999. The director of ASI was dr Diana Anderson from TNO-BIBRA (UK). The members of Scientific Organizing Committee were also dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr A. Karakaya (Turkey), Dr P. O'Neill (USA), dr R. Bos (Netherlands), dr M. Lotti (Italy). It was a high-level tutorial course for scientists at the post-doctoral level from NATO countries and from NATO Cooperation Partner countries. NATO-ASI attended about 100 scientists from about 30 countries. There were 40 lectures, 20 oral presentations and 43 posters presented, 19 authors of posters were invited to additional short oral presentations. Subject of course concerned undesirable effects of chemical and physical agents on human health. The aim of NATO-Advanced Study Institute was the meeting of scientists working in different fields of science to present and discuss the knowledge and recent developments in the field of human monitoring. The majority of lectures concerned about biomonitoring of people exposed to genotoxic agents at work place and environment. Dr A. Autio (Switzerland) presented definitions of different kinds of bimarkers proposed by the Committee on Biological Markers in Environmental Health of USA Academy of Science/National Research Council. Dr D. Anderson (UK) introduced history of biomonitoring. The main lecturers on this topic were dr W. Au (USA), dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr M. Lotti (Italy), dr J. Timbell (USA), Dr E. Moustacchi (France). The following group of lectures presented by dr D. Anderson (UK), dr A. Wyrobek (USA), dr J. Bonde (Dennmark), dr H. Norppa (Finland) was regarded to male-mediated mutagenic effect in offspring induced by genotoxic physical and chemical agents

  7. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  8. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. PMID:26990074

  9. Market institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Shyamal; Negassa, Asfaw; Torero, Maximo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two. However, more than ever before, emerging local and global patterns such as the modern food value-chain led by supermarkets...

  10. INSTITUTIONS MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    .

    1994-01-01

    Successful development policy entails an understanding of the dynamics of economic change if the policies pursued are to have the desired consequences. And a dynamic model of economic change entails as an integral part of that model analysis of the polity since it is the polity that specifies and enforces the formal rules. While we are still some distance from having such a model the structure that is evolving in the new institutional economics, even though incomplete, suggests radically diff...

  11. Measuring institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Farayi Gwenhamo; Johannes W. Fedderke; Raphael de Kadt

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a new dataset of indicators of political freedom, property rights and political instability for Zimbabwe for the period 1946 to 2005. The dataset is constructed by systematically coding the three concepts of political freedom, property rights and political instability along a multitude of dimensions. The lengthy time coverage of the dataset allows country-specific econometric analysis to evaluate generalizing propositions about the effects of political institutions on ec...

  12. Incorporation of atomic carbon and hydrogen in high-melting oxide - nuclear-chemical, dilatometric and infrared spectroscopical investigations on C- and H-doped MgO and CaO-monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C and H doped monocrystals of MgO and CaO were investigated in a temperature region of 78 K to 1500 K for the chemical state of the doping agents and their temperature-dependent behaviour. Starting with monocrystals obtained by coal arcing, carbon doping was carried out via the nuclear reaction 12C (d,p)13C, whereas hydrogen doping is present from the start of the crystal growth due to remaining moisture of the initial product. Hydrogen is present in the form of OH-contained defects or secondary produced Hz bubbles. All investigations, namely laser microprobe investigations, infrared spectroscopy, CO2 and hydrocarbon formation measurements and argon and O2 atmosphere, C-profile measurements, diffusion measurements, thermal expansion, lead to the result that carbon in the atomic form is present in the lattice on interstitial places or cation vacancies. The reaction mechanisms are discussed. An interaction model (between OH and C defects) does not completely clarify the complex IR spectra in detail, however shows good agreement with the experimental results. (RB)

  13. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  14. Implications for incorporating simulation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    The current intricately complex state of health care holds a multitude of challenges for the novice nurse in acquiring, developing, and maintaining standards of proficiency in clinical practice. This paper will explore the implications or reasons for incorporating simulation in nursing education for two primary reasons. First, simulation is an interactive teaching strategy designed for augmenting the learning process. Simulation is an example of active learning that engages the student to think through a situation then take action through the application of knowledge, and finally to self-reflect during the process of debriefing. Secondly, an increasing number of educational institutions have made the commitment to incorporate simulation technology into nursing curricula. PMID:21175101

  15. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  16. Annual report 90 Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site, of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1990 in the various projects included in the multiannual (1988-91) Specific Research Programmes tackled by the Institute i.e. Environment Protection and Radioactive Waste Management, the former being focused on environmental chemicals, air pollution and pollutant transport, water pollution, chemical waste, food and drug analysis, the latter on safety assessment for waste disposal in geological formations. The scientific support given to the Commission Services for the implementation of EC directives dealing with chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM) is also described. Lastly the outcome of various activities related to work for third parties and to the participation of the Institute in EUREKA and COST projects is shortly outlined. The report includes data on the Institute Structure, human and budget resources and large installations operated by the Institute

  17. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  18. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  19. Mechanism of incorporation of zinc into hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Murata, Hidenobu; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Nakahira, Atsushi

    2010-06-01

    The atomic level mechanism of incorporation of Zn(2+) into hydroxyapatite (HAp), which is a potential dopant to promote bone formation, was investigated, based on first principles total energy calculations and experimental X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. It was found that Zn(2+)-doped HAp tends to have a Ca-deficient chemical composition and substitutional Zn(2+) ions are associated with a defect complex with a Ca(2+) vacancy and two charge compensating protons. Moreover, first principles calculations demonstrated that Zn(2+) incorporation into HAp can take place by occupying the Ca(2+) vacancy of the defect complex. The Ca(2+) vacancy complex is not only the origin of the calcium deficiency in HAp, but also plays a key role in the uptake of trace elements during mineralization. PMID:19944784

  20. Institutions-Augmented Solow Model And Club Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Growth economists still face challenges and limitations to incorporate institutions into the standard growth framework. This article develops a simple augmented Solow growth model that accounts for the interactions between institutions and factor-productivity and examine the impacts of the quality of institutions on levels and growth rates of output. The institutions augmented growth model shows that differences in the quality of institutions preclude convergence and determine both the level ...

  1. Methods for reduction of radionuclides incorporated into the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale (laboratories and hospitals) to global radioactive contamination may contribute to incorporation of radionuclides in the living body. In real accidents, many radionuclides are occasionally incorporated simultaneously into the body. Therefore, it is important to know the kinds of radionuclides, chemical form at the incorporation, and presence status and behavior of radionuclides in the body. Because there is interaction between agents for reducing radioactive contamination, the reduction mechanism of radionuclide in the body should be considered when such agents are used in the combination manner. The purpose of this report is to discuss chemical methods for reducing radionuclides that are orally incorporated into the body. These methods are described in terms of dilution, complex production, adsorption, metabolism derangement, and others. I-131, Cs-137, Sr-90, and Ru-106, which are influential radionuclides for the human body, are especially referred to. (N.K.) 58 refs

  2. Annual report 1991. Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre - Ispra Site - of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1991 - i.e. the last of the four year (1988-91) Specific Research Programme of the Joint Research Centre - in the projects tackled by the Institute. The activities were mainly focused on the areas of environmental chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and food and drug analysis, included in the programme Environmental Protection, and of safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal in geological formation as a part of the Radioactive Waste Management programme. The scientific support provided to different Commission Services is also described, proper emphasis being given to that provided to the Directorate General Xl (Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection) in the field of chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM). The above activities are aimed at the implementation of EC directives in the related fields. The work for third parties and the contribution of the Institute to various EUREKA and COST projects are also shortly described. Lastly the report provides essential data concerning the Institute structure and the human and financial resources

  3. Studies on the incorporation of lipase in synthetic polymerisable vesicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Mosmuller, E.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the suitability of synthetic polymerisable vesicles for the incorporation and stabilisation of lipase for the bioconversion of organic chemical compounds.In chapter 1 , some characteristics are reviewed of hydrolytic enzymes, and more specific those of lipases. In chapter 2 an overview is presented of the features and properties of surfactants and vesicles.In chapter 3 , the incorporation is described of lipase from Candida cylindracea (CCL) into polymerisable...

  4. The Foundation-Institution Partnership: The Role of Institutionally Related Foundations in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, David

    2010-01-01

    Institutionally related foundations have played a vital role in raising and managing private resources in support of public institutions of higher education. Unlike private grant-making foundations, college and university foundations are typically incorporated as public charities under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Although they…

  5. Incorporating Nondrug Social & Recreational Activities in Outpatient Chemical Dependency Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siporin, Sheldon; Baron, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    "Contingency Management programs (CMP) and non-drug social and recreational activities (NDSRA) are interventions premised on behavior theory that rely on external sources of reinforcement alternative to drug-based forms to decrease drug use. CMP usually employs vouchers as reinforcement for negative toxicologies. Despite research support, CMP…

  6. Physicochemical characterization of surfactant incorporating vesicles that incorporate colloidal magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Barbosa, Raquel; Luna Finkler, Christine L; Bentley, Maria Vitória L B; Santana, Maria Helena A

    2013-03-01

    Drug administration through the transdermal route has optimized for the comfort of patients and easy application. However, the main limitation of transdermal drug delivery is the impermeability of the human skin. Recent advances on improvement of drug transport through the skin include elastic liposomes as a penetration enhancer. Entrapment of ferrofluids in the core of liposomes produces magnetoliposomes, which can be driven by a high-gradient magnetic field. The association of both strategies could enhance the penetration of elastic liposomes. This work relies on the preparation and characterization of elastic-magnetic liposomes designed to permeate through the skin. The incorporation of colloidal magnetite and the elastic component, octaethylene glycol laurate (PEG-8-L), in the structure of liposomes were evaluated. The capability of the elastic magnetoliposomes for permeation through nanopores of two stacked polycarbonate membranes was compared to conventional and elastic liposomes. Magnetite incorporation was dependent on vesicle diameter and size distribution as well as PEG-8-L incorporation into liposomes, demonstrating the capability of the fluid bilayer to accommodate the surfactant without disruption. On the contrary, PEG-8-L incorporation into magnetoliposomes promoted a decrease of average diameter and a lower PEG-8-L incorporation percentage as a result of reduction on the fluidity of the bilayer imparted by iron incorporation into the lipid structure. Elastic liposomes demonstrated an enhancement of the deformation capability, as compared with conventional liposomes. Conventional and elastic magnetoliposomes presented a reduced capability for deformation and permeation. PMID:23363304

  7. 78 FR 4349 - Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 360 RIN 3064-AD99 Records of Failed Insured Depository Institutions AGENCY: Federal... retention of records of a failed insured depository institution. The proposed rule incorporates the.... Background When acting as receiver of a failed insured depository institution, the FDIC succeeds to the...

  8. Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Helmholtz-Zentrum Fr Ozeanforschung and Leibniz Institut Fur Meereswissenschaften at OceanSITES site CIS from 2002-08-21 to 2015-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0131474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CHLOROPHYLL, CHLOROPHYLL A CONCENTRATION,...

  9. Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences at OceanSITES site BATS from 1988-10-20 to 2012-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0130027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including BACTERIA, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, DISSOLVED INORGANIC...

  10. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the mos...

  11. Entrepreneurs, institutional entrepreneurship and institutional change

    OpenAIRE

    Koene, B.A.S.; Ansari, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of entrepreneurship research and institutional theory has begun to attract increasing scholarly attention. While much recent research has studied "institutional entrepreneurs" credited with creating new or transforming existing institutions to support their projects, less attention has been paid to the institutions that constitute the menus from which choices are made, and delineate resources for entrepreneurial or other agentic activities. While models of institutionalizatio...

  12. Execution of a chemical compatibility program during CANDU unit refurbishment - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 2004 Bruce Power instituted a program to assess products in their inventory, a program document B-PROC-00306 called Chemistry Risk Assessment. A chemical compatibility procedure followed which established a list of controlled elements and their limits. Some 3000 products were examined and guidelines for their use incorporated into Passport. The presentation relates to the program as applied to refurbishment of Units 1 and 2, 2005-2011 and defines the objective and scope of Chemical Compability Program for Bruce Power. Also, some unique challenges during refurbishment were described and limited case studies were provided.

  13. Institutional Priority for Diversity at Christian Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Collins, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This evaluative study explored the relationship between institutional priority for diversity and minority enrollment at four schools within the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities, a consortium of Christian institutions. This institutional evaluation utilized public resources in order to gather descriptive data on minority enrollment…

  14. Institute Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ann; Steadman, Jackie; Little, Sally; Underwood, Debra; Blackman, Mack; Simonds, Judy

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the MSFC working group on Institutes in 1995 on the structure, organization and business arrangements of Institutes at a time when the agency was considering establishing science institutes. Thirteen institutes, ten science centers associated with the state of Georgia, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and IIT Research Institute (IITRI), and general data on failed institutes were utilized to form this report. The report covers the working group's findings on institute mission, structure, director, board of directors/advisors, the working environment, research arrangements, intellectual property rights, business management, institute funding, and metrics.

  15. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  16. Studies on the incorporation of lipase in synthetic polymerisable vesicles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosmuller, E.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes studies on the suitability of synthetic polymerisable vesicles for the incorporation and stabilisation of lipase for the bioconversion of organic chemical compounds.In chapter 1 , some characteristics are reviewed of hydrolytic enzymes, and more specific those

  17. Chemical Aspects of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfman, Murry

    1982-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal (gum) disease are treated/prevented by procedures utilizing chemical expertise. Procedures and suggestions on how they might be incorporated into the high school chemistry curriculum are described. Specific topics discussed include dental caries, fluoride, diet, tooth decay prevention, silver amalgan,…

  18. Identity of Institution and Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bahar Ülker Kaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity is planning and reşecting memorable, personal, characteristic pecularities of an institution and the ability that separates it from others. Corporate identity is in interaction with the corporate culture and corporate image. It is an entity formed by the philosophy of the institution, institutional communication, behavior and planning. Institutional planning formed by the planning of production and communication and architectural/ interior architectural planning, is the most significant element that constitutes the visual identity of an institution. While forming architectural and interior architectural planning of institutions, establishing places that will clearly reşect the corporate identity is gaining importance. In the perception of visual identity of institutions, planning elements such as; colour, texture, material and form are more significant than others.

  19. Synthesis and Enzymatic Incorporation of Modified Deoxyuridine Triphosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkai Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To expand the chemical functionality of DNAzymes and aptamers, several new modified deoxyuridine triphosphates have been synthesized. An important precursor that enables this aim is 5-aminomethyl dUTP, whereby the pendent amine serves as a handle for further synthetic functionalization. Five functional groups were conjugated to 5-aminomethyl dUTP. Incorporation assays were performed on several templates that demand 2–5 sequential incorporation events using several commercially available DNA polymerases. It was found that Vent (exo- DNA polymerase efficiently incorporates all five modified dUTPs. In addition, all nucleoside triphosphates were capable of supporting a double-stranded exponential PCR amplification. Modified PCR amplicons were PCR amplified into unmodified DNA and sequenced to verify that genetic information was conserved through incorporation, amplification, and reamplification. Overall these modified dUTPs represent new candidate substrates for use in selections using modified nucleotide libraries.

  20. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  1. 77 FR 49458 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... (``the '181 patent''). 77 FR 20847 (Apr. 6, 2012). The notice of institution named four respondents... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of... States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics, by reason of...

  2. Transformational leadership in merging higher education institutions: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Crispen Chipunza; Shungu A. Gwarinda

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: The use of transformational leadership in the implementation of merger and incorporation policy in the higher education sector is well documented in other parts of the world and not in countries in transition like South Africa.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to establish an understanding of ‘transformational leadership’ and to determine the extent to which it was employed by leaders in an institution of higher education which had incorporated another institut...

  3. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  4. Market dispatch incorporating stability constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability aspects have often been incorporated in the electricity market dispatch/pricing procedure using trial-and-error methods, or approximated in the dispatch optimisation directly as a set of linear constraints on generation/transmission. This paper presents the preliminary experiences with the development of a market optimal power flow (OPF) model that incorporates both transient and voltage stability constraints. The resultant dispatch and prices are expected to exhibit the impact of accurately modelled stability limits that are hitherto largely unknown. This model allows integrated representation of both voltage and transient stability. It, however, entails very significant computational complexities. A complete resolution of all these issues is beyond the scope of this paper, although some initial thoughts to simplify computation are discussed. The importance of stability constraints on market dispatch and prices is discussed around a simple 9-bus system example. (author)

  5. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well as...... change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore and...

  6. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself by...... forming firms capable of expanding internationally. At the level of subsidiaries as providing institutional back up for these firms' abilities to fight for survival and growth within the frame of rivalling subsidiaries of the MNC. The article discusses at these two levels the comparative institutional...

  7. Elites and institutional persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Particular sets of institutions, once they become established in a society, have a strong tendency to persist. In this paper I argue that understanding how elites form and reproduce is key to understanding the persistence of institutions over time. I illustrate this idea with a simple political economy theory of institutions and through examples from Liberia, the US, South Africa and Germany I show how elites influence institutions. To change institutions requires having an understanding of h...

  8. TYPOLOGIES OF INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    IOSIF, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    From the point of view of Durkheim, institutions are way so facting, feeling and thinking,expressing any social act. Institution shave stringent action on the individual, have its own existence, independent of individual manifestations, which are distinctive for a given group, being accepted by all members.Types of social institutions are economic institutions, educational, political, cultural and family.Within institutions, communication is an inherent phenomenon. For Katzand Kahn "communica...

  9. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  10. Institutional quality of a higher education institution from the perspective of employers

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Karmen; Biloslavo, Roberto; Bratož, Silva

    2013-01-01

    The present paper proposes a theoretical model of institutional quality of a higher education institution (HEI) which, in addition to the internal dimensions of quality, incorporates also the external dimension, i.e. the outcomes dimension. This dimension has been neglected by the quality standards and models examined in our paper. Furthermore, the standards and models analyzed consider stakeholders as one of the quality factors of a HEI. The stakeholders perspective is seen as a lens through...

  11. Chemical warfare in termites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Jirošová, Anna; Hanus, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2010), s. 1012-1021. ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Isoptera * chemical defense * exocrine gland * frontal gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2010

  12. Incorporation of REE into leucophanite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Friis; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Williams, C.T.;

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of nine, and the chemical compositions of ten, natural samples of leucophanite, ideally NaCaBeSi2O6F, were investigated. The analysed samples display a large compositional variation with trace-element abundances >50,000 ppm, primarily due to rare earth elements (REE). Fromt...

  13. Teacher Enhancement Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Bradley, Tina

    1994-01-01

    During the 1980's, a period of intense concern over educational quality in the United States, few indicators of U.S. student achievement garnered the interest of policy makers and pundits as successfully as the results of international testing in mathematics and science. This concern was so great that as a part of the Goals 2000 initiative, President George Bush indicated that 'By the year 2000, U.S. students should be first in the world in mathematics and science.' The Clinton Administration is placing a major emphasis, not only on rigorous academic standards and creating a new system for assessing students' progress, but also including professional development as a major focus. The argument being that teachers need more sustained, intensive training to prepare them to teach to higher standards. Executive order 12821 mandates that national laboratories 'assist in the mathematics and science education of our Nation's students, teachers, parents and the public by establishing programs at their agency to provide for training elementary and secondary school teachers to improve their knowledge of mathematics and science'. These and other issues led to the development of ideas for a project that addresses the need for excellence in mathematics, science and technology instruction. In response to these initiatives the NASA/LaRC Teacher Enhancement Institute was proposed. The TEI incorporated systemic reform perspectives, enhanced content knowledge for teachers, and teacher preparation. Emphasis was also placed on recruiting those educators who teach in impoverished urban school districts with at-risk student populations who have been traditionally under represented in science, mathematics, technology and engineering. Participants in the Teacher Enhancement Institute were 37 teachers from grades K-8, teaching in Region 2 in the state of Virginia, as well as 2 preservice teachers from Norfolk State University and one teacher from Dublin, Virginia, where a Science

  14. Incorporation of fine steel sludge waste into red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as its objective to evaluate the effect of incorporation of fine steel sludge waste on the properties and microstructure of a kaolinitic clay used to fabricate bricks and roofing tiles. Characterization tests of the steel sludge employed X-ray diffraction, chemical composition, particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy and DTA/TG analysis. Compositions were prepared with additions of 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt.% waste in a kaolinitic clay from Brazil. To determine the technological properties such as bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength, press molded specimens were fired in laboratory furnace at 900 deg. C. The microstructure of the fired specimens was evaluated by SEM and XRD. The results showed that incorporations up to 5 wt.% of fine steel sludge is beneficial to the red ceramic. By contrast, incorporations above 5 wt.% cause deleterious effect on the mechanical strength of the fired specimens

  15. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities are...... highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework with the...

  16. Institut de physique et institut de chimie

    OpenAIRE

    Haroche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Au cœur de Paris et du quartier Latin Le 17 mars 2015, l'Institut de physique et l'Institut de chimie du Collège de France ont été inaugurés par le président de la République François Hollande. Dans un bâtiment entièrement rénové du Collège de France, prennent désormais place deux centres de recherche : l’Institut de physique et l’Institut de chimie. Chacun constitué de plusieurs chaires dévolues à ces disciplines, ainsi que de jeunes équipes, ils perpétuent la longue tradition de la physiq...

  17. RELATIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS, INSTITUTIONAL DISTANCE, AND PARTNER SELECTION DECISIONS ACROSS BORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Meuleman, M.; Jääskeläinen, M.; M. V.J. MAULA; Wright, M; Siegel, D S

    2012-01-01

    We respond to calls to incorporate the broader institutional context in which partner selection decisions occur into the study of partner selection. We examine the neglected question concerning how varying institutional distance between potential partners in different countries influences the role of relational embeddedness in cross-border partner selection decisions. We develop an integrative perspective where the institutional context in which partner selection decisions occur defines bound...

  18. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  19. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  20. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  1. Do Institutions Cause Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the debate over whether political institutions cause economic growth, or whether, alternatively, growth and human capital accumulation lead to institutional improvement. We find that most indicators of institutional quality used to establish the proposition that institutions cause growth are constructed to be conceptually unsuitable for that purpose. We also find that some of the instrumental variable techniques used in the literature are flawed. Basic OLS results, as well as a var...

  2. Contracting institutions and development

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The quality of contracting institutions has been thought to be of second-order importance next to the impact that good property rights institutions can have on long- run growth. Using a large range of proxies for each type of institution, we find a robust $negative$ link between the quality of contracting institutions and long-run growth when we condition on property rights and a number of additional macroeconomic variables. Although the result remains something of a puzzle, we present eviden...

  3. Metal incorporation into nanoporous carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, SJ; Woolger, NEP; Carey, JD; Silva, SRP; Fuge, GM; Ashfold, MNR

    2005-01-01

    Nanoporous carbon films were deposited by 248 nm pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different background pressures of argon (P). The morphology changed from smooth, high-density amorphous carbon films at P = 20 mTorr to ultra-low density nanoporous material at P = 380 mTorr. Subsequently, the nanostructural, chemical and electrical properties of metal containing nanoporous carbon samples were investigated by ablating graphite targets containing known contents of Ni and Co. We demon...

  4. Implementing Institutional Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Although many agree that institutional research in higher education has come of age and is accepted as a part of institutional management, great variations exist in the extent to which institutional research findings are synthesized and utilized in management decision-making. A number of reasons can be identified as accounting for this phenomenon,…

  5. Annual report 2012. Institute of Resource Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE) is one of the currently eight institutes of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The research activities are fully integrated into the program ''Nuclear Safety Research'' of the Helmholtz Association and focused on the topics ''Safety of Nuclear Waste Disposal'' and ''Safety Research for Nuclear Reactors''. With the integration of the division of ''Reactor Safety'' from the former ''Institute of Safety Research'' nuclear research at HZDR is now mainly concentrated within this institute. In addition, various activities have been started investigating chemical and environmental aspects of processing and recycling of strategic metals, namely rare earth elements. Here, a knowledge transfer from the nuclear to the non-nuclear community, branching thermodynamics and spectroscopy, has been established. This also strengthens links to the recently established ''Helmholtz-Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology''.

  6. Mapping Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Typology of Institutional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria; Elizondo, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), institutions that enroll at least 25% Hispanic students, are institutionally diverse, including a much wider array of institutional types than other Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs). Furthermore, they have distinctive institutional characteristics from those typically emphasized in institutional typologies…

  7. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to...

  8. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials...

  9. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are...

  10. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  11. A new incorporation mechanism for trivalent actinides into bioapatite: a TRLFS and EXAFS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Kiel; Handley-Sidhu, Stephanie; Dardenne, Kathy; Renshaw, Joanna; Macaskie, Lynne; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2012-02-28

    One of the most toxic byproducts of nuclear power and weapons production is the transuranics, which have a high radiotoxicity and long biological half-life due to their tendency to accumulate in the skeletal system. This accumulation is inhomogeneous and has been associated with the chemical properties and structure of the bone material rather than its location or function. This suggests a chemical driving force to incorporation and requires an atomic scale mechanistic understanding of the incorporation process. Here we propose a new incorporation mechanism for trivalent actinides and lanthanides into synthetic and biologically produced hydroxyapatite. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure have been used to demonstrate that trivalent actinides and lanthanides incorporate into the amorphous grain boundaries of apatite. This incorporation site can be used to explain patterns in uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the mammalian skeletal system. PMID:22313032

  12. Estimation of human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. State of the art of the research projects of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, the Sector Substances and Risks of RIVM decided to strengthen strategically its research into risk assessment methodology. In this report the research area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM is outlined. A representative selection of human exposure assessment models for both chemical substances and radiation is analysed with regard to aim, principle, degree of model analyses and values of default parameter. For comparison, a model to assess human exposure to micro-organisms is included as well. All models are operational or nearly so in the production of risk assessments in the Sector Substances and Risks and also in the Sectors Public Health Research and Environmental Research. The models discussed all have a defined area of application and support risk management. The research areas of exposure assessment for substances and radiation are compared and many methodological analogies are apparent. However, at the level of models and parameters an in-depth analysis of analogies and explained or unexplained differences is lacking. A detailed examination of organisation aspects and RIVM-models for human exposure assessment learns that all relevant areas of interest are covered. For all routes of exposure the reach of the actual risk and exposure assessment methodology is large. A more uniform coverage is attained for radiation than for chemical substances. For both areas the estimation and registration of emissions can be improved. The development of risk assessment systems and related harmonisation proJects have already attention for many years (e.g. CSOIL, USES, RIBRON). It is concluded that the RIVM requires a broad, up-to-date range of instruments for exposure assessment and active involvement in all kinds of national and international relevant networks. The RIVM should also remain involved in the development and evaluation of methodology and in projects aiming at harmonisation. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 64 refs

  13. Ensemble learning incorporating uncertain registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ivor J A; Woolrich, Mark W; Andersson, Jesper L R; Groves, Adrian R; Schnabel, Julia A

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for improving the accuracy of statistical prediction methods in spatially normalized analysis. This is achieved by incorporating registration uncertainty into an ensemble learning scheme. A probabilistic registration method is used to estimate a distribution of probable mappings between subject and atlas space. This allows the estimation of the distribution of spatially normalized feature data, e.g., grey matter probability maps. From this distribution, samples are drawn for use as training examples. This allows the creation of multiple predictors, which are subsequently combined using an ensemble learning approach. Furthermore, extra testing samples can be generated to measure the uncertainty of prediction. This is applied to separating subjects with Alzheimer's disease from normal controls using a linear support vector machine on a region of interest in magnetic resonance images of the brain. We show that our proposed method leads to an improvement in discrimination using voxel-based morphometry and deformation tensor-based morphometry over bootstrap aggregating, a common ensemble learning framework. The proposed approach also generates more reasonable soft-classification predictions than bootstrap aggregating. We expect that this approach could be applied to other statistical prediction tasks where registration is important. PMID:23288332

  14. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyoun Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  15. Failing Institutions Are at the Core of the U.S. Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the structure of institutional economics to provide an explanation of the recent U.S. financial crisis. Institutional theory suggests that a county’s political, legal, social, and cultural institutions determine and characterize its economy. An institutional perspective of financial crises therefore incorporates unquantifiable aspects of the real world. Different institutions interacted to ignite and fuel the global crisis. A thorough understanding of all of the legal, politic...

  16. Incorporation of Bentazone with Exserohilum rostratum for Controlling Cyperus iria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R. Kundat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Various methods are used to counter the population of Cyperus iria in rice fields and among the most common method are chemical approaches. Chemical control methods are preferred by rice farmers due to their efficacy, speed, ease of storage and affordable cost. The concern of chemical herbicides is on its effects on the environment. Less attention had been given to biological control methods. Limitations such as host specificity, formulations and storage requirements are some of the obstacles that have to be overcome before implementation. Although it is environmentally friendly, a total shift from chemical control methods to biological seems unreasonable. Therefore incorporation of biological control with reduced chemical herbicides is expected to produce a better and sustainable control of weeds. Approach: A study was conducted to determine the potential of using Exserohilum rostratum as a biocontrol agent (incorporated with chemical herbicide, bentazone to control Cyperus iria. The biocontrol agent (E. rostratum was confirmed to be pathogenic to C. iria by applying Kochs postulates. Preliminary laboratory experiments were carried out to ensure the interactions within the mixture was not inhibitory. Results: Bentazone was confirmed to be compatible with E. rostratum with an ED50 value of 22064570.0 μgai mL−1. In order to determine the efficacy of the incorporations, several mixtures were tested in a greenhouse environment. It was found that the mixtures of E. rostratum (106 spores mL−1 with bentazone (0.4 kgai ha−1 was significantly a better control of Cyperus iria compared to the usage of bentazone alone (0.4 kgai ha−1 and spores alone (106 spores mL−1. It was significantly more effective than the mixture of RBD palm oil (10%, Tween 80 (5% and spores (106 spores mL−1 which acted as the conventional bioherbicide approach. Synergistic effects were exhibited with 50% less herbicide

  17. Healthcare Consulting: Institutional Psychotherapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Nancy H.; Covvey, H. Dominic

    1984-01-01

    Health care computing consultants are often brought in to assist institutions in solving their computing problems. Not unlike the disturbed client seeking psychotherapy, the problems the institution has with the introduction of computers are symptoms of deeper problems. Consultants and institutions must learn to identify and address underlying disorders first, before attacking the computing problems, or the outcome will more likely be failure - if not in the short term, then certainly in the ...

  18. Investment and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Yishay Yafeh; Kenichi Ueda; Stijn Claessens

    2010-01-01

    We study how financial systems and institutional environments affect investment efficiency using a sample of some 300,000 firm-years from 48 countries. Based on a canonical investment model, we identify two possible channels by which institutional environments may affect investment: firm-level financial frictions and the macro-level required rate of return. We find that a good institutional environment, in particular strong corporate governance, reduces financial frictions and lowers the requ...

  19. Developing Institutional Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nemira Mačianskienė

    2011-01-01

    Higher education institutions face challenges set by Bologna process, the implementation of which requires creating conditions for language learning and intercultural competence acquisition. Although higher education institutions in Lithuania maintain different and in a way promiscuous approaches to the role of HEI in the development of students‘ linguistic and intercultural competences, but a certain institutional policy with regard to language learning and teaching has inevitably been forme...

  20. Institutions, Capital, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The international development community has encouraged investment in physical and human capital as a precursor to economic progress. Recent evidence shows, however, that increases in capital do not always lead to increases in output. We develop a growth model where the allocation and productivity of capital depends on a country's institutions. We find that increases in physical and human capital lead to output growth only in countries with good institutions. In countries with bad institutions...

  1. Creating an institutional repository

    OpenAIRE

    Grozdanić, Marija; Macan, Bojan; Vodopijevec, Alen

    2006-01-01

    Institutional repository is a digital collection that capture, mantain, save, index, preserve and redistribute entire output of an institution in digital format. They adhere to open access modell and they are OAI – compliant. Building of insitutional repository is essential to the library whose mission is to provide access to wide range of information sources including open access sources and to promote them, as well. Intellectual output of the Institute might contain: pre-prints, post-...

  2. Institutions and offshoring decision

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolini, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    Several papers have proven that the institutional environment of the receiving country can influence the choice to establish an FDI. Property rights theory suggests that contract enforcement matters differentially across sectors. This paper is the first attempt to test whether institutions matter differentially across different sectors in FDI decision. Using data on U.S. Direct Investment Abroad, I find that institutional characteristics of the country and the industry positively affect the v...

  3. Institutions and growth accelerations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of institutions on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995-2007. We follow Henderson, Storeygard, and Weil (American Economic Review 102(2): 994-1028, 2012) in combining Penn World Tables GDP data with satellite-based data on nightlights in order to arrive at a more accurate measure of economic growth. We find that countries with good institutions grew faster than countries with poor institutions. Using external instruments, 2SLS regressions ...

  4. Do Institutions Impact Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Elmslie, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on institutions and economic growth by conducting an empirical examination on the links between innovation and institutions. Using cross-country data and the instrumental variable method, this study finds that institutional arrangements explain much of the variation on patent production across countries. We find evidence that control of corruption, market-friendly policies, protection of property rights and a more effective judiciary system boost an ec...

  5. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  6. On the origins of scientific and academic work on technology of organic substances in Kharkiv Chemical and Technological Institute: to the 160th anniversary of Prof. O.P. Lidov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Shulga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical and biographical analysis of Prof. O.P. Lidov’s activity and assessment of his role in formation and development of scientific and academic work on organic substances technology in KhTI are shown. The scientist is characterized as honest, well-wishing person who devoted his life to science. During thirty years of scientific and lecturing practice in KhTI, Prof. O.P. Lidov created fundamental educational and methodological base of the main courses of the chemical and dyeing substances technology, arranged the department’s facilities and equipment, founded a gas plant. Under his leadership B.N. Tyutyunnikov, G.M. Gulinov, M.I. Kuznetsov were formed as scientists; they developed in KhChTI such scientific directions as technology of fats, dyes and coal carbonization. It is established that Prof. O.P. Lidov supported the research work of the organic chemist S.O. Fokin. Besides of that, his research work comprised the technology of organic and dyeing substances, extraction and study of inactive gases, which contain hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Further study of scientific and technical heritage of Prof. O.P. Lidov and his successors will make possible defining his scientific school circle.

  7. Bioactivity of 2′-deoxyinosine-incorporated aptamer AS1411

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinmeng; Sun, Lidan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers can be chemically modified to enhance nuclease resistance and increase target affinity. In this study, we performed chemical modification of 2′-deoxyinosine in AS1411, an anti-proliferative G-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer, which binds selectively to the nucleolin protein. Its function was augmented when 2′-deoxyinosine was incorporated at positions 12, 13, 15, and 24 of AS1411, respectively. In addition, double incorporation of 2′-deoxyinosine at positions 12 and 24 (FAN-1224dI), 13 and 24 (FAN-1324dI), and 15 and 24 (FAN-1524dI) promoted G-quartet formation, as well as inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell growth, and induced S-phase cell cycle arrest. In further animal experiments, FAN-1224dI, FAN-1324dI and FAN-1524dI resulted in enhanced treatment effects than AS1411 alone. These results suggested that the position and number of modification substituents in AS1411 are critical parameters to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic function of the aptamer. Structural investigations of the FAN-1524dI/nucleolin complex structure, using molecular dynamics simulation, revealed the critical interactions involving nucleolin and 2′-dI incorporated AS1411 compared with AS1411 alone. These findings augment understanding of the role of 2′-deoxyinosine moieties in interactive binding processes. PMID:27194215

  8. Bioactivity of 2'-deoxyinosine-incorporated aptamer AS1411.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinmeng; Sun, Lidan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers can be chemically modified to enhance nuclease resistance and increase target affinity. In this study, we performed chemical modification of 2'-deoxyinosine in AS1411, an anti-proliferative G-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer, which binds selectively to the nucleolin protein. Its function was augmented when 2'-deoxyinosine was incorporated at positions 12, 13, 15, and 24 of AS1411, respectively. In addition, double incorporation of 2'-deoxyinosine at positions 12 and 24 (FAN-1224dI), 13 and 24 (FAN-1324dI), and 15 and 24 (FAN-1524dI) promoted G-quartet formation, as well as inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell growth, and induced S-phase cell cycle arrest. In further animal experiments, FAN-1224dI, FAN-1324dI and FAN-1524dI resulted in enhanced treatment effects than AS1411 alone. These results suggested that the position and number of modification substituents in AS1411 are critical parameters to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic function of the aptamer. Structural investigations of the FAN-1524dI/nucleolin complex structure, using molecular dynamics simulation, revealed the critical interactions involving nucleolin and 2'-dI incorporated AS1411 compared with AS1411 alone. These findings augment understanding of the role of 2'-deoxyinosine moieties in interactive binding processes. PMID:27194215

  9. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create......Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... the stable and planned and predominantly national models of economic organization supported by the Keynesian state, which dominated in the 30 years after 1945, to the uncertain and high-risk environment of the current period in which globalization has opened up the possibility of new forms of firms...

  10. On educational institutions evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María Tafur Puente

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to provide a view on the importance of institutional evaluations in educational programs that strive for continuous improvement. Furthermore, the article analyzes the concept of evaluation, explores some quality management models, and suggests the measures required for the design and implementation of an institutional evaluation process within the organization or one of its areas.

  11. On educational institutions evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Tafur Puente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a view on the importance of institutional evaluations in educational programs that strive for continuous improvement. Furthermore, the article analyzes the concept of evaluation, explores some quality management models, and suggests the measures required for the design and implementation of an institutional evaluation process within the organization or one of its areas.

  12. Budgeting and Budgetary Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Budgetary institutions have historically played a critical role in a gradual movement toward responsive, responsible, and accountable public governance in industrial countries. This paper includes the following headings: overview; a primer on budgeting and budgetary institutions; the budget and its coverage; capital budgets -- theory and practice; budget methods and practices; a primer on ...

  13. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  14. Institutionalism "Old" and "New."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Explores the new institutionalism's ethos and direction. Drawing a sharp line between old and new inhibits the contribution of institutional theory to major issues of bureaucracy and social policy. Problems of accountability and responsiveness, public and private bureaucracy, regulation and self-regulation, and management and governance will…

  15. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue for...

  16. Carbon nanotube composites for glucose biosensor incorporated with reverse iontophoresis function for noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ping Sun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tai-Ping Sun1,2,5, Hsiu-Li Shieh2, Congo Tak-Shing Ching1,2,5, Yan-Dong Yao3, Su-Hua Huang4, Chia-Ming Liu1, Wei-Hao Liu1, Chung-Yuan Chen21Graduate Institute of Biomedicine and Biomedical Technology, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, Taiwan, ROC; 3Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong; 4Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC; 5These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: This study aims to develop an amperometric glucose biosensor, based on carbon nanotubes material for reverse iontophoresis, fabricated by immobilizing a mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT epoxy-composite, on a planar screen-printed carbon electrode. MWCNT was employed to ensure proper incorporation into the epoxy mixture and faster electron transfer between the GOD and the transducer. Results showed this biosensor possesses a low detection potential (+500 mV, good sensitivity (4 μA/mM and an excellent linear response range (r2 = 0.999; 0–4 mM of glucose detection at +500 mV (versus Ag/AgCl. The response time of the biosensor was about 25 s. In addition, the biosensor could be used in conjunction with reverse iontophoresis technique. In an actual evaluation model, an excellent linear relationship (r2 = 0.986 was found between the glucose concentration of the actual model and the biosensor’s current response. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube composites and incorporated with reverse iontophoresis function was developed.Keywords: amperometric, carbon nanotubes, glucose monitoring, biosensors, reverse iontophoresis

  17. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    paper is to analyze enablers and barriers for this institutional change. The vocational education system in Denmark is strongly institutionalised with unions, employerÕs associations and the schools in central roles. Drawing on institutional theory contributions on labour market -, educational - and...... professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers and...... interviews with seven companies come to focus on competences of interdisciplinary collaboration and sustainable innovation in SME. The anticipation of future building regulation of 2015 and 2020 creates an institutional pressure in education for change including handling differentiated demands of customers...

  18. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  19. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  20. Incorporation of tritiated stearic acid in polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical fixation of tritium in stearic acid followed by embedding the tritiated stearic acid into an epoxy resin proved to be a good method for permanent waste disposal of tritium gas. Tc-126 and Tc-136 hardener were used for this purpose. The polymerization temperature of the polymer products was found to be highly decreased by adding stearic acid and slightly decreased by adding stearic acid or by raising the temperature of the leachant medium and slightly decreased by irradiation. On the other hand, small improvement in the compressive strength of the polymer products was achieved by adding silica powder. The polymer product showed high flame points above 573 K although it contains stearic acid. DTA and TG analysis indicate that the thermal stability of polymer products containing stearic acid and silica powder is better than samples containing only stearic acid. Stearic acid was found to possess good resistance to irradiation and the amount of hydrogen and oxygen gases measured due to irradiation of the epoxy resin products containing stearic acid was found to be negligible. The leaching rate of tritium from the epoxy resin sample containing tritiated stearic acid was measured under different experimental conditions. The dominant factors affecting the leaching rate of tritium are the leachant medium and its temperature. From the above results it can be generally recommended to incorporate tritiated stearic acid in the epoxy resin Tc-126 alone without silica powder and to avoid great rise in the temperature of the leachant medium. Under optimum conditions excellent results can be achieved for permanent waste disposal of tritium gas and about 1.5.1016 Bq tritium gas could be fixed on about 1 kg Tc-126 epoxy resin. (author) 16 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs

  1. In vitro incorporation of LNA nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veedu, Rakesh N; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An LNA modified nucleoside triphosphate 1 was synthesized in order to investigate its potential to act as substrate for DNA strand synthesis by polymerases. Primer extension assays for the incorporation experiments revealed that Phusion High Fidelity DNA polymerase is an efficient enzyme for incorporation of the LNA nucleotide and for extending strand to full length. It was also observed that pfu DNA polymerase could incorporate the LNA nucleotide but it failed to extend the strand to a full length product. PMID:18058567

  2. ChE at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute Soviet Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanesian, Deran

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on Soviet Armenia and the Erevan Polytechnic Institute (EPI) located in this republic of the USSR. Also provides a description of chemical engineering programs and courses and faculty at the EPI. (JN)

  3. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  4. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  5. Chemical machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yardimeden

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials. Advantages and disadvantages of the chemical machining are mentioned.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, chemical machining process was described its importance as nontraditional machining process. The steps of process were discussed in detail. The tolerances of machined parts were examined.Findings: Paper describes the chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials.Practical implications: The machining operation should be carried out carefully to produce a desired geometry. Environmental laws have important effects when chemical machining is used.Originality/value: The importance of nontraditional machining processes is very high.

  6. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  7. Rescaling or Institutional Flexibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2010-01-01

    -border integration has given rise? Does a process exist whereby the ‘problem' and its solution are readily identified and absorbed by existing institutional structures with actions carried out through ‘selective competence delegation'? Based on two case studies, the integration of the labour market and the creation......ABSTRACT This article is based on the experience of the cross-border integration processes across the Øresund strait which separates Denmark from Sweden, and the related institutional and spatial interaction processes. The role of ‘space of flows' and that of ‘space of place', or territory, will be...... examined in relation to this cross-border integration. Several related questions will be addressed: has there been a re-scaling in the form of new cross-border institutions or have existing national and regional institutional structures been able to adapt to the new landscape to which the cross...

  8. National Institute on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join Our Mailing List Email The Leader in Aging Research NIA, one of the 27 Institutes and ... broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of ...

  9. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  10. Contributions to institutional matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers included in this document deal with the institutional aspects and the legal framework of spent fuel management. The international management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel is addressed. Licensing procedures are discussed

  11. Japan Nuclear Technology Institute activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 1. Introduction of JANTI Japan Nuclear Technology Institute (JANTI) was established in April, 2005 by consent of Japanese nuclear industries such as electric utilities, manufacturers, subcontractors etc., and its members consist of 114 companies. JANTI has two major purposes. One is to support industrial initiatives for safety operation on the model of INPO. The other is to improve regulatory practices to agree with the state of the art nuclear technology based on operation data. JANTI promotes three core stones such as Operating Experience Analysis, Nuclear Safety Network and Codes and Standards. Our activities are based on knowledge management by gathering, evaluating the operation experiences from domestic and overseas nuclear power plants, promoting safety culture and industrial standards for safety operation by reflecting on lessons learned from operation experiences. 2. The out line of activities JANTI took over and enhanced information-gathering / delivery / utilization operations of the Nuclear Information Center, which was established in 1983 under the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry to incorporate lessons learned from the TMI (Three Mile Island) nuclear accident. The following items are implemented: (1) Sharing operational experiences from nuclear energy facilities (nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited) to issue recommendations based on event analysis. (2) Conducting trend analysis of operation information to provide feedback on plant operation and maintenance work by exploring a database to counter issues associated with facility aging. (3) Utilizing operation information and equipment reliability data, data for probabilistic safety assessment and drawing up the guidelines for reliability centered maintenance / condition-based maintenance. 2.2 Promoting safety culture JANTI took over and evolved the rules of Nuclear Safety Net, which was established to incorporate lessons learned from

  12. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the...

  13. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be inspected at the Department of Transportation, Docket... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials...

  14. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  15. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  16. On pragmatist institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yefimov, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    The movement of New Institutional Economics (NIE), born in the seventies, followed the Institutional Economics of John R. Commons by putting the notion of ‘transaction’ in the centre of its study. The seventies were a period of appearance of an absolute authority of neoclassical economics with its hypothetic-deductive (Cartesian and positivist) methodology and the NIE followed this methodology. The NIE was assimilated by many of the members of its community with ‘transaction costs economics’....

  17. Institutions and Rules.

    OpenAIRE

    Jessop, Bob; Nielsen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This short statement has three aims. First, it suggests that rules and institutionsare a convenient and productive entrypoint for analysing capitalism and mainstream proposals for its reform. But it also suggests that analyses cannot stop there if adequate critiques and alternative strategies are to be developed. Above all we need to move beyond rules and institutions to examine the microfoundations of institutions in particular subjectivities, cognitive frames, modes of calculation, norms of...

  18. SHERPA and Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The SHERPA project (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access) has been set up to encourage change in the scholarly communication process by creating open-access institutional "e-print" repositories for the dissemination of research findings. This article looks at the terminology involved with such repositories and at the issues that such repositories raise for their construction and use. It reviews the advantages of having an institutional basis for a repository and ...

  19. Chinese institutional investors’ sentiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kling, Gerhard; Gao, Lei

    2008-01-01

    We use daily survey data on Chinese institutional investors’ forecasts to measure investors' sentiment. Our empirical model uncovers that share prices and investor sentiment do not have a long-run relation; however, in the short-run, the mood of investors follows a positive feedback process. Hence, institutional investors are optimistic when previous market returns were positive. Contrarily, negative returns trigger a decline in sentiment, which reacts more sensitively to negative than positi...

  20. Institutions, Innovations, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Chenggang Xu; Haizhou Huang

    1999-01-01

    The fundamental importance of economic institutions for economic growth through their impact on technological change has been argued, reconfirmed by recent empirical studies, but not examined theoretically. This paper tries to fill that gap. In the model proposed, economic growth is affected by the efficiency and riskiness of research and development (R&D), which are endogenized through financial institutions. The theory and its results shed lights on the debate of convergence versus divergen...

  1. Institutions and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of institutional factors on economic growth of a set of 37 developed and developing countries for six successive periods of five years, from 1975 until 2000, using a static panel data model. The key findings generated by this empirical test stipulate a dominant effect exerted by economic institutions on economic growth of the total sample of countries and developed countries.

  2. Blogs in cultural institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kaczyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses examples of three blogs of the National Library, both in terms of their structure and content as highlighting elements that impact on the promotion of both the blog and the institutions they lead. Discussed the advantages of one of Poland’s most popular blogging platforms WordPress. It also presents a short briefings to customize the look of your blog based on WordPress platform needs to actuate the institution.

  3. Disease, Institutions and Underdevelopment

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Lubna

    2009-01-01

    What explains poverty of Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia? One view holds the disease environment of these regions as the primary culprit. Others see it as a typical symptom of growth retarding institutions. We test validity of these competing assertions for a cross section of countries. Our results indicate that institutions are the prime determinant of economic performance of countries. Disease does not play a significant role in determining outcomes. On the contrary, we find support for ...

  4. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, Michael; Gillanders, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively affects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is con- trolled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulati...

  5. Trade Policy, Openness, Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dawood Mamoon; Mansoob Murshed, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of institutions vis-à-vis openness and trade policies in determining per capita income differences across countries. Recent literature has tried to demonstrate that more open economies grow faster. On the other hand, it has also been asserted that it is not openness per se but institutions and good governance that matter in promoting growth. This paper attempts to test this hypothesis across a crosssection of nations. Unlike other papers in the field, we hav...

  6. Institutions and Venture Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Josh; Tåg, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    We survey the literature on venture capital and institutions and present a case study comparing the development of the venture capital market in the US to Sweden. Our literature survey underscores that the legal environment, financial market development, the tax system, labor market regulations, and public spending on research and development correlates with venture capital activities across countries. Our case study suggests these institutional differences led to the later development of an ...

  7. Incorporation of Cyclotriphosphazene as Pendant Groups to the Sago Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotriphosphazene-incorporated sago wastes as pendant groups have been prepared and structurally characterized using FT-IR and SEM. The chemically modified sago wastes composite was applied with binders and developed as sound absorbing panels. These panels are a class of organic-inorganic based materials that exhibit excellent fire retardant properties. Sound absorbance test has given a higher value at 250, 500 and 2000 Hz, which indicates the suitability of the panel for used in medium frequency. The panel was 51 % lighter compared to fiber board. The function and basic manufacturing of sound absorbers products was aligned with the present products in the market. (author)

  8. Developing Institutional Language Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemira Mačianskienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face challenges set by Bologna process, the implementation of which requires creating conditions for language learning and intercultural competence acquisition. Although higher education institutions in Lithuania maintain different and in a way promiscuous approaches to the role of HEI in the development of students‘ linguistic and intercultural competences, but a certain institutional policy with regard to language learning and teaching has inevitably been formed on the institutional level, though not always defined by normative documents. The aim of the research is to summarise the development of language policy in HEIs on the basis of the practice of European higher education institutions. The research applied the findings of ENLU (European Network for the Promotion of Language Learning among All Undergraduates and MOLAN (Network for the Exchange of Information about Good Practices that Serve to Motivate Language Learners, performing comparative and content analysis. The descriptive statistics and analysis of research into the practical organisation of language learning and teaching provided at VMU served as the basis aiming to identify preconditions for institutional language policy formation.

  9. Antecedents of institutional process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Díez de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to advance the understanding of why organizations are responsive to the institutionalization process. To this end, we describe key elements that help explain the origin of this process. Furthermore, this research has followed a qualitative research methodology, using the ‘concept mapping’ technique, and grouping the different constructs items that act as motivating factors in the transformation of organizations to institutions. Methodologically we have tried to overlook the differentiation between old and new institutionalism, this approach follows the ideas of those researchers that question the suitability of drawing a line between the “old” and the “new” theory. We consider that the role of the CEO is essential in driving the institutionalization process, though usually their decisions are supported or have passed through the filter of the organization governance staff or the board of directors. Any progress that the organization makes depends fundamentally on the capabilities, perceptions, training and mindset of the CEO. The research results reinforce several key topics suggested in the literature on institutional theory. Particularly, we have proposed a classification with the motives that give rise to institutional initiatives: institutional authority; advantage in management; and, social involvement. This classification is consistent, to a larger extend, to the pillars of institutionalization that have been defined in the institutional theory literature, helping to understand, in more detail, the origin of the business processes and the background or motivations that generates and guide them.

  10. Plutonium incorporation through ingestion by young animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies to determine whether animals nursed by dams with a 239Pu burden would themselves acquire plutonium showed that rats incorporated about 0.019 percent of the amount injected into the dam, mice incorporated about 0.11 percent, and cats about 0.28 percent. Plutonium obtained in this fashion was avidly retained by bone and resulted in the appearance of two osteogenic sarcomas in a seven and one-half-year-old cat with an estimated terminal body burden of 0.23 to 0.27 μCi. In comparing the incorporation of ingested Pu-milk and Pu-citrate by rats of different ages, it was found that nurslings incorporated more than weanlings and weanlings more than adults. Also, 1.6 to 3 times as much plutonium was incorporated from ingested Pu-milk as from ingested Pu-citrate

  11. Library student shelvers at Waterford Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Helen; Blount, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper traces the context of, and outlines the reasoning for, the use of student shelvers in an Irish higher education academic library (Waterford Institute of Technology). Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a case study report on use of student assistants to carry out the shelving function at Waterford Institute of Technology Library Service. It describes the rationale behind the employment of student assistants, the evolution of their incorporation into the library...

  12. Inclusive Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth: Estimates for European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    d'Agostino, Giorgio; Scarlato, Margherita

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the theoretical and empirical foundations of the links between inclusive institutions, innovation and economic growth. Its first contribution to the literature is to provide a non-scale R&D-based growth model incorporating negative externalities linked to low institutional quality that not only affect the productivity of private and human capital, but also constrain the diffusion of existing technological knowledge. In turn, these negative externalities reduce economic...

  13. Modelling leadership and institutional factors in endogenous regional development.

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Robert J; Stough, Roger R.

    2004-01-01

    Theories and approaches to endogenous growth and regional development tend to neglect or at best underplay the role of leadership and the way institutional factors are considered is usually simplistic. This paper builds on work the authors have been developing over the last year or so to develop a model framework of regional economic development that explicitly incorporates leadership and institutional factors along with the consideration of resource endowments and market fit and of entrepren...

  14. Reforming Institutions: Where to Begin?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Idrees Khawaja; Sajawal Khan

    2009-01-01

    No society is devoid of institutions but many live with poor institutions. Institutions promote growth. This is a view now held firmly and widely. The task then is to ‘engineer’ growth-promoting institutions. Endogeneity characterises institutions; for example, groups enjoying political power influence economic institutions, but political power itself is a function of wealth. Given endogeneity, if the task is to design institutional reforms, the question then arises, as to what to reform firs...

  15. How to Successfully Incorporate Undergraduate Researchers Into a Complex Research Program at a Large Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Rebecca B; Reyna, Valerie F

    2015-01-01

    One feature of the Laboratory for Rational Decision Making at Cornell University is the integration of a large number of undergraduate students into a relatively elaborate research program. We describe our thorough screening process, laboratory structure, and our expectations for undergraduate researchers in our lab. We have a structure in place that helps maintain organization and enhance productivity, including scheduled weekly and monthly meetings, and selecting undergraduate and graduate team leaders to lead each research project. We discuss how it is important to encourage students to aim high and have a good attitude toward learning and problem solving. We emphasize that both initiative and teamwork are important in a large research laboratory. We also discuss the importance of giving students responsibility in connection with research projects-our undergraduate researchers engage in data analysis, interpretation of results, and have a high-level understanding of theory. PMID:26240529

  16. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  17. Incorporation of defects during processing of mercuric iodide detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X. J.; Schlesinger, T. E.; James, R. B.; Stulen, R. H.; Ortale, C.; Cheng, A. Y.

    1990-07-01

    The effects of chemical etching in KI solution, heating, and vacuum exposures of HgI2 were individually studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Each of these processing steps is important in the manufacturing of mercuric iodide detectors and may be responsible for the incorporation of carrier traps both in the near-surface region and in the bulk. The results of etching experiments showed that the near-surface region has a different defect structure than the bulk, which appears to result from iodine deficiency. Bulk heating at 100 °C also modifies the defect structure of the crystal. Vacuum exposure has an effect similar to chemical etching, but it does not cause significant degradation of the stoichiometry for recently KI-etched specimens. These studies suggest that some features in the PL spectra of HgI2 are associated with stoichiometry of the specimens.

  18. Incorporation of defects during processing of mercuric iodide detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X.J.; Schlesinger, T.E. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (USA)); James, R.B.; Stulen, R.H. (Theoretical Division, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94450 (USA)); Ortale, C.; Cheng, A.Y. (EG G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, California 93116 (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The effects of chemical etching in KI solution, heating, and vacuum exposures of HgI{sub 2} were individually studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Each of these processing steps is important in the manufacturing of mercuric iodide detectors and may be responsible for the incorporation of carrier traps both in the near-surface region and in the bulk. The results of etching experiments showed that the near-surface region has a different defect structure than the bulk, which appears to result from iodine deficiency. Bulk heating at 100 {degree}C also modifies the defect structure of the crystal. Vacuum exposure has an effect similar to chemical etching, but it does not cause significant degradation of the stoichiometry for recently KI-etched specimens. These studies suggest that some features in the PL spectra of HgI{sub 2} are associated with stoichiometry of the specimens.

  19. Engineering of the spinosyn PKS: directing starter unit incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lesley S; Lill, Rachel E; Wilkinson, Barrie; Sheridan, Rose M; Vousden, William A; Kaja, Andrew L; Crouse, Gary D; Gifford, James; Graupner, Paul R; Karr, Laura; Lewer, Paul; Sparks, Thomas C; Leadlay, Peter F; Waldron, Clive; Martin, Christine J

    2006-12-01

    The spinosyns are a family of potent and highly selective insect control agents that display a favorable environmental profile. As some regions of the spinosyn molecule are recalcitrant to chemical modification, a targeted genetic approach was carried out to generate new analogues. The polyketide synthase (PKS) loading modules from the avermectin PKS of Streptomyces avermitilis and the erythromcyin PKS of Saccharopolyspora erythraea were each used to replace the spinosyn PKS loading module. Both of the resulting strains containing hybrid PKS pathways produced the anticipated spinosyn analogues. Supplementation of the culture media with a range of exogenous carboxylic acids led to the successful incorporation of these novel elements to yield further novel spinosyn molecules, some of which demonstrated potent and new insecticidal activities. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that semisynthesis of such novel metabolites can then be used to generate active analogues, demonstrating the effectiveness of utilizing these complementary methods to search the chemical space around this template. PMID:17190446

  20. Evaluation acting: the experience of a public research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innovation and knowledge management are central questions of the modern world economy where the incorporation of new knowledge is determining for competition. In this context, there is a movement of pression under public research institutions for a more dynamic participation on the local innovation system. The institutions of C and T should prepare to help the companies to insert in the context of open economies and also to compete in the global market. The modernity requires flexibility and organizational changes in the research institutions. Redefinitions of their practices in relation to other aspects such as: financing sources; partnership with other organizations; definition and planning of the objectives; evaluation, diffusion and valorization of the results and the establishing of a measuring system and performance indicators. Aiming at having an effective institutional insertion on the national and regional systems of innovation, the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN reformulated its strategical planning, incorporating the view of the researchers of the Center and external experts. As part of the evaluation process, CDTN organizes an annual seminar for evaluating its projects, focused on presenting the results and also on the analysis of the performance indicators. The result of this pairs review are widely informed to the Institution and is an important tool for the critical analysis of the institutional performance and for corrections to be made by the high direction. This paper presents the methodology for evaluating the results, as well as the difficulties and improvements incorporated to the process, which has been applied for three years. (author)

  1. Institutions and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Morawski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modernity consists of many confl icting aspects: It brings many empty promises, yet has resulted in new institutions that create bridges between the values and interests of millions of people who seek freedom, prosperity, quality of life, strengthened democracy and social justice. In this paper I attempt to a gain and loss account against modernity, because institutional rules are not only conducive to cooperative interactions, but to hostile interactions as well. People are not always guided by moral commitment, but rather more often driven by cold calculation or coercion.Methodology: Modernity has at least three defi nitions. The fi rst defi nition is based on ideas that took over the imagination of the era. The second defi nition is based on an analysis of the behavior of people who respond to reason as well as emotion and believe that they act more rationally than their ancestors or the traditional “others”. The third defi nition is the one closest to my heart, consisting of the use of institutional categories. Institutions offer practical ways of connecting ideas and people. The challenge for them is the result of deepening local and national interdependencies, but increasingly often also regional (e.g. European and global. Interdependencies are the result of the scientifi c and technological revolution, global markets, global governance mechanisms, the emergence of new social forces and cultural confl icts (against the background of reconciling identity and differences.Conclusions: The most important task is to identify the mechanisms of complex systems so that people know how to act under conditions of uncertainty, risk and crisis. Hence, the expectations toward institutions often exceed their abilities. Even though new institutions are being created and old ones are being fixed, we are witnessing and participating in, institutional paralysis and the decay (e.g. corruption. In this situation, it is imperative not only to

  2. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  3. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hye-Young Lee1,*, Young-IL Jeong2,*, Ki-Choon Choi31Anyang Science University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 2Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Jeonnam, South Korea; 3Grassland and Forages Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Chungnam, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this work.Background: p-Phenylenediamine (PDA or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic.Methods: PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA. To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD.Results: Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm, and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was

  4. NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System2 (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry3. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure

  5. NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J. T.; Mattingly, J. K.; Mullens, J. A.; Neal, J. S.

    2002-05-10

    The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System{sup 2} (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry{sup 3}. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure.

  6. Chemical machining

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yardimeden; T. Ozben; O. Cakir

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and mac...

  7. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations are...... found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their...

  8. Institutional social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić-Samaržija Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I am referring to social engagement as a value-based choice to actively intervene in social reality in order to modify existing collective identities and social practices with the goal of realizing the public good. The very term ‘engagement’, necessarily involves the starting awareness of a social deficit or flaw and presupposes a critical attitude towards social reality. In this article, I will attempt to provide arguments in favour of the thesis about the possibility (and, later, necessity of institutional engagement, critical action and even institutional protest, basing this view on the thesis that institutions are fundamentally collective or social agents whose actions must be guided by ethical and epistemic virtues.

  9. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  10. The Physics Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Dalibard, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The Collège de France’s Physics Institute is a new research centre set up on the historical Marcelin-Berthelot site. Its establishment follows a long tradition that was recently illustrated by that of Louis Leprince-Ringuet’s, Marcel Froissart’s and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes’s laboratories. The Institute is comprised of three physics Chairs and a junior research team incubator, surrounded by efficient technical and administrative services. In total, about one hundred researchers, engineers, tec...

  11. Do Financial Institutions Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Allen

    2001-01-01

    In standard asset pricing theory, investors are assumed to invest directly in financial markets. The role of financial institutions is ignored. The focus in corporate finance is on agency problems. How do you ensure that managers act in shareholders' interests? There is an inconsistency in assuming that when you give your money to a financial institution there is no agency problem but when you give it to a firm there is. It is argued both areas need to take proper account of the role of finan...

  12. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  13. The institutional repository

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard; MacColl, John

    2006-01-01

    Providing a thorough review of the concept of the Institutional Repository (IR) the book examines how they can be set up, maintained and embedded into general institutional working practice. Specific reference is made to capturing certain types of research material such as E-Theses and E-Prints and what the issues are with regard to obtaining the material, ensuring that all legal grounds are covered and then storing the material in perpetuity. General workflow and administrative processes that may come up during the implementation and maintenance of an IR are discussed.

  14. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose......-macro level analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical...

  15. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  16. Chemical composition of Earth-like planets

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, M. P.; Thiabaud, A.; Marboeuf, U.; Alibert, Y.; de Elía, G. C.; O. M. Guilera

    2015-01-01

    Models of planet formation are mainly focused on the accretion and dynamical processes of the planets, neglecting their chemical composition. In this work, we calculate the condensation sequence of the different chemical elements for a low-mass protoplanetary disk around a solar-type star. We incorporate this sequence of chemical elements (refractory and volatile elements) in our semi-analytical model of planet formation which calculates the formation of a planetary system during its gaseous ...

  17. Introduction of Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research (TIPR),founded in 1959,was ever affiliated to the State Food and Drug Administration,P. R. China (SFDA). It has turned to a wholly state-owned hi-tech enterprise since 2000,mainly focusing on research and development of new drugs. Organization and research direction TIPR’s research fields include chemical synthetic medicines,traditional Chinese medicines,pharmacology,

  18. An institutional analysis of land markets

    OpenAIRE

    Needham, D.B.; Segeren, A.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, land markets have been analyzed as though parcels of land were being traded in a frictionless market subject to no rules. To the extent that there were rules which could not be ignored – such as land-use regulations – the effect of these was incorporated as 'distortions' to the market. An institutional analysis of land markets, on the contrary, starts by looking the the rules which structure the exchange of rights in land. These are the formal rules regulating such things as a...

  19. Vattikuti Institute Prostatectomy-Technique in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani

    2012-12-01

    This year marks 12 years of the world's first robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) program, the Vattikuti Institute Prostatectomy (VIP). Experience with more than 7000 cases has helped standardize the operation, minimize complications, and enhance functional outcomes. In this article, we discuss our current technique of VIP including refinements such as Veil of Aphrodite nerve sparing using Harmonic ACE curved shears, high anterior release (super Veil), extended pelvic lymph node dissection, percutaneous suprapubic tube bladder drainage, and barbed suture for the urethrovesical anastomosis. In 2012, incorporation of the GelPoint access platform has the potential to further improve the oncologic performance of VIP, especially in high-risk patients. PMID:23230869

  20. A Microeconomic Analysis of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Ola

    2000-01-01

    This survey paper has three themes; a microeconomic analysis of institutions, an institutional analysis of microeconomics, and a discussion on the scope for an "institutional microeconomics" that takes insights from psychology and older institutional theory into account. Institutions are defined as the long-run rules of the economy that have the character of public goods and whose main function is the reduction of transaction costs. The institutional requirements for the Walrasian equilibrium...

  1. Incorporation of industrial wastes in wood pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Eduardo Campos; Vilarinho, Cândida; De Castro, F.; Pinto, A.; Ferreira, Pedro Tiago; Teixeira, J. C. F.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present work evaluates the incorporation of industrial wastes (Refuse Derived Fuel-RDF) into biomass for pellet production. Its influence on parameters such as pellet production, combustion and gas emissions was studied for up to 10% of residues incorporation. This approach also deals with the diverting of industrial waste from landfills. The main objectives were: increasing the heat value of the final product, diverting industrial residues with energy potential from landfill an...

  2. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the materials may be obtained from Rowley-Scher... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth...

  3. Incorporating Reverse Engineering Methodology into Engineering Curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Wanamaker, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Wanamaker, Trevor W., M.S., Purdue University, May 2012. Incorporating Reverse Engineering Methodology into Engineering Curricula. Major Professor: Craig L. Miller. Using a qualitative research approach, this study investigated the thoughts and feelings of students regarding the question, “what factors need to be considered when Reverse Engineering (RE) methodology is incorporated into engineering curricula?” The participants in the study were from the Introduction to Graphics for Manufact...

  4. Summaries of FY 1993 research in the chemical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The summaries in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and analysis, heavy element chemistry, chemical engineering sciences, and advanced battery technology are arranged according to national laboratories and offsite institutions. Small business innovation research projects are also listed. Special facilities supported wholly or partly by the Division of Chemical Sciences are described. Indexes are provided for selected topics of general interest, institutions, and investigators.

  5. Individ, institution og samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I denne antologi giver en række førende fagpersoner deres bud på det nye fag "Individ, institution & samfund"'s indholdselementer. Emnerne tæller bl.a. styreformer- og styringslogikker, dannelse, institutionalisering, tværinstitutionelt arbejde, etik, social ulighed, globalisering og forvaltning af...

  6. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  7. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  8. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  9. Marketingour institution internationally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance is quickly taking on a vital role when it comes to managing the increasingly complex internationalisation process. Not only is it essential in reaching institutional goals in a controlled manner, it is also becoming an integral part of maintaining and improving every institution’s

  10. Confronting Institutional Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Terry; Johnson, Tammy

    2001-01-01

    The best way to measure institutional racism is to examine effects (statistical outcomes), not intentions. Administrators can actively address racial inequality, collect realistic data, combine equity and quality considerations in all policies, support accountability while resisting high-stakes tests, involve the whole community, and avoid silver…

  11. Institute for Nuclear Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report briefly discussion the following programs of the Institute for Nuclear Theory: fundamental interactions in nuclei; strangeness in hadrons and nuclei; microscopic nuclear structure theory; nuclear physics in atoms and molecules; phenomenology and lattice QCD; and large amplitude collective motion

  12. The branding of institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S

    1991-02-20

    Institutional operations capitalizing on national foodservice brands have seen sales increase as much as 40%, operators say. But what if operators choose to stay independent and develop their own brands? Our feature presents both business strategies and the concepts that are winning customers. PMID:10109711

  13. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, who subsequently become pregnant or have a history of brownish facial discoloration. Scarring Reactivation of cold sores What can I expect after having a chemical peel? All peels require some follow-up care: ...

  15. Unnecessary Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  16. Chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of chemical kinetics. It starts summary of chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism, and explains basic velocity law, experiment method for determination of reaction velocity, temperature dependence of reaction velocity, theory of reaction velocity, theory on reaction of unimolecular, process of atom and free radical, reaction in solution, catalysis, photochemical reaction, such as experiment and photochemical law and rapid reaction like flame, beam of molecule and shock tube.

  17. An automatic micro-sequential injection bead injection lab-on-valve (muSI-BI-LOV) assembly for speciation analysis of ultra trace levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) incorporating on-line chemical reduction and employing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    and physical conditions, the flow system, by using a total sample loading volume of 3.6 mL, featured retention efficiencies for Cr(III) as high as 86%, and preconcentration factors of 62 and 42 and detection limits (3s) of 0.010 and 0.020 mug L-1 for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, The relative...... unit. Following quantification of the native Cr(III) content, the Cr(III) generated from Cr(VI) plus the original Cr(III) are subjected to the same separation/preconcentration/elution procedure. All sample manipulations are controlled automatically by the integrated software. Under optimized chemical...

  18. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the National Space Biomedical Research Institute's (NSBRI) activities during FY 2004, the Institute's seventh year. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  19. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our times will require new forms of social learning and political engagement that dramatically enhance capacities for institutional innovation.

  20. Empirical Analysis of Informal Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Min

    2013-01-01

    The New Institutional Economics has established itself as widely accepted extension to the standard neoclassical paradigm. Here, institutions are defined as commonly known rules that structure recurring interaction situations and the corresponding sanctioning mechanism. For-mal institutions describe rules with a sanction mechanism that is organized by the state. In-formal institutions describe rules with a sanction mechanism that ...

  1. Annual report 2012. Institute of Resource Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendler, Vinzenz (ed.)

    2013-09-01

    The Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE) is one of the currently eight institutes of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The research activities are fully integrated into the program ''Nuclear Safety Research'' of the Helmholtz Association and focused on the topics ''Safety of Nuclear Waste Disposal'' and ''Safety Research for Nuclear Reactors''. With the integration of the division of ''Reactor Safety'' from the former ''Institute of Safety Research'' nuclear research at HZDR is now mainly concentrated within this institute. In addition, various activities have been started investigating chemical and environmental aspects of processing and recycling of strategic metals, namely rare earth elements. Here, a knowledge transfer from the nuclear to the non-nuclear community, branching thermodynamics and spectroscopy, has been established. This also strengthens links to the recently established ''Helmholtz-Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology''.

  2. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Petrovna POPOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern linguistics attributes analysis of discourse to a most actual scientific problem. The paper considers different approaches to study of discourse, gives its short characteristics, describes its linguistic and extra linguistic features, and provides definitions of discourse. The article also describes several models of institutional discourse, the main features of which are normativeness, conventionality, hierarchy, appellate character, integrity, consistency etc. The author of the article carries out comparative analysis of the terms ―text‖ and ―discourse‖, taking into account various frames of reference of scholars dealing with this problem, considers some kinds of institutional discourse (e.g. electronic, pedagogical. Special attention is paid to academic discourse defined as a complex of all possible texts, which reflect scientific knowledge and have a high degree of inter-textuality. 

  4. Lanoteplase Genetics Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfner, R

    2000-12-01

    Lanoteplase, a modified form of a tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) lacking fibronectin finger-like and epidermal growth factor domains, was developed by the Genetics Institute for the potential treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Suntory, the Japanese licensee, has filed an NDA in Japan for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) [301222]. It was also licensed to Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) for worldwide development (excluding Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan) [178225]. BMS conducted phase III trials for acute MI [272490] but discontinued development and returned the license to Genetics Institute during 1999 [359688]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted the drug had a 60% probability of reaching market, with an estimated first launch date in 2000. The analysts predicted peak sales would occur in 2006, with peak sales of $200 million in the US and US $100 million in the rest of the world at that time [319225]. PMID:11249701

  5. Institute for safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area of nuclear reactor safety studies, the Institute for Safety Technology (STI) concentrated its efforts in analysing experimentally and numerically phenomena which characterize highly-improbable but very severe accidents either for light water or for sodium cooled reactors. In the STI nuclear isle, three new laboratories for waste (PETRA), fusion (ETHEL) and safeguards, (PERLA) activities are approaching completion and have made substantial progress in their licensing procedure. The Institute started activities in the non-nuclear safety research area only a few years ago and has been able this year to present its first significant experimental and theoretical results in the areas of runaway reactions, accidental release of products and their deflagration/detonation. Concerning Reference Methods for the Evaluation of Structure Reliability a better understanding was gained of the nonlinear cyclic and dynamic behaviour of materials and structures by performing experiments and developing constitutive and structural member models leading to the computer simulation of complete structures

  6. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  7. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

  8. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  9. Norwegian Fashion Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Heggli, Karolina; Soraas, Nina Cathrine; Thorstensen, Nina Fredrikke; Thorso, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This report has been conducted in cooperation with Norwegian Fashion Institute (hereinafter NFI). NFI is a non-profit organisation that represents the participants within the Norwegian fashion Industry. It seeks to make Norwegian fashion brands recognized at home and overseas. There are 90 members in the organisation that represents the wide spectrum of Norwegian fashion. Obtaining knowledge of the market will help NFI promote Norwegian fashion brands in the UK and identify the...

  10. Crime, Corruption and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Chatterjee; Ranjan Ray

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the link between crime and corruption, compares their magnitudes, determinants and their effects on growth rates. The study uses a large cross country data set containing individual responses to questions on crime and corruption along with information on the respondents’ characteristics. This data set is supplemented by country level indicators from a variety of sources on a range of macro variables and on institutions in the respondent’s country of residence. A methodolog...

  11. Institutions, Technology, and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller; Carol H. Shiue

    2008-01-01

    We study the importance of technology and institutions in determining the size of markets in five different countries and fifteen different German states. The setting of 19th century Europe presents a unique opportunity to address this issue, since it witnessed fundamental change in both dimensions. At the beginning of the century, numerous customs borders, separate currencies with different monetary systems, and poor transportation facilities were major obstacles that held back trade. Import...

  12. Institutional changes of SPACs

    OpenAIRE

    Lakicevic, Milan; Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    We document the changes of corporate design of modern Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) from 2003 to 2012. We assign the impact on changes of SPACs to each of the three groups of stakeholders: founders, investors and underwriters and test whether institutional characteristics of SPACs determine the success of their merger outcomes. We document that SPACs significantly redesigned its structure in the period under observation. Additionally, the probability of the merger for SPACs ...

  13. Conditioning Institutions and Renegotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey; Watson, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We propose a theory of contracting in long-term relationships, emphasizing the role of social institutions in conditioning players' joint selection of Equilibria. Players adopt a social conditioning system in order to place boundaries on their recurrent negotiation and thereby sustain a desirable joint selection of equilibrium. Social conventions have value because players cannot freely reinterpret the labels attached to histories, in contrast to labels that the players might assign internall...

  14. Conditioning Institutions and Renegotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey; Watson, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We propose a theory of contracting in long-term relationships, emphasizing the role of social institutions in conditioning players' joint selection of equilibria. Players adopt a social conditioning system in order to place boundaries on their recurrent negotiation and thereby sustain a desirable joint selection of equilibrium. Social conventions have value because players cannot freely reinterpret the labels attached to histories, in contrast to labels that the players might assign internall...

  15. Mainstreaming Informal Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Informal financial institutions (IFIs), among them the ubiquitous rotating savings and credit associations, are of ancient origin. Owned and self-managed by local people, poor and non-poor, they are self-help organizations which mobilize their own resources, cover their costs and finance their growth from their profits. With the expansion of the money economy, they have spread into new areas and grown in numbers, size and diversity; but ultimately, most have remained restricted in size, outre...

  16. Redefining the Institutional Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Keene, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Repositories have grown in importance over the last 10 years to offer a core University and Library service, however, their role is developing faster now than it has ever done. Funder Open Access requirements, internal reporting, research data. Ref2020 and more are increasing the demands on the traditional repository, putting pressure on staff resources and challenging the underlying software. This webinar will outline these issues as well as look at how the needs and use of...

  17. Institutions and Labour Reallocation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Giuseppe; Rogerson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Despite stringent dismissal restrictions in most European countries, rates of job creation and destruction are remarkably similar across European and North American labour markets. This paper shows that relative-wage compression is conducive to higher employer-initiated job turnover, and argues that wage-setting institutions and job security provisions differ across countries in ways that are both consistent with rough uniformity of job turnover statistics and readily explained by intuitive t...

  18. Institutions and Labor Reallocation

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Bertola; Richard Rogerson

    1996-01-01

    Despite stringent dismissal restrictions in most European countries, rates of job creation and destruction are remarkably similar across European and North American labor markets. This paper shows that relative-wage compression is conducive to higher employer-initiated job turnover, and argues that wagesetting institutions and job-security provisions differ across countries in ways that are both consistent with rough uniformity of job turnover statistics and readily explained by intuitive the...

  19. Institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the personnel and activities of the Institute of Physics. Research by staff of the Nuclear Physics Group includes mainly work on heavy ion reactions and investigations of rare earth nuclei. The Elementary Particle Group has studied antineutron and antiproton annihilations, neutral current pions minus and has used the CERN ISRs. The Cosmic Physics Group has used rockets, satellite data and balloons to study the electron and proton precipitation in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, and aurorae. (JIW)

  20. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    E. Stam; Nooteboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of entrepreneurship and its relation to innovation along a cycle in which exploration and exploration follow upon each other. We place the roles of entrepreneurship in innovation policy within this cycle of innovation. Different types of innovation along the cycle of innovation are realized with different forms of entrepreneurship, which are constrained or enabled by different legal institutions. One of the key roles of governments is to design, change or destr...

  1. INSTITUTIONS AND FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    As budgetary commitments outpace current revenues and long-term liabilities balloon, the fiscal sustainability of state and local governments is a matter of mounting concern. Over the years, these governments have experimented with a wide variety of political and fiscal institutions, ranging from direct democracy to balanced budget rules, with the goal of slowing the growth of government and increasing financial responsibility. This article synthesizes the related empirical literature, summar...

  2. HOLIDAY AS SOCIAL INSTITUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaktionova Nelli Anatolyevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with holiday as social institute, stages of its institutionalization, such as emergence of need; formation of general objects and ideology proving them; development of social norms and rules;practical adoption of rules and procedures; establishment sanction system; creation of statuses and role system. On the example of Russian festive tradition the general institutional signs of a holiday are described, it is specified that the majority of holidays are at a stage of cultural symbol search having the behavior code; system of ideas; utilitarian and cultural lines; installations and examples of behavior. Taking into consideration the view of Nelli Galaktionova, we can say, that these principles explain the popularity of the Victory Day Holiday and not stable Russian holiday on the 12-th of June- day of Russia. It is stated that the absence of the ritual prevents the popularity of holiday in society. In the article obvious and latent functions of a holiday as social institute are described - regulatory function, integrative, broadcasting, function of reproduction of the social relations, socializing, educational, guarding, forming the culture, communicative, sociocultural, actable, function of leisure and rest organization, adaptive and compensatory, function of removal of ethical regulations. According to the author of article, the holiday is a basis of formation of national and state and civil identity.

  3. How (not) to measure institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The statement “institutions matter” has become commonplace. A precondition for it to be supported by empirical evidence, is, however, that institutions are measurable. Glaeser et al. (2004) attacks many studies claiming to prove the relevance of institutions for economic development as being based on flawed measures of institutions, or not even on institutions at all. This paper shows that their criticism deserves to be taken seriously, but that it is somewhat overblown. Some of the difficult...

  4. Cs and Ag co-incorporation in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Hurtado, Alejandro; Heim, Andrew J.; Kim, Sungtae; Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the diffusion of fission products Cs and Ag through the SiC layer of TRISO particles is of particular interest for the progress and improvement of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies. Although the SiC layer acts as a barrier for fission products, there is experimental evidence of Cs and Ag diffusion through this layer. Previous considerations of Ag and Cs in SiC have focused on the element interacting with SiC, but have not considered the possibility of co-incorporation with another species. This paper presents a ab initio study on the co-incorporation of Cs and Ag with an anion (Iodine (I) or Oxygen (O)) into SiC as an alternative incorporation mechanism. It is found that for crystalline SiC, Ag co-incorporation with Iodine (I) and Oxygen (O) into SiC is not energetically favorable, while Cs co-incorporation with O is a preferred mechanism under some oxygen partial pressures of interest. However, Cs-O co-incorporation into the crystalline portion of SiC is not sufficiently strong to enable a Cs solubility that accounts for the Cs release observed in some experiments. Formation energies are a function of the chemical potential of Si and C. Calculations in this paper are performed for Si-rich and C-rich conditions, which constitute the boundaries for which the formation energies are allowed to vary. Calculation of the electronic potential shift is required in order to ensure that the Fermi level in a defected cell is defined with respect to the same valence band level in the undefected cell [21,23]. The potential shift is calculated by aligning low energy levels in the total density of states (DOS) [24]. Spurious interactions between images of the charged defects make it necessary to correct for unphysical electrostatic interactions. Both the monopole-monopole and monopole-quadrupole Makov Payne corrections are used for this purpose. However, strain and incompletely corrected electrostatic interactions can still lead to significant

  5. CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Pasadena, CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  6. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10-3 range

  7. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  8. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Valente, A; Pires, M.J.; Tavares, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of lea...

  9. Chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  10. Study of the Performance and Characteristics of U.S. Academic Research Institution Technology Commercialization (ARITC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to provide a better understanding of the technology licensing practices of academic research institutions. The study identifies time durations in licensing and incorporates these into a model to evaluate licensing performance. Performance is measured by the efficiency of an institution's technology licensing process and…

  11. Contact, Incorporation, and the North American Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. Hollis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The broadening of the world-system, which involves the geographic expansion into previously external areas and integration of new economies into its network of economic relationships, is represented in world-system scholarship by two competing views. On the one hand, Wallerstein and his associates treat incorporation as being specifically contingent on the routine and systematic economic exchange for durable goods produced in the previously external area to the benefit of the core. In contrast, Hall and Chase-Dunn contend that incorporation is a synchronous process that takes different forms depending onthe relative locations within the hierarchical world-economy of both the previously external areas and the “incorporating” area. Using the sixteenth-century North American Southeast as an episode of incorporation, this study examines the contact relationship between early European explorers and the indigenous groups in the formerly external area. My goal is to illuminate more fully how contact may permanently alter the social organization and relations within the region and, consequently, the form taken by subsequent integration into the world-system.

  12. Semiconducting compounds and devices incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio; Boudreault, Pierre-Luc; Miyauchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-19

    Disclosed are molecular and polymeric compounds having desirable properties as semiconducting materials. Such compounds can exhibit desirable electronic properties and possess processing advantages including solution-processability and/or good stability. Organic transistor and photovoltaic devices incorporating the present compounds as the active layer exhibit good device performance.

  13. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  14. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  15. Solar Technology Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past three years, Ken Olson and Johnny Weiss and their staff have been quietly delivering the tools of sustainable development to people in places as diverse (or similar) as Manhattan and the jungles of Colombia. Their delivery vehicle is the Solar Technology Institute, officially launched in May of 1991. Founded on thirty years of combined experience and inspired by Johnny and Ken's most recent work in developing countries, STI reflects its founders' evolving abilities to tackle environmental energy and development challenges on a global scale. This article describes the STI and highlights some of its global activities in education and application of solar technology

  16. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world...... than others, namely that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay...... attention to and regulate positional concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  17. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  18. Institute annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  19. Digitalization of daycare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    meaningful for the respective pedagogical practice. Against this background, the presentation will in particular explore what this digitalization process may entail for the aim of promoting reciprocal intergenerational communication and practice. It draws on recent work in childhood geography as well as on...... devices affect the relational spatiality of situated intergenerational communication and practice? The presentation will build on preliminary findings from an ethnographically inspired empirical pilot study in a daycare institution. It aims at prototyping a conceptual framework which assists in...... purposefully tackling the above questions through implementing reciprocal intergenerational communication and practice as a tool of collaborative inquiry and analysis....

  20. Institute annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The mission of the ITU (Institute for Transuranium Elements) is to protect the European citizen against risk associated with the handling and storage of highly radioactive elements. The JRC (Joint Research Center) provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. In this framework this annual report presents the TU actions in: basic actinide research, spent fuel characterization, safety of nuclear fuels, partitioning and transmutation, alpha-immunotherapy/radiobiology, measurement of radioactivity in the environment, safeguards research and development. (A.L.B.)

  1. A theoretical study on the aromaticity of benzene and related derivatives incorporating a C-C C-C fragment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanchez-Sanz, Goar; Trujillo, Cristina; Rozas, I.; Elguero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 35 (2013), s. 7333-7344. ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : dehydroannulenes * aromaticity * NICS * chemical shifts * benzene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  2. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  3. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  4. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  5. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  6. Structures of Corporate Finance in Germany and France - A Comparative Analysis for West German and French incorporated Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Friderichs; Bernard Paranque

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the balance sheet structures of both French and west German incorporated firms in manufacturing and their evolution during the last business cycle in the late eighties and early nineties. The point of departure is to focus on the relative importance of the different financing sources used by the incorporated enterprises in the two countries. A deeper examination of the observed differences suggests that country-specific legal and institutional factors seem to play an import...

  7. Institutions, innovation and growth / Institutions, innovation et croissance

    OpenAIRE

    Spinesi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The general argument of this dissertation focuses on the relationship and interplay between institutions, both private and public, the innovation process, and growth. The first essay focuses on institutional quality, inequality and growth. The results show that bad institutional quality widens income inequality and reduces the per-capita output growth rate. Moreover, bad institutional quality increases inequality in consumption level between unskilled and skilled workers. With a full informat...

  8. Institutional and Non-Institutional Explanations of Economic Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley L. Engerman; Sokoloff, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Although we cannot conceive of processes of economic growth that do not involve institutional change, in this essay we outline some reasons why one should be cautious about grounding a theory of growth on institutions. We emphasize how very different institutional structures have often been found to be reasonable substitutes for each other, both in dissimilar as well as similar contexts. The historical record, therefore, does not seem to support the notion that any particular institution, nar...

  9. L-canavanine incorporation into vitellogenin and macromolecular conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, G A; Reichhart, J M; Hoffmann, J A

    1989-08-15

    L-Canavanine is a potentially deleterious arginine antimetabolite whose toxicity is expressed in canavanine-sensitive organisms ranging from viruses to humans. Canavanine, a substrate for arginyl-tRNA synthetase, is incorporated into nascent polypeptide chains in place of arginine. This substitution results in the production of structurally aberrant, canavanyl proteins. Chemical, physical, and immunological studies of native and canavanine-containing vitellogenin obtained from female migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Orthoptera] provide the first experimental evidence that canavanine can disrupt the tertiary and/or quaternary structure that yields the three-dimensional conformation unique to the protein. These findings enhance our understanding of the biochemical basis for canavanine's antimetabolic and potent insecticidal properties. PMID:2760038

  10. Dye incorporation in polyphosphate gels: synthesis and theoretical calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Nero Jordan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described theoretical calculations on the electronic structure and optical properties of the dyes crystal violet and malachite green based in semiempirical methods (Parametric Method 3 and Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap / Spectroscopic - Configuration Interaction and the synthesis of a new hybrid material based upon the incorporation of these dyes in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The samples are nearly transparent, free-standing thick films. The optical properties of the entrapped dyes are sensitive to chemical changes within the matrix caused either by gel aging or external stimulli such as exposition to acidic and basic vapors that can percolate within the matrix. Our theoretical modeling is in good agreement with the experimental results for the dyes.

  11. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  12. Carbon incorporation in AlGaAs grown by CBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B. J.; Houng, Y. M.; Miller, J. N.; Turner, J. E.

    1990-10-01

    The incorporation of carbon into unintentionally doped Al xGa 1- xAs epilayers grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) using arsine and various combinations of group III sources was investigated. Growth of unintentionally doped Al xGa 1- xAs using triethylgallium (TEGa)+triisobutylaluminum (TIBAl) resulted in lower hole and carbon concentrations than those grown from TEGa+triethylaluminum (TEAl). The carbon concentration in AlGaAs epilayers increased with decreasing growth temperature below 560°C and increased with increasing growth temperature above 560°C. This "U-shaped" dependence of carbon concentration on growth temperature exhibited its minimum value at ˜ 560°C for both the TEGa+TEAl and TEGa+TIBAl systems. The alkyl-Al compounds are thought to be the controlling species for the carbon incorporation in the low temperature regime, while the AlCH 3 formed through β-methyl elimination is responsible for the carbon incorporation in the high temperature regime. Based on this study, we are able to grow high quality AlGaAs epilayers with reduced carbon contamination by using TIBAl instead of TEAl at the growth temperature of 560°C with a V/III ratio of 20. AlGaAs/GaAs modulation-doped structures grown from TEGa+TIBAl show a two-dimensional electron gas mobility as high as 88,600 cm 2/V·s at 77 K, which is a 40% improvement over that grown from TEGa+TEAl, with a sheet carrier concentration of 6x10 11 cm -2 and a spacer layer thickness of 150 Å.

  13. Institutional Repositories in Indian Universities and Research Institutes: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.; Kemparaju, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study of the institutional repositories (IRs) in use in Indian universities and research institutes. Design/methodology/approach: Repositories in various institutions in India were accessed and described in a standardised way. Findings: The 20 repositories studied covered collections of diverse…

  14. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  15. Institutional Repositories: The Experience of Master's and Baccalaureate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; St. Jean, Beth; Soo, Young Rieh; Yakel, Elizabeth; Kim, Jihyun

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, MIRACLE Project investigators censused library directors at all U.S. academic institutions about their activities planning, pilot testing, and implementing the institutional repositories on their campuses. Out of 446 respondents, 289 (64.8 percent) were from master's and baccalaureate institutions (M&BIs) where few operational…

  16. International Security Institutions, Domestic Politics, and Institutional Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Terrence L.

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have devoted considerable attention to the informational role of international institutions. However, several questions about the informational aspects of institutional behavior remain underexplored: What determines how audiences respond to institutional decisions? Through what channels does information provision affect foreign policy? To…

  17. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Electrical characteristics of nitrogen incorporated hydrogenated amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen incorporation into hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films has recently attracted a wide range of interest due to its contribution in reducing film stress and improving field emission properties. In this work we characterize the electrical properties of nitrogen containing a-C:H films. The a-C:H films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition in an acetylene (C2H2) environment with a range of bias voltages. Nitrogen incorporation was achieved by exposing the films to an atomic nitrogen flux from a rf plasma with up to 40% dissociation and atomic nitrogen fluxes of up to 0.85x1018 atoms s-1. Raman results indicate that the doping process is accompanied by some structural changes seen by the G-band peak shifts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra suggest that the dopant levels exceed those previously reported. Capacitance probe and I-V techniques showed a decrease in contact potential difference and density of states for doped films, indicating a rise in the Fermi level

  20. Transformational leadership in merging higher education institutions: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispen Chipunza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The use of transformational leadership in the implementation of merger and incorporation policy in the higher education sector is well documented in other parts of the world and not in countries in transition like South Africa.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to establish an understanding of ‘transformational leadership’ and to determine the extent to which it was employed by leaders in an institution of higher education which had incorporated another institution.Motivations for the study: The study provides a starting point, not only for the successful implementation of higher education changes in the future but also the building of leadership commitment and alignment to the proposed changes in the sector as well as the development of institutional leadership teams to take responsibility for any other transformation processes.Research design, approach and method: The population of the study consisted of 350 full-time employees of the institution who had experienced the incorporation process. Two samples – one consisting of six executive management leaders and the other consisting of 153 employees – were used. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches were employed using the case study method.Main findings: Results showed that transformational principles of idealised influence, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational motivation principles were used more than others and that employees were generally not satisfied with how the incorporation process had taken place.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study affected the attitude and satisfaction of the employees in this study.Contribution/value-add: The study reveals that leaders in the institution played key roles such as shared vision, team work and the creation of an enabling environment. An important point that has emanated from this study is the evidence that during transformation, a lack of strategic direction and

  1. Competitive advantage of hotels in Jinhua --Combining Institutional and Resource based Views

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    This research endeavors to address the sustainable competitive advantage issue of Chinese firms from the paradigm combining resource based and institutional views. Both views have been used extensively in the strategy research literature in China, and the integrative perspective has the potential to approach the strategy issues new insight by incorporating the institutional influence on resource. Establishing on extensive RBV, institutional theory literature and especially Oliver(1997)��...

  2. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions...... relationships between culture and institutions and how they are connected. Finally, the article points at the influence of globalization challenging the national origin of many institutions when relating to a world of organizations, which increasingly are becoming global. For some companies, organizational...

  3. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions. PMID:12349294

  4. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli;

    2013-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive introduces the principle of integrated river basin management, incorporating both the idea of spatial fit between ecosystems and social systems and a requirement to integrate water management across scales and sectors. In designing their implementation setups......, member states must therefore address both the roles of different institutional actors and the interplay among institutions. In this paper, we will explore strengths and weaknesses of different institutional arrangements for integrated water management through a comparative analysis of River Basin...... Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Hansenová Maňásková

    Full Text Available The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITCLPETG-amide into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii Substituting aspartic acid (E for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITCLPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITCLPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITCLPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

  6. Chemical grouting – laboratory study of chemical grouts and geocomposites properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Ščučka, Jiří; Martinec, Petr

    Bombay : Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 2008 - (Singh, D.), s. 3567-3574 [International Conference of IACMAG /12./. Goa - Panjim (IN), 01.10.2008-06.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : chemical grouts * grouting, geocomposite properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  7. Institutional Repository Bibliography, Version 1

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The Institutional Repository Bibliography (IRB) presents selected English-language articles, books, and other scholarly textual sources that are useful in understanding institutional repositories. Although institutional repositories intersect with a number of open access and scholarly communication topics, this bibliography only includes works that are primarily about institutional repositories. For example, an article dealing with the NIH open access policy would not be included, but one dea...

  8. Emerging Institutions: Pyramids or Anthills?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarniawska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In the present text, an institution is understood to be an (observable) pattern of collective action, justified by a corresponding social norm. By this definition, an institution emerges slowly, although it may be helped or hindered by various specific acts. From this perspective, an institutional entrepreneur is an oxymoron, at least in principle. In practice, however, there are and always have been people trying to create institutions. This paper describes the emergence of London School of ...

  9. Institutions, Firms and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Frances

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on institutions and explores the ways in which institutions can influence economic growth, with a particular focus on how institutions affect the use that firms make of human capital to improve their productivity. It discusses the influence of underlying institutions, such as law and order and secure property rights, on the general environment within which the economic activities of production and exchange takes place. It also explores the influence of activi...

  10. Institutions matter, but which ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab K. Bardhan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to go beyond the narrow focus of the current institutional economics literature in development on the institutions protecting individual property rights, and to look at the economic effects of some other aspects of institutional quality on the development process (like democratic participation rights and institutions to address coordination failures). Another purpose is to suggest an alternative instrumental variable in quantifying the effects of property rights i...

  11. Chemical flashlamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have characterized the optical output and Nd:glass pumping performance of large-scale (120-cm-long, 1.2-cm-inner-diam), metal-oxidizer chemical flashlamps supplied to us by G.T.E. Sylvania. The experimental results were obtained on the same test bed that was used to study xenon electrical flashlamps, as described in Dependence of Flashlamp Performance on Gas Fill and Bore Size, earlier in this section. The peak Nd inversion levels produced by the chemical lamps were less than or equal to 10% of those generated by a xenon lamp of similar size and energy loading. The Peak Nd levels are in good agreement with predictions for the pumping rates in Nd:glass by a blackbody at the color temperatures of 30000 to 50000C, which they have measured during the burn of the pyrotechnic lamp

  12. HISTORY OF THE LINGUISTIC INSTITUTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HILL, ARCHIBALD A.

    THIS HISTORY, CONTAINED IN THE 1964 BULLETIN OF THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY LINGUISTIC INSTITUTE, GIVES AN ACCOUNT OF THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTE FROM ITS FOUNDATION (IN 1928) AND EARLY SESSIONS UNDER THE DIRECTORSHIP OF EDGAR H. STURTEVANT. IT OFFERS A CONDENSED, YEAR-BY-YEAR DESCRIPTION OF THE INSTITUTE'S ACTIVITIES, MAKING NOTE OF…

  13. Improving Institutional Report Card Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Institutional report cards are increasingly being used by higher educational institutions to present academic outcomes to external audiences of prospective students and parents, as well as program and institutional evaluators. While some prospective students are served by national transparency measures most users mine information from the…

  14. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the institutional infrastructure of the car are presented and justified. The analysis condition of the car market’s institutional infrastructure showed the problems associated with the state of institutions which have an impact on the functioning of the car market. Measures to stimulate the car market does not cover entire sector as a whole, and imported institutions do not give the expected effect because of inconsistency formal and informal elements of the institutional infrastructure. Presented assessment of the institutional infrastructure of the car market confirms the dependence of the state of the industry market cars from institutional infrastructure. Only reforming the institutions at all levels of the industry, from production to car sales can have a positive effect on the industry. Changes in the institutional infrastructure should be focused on improving the competitiveness, stability and independence from external factors

  15. Gaining independence through institutional repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Buckholtz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    The author presents SPARC's Initiative about open archives and its relationship with the OAI. Institutional repositories are institutionally defined as a content generated by institutional community, have a scholarly content: preprints and working papers, published articles, enduring teaching materials, student theses, etc. And also are cumulative and perpetual (preserve ongoing access to material) and interoperable and open access: free, online, global.

  16. Cyclotron Institute Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Henry [Texas A& M University; Yennello, Sherry [Texas A& M University; Tribble, Robert [Texas A& M University

    2014-08-26

    The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University has upgraded its accelerator facilities to extend research capabilities with both stable and radioactive beams. The upgrade is divided into three major tasks: (1) re-commission the K-150 (88”) cyclotron, couple it to existing beam lines to provide intense stable beams into the K-500 experimental areas and use it as a driver to produce radioactive beams; (2) develop light ion and heavy ion guides for stopping radioactive ions created with the K-150 beams; and (3) transport 1+ ions from the ion guides into a charge-breeding electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (CB-ECR) to produce highly-charged radioactive ions for acceleration in the K-500 cyclotron. When completed, the upgraded facility will provide high-quality re-accelerated secondary beams in a unique energy range in the world.

  17. Chemical Education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkov, Vladimir N.

    1999-08-01

    The sociopolitical changes in Eastern Europe of the 1990s and the ongoing globalization of the chemical industry and chemical education prompted this analysis of the current status of chemical education in Bulgaria, which is not very different from the educational practices in the rest of Europe. The level of chemistry knowledge expected from all high-school graduates in Bulgaria is roughly equivalent to the general and organic chemistry courses for science majors at U.S. universities. The newly introduced four-year bachelor's degree curriculum (based on 15-week semesters) at the University of Sofia includes a core of 106 semester hours (labs counted as 1 hour each), 41 semester hours of electives, and 445 contact hours (11 weeks) of research, which ends with a thesis defense. The instructional techniques in Bulgaria are subject-centered and follow the hierarchical structure of knowledge in an integrated and unitary manner. In conclusion, the Bulgarian system of education in chemistry aims at preparing a scientifically literate citizenry and broadly trained chemists by imposing a very challenging and rigid curriculum with very few choices. It is speculated that the laissez-faire climate of free intellectual initiative seen only at American universities provides a more appropriate environment for talent encouragement and scientific innovation for overseas-educated undergraduate and graduate students than their home institutions.

  18. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  19. Measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie; Pressey, Robert L; Newton, Adrian; Burgman, Mark; Possingham, Hugh; Weston, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence of biodiversity in situ. To do this, conservation areas must be able to mitigate at least some of the proximate threats to biodiversity. Information on threatening processes and the relative vulnerability of areas and natural features to these processes is therefore crucial for effective conservation planning. However, measuring and incorporating vulnerability into conservation planning have been problematic. We develop a conceptual framework of the role of vulnerability assessments in conservation planning and propose a definition of vulnerability that incorporates three dimensions: exposure, intensity, and impact. We review and categorize methods for assessing the vulnerability of areas and the features they contain and identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of each broad approach. Our review highlights the need for further development and evaluation of approaches to assess vulnerability and for comparisons of their relative effectiveness. PMID:15920667

  20. Voltage Stability Evaluation Incorporating Wind Power Intermittency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libao SHI; Yang ZHAO; Yixin NI; Liangzhong YAO; Masoud BAZARGAN

    2013-01-01

    A simulation framework is proposed to evaluate the voltage stability of power systems incorporating wind power intermittency.Firstly,the power output modelings of three types of wind turbines are discussed.Secondly,the Jensen model is employed to simulate the wind farm with the wake effect.The Monte Carlo based technique is used to conduct the voltage stability evaluation incorporating the randomness of the wind speed based on the Weibull probability distribution.Thirdly,the relative sensitivity index (RSI) is calculated to identify weak buses during analysis.Finally,case studies with different simulation scenarios are carried out.Some statistical results involving weakness probability,expected value and variance of RSI as well as preliminary conclusions are drawn based on numerical simulation results.

  1. Ionic liquid incorporating thiosalicylate for metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Mustafa, Fadwa Babiker; Romeli, Fatimah Julia

    2012-09-01

    Ionic liquids are a class of organic molten salts "designer solvents" that are composed totally of anions (inorganic and organic polyatomic) and organic cations. The replacement of volatile organic solvents from a separation process is of utmost importance since the use of a large excess of these solvents is hazardous and creates ecological problem. The new method for metal ion extraction is by using task-specific ionic liquids such as ionic liquids which incorporate thiosalicylate functionality. This paper looks at producing a new cluster of ionic liquids which incorporates thiosalicylate with pyridinium cation. Its thermophysical properties such as density and viscosity in single and binary mixtures are studied. The ionic liquids' capability in metal removal processes is evaluated.

  2. Rendering mortars with incorporation of ceramic aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Rosário Veiga; João Silva; Jorge Brito

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the experimental evaluation of the water-related performance of rendering mortars with incorporation of recycled products is presented, based on three different research vectors: addition of fine recycled aggregates; reduction of the cement content (with simultaneous addition of fines); and replacement of sand with recycled material, with the same overall grading curve. The material presented here as recyclable is brick waste from the ceramics and construction industries.

  3. Entrepreneurship and incorporation in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Ruud A. de Mooij; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In Europe, declining corporate tax rates have come along with rising tax-to-GDP ratios. This paper explores to what extent income shifting from the personal to the corporate tax base can explain these diverging developments. We exploit a panel of European data on firm births and legal form of business to analyze income shifting via increased entrepreneurship and incorporation. The results suggest that lower corporate taxes exert an ambiguous effect on entrepreneurship. The effect on incorpora...

  4. Importance of investigating epigenetic alterations for industry and regulators: An appraisal of current efforts by the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Currie, Richard; Datta, Kaushik; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; French, John E; Harrill, Alison H; Koturbash, Igor; Lawton, Michael; Mann, Derek; Meehan, Richard R; Moggs, Jonathan G; O'Lone, Raegan; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Thompson, Karol

    2015-09-01

    Recent technological advances have led to rapid progress in the characterization of epigenetic modifications that control gene expression in a generally heritable way, and are likely involved in defining cellular phenotypes, developmental stages and disease status from one generation to the next. On November 18, 2013, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) held a symposium entitled "Advances in Assessing Adverse Epigenetic Effects of Drugs and Chemicals" in Washington, D.C. The goal of the symposium was to identify gaps in knowledge and highlight promising areas of progress that represent opportunities to utilize epigenomic profiling for risk assessment of drugs and chemicals. Epigenomic profiling has the potential to provide mechanistic information in toxicological safety assessments; this is especially relevant for the evaluation of carcinogenic or teratogenic potential and also for drugs that directly target epigenetic modifiers, like DNA methyltransferases or histone modifying enzymes. Furthermore, it can serve as an endpoint or marker for hazard characterization in chemical safety assessment. The assessment of epigenetic effects may also be approached with new model systems that could directly assess transgenerational effects or potentially sensitive stem cell populations. These would enhance the range of safety assessment tools for evaluating xenobiotics that perturb the epigenome. Here we provide a brief synopsis of the symposium, update findings since that time and then highlight potential directions for future collaborative efforts to incorporate epigenetic profiling into risk assessment. PMID:26134581

  5. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1‑x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  6. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1−xOx). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths. (paper)

  7. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  8. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures. PMID:21165873

  9. Incorporating Online Tools in Tertiary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Leon P.; Rudman, Riaan J.

    2013-01-01

    Students currently studying at tertiary institutions have developed a set of attitudes and aptitudes as a result of growing up in an IT and media-rich environment. These attitudes and aptitudes influence how they learn and in order to be effective, lecturers must adapt to address their learning preferences and use the online teaching tools that…

  10. State Literacy Plans: Incorporating Adolescent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.; Martin, Twakia; Berman, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Catherine Snow, Twakia Martin, and Ilene Berman describe professional development institutes offered in 2001 and 2002 by the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices to familiarize state-level policymakers with research on adolescent literacy and to guide states'…

  11. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low cost bentonite clay was chemically modified using magnesium chloride in order to enhance its fluoride removal capacity. The magnesium incorporated bentonite (MB) was characterized by using XRD and SEM techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study and optimize various operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, effect of co-ions and initial fluoride concentration. It was observed that the MB works effectively over wide range of pH and showed a maximum fluoride removal capacity of 2.26 mg g-1 at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L-1, which is much better than the unmodified bentonite. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir adsorption isotherm and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic study suggests that fluoride adsorption on MB is reasonably spontaneous and an endothermic process. MB showed significantly high fluoride removal in synthetic water as compared to field water. Desorption study of MB suggest that almost all the loaded fluoride was desorbed (∼97%) using 1 M NaOH solution however maximum fluoride removal decreases from 95.47 to 73 (%) after regeneration. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that chemical modification enhances the fluoride removal efficiency of bentonite and it works as an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water.

  12. INCORPORATION OF BARK AND TOPS IN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bark and the tops of E. globulus trees were considered for kraft pulping under industrial conditions. Pulping experiments included wood, bark, tops, and composite samples. Top wood had an average chemical composition most similar to that of wood but with somewhat lower cellulose content (52.8% vs. 56.9% and higher lignin content (18.8% vs. 17.8%. There was also a small difference between tops and wood for non-polar extractives, which were higher for tops (2.0% vs. 1.4%. Bark had a less favorable chemical composition with more extractives, especially polar extractives (5.3% vs. 1.6% and 1% NaOH solubility (19.9% vs. 12.2%, pentosans (23.7% vs. 21.3%, and ash (2.9% vs. 1.0%, although the fiber length was higher (1.12 mm vs. 0.98 mm. The kraft pulps obtained using bark showed significantly lower yield, delignification degree, and strength properties but had a quicker response to refining. The incorporation of tops and bark in the wood pulping in levels below or similar to a corresponding whole-stem, however, had a limited effect on pulp yield, kappa number, refining, and pulp strength properties. These additional raw-materials, which were estimated to be 26% of the commercial stem wood (14% bark and 12% tops, may therefore be considered in enlarging the eucalypt fiber feedstock in kraft pulping.

  13. 15N2 incorporation and acetylene reduction by azospirillum isolated from rice roots and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fixation by strains of Azospirillum isolated from several rice soils and rice cultivars was investigated by 15N2 incorporation and C2H2 reduction. C2H2 reducing ability markedly varied among the strains obtained from soils differing widely in their physico-chemical properties. Large variations in 15N2 incorporation by Azospirillum isolated from the roots of several rice cultivars were also noticed. The present study reveals that rice cultivars harbour Azospirillum with differential N2-fixing ability and that plant genotype is of importance for optimal associations. (orig.)

  14. Studying institutional work in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – In order to provide new and other directions to institutional studies in organization theory, Lawrence and Suddaby forward the notion of institutional work of actors aimed at maintaining, changing and disrupting institutions. The purpose of this paper is to further theory and method...... in studying the institutional work of people in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – Methodological insights from the ways in which theories of human agency in institutional contexts have co-evolved with field study methodologies are analyzed in related fields of research, particularly in sociology...... and anthropology. Findings – The ways have been analyzed in which social theories of human agency in institutional contexts and field methodology have co-evolved in an inter-disciplinary perspective. The analysis shows how field methodologies may provide inspirations to theory and method in studying institutional...

  15. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  16. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Recognition for teachers The Institute of Physics has continued its programme of recognition for inspiring teachers with nine Teachers Awards in 2000, one at primary level and eight at secondary. The quality and quantity of nominations for secondary awards was very encouraging, especially those nominations made by students, but the number of nominations for teachers in the primary sector was disappointing. The award winners are: Teacher of Primary Science Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Gill Stafford, Greens Norton Church of England Primary School, Towcester, Northants Teachers of Physics (Secondary) John Allen, All Hallows High School, Penwortham, Preston Tim Gamble, Lings Upper School, Northampton Denise Gault, Dalriada School, Ballymoney, Co Antrim Ian Lovat, Ampleforth College, North Yorkshire David Smith, Highgate School, North London Clive Thomas, Newcastle Emlyn Comprehensive School Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Mark Travis, Cape Cornwall School, St Just, Cornwall If you know a teacher in a local primary school who is doing an exceptional job in motivating youngsters and colleagues in the teaching and learning of science, why not consider nominating them for an award? Further details can be obtained from the Institute's Education Department (Steven Chapman) by post or e-mail (schools.education@iop.org .) Annual Congress More details are now available on the various activities at this event taking place on 27 - 30 March 2000 at the Brighton Conference Centre. Among those organized by the Education Department are general science and technology hands-on activities for pupils aged 10 to 12 and more specific physics activities on Static Electricity for older students: * A series of short talks with hands-on demonstrations of music and musical instruments given by musicians, manufacturers and physicists. * A chance for students in years 9 to 13 to experience music making from the professionals' perspective. Mornings, 28 to 30 March

  17. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  18. The role of multilateral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

    2002-08-15

    In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared

  19. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  20. 46 CFR 160.023-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... library. (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the materials listed in this section was obtained from... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 160.023-1 Section 160.023-1... Incorporation by reference. (a) The following are incorporated by reference into this subpart: (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 160.031-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... file in the Federal Register library. (c) Approval to incorporate by reference the material listed in... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 160.031-1 Section 160.031-1....031-1 Incorporation by reference. (a) The following Federal specification is incorporated by...

  2. Wearable Optical Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobnik, Aleksandra

    Wearable sensors can be used to provide valuable information about the wearer's health and/or monitor the wearer's surroundings, identify safety concerns and detect threats, during the wearer's daily routine within his or her natural environment. The "sensor on a textile", an integrated sensor capable of analyzing data, would enable early many forms of detection. Moreover, a sensor connected with a smart delivery system could simultaneously provide comfort and monitoring (for safety and/or health), non-invasive measurements, no laboratory sampling, continuous monitoring during the daily activity of the person, and possible multi-parameter analysis and monitoring. However, in order for the technology to be accessible, it must remain innocuous and impose a minimal intrusion on the daily activities of the wearer. Therefore, such wearable technologies should be soft, flexible, and washable in order to meet the expectations of normal clothing. Optical chemical sensors (OCSs) could be used as wearable technology since they can be embedded into textile structures by using conventional dyeing, printing processes and coatings, while fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCSs) as well as nanofiber sensors (NFSs) can be incorporated by weaving, knitting or laminating. The interest in small, robust and sensitive sensors that can be embedded into textile structures is increasing and the research activity on this topic is an important issue.

  3. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  4. Summaries of FY 1980 research in the chemical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief summaries are given of research programs being pursued by DOE laboratories and offsite facilities in the fields of photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations, analysis, and chemical engineering sciences. No actual data is given. Indexes of topics, offsite institutions, and investigators are included

  5. Summaries of FY 1980 research in the chemical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Brief summaries are given of research programs being pursued by DOE laboratories and offsite facilities in the fields of photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations, analysis, and chemical engineering sciences. No actual data is given. Indexes of topics, offsite institutions, and investigators are included. (DLC)

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Superconducting Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics

    1989-01-01

    The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...

  7. System 80+trademark standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+trademark Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+trademark Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990's, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+trademark is a natural extension of System 80R technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+trademark Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company's Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970's, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+trademark Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices

  8. Integrative Bioengineering Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddington, David; Magin,L,Richard; Hetling, John; Cho, Michael

    2009-01-09

    Microfabrication enables many exciting experimental possibilities for medicine and biology that are not attainable through traditional methods. However, in order for microfabricated devices to have an impact they must not only provide a robust solution to a current unmet need, but also be simple enough to seamlessly integrate into standard protocols. Broad dissemination of bioMEMS has been stymied by the common aim of replacing established and well accepted protocols with equally or more complex devices, methods, or materials. The marriage of a complex, difficult to fabricate bioMEMS device with a highly variable biological system is rarely successful. Instead, the design philosophy of my lab aims to leverage a beneficial microscale phenomena (e.g. fast diffusion at the microscale) within a bioMEMS device and adapt to established methods (e.g. multiwell plate cell culture) and demonstrate a new paradigm for the field (adapt instead of replace). In order for the field of bioMEMS to mature beyond novel proof-of-concept demonstrations, researchers must focus on developing systems leveraging these phenomena and integrating into standard labs, which have largely been ignored. Towards this aim, the Integrative Bioengineering Institute has been established.

  9. PSI Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From research activities focused on civil and military uses of nuclear energy and developed after the second world war, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) has been able to diversify its activities following 2 axis. First, the Gantry proton-therapy that is characterized by a compact equipment and an accurate 3-dimensional treatment of tumors (more than 260 patients have been treated by Gantry from 1996 to 2005). Secondly, new technologies in the fields of energy and transport. Nevertheless, PSI has been able to keep a high of valuation of its staff in nuclear engineering and materials that are the core of its activities. The main equipment of PSI are: -) SLS (Swiss Light Source): a synchrotron radiation source that is both a microscope and an X-ray source; -) SINQ: a neutron source based on spallation reactions; -)SμS: a muon source; and -) the Philips accelerator that is used in radiochemistry and the production of isotopes used for the treatment of eye tumors. PSI has established a large cooperation with French research laboratories on issues like: nuclear reactor safety, synchrotron radiation, the transmutation of nuclear wastes, the design of a source of ultra-cold neutrons, or the development of a hydrogen-fueled light vehicle. The total budget of PSI for 2007 reached 174.2 million euros. (A.C.)

  10. Institutional Distance and International Business Strategies in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionascu, Delia Simona; Meyer, Klaus E.; Estrin, Saul

    2004-01-01

    on Hofstede's work on culture. However, these measures capture only very partially the dimensions of distance of concern to international business. In this paper, we show how the broader theoretical concept of institutional distance, which incorporates normative, regulatory and cognitive aspects, affects...... cultural, regulatory and cognitive differences, and to develop appropriate entry strategies, organizational forms, and internal procedures to accommodate these differences. Scholarly research has focused on the concept of psychic distance, which has been narrowed down in empirical work to indices based...

  11. The Electricity Consumption in a Rentier State: Do Institutions Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Bouoiyour, Jamal; Selmi, Refk; Muhammad SHAHBAZ

    2014-01-01

    The core focus of this paper is to assess the relationship between the electricity consumption and institutions within rentierism phenomenon by incorporating economic growth, urbanization, trade openness and foreign direct investment in the case of Algeria. To this end, we have applied the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration and innovative accounting approach (variance decomposition and impulse response methods) over the period of 1971-2012. Our empirical results show that these var...

  12. Paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticles using block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Yul; Ryu, Je Ho; Chu, Chong Woo; Son, Gyung Mo; Jeong, Young-IL; Kwak, Tae-Won; Kim, Do Hyung; Chung, Chung-Wook; Rhee, Young Ha; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Block copolymers composed of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized to prepare paclitaxel-incorporated nanoparticle for antitumor drug delivery. In a 1H-NMR study, chemical structures of PHO/PEG block copolymers were confirmed and their molecular weight (M.W.) was analyzed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Paclitaxel as a model anticancer drug was incorporated into the nanoparticles of PHO/PEG block copolymer. They have spherical shapes...

  13. Chemical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of chemical spectroscopy with neutrons is to utilize the dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections on isotope and on momentum transfer (which probes the spatial extent of the excitation) to understand fundamental and applied aspects of the dynamics of molecules and fluids. Chemical spectroscopy is divided into three energy ranges: vibrational spectroscopy, 25-500 MeV, for which much of the work is done on Be-filter analyzer instruments; low energy spectroscopy, less than 25 MeV; and high resolution spectroscopy, less than 1 MeV, which typically is performed on backscattering spectrometers. Representative examples of measurements of the Q-depenence of vibrational spectra, higher energy resolution as well as extension of the Q-range to lower values at high energy transfers, and provisions of higher sensitivities in vibrational spectroscopy are discussed. High resolution, high sensitivity, and polarization analysis studies in low energy spectroscopy are discussed. Applications of very high resolution spectroscopy are also discussed

  14. Chemical sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the author focuses on chemical sputtering by keV ions, treating two specific examples: the chemical effects occurring when bombarding simple condensed gases and the mechanisms of the ion-assisted etching process. First, however, the mechanism of sputtering of condensed gases in general is discussed. These mechanisms have been investigated using condensed noble gases as target material. The thesis is a compilation of articles published elsewhere. Contents: sputtering of condensed noble gases by keV heavy ions; surface distribution as an observable factor in the energy distribution of sputtered particles; reactive sputtering of simple condensed gases by keV heavy ion bombardment; mass spectra of nozzle-produced small molecular clusters of H2O, NH3, CO and CH4; mass and energy distribution of particles sputter-etched from Si in a XeF2 environment; argon-ion assisted etching of silicon by molecular chlorine; energy distribution of sputtered poly-atomic molecules. (Auth.)

  15. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    When Mary took up her appointment in the Institute's Education Department in June 1997, she indicated that she wished to return to teaching in two or three years. We have just heard that in September she will be joining the staff of the Science Department at Camden Girls' School, London. Mary's departure from the Institute is a great loss to the Department, where she has worked tirelessly, and with great imagination, to support those who teach physics at all secondary levels - and at primary level too when the opportunity presented itself. She has made tremendous contributions to the careers side of the Department's work, supporting careers events, providing informal training for others willing to do the same, helping to develop new careers materials and identifying people whom the Institute could use as role models or as the subject of case studies in print or electronic publications. Mary has been equally happy and willing to support pupils, students and teachers, and has been a wonderful role model herself, coming from an industrial research background, training for teaching after a career break and willing and able to teach biology, chemistry and design technology as well as physics. Mary has also written and edited Phases virtually single-handed. We are delighted to hear that Mary will continue to support the department's work as one of its teacher `volunteers'. Ilya Eigenbrot We are pleased to report that Ilya Eigenbrot, who will be known to some through his work at the Royal Institution and his appearances at the Christmas Lectures in a technical support role, has agreed to give the IOP Schools (touring) Lecture next year. The subject will be Lasers and this will follow nicely on to Zbig's lecture this year. Resources (print) Physics on Course The tenth issue of the Institute's popular guide to higher education, Physics on Course 2001, will be published early in July and distributed to all schools and colleges in the United Kingdom and the Republic of

  16. Carbon onion growth enhanced by nitrogen incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mass of carbon onions have previously been successfully synthesized via catalytic decomposition of methane using nitrogen as a carrier gas over a Ni/Al catalyst. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of the carbon onions shows that the as-grown carbon onions contained nitrogen and that the nitrogen concentration in the carbon onions increased with an increase in reaction time. When hydrogen is used as a carrier gas, it is found that no carbon onions are obtained, indicating that the carrier gas plays an important role in the synthesis of carbon onions and that there is an intimate relationship between carbon onion growth and nitrogen incorporation

  17. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  18. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1986-01-01

    -dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation of...... the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the...

  19. Radiation collimator and systems incorporating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Daren R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Yoon, Woo Y. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, James L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Haskell, Kevin J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bennett, Brion D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tschaggeny, Charles W. (Woods Cross, UT); Jones, Warren F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-09-13

    A collimator including a housing having disposed therein a shield element surrounding a converter core in which a photon beam is generated from electrons emanating from a linear accelerator. A beam channeler longitudinally adjacent the shield element has a beam aperture therethrough coaxially aligned with, and of the same diameter as, an exit bore of the converter core. A larger entry bore in the converter core is coaxial with, and longitudinally separated from, the exit bore thereof. Systems incorporating the collimator are also disclosed.

  20. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  1. Building Information Modelling Incorporating Technology Based Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Maurice; Scott, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is currently being developed as a virtual learning tool for construction and surveying students in the Dublin Institute of Technology. This advanced technology is also used to develop a technology based assessment practice for enhancing the learning environment of construction and surveying students. A theoretical design framework is presented in this paper, which combines advanced technology and assessment theory to create a virtual learning environment. ...

  2. Fully probabilistic knowledge expression and incorporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Kracík, J.; Nedoma, Petr; Bodini, A.; Ruggeri, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2014), s. 503-515. ISSN 1938-7989 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian estimation * knowledge elicitation * just-in-time modelling * controlled autoregressive model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.933, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0438275.pdf

  3. Incorporating Population Structure into Individual Identification Process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor

    Praha: Ústav informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i. & MATFYZPRESS, 2012 - (Kuželová, D.; Hakl, F.). s. 56-56 ISBN 978-80-7278-217-7. [Doktorandské dny 2012 Ústavu informatiky AV ČR, v. v. i.. 24.09.2012-26.09.2012, Jizerka] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic interpretation * DNA mixtures * population structure * coancestry coefficient Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  4. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  5. O discurso sobre a adesão de adolescentes ao tratamento da dependência química em uma instituição de saúde pública The discourse about adherence of chemically dependent adolescents to treatment in a public health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Antonio Scaduto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A promoção da adesão ao tratamento da dependência química (DQ tem se mostrado um desafio em diversos contextos, em especial no caso de adolescentes, relacionando-se a pressupostos sobre quem são estes, o que se entende por dependência e qual é seu tratamento. Foram entrevistados doze profissionais de um serviço de atenção à DQ da região de Ribeirão Preto (SP, abordando os significados por eles atribuídos aos temas adolescência, uso de substâncias/dependência e seu tratamento e adesão a ele. Observou-se por parte dos entrevistados a consideração de diversos determinantes na explicação da adolescência, com a predominância, contudo, de argumentos individualizantes acerca do tema. A DQ foi entendida como uma perda pelo indivíduo do controle sobre si, implicando uma consideração do tratamento como a busca por favorecer reflexões sobre o papel do uso de substâncias em sua vida. Houve por parte dos entrevistados um discurso crítico na busca por fatores institucionais, da equipe e externos a estes na explicação da adesão ao tratamento. São discutidas as inter-relações das formações discursivas com a literatura sobre os temas abordados e suas implicações para o tratamento da DQ.Promoting adherence to chemical dependence (CD treatment has been a challenge in several contexts, especially regarding adolescents. Such challenge has been related to assumptions about who adolescents are, what is understood by dependence and about its treatment. Twelve professionals from a CD outpatient service in the region of Ribeirão Preto (SP were interviewed about the meanings they attributed to the following subjects: adolescence, substance use/abuse and its treatment and adherence to such treatment. It was observed that the interviewees considered several determinants for explaining adolescence; however, there was a predominance of individualizing arguments regarding this subject. Chemical Dependence was understood as the

  6. From the Beginning: The "Journal of Chemical Education" and Secondary School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The people, events, and issues that were involved in the beginning and the evolution of the "Journal of Chemical Education" and the Division of Chemical Education (DivCHED) are traced and discussed. The constitution of the American Chemical Society incorporates the roots of chemical education as an area of interest to the Society. Both…

  7. Taking Stock on Institutional Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leca, Bernard; Battilana, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2006-01-01

    entrepreneurship. It also presents the enabling conditions that have been previously identified and reviews the research methods that have been applied to the study of institutional entrepreneurship. Finally, based on this analysis, this paper highlights future directions for research on this topic. Researchers...... may use this paper to build targeted and sophisticated research designs that add value to the emerging body of literature on institutional entrepreneurship.Keywords: Institutional Entrepreneur, Institutional Change, Paradox of Embedded Agency......This paper analyzes the literature that has been published on institutional entrepreneurship since Paul DiMaggio introduced this notion in 1988. Based on a systematic selection and analysis of articles, the paper outlines an emerging consensus on the definition and process of institutional...

  8. Institut fuer Kernchemie, Univ. Mainz. Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and speeches. The work concern fast chemical separations, the detection of short-lived nuclides, mass separations, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear fission, heavy ion research, superheavy elements, radionuclide ecology, and the operation of the TRIGA Mainz reactor. (HSI)

  9. Governance and Australian Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Davis

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines issues of corporate governance arising from the activities of financial institutions and markets. It is argued that governance problems are particularly severe in financial institutions vis-a-vis firms in other industries, and particularly important for society given the central role of financial institutions and markets in the financing and corporate governance activities of the economy. Processes of financial reform and financial system design have, it is argued, general...

  10. Risk Disclosure by Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Financial and Payment System Department

    1997-01-01

    Public disclosure by financial institutions has long provided information about business performance through the publication of financial statements. In recent years, however, a number of financial institutions have come to focus on disclosure of a wider range of information, including their management policies. This is partly attributable to the expansion of derivatives transactions, which has made risk management techniques increasingly important in the management of financial institutions,...

  11. Growth of Indian Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study estimated the number and the rate of growth of digital documents of Indian institutional repositories. Total 16 institutional repositories were identified using various sources of information such as: Literature; Search by search engines especially Google; Directories of archives / repositories; Blogs etc. It was observed that the IISc repository contained highest number of digital documents (6305) was the first institutional repository available to users for submission and ...

  12. Management of Indian Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates various issues concerning the management of institutional repositories (IRs) developed in India. Data collection done using a web based questionnaire, created using software provided by surveymonkey.com. The entire population i.e. all IRs identified in India were surveyed. It was observed that in 42.86% (6) of Institutional Repositories implementation programmes were headed by librarians. No special staff was appointed by any institution for carrying out different jobs...

  13. Asset Prices and Institutional Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Suleyman; Pavlova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that trades by institutional investors have sizable effects on asset prices, generating phenomena such as index effects, asset-class effects and others. It is difficult to explain such phenomena within standard representative-agent asset pricing models. In this paper, we consider an economy populated by institutional investors alongside standard retail investors. Institutions care about their performance relative to a certain index. Our framework is tractable, adm...

  14. Developing a sustainable institutional repository

    OpenAIRE

    White, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide an assessment of the factors involved in the development of sustainable platforms and processes for institutional repositories, drawing on the experience of the team at the University of Southampton and from project initiatives in the UK. It will look at the fundamental integration of repositories into the cultural, financial and technical structures of institutions to promote healthy repository growth. How do we effectively link repository development to institutional...

  15. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the...

  16. What institutions help immigrants Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    WWWforEurope Working Paper No. 77, 38 pages I analyse the importance of national migration policy and labour market institutions for immigrants’ labour market integration. Results indicate that the sending country structure of immigrants to a country, its ethnic diversity and its wage bargaining institutions as well as product market regulation are the most important national institutions impacting immigrants’ labour market integration. Variables related to the generosity of the welfare state...

  17. Institutions and the resource curse

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Countries rich in natural resources constitute both growth losers and growth winners. We claim that the main reason for these diverging experiences is differences in the quality of institutions. More natural resources push aggregate income down, when institutions are grabber friendly, while more resources raise income, when in- stitutions are producer friendly. We test this theory building on Sachs and Warner's influential works on the resource curse. Our main hypothesis: that institutions...

  18. Institutions, Education, and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jamus Jerome; Adams-Kane, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interactions between governance, educational outcomes, and economic performance. More specifically, we seek to establish the linkages by which institutional quality affect growth by considering its mediating impact on education. While the contribution of both human capital and institutions to growth are often acknowledged, the channels by which institutions affect human capital and, in turn, growth, has been relatively underexplored. Our empirical approach adopts a tw...

  19. New Institutions and Economic Liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Demid Golikov

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how the organization of society, the complexity of the economy, and its level of technological development influence the relationship between the institutions of democracy and economic growth; why the foundation of democracy and market institutions at the same time, in a society without a relevant historical background, remains problematical; and whether enforcement of the institutions of democracy is helpful for stabilization and further sustainability of growth.

  20. Marketing of an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Šijan, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the area of marketing for educational institutions. First part is focused on general theoretical aspects of marketing of services, specificity of marketing for educational institutions and marketing communication. The operative part attends to a selection of an educational institution, an execution of an analysis of internal and external environment of the school, an implementation of a marketing research recognizing image of the school and based on that des...

  1. Institutional PLEs. Paradise or paradox?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Hugh; White, Su

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to create an institutional personal learning environment? This question has recently triggered considerable debate amongst those concerned with implementing learning and teaching technologies within higher education, For some the argument lies in the fundamental (linguistic) paradox of claiming that the institutional can be personal. Others would derive from this a pedagogic perspective and argue that reliance and use of any institutional initiative and infrastructure would nec...

  2. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  3. Incorporating intelligence into structured radiology reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E.

    2014-03-01

    The new standard for radiology reporting templates being developed through the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and DICOM organizations defines the storage and exchange of reporting templates as Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) documents. The use of HTML5 enables the incorporation of "dynamic HTML," in which documents can be altered in response to their content. HTML5 documents can employ JavaScript, the HTML Document Object Model (DOM), and external web services to create intelligent reporting templates. Several reporting templates were created to demonstrate the use of scripts to perform in-template calculations and decision support. For example, a template for adrenal CT was created to compute contrast washout percentage from input values of precontrast, dynamic postcontrast, and delayed adrenal nodule attenuation values; the washout value can used to classify an adrenal nodule as a benign cortical adenoma. Dynamic templates were developed to compute volumes and apply diagnostic criteria, such as those for determination of internal carotid artery stenosis. Although reporting systems need not use a web browser to render the templates or their contents, the use of JavaScript creates innumerable opportunities to construct highly sophisticated HTML5 reporting templates. This report demonstrates the ability to incorporate dynamic content to enhance the use of radiology reporting templates.

  4. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  5. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  6. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Leadership in Islamic Education Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2014-01-01

    Education institution may not be separated by social system. It can be formal and informal education. A formal education institution such as school, Islamic school or Islamic boarding school is in social environment and bringing a basic value and law from its institution. Meanwhile, Islamic education institution is believed as tool to reach the aim of education. The aim of education is hard to reach if there is no leadership in it. Copyright © 2014 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  8. INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Adriana MATEESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review previous developed studies regarding the institutional investors’ issue, as the influence they exert in the companies they invest in is growing in importance. In the first part, the paper tries to review the existing literature regarding the institutional investors’ research theme, especially regarding their attitude towards investment, while the second main part will try to describe the presence of institutional investors in Romanian listed companies. Also, the paper aims to review previous studies regarding the influence of institutional investors over corporate governance mechanisms (especially board’s members’ independence and composition and financial and non-financial disclosure practices.

  9. Development of Germano-Silicate Optical Fiber Incorporated with Germanium Nanoparticles and Its Optical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongmook; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Youngwoong; Jeong, Hyejeong; Boo, Seongjae; Han, Won-Taek

    2016-06-01

    The germano-silicate optical fiber incorporated with Ge nanoparticles with enhanced optical nonlinearity was developed by using modified chemical vapor deposition and drawing processes. A broad photoluminescence band obtained by pumping with the 404 nm superluminescent diode was found to appear from 540 nm to 1,000 nm. The non-resonant nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the fiber measured by the continuous wave self-phase modulation method was 4.95 x 10(-20) m2/W due to the incorporated Ge nanoparticles in the fiber core. The enhancement of the non-resonant optical non-linearity may be due to the creation of the NBOs and other defects from the incorporated Ge-NPs in the fiber core. PMID:27427722

  10. Silicon nanowire array/polymer hybrid solar cell incorporating carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present a simple and novel approach of fabricating three dimensional (3D) n-Si nanowires (NWs) and poly(3-octylthiophene) hybrid solar cells incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Vertically aligned n-Si NWs arrays were fabricated by electroless chemical etching of a n-Si [1 1 1] wafer. n-Si NWs/poly(3-octylthiophene) hybrid solar cells were fabricated with and without functionalized CNTs incorporation. Fabricated solar cells incorporating CNTs show open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc) fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency as 0.353, 7.85 mA cm-2, 22% and 0.61%, respectively. In fabricated devices n-Si NWs arrays form multiple heterojunctions with the polymer and provide efficient electron collection and transportation, whereas CNTs provide efficient hole transportation.

  11. Fostering Institutional Creativity at Multiple Levels: Towards Facilitated Institutional Bricolage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Merrey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems occur when institutional arrangements for collective management of food and water systems fail to meet demands. Many of the problems characterising river basins and other collectively managed water resource systems can be ascribed largely to the failure of institutions to enable problems beyond the individual to be managed collectively. The nature of these demands, and the institutional responses to them, vary widely and are not amenable to simple definitions and prescriptions. We begin with a brief review of conventional approaches to analysing institutions and organisations, focused largely, but not exclusively, on river basins. We observe that attempts to reduce the institutional landscape of river basins to over-simplistic formulas introduces more problems than solutions, because the reality is that institutions evolve through complex creative processes that adopt and adapt diverse ingredients – rather like making a stew. Despite such intricacies, institutions are clearly non-random, so we continue a search for a means of describing them. We adopt the concept of bricolage, as proposed by Cleaver and others, and use it to show the value of promoting and facilitating an organic creative approach to building and strengthening river basin and other water management institutions.

  12. Chemical synthesis of magnetic nanocrystals: Recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal chemical synthesis of various types of magnetic nanocrystals is discussed with regard to recent discoveries. We first outline the chemical preparation of single-component magnetic nanocrystals with controlled size, shape, and uniformity based on several solution-phase methods, especially thermal decomposition and/or reduction method. Then we discuss the synthetic strategies of multi-component nanocrystals incorporating at least one magnetic component by manipulating heterogeneous nucleation and growth process. Toward the end, approaches for preparing hollow/porous magnetic nanocrystals are highlighted. We believe that the summarized chemical synthesis will pave the way for the future development of extraordinary magnetic nanocrystals. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  13. INEEL Institutional Plan - FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enge, Ray Stevenson

    1999-11-01

    In this first Institutional Plan prepared by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the INEEL will focus it's efforts on three strategic thrusts; (1) Environmental Management stewardship for DOE-EM, (2) Nuclear reactor technology for DOE-Nuclear Energy (NE), and (3) Energy R&D, demonstration, and deployment (initial focus on biofuels and chemical from biomass). The first strategic thrust focuses on meeting DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and long-term stewardship needs in a manner that is safe, cost-effective, science-based, and approved by key stakeholders. The science base at the INEEL will be further used to address a grand challenge for the INEEL and the DOE complex - the development of a fundamental scientific understanding of the migration of subsurface contaminants. The second strategic thrust is directed at DOE-NE's needs for safe, economical, waste-minimized, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies. As NE lead laboratories, the INEEL and ANL will pursue specific priorities. The third strategic thrust focuses on DOE's needs for clean, efficient, and renewable energy technology. As an initial effort, the INEEL will enhance its capability in biofuels, bioprocessing, and biochemicals. The content of this Institutional Plan is designed to meet basic DOE requirements for content and structure and reflect the key INEEL strategic thrusts. Updates to this Institutional Plan will offer additional content and resource refinements.

  14. The Uranium Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Uranium Institute has run a World Wide Web site since July 1995 and has seen user sessions reach around 5600 per week. The site comprises some 700 pages of news and information and has attracted a good deal of favourable comment. The site is intended as an information resource to augment the service provided by the UI Information Service and is aimed at both industry and non-industry web users. The actual user community includes UI members and others from the industry, mining and financial analysts, lots of students and school children, journalists and a large number of unknown individuals. Hopefully the workshop can be used to examine user reactions to industry sites and get some idea of the extent to which we are talking to ourselves over the net rather than talking to our 'publics'. Although the Ul was quite early on the web scene by nuclear standards, development of the UI site has proceeded fairly slowly and the accent has always been on good quality information. With 170,000 visitors per year site use indicates that there is a demand for nuclear information while responses indicate that there is a substantial body of quiet nuclear support which welcomes the opportunity to communicate with the industry. Does the web help to pull the industry and its supporters together? The WWW has often been portrayed as a vehicle which allows good news and information to be communicated direct to the 'public' but attempts to realise this opportunity have not always met with success. The UI has had a generally positive experience with its web site but this is not universally the case. I would like to explore the background to this both in my presentation and in the subsequent discussion. My general theme is to ask the question 'What do users want from a nuclear related web site and are we providing it?'. Conversely it is pertinent to ask the question, 'does what the users seem to want coincide with what we wish to supply?'. I will seek to address these

  15. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Dong Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Da Hye Kim,3,4 Gyun-Taek Lim,2 Ki-Choon Choi5 1Department of Oriental Medicine Materials, Dongshin University, Naju, South Korea; 2Department of Polymer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea; 3Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University, Matsue, Japan; 4United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan; 5Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although cisplatin is extensively used in the clinical field, its intrinsic toxicity limits its clinical use. We investigated nanoparticle formations of poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate (PAA-MMA incorporating cisplatin and their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared through the ion-complex formation between acrylic acid and cisplatin. The anticancer activity of cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles was assessed with CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells. Results: Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of less than 200 nm with spherical shapes. Drug content was increased according to the increase of the feeding amount of cisplatin and acrylic acid content in the copolymer. The higher acrylic acid content in the copolymer induced increase of particle size and decrease of zeta potential. Cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed a similar growth-inhibitory effect against CT26 tumor cells in vitro. However, cisplatin-incorporated nanoparticles showed improved antitumor activity against an animal tumor xenograft model. Conclusion: We suggest that PAA-MMA nanoparticles incorporating cisplatin are promising carriers for an antitumor drug-delivery system. Keywords: cisplatin, nanoparticle, poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate, ion complexes

  16. Developing high-performance concrete incorporating highly-reactive rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Salas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present results of an investigation about the developing of a highperformance concrete (HPC using a highly reactive pozzolan made from chemically treated rice husk ash (ChRHA prepared by a chemical-thermal attack to the rice husk. This particular rice husk ash (RHA consists of 99% of silica, highly amorphous, white in color and of greater pozzolanic activity than the silica fume and another rice husk ash prepared with only by a thermal treatment. The results of the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of ChRHA are analyzed. In this study, the compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, resistance to carbonation, total charge-passed derived from rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT and modulus of elasticity of hardened concrete were determined in the laboratory. Test results indicate that it is possible to produce HPC with the incorporation the chemically treated RHA. The incorporation of the chemically treated rice husk ash into the concrete enhances the compressive strengthand the durability properties being comparable to the properties of high performance concretes with silica fume (SF made with the same replacement levels.

  17. Chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of Bergen; Bjerknes Center for Climate Research; Geophysical Institute at OceanSITES site STATION-M from 1948-10-01 to 2009-11-24 (NCEI Accession 0130051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, in situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including DEPTH - OBSERVATION, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE,...

  18. Incorporation of iodine into apatite structure: a crystal chemistry approach using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei

    2015-06-01

    Materials with apatite crystal structure provide a great potential for incorporating the long-lived radioactive iodine isotope (129I) in the form of iodide (I-) from nuclear waste streams. Because of its durability and potentially high iodine content, the apatite waste form can reduce iodine release rate and minimize the waste volume. Crystal structure and composition of apatite was investigated for iodide incorporation into the channel of the structure using Artificial Neural Network. A total of 86 experimentally determined apatite crystal structures of different compositions were compiled from literature, and 46 of them were used to train the networks and 42 were used to test the performance of the trained networks. The results show that the performances of the networks are satisfactory for predictions of unit cell parameters a and c and channel size of the structure. The trained and tested networks were then used to predict unknown compositions of apatite that incorporates iodide. With a crystal chemistry consideration, chemical compositions that lead to matching the size of the structural channel to the size of iodide were then predicted to be able to incorporate iodide in the structural channel. The calculations suggest that combinations of A site cations of Ag+, K+, Sr2+, Pb2+, Ba2+, and Cs+, and X site cations, mostly formed tetrahedron, of Mn5+, As5+, Cr5+, V5+, Mo5+, Si4+, Ge4+, and Re7+ are possible apatite compositions that are able to incorporate iodide. The charge balance of different apatite compositions can be achieved by multiple substitutions at a single site or coupled substitutions at both A and X sites. The results give important clues for designing experiments to synthesize new apatite compositions and also provide a fundamental understanding how iodide is incorporated in the apatite structure. This understanding can provide important insights for apatite waste forms design by optimizing the chemical composition and synthesis procedure.

  19. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  20. INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    Through continued advancement in computational resources, development that was previously done by trial and error production is now performed through computer simulation. These virtual physical representations have the potential to provide accurate and valid modeling results and are being used in many different technical fields. Risk assessment now has the opportunity to use 3D simulation to improve analysis results and insights, especially for external event analysis. By using simulations, the modeler only has to determine the likelihood of an event without having to also predict the results of that event. The 3D simulation automatically determines not only the outcome of the event, but when those failures occur. How can we effectively incorporate 3D simulation into traditional PRA? Most PRA plant modeling is made up of components with different failure modes, probabilities, and rates. Typically, these components are grouped into various systems and then are modeled together (in different combinations) as a “system” with logic structures to form fault trees. Applicable fault trees are combined through scenarios, typically represented by event tree models. Though this method gives us failure results for a given model, it has limitations when it comes to time-based dependencies or dependencies that are coupled to physical processes which may themselves be space- or time-dependent. Since, failures from a 3D simulation are naturally time related, they should be used in that manner. In our simulation approach, traditional static models are converted into an equivalent state diagram representation with start states, probabilistic driven movements between states and terminal states. As the state model is run repeatedly, it converges to the same results as the PRA model in cases where time-related factors are not important. In cases where timing considerations are important (e.g., when events are dependent upon each other), then the simulation approach will typically

  1. Incorporating TCNQ into thiophene-fused heptacene for n-channel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Qun

    2012-06-01

    Incorporation of electron-deficient tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) into electron-rich thiophene-fused heptacene was successfully achieved for the purpose of stabilizing longer acenes and generating new n-type organic semiconductors. The heptacene-TCNQ derivative 1 was found to have good stability and an expected electron transporting property. Electron mobility up to 0.01 cm 2 V -1 s -1 has been obtained for this novel material in solution processed organic field effect transistors. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Construction of software test platform in scientific research institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the construction of software test platforms in scientific research institutes, the well-developed advanced software test concepts and instruments in other countries shall be incorporated. Based on the real conditions of the institutes, the management procedures for software test, evaluation specifications and implementation regulations shall be developed, and the construction of work team and technology innovation shall be enhanced, thus to establish the software test platform into a specialized service platform. Institutional system shall be established for the software test platform, to allow it plays important roles in the information construction. For example, it is compulsory that no computer software is allowed to run online unless it has pass-ed the test on the platform. (authors)

  3. Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment. The...... first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity into the...... classroom, both projects were marked by some success, but efforts to create permanent curriculum change were hampered by the predominantly vocational orientation of student cohorts. In addition, the traditionally technical focus of the professional bodies and competing educational reform agendas (such as...

  4. Incorporating User-oriented Security into CC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2009-01-01

    environment which contains not only other computer systems, but also human users. A case study involving the design of a secure medical instrumentation system will be used to illustrate the problems involved in incorporating user requirements into a secure design, so that system, when implemented, will help......Current versions of the Common Criteria concentrate very heavily on technical security issues which are relevant for the design of secure systems. This approach largely ignores a number of questions which can have great significance for whether or not the system can be operated securely in an...... users to understand whether they are operating the system in a secure manner, thus avoiding user-related pitfalls such as leaking of confidential data as a result of inappropriate input, loss of patient privacy, inappropriate user reactions due to slow system response, or other similar threats not...

  5. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  6. Properties of Mortar Incorporating Iron Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara HUMAM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of replacement of fine aggregate (sand with high percentages of iron slag on the properties of Mortar. Cement mortars of mix proportion 1:3 with incorporating various percentage of iron slag was designed. Fine aggregate were replace with five percentage of iron slag. The percentages of replacements were 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% by weight of fine aggregate. Tests were performed for compressive strength, split tensile strength, sulphate resistance, Rapid Chloride Permeability Test. Test for all replacement levels of iron slag at different curing periods (7, 28, 56 days . Test result indicates that inclusion of iron slag as partial replacement with fine aggregate enhances the properties of Mortar.

  7. Incorporating LCA tools in integrated simulation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we address the issue of building data schema evolution in integrated simulation environments, as seen from the perspective of incorporating LCA tools within these environments. First we describe the key features of an integrated simulation environment designed for expandability, focusing on (a) the mechanism for the expansion of the integrated environment, and (b) its overall system architecture that allows processes and data to be added to the system without modifications or restructuring of existing code. We then focus on how the data schema allows the inclusion and maintenance of specialized construction objects bearing LCA data. Finally, we discuss various integration issues that arise from modeling capabilities and idiosyncrasies of individual simulation and analysis tools

  8. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  9. INCORPORATION OF METAL IONS INTO POLYPHENYLQUINOXALINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; LU Fengcai

    1987-01-01

    FeCl3·6H2O, NiCl2, CuCl2, ZnCl2 and CrCl3 have been incorporated into polyphenylquinoxaline by a new method. High-quality, flexible, glass-cast films have been obtained which exhibit increased glass transition temperature and excellent thermal stability. Moduli and tensile strengths of the metal-containing polyphenylquinoxaline films increase surprisingly at elevated temperature. Electrical resistivities of these films fall in the same order range as polyphenylquinoxaline alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of metal-containing polyphenylquinoxaline films shows that all metals in these films are present in the ionic state, there is charge transfer between nitrogen of polyphenylquinoxaline and Cu2+, Zn2+ of CuCl2, ZnCl2 containing polyphenylquinoxaline films.

  10. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  11. 15N2 incorporation by rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterotrophic nitrogen fixation by rhizosphere soil samples from 20 rice cultivars grown under uniform field conditions was estimated employing 15N-tracer technique. Rhizosphere soil samples from different rice cultivars showed striking differences with regard to their ability to incorporate 15N2. Rhizosphere samples from rice straw-amended (3 and 6 tons/ha) soil exhibited more pronounced nitrogen-fixing activity than the samples form unamended soil; while the activity of the rhizosphere samples from soil receiving combined nitrogen (40 and 80 kg N/ha) was relatively low. However, the inhibitory effect of combined nitrogen was not expressed in the presence of rice straw at 6 tons/ha. Results suggest that plant variety, application of combined nitrogen and organic matter influence the rhizosphere nitrogen fixation. (orig.)

  12. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  13. Distributed Learning and Institutional Restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the following challenges institutions must consider as they enter the new marketplace of distributed learning: library access, faculty workload, faculty incentives, faculty-support structures, intellectual property, articulation agreements, financial aid, pricing, cross-subsidization of programs, institutional loyalty and philanthropy,…

  14. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  15. Managing Enrollments for Institutional Vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don

    1985-01-01

    The concept of enrollment management is gaining acceptance as a means of ensuring institutional vitality. Those responsible for enrollment management must have direct responsibility for: student marketing and recruitment, pricing and financial aid, academic and career advising, academic assistance programs, institutional research, orientation,…

  16. Does Institutional Distance Still Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan

    This paper adds nuance to our understanding of institutional antecedents of foreign investment, in particular in global services sourcing. While prior research has stressed the various risks and effects associated with home-host country differences in national-level institutions, e.g. legal syste...

  17. Does Institutional Theory Need Redirecting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Höllerer, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Greenwood, Hinings and Whetten (2014) present two major criticisms of current institutional scholarship, and see need for a broad redirection: institutional organization theory, they argue, has lost sight of the claim to study organizations and, with its overwhelming focus on isomorphism and simi...

  18. Institutional Repositories, Tout de Suite

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jr., Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Institutional Repositories, Tout de Suite is designed to give the reader a very quick introduction to key aspects of institutional repositories and to foster further exploration of this topic through liberal use of relevant references to online documents and links to pertinent websites.

  19. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  20. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.